STEGANOGRAPHY

Author1 I.JAI CHANDRA KUMAR III/IV B.TECH, ECE Vagula.dileepreddy@gmail.com Ph No: 9032562631 J.B.I.E.T This topic deals with the working of steganography process, i.e., hiding data in both MP3 & JPEG file format. In particular, it is about, data hiding within audio, basic requirements and the state of image techniques. The proposed method is characterized by perfect transparency, robustness, high bit rate, low processing load and particularly high security. The data hiding approach in the data compression domain has recently become of great interest. Secret data embedded in the compressed file would not be easily found and people would not suspect that there is something hidden in the file.

ABSTRACT
Secrecy became an important issue in human communication because of the value of information. Steganography is the art of hiding information in ways that prevent the detection of hidden messages. When they are used alone, they are not sufficient to solve all information security related issues. In addition to applying steganography, a secret message can be compressed. The compressed message usually takes up far less space in the cover and minimizes the information to be sent. Therefore using Encryption & Compression in conjunction with steganography has become mandatory. The effectiveness of this process mainly depends on the medium data in which data is hidden. With the wide spread use of mp3 file format for audio files and storage it has joined ranks with other steganographic mediums. Another important steganographic medium is JPEG file format for pictures. 1

1. INTRODUCTION: The process through which we can hide information is known as Steganography. The word Steganography comes from the Greek word and means covered writing.

the stego text was whatever the dot was hidden within. and exposed by shaving his head again. then covered it with wax so that it looked like an ordinary. Digital watermarking is a process through which we can embedded whole block of text in the image file like the painter use to keep there signature underneath there painting the only difference is here we can see the signature but there the signature is invisible and can be viewed only after scanning the image file. Herodotus mentions two examples of Steganography in The Histories of Herodotus. The problem with the WW-II microdots was that they needed to be embedded in the paper. Steganography has been widely used in historical times. it was the presence of the stamp. If under a postage stamp.the size of a period produced by a typewriter or even smaller -. and covered with an adhesive (such as collodion).especially before cryptographic systems are developed. Demeratus sent a warning about a forthcoming attack to Greece by writing it on a wooden panel and covering it in wax. Since the dots were typically extremely small -. If a letter or an address. Herodotus tells the story of a message tattooed on a slave's shaved head. hidden by the growth of his hair. The embedded microdot would reflect light differently than the paper. WAV files etc with actually disturbing the original file that is we can view the image with actually disturbing the image there will slightly different but invisible to human naked eye. Examples of historical usage include: • Hidden messages in wax tablets: in ancient Greece. if the story is true. unused tablet • Hidden messages on messenger's body: also in ancient Greece. . carried a warning to Greece about Persian invasion plans • Hidden messages on paper: written in secret inks under other messages or on the blank parts of other messages. music file that is Mp3. At the time of World War II German developed a technique that would shrink the whole image to a size of dot. HISTORY OF STEGANOGRAPHY: The word "Steganography" is derived from the Greek roots “stegos” and “graphia” which literally means "covered writing or hidden writing". which could detected by holding a suspected paper up to a light and viewing it almost edge on.We can hide information in any digital media for example in images. Its ancient origins can be traced back to 440BC. people wrote messages on 2 the wood. 2. The technology works by replacing the bits in unused data areas in computer files. it was some alphabetic characters. The message.

Then it is sent off via 3. the secret message and the cover message are passed into the encoder. Inside the encoder. which has no protection. After passing through the encoder. images. This technology was not trusted by the public and was not willing to put their personnel information on the web.: image protocol is used to embed information inside image. Example of this can be plain text. Public key decodes the message at receiver side. The Cypherpunks a group of people recognized a way to create so that people can trust the online business environment as a safely technology. E. (Public / Private key). text. cipher text. Private key encodes the secret message. The advantage is that chance of the third party attacker getting hold of the stego object and finding the secret info is reduced. This was possible through Steganography techniques. Type of protocol depends on the information. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF STEGANOGRAPHY 3 . A key is often needed in the embedding process. HTML or even in the floppy disks with the message that will invisible. Many Steganography methods messages.g. sound. a stego object will be produced.such as graphics. Around year 1996 when the Internet was growing rapidly people began to recognize e-commerce as an emerging Business and evolved into important market the only problem was the security issues. protocols will be implemented to embed the secret information into the cover message. They created safety of the public’s information by a lock in the corner on the screen hide information in the least significant areas or the noise of carrier Process First.

the viewer would not be able to tell that the message contains a hidden message within it. Copyright protection involves ownership authentication and it can be used to identify illegal copies. One approach is to mark works of author by adding information about relationship by digital watermark. The decoding is reverse of the encoding (extracts secret data from a stego object). The recipient decodes the stego object in order to view the secret information. To use another childhood example. watermark should be integrate with in the information and cannot be removed easily. to the intended recipient for decoding. the writing of a message using invisible ink would constitute steganography. compressions and malicious attempt to remove the watermark. It also provides some mechanisms such as to know whether the work has been tampered with or copied illegally. Various sorts of information can be stored in a watermark. 4 STEGANOGRAPHY & ENCRYPTION: "Steganography differs from encryption in that encryption disguises the content of a message. If you knew that a piece of paper had an invisible message on it. An encrypted message appears to a viewer as a bunch of gibberish. STEGANOGRAPHY & WATERMARKING: The first is known as the classical Steganography and it aims on transmitting message by means of casual looking medium and watermarking is invisible. you could uncover the message using specific tools. It should be fairly tamperresistant and able to with stand signal distortions. One would need the code to return the encrypted message into its original form. whereas steganography disguises the existence of a message. thus making it clear to the viewer that he/she is looking at an encrypted message. you would think you were looking at a blank piece of paper . It can be made invisible to human eye but can be readable by computer." Encryption takes a message and translates it using a code. Major issue facing electronic commerce on Internet for digital information is how to protect the copyrights and intellectual property of those who are legally owned. However. It provides placing information with in the digital works.some communication channels such as email. including license. much like a child would use a Dick Tracy decoder ring to decode a secret message given during the once popular radio program. copyright. content authentication. The important characteristics of digital watermarking are it should not take additional formats or storage space. if steganography has been used on a message. otherwise. copy control.

But this method is detectable than other methods. Feature coding. There are three methods he designed.and tracking information. That is by reducing the largest and smallest spaces by the same amount by this it maintain the line length and there is little visible change. while maintain the natural look of the document. This can be detected only if the author algorithm is obtained or applying random horizontal shifts to the words it is time consuming. Brassil designed a method of marking the printable documents with a unique codeword and it is not visible to most. Feature coding This method is watermarking. This information can be used for copy protection. Word-shift coding: In this method a codeword is inserted into the document by shifting the horizontal locations of the words within text lines. Line-shift coding: This is a method that moves vertical text lines making the document unique. ownership designation. 4. for example extending or shortening the upward vertical end lines of letters such as b. DIFFERENT TYPES OF AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES: 4. h or altering the end line lengths. The author can use this technique by changing certain text features. For example one could take the original document and move every second line 1/300 inch up or down. This is basically a form of watermarking the code word is binary number that is placed in the document by altering the particular textual features. d. 5 . That is taking each text and locating the largest and smallest spaces between the words.1 INFORMATION HIDING IN TEXT/DOCUMENTS. or as a means to track works to and from licensed users. There are three common Text Techniques: • Line-shift coding. • • Word-shift coding. But this method is applicable only to the documents with spacing between adjacent words. document identification.

Digital images are typically stored in 24bit pixel or 8-bit pixel file. There are three common techniques: • insertion. Algorithms and • Least significant bit (LSB) 4. When read this sentence you know that apple means bomb and “known to be the best” refers to major landmark.Textual Steganography can also be done by alternative methods for example syntactic and semantic methods. Normally gray scale images a preferred because shades change gradually. . But to the computer an image is an array of numbers that represent light intensities at various points or pixels. There two types of compression technique they are lossless and lossy compression. A 24-bit file can hold more data within. Semantic method is also known as substitution. As long as data can be compressed the more data we can hide. This technique is almost impossible to detect and extract the hidden message. the information can hide in specific spot on the image. but then large file would attract the attention if transmitted across 6 transformations. Selecting subset of redundant bits and replacing with secret message data. Syntactic is a method that uses the punctuations and contradictions. The complexity of Steganography can vary. the network. • Masking and filtering.2 INFORMATION HIDDING IN IMAGES: This is a process through which identifying the redundant bits in a medium. The solution to be unnoticed a large image file is by image compression. For example we can say “THE APPLES IN WASHINGTON ARE KNOWN TO BE THE BEST”. Through this method it is impossible to detect that there is indeed secret information in the image. These are bits that can be modified without actually disturbing the image.

Echo data hiding. The signal is multiplied by certain maximum length pseudorandom sequence. The new phase and magnitude is combined to get new segment and 4. This method doest not cause any noise.3 INFORMATION HIDING IN THE AUDIO Digital audio files have two primary characteristics. Spread spectrum. Phase coding. with LSB method. known as chip. An artificial absolute phase po is created and for all other segment new phase frames are created. sample quantization method and temporal sampling. the difference between each adjacent segment is calculated. Spread spectrum is the most common method of using Steganography in audio files. Here we have to consider the signal and transmission environment need to consider when choosing the data to hide. Binary data can be hidden in the LSB of audio file but this would cause audible sound to disturb but it is negligible to human ear. varying three parameters of echo. The original sequence of sound Is broken into a series of N short segments and to each segment discrete Fourier transform is applied.Low bit encoding consist of similarities Least significant bit insertion is the easiest to use but the most vulnerable to attacks. finally all segments are combined. It takes the encoded data is spread across as much frequency spectrum as possible. Phase encoding is a process through substituting the phase of initial audio segment with a reference phase that represents the data. Algorithms & Transformation method is complex use of mathematics in order to hide the information. Basically there are four techniques to insert the data into audio files. But then if we apply it to 8bit image then one change would make the image noticeable. Masking and filtering are similar to watermarking by covering or masking the image since human eye cannot detect the slight changes. Echo data hiding is process through which the data can be inserted into audio signal by introducing an echo. If the LSB is applied to each byte of 24bit image then three bits can be encoded into each pixel. Initial amplitude. decay 7 . But then the receiver should know the length of the segment and data interval. Low bit encoding. Using the Direct Sequence spread spectrum encoding can be done.

c=b+d. lets look at the following lines of code that have been extracted from a binary file: a=2. The simplest method to detect modified files. b = 3. So the human ear cannot distinguish the change in the signal. an analyst can maintain known-clean copies of these materials and compare them against the current contents of the site. c = b + 3.4 • INFORMATION HIDING IN Change the length of audio files  Altering the length of piece of audio without changing the pitch.  This is done by synchronization chip signal which causes the embedded data to be lost. First. 6. c = b + 3. 4. ATTACKS ON STEGANOGRAPHY: Basic Attacks: Introduce the timing errors graphics on a website. is to compare them to the originals.  If a series of minor distortions are applied the watermark can be lost while the image remains largely unchanged. BINARY FILE: Used to protect copyright inside a binary program. The differences (assuming 8 . for example. DETECTION OF STEGANOGRAPHY: The detection of steganographically encoded packages is “STEGANALYSIS”. To detect information being moved through the c = b + 3. d = b + c. d=b+c. a = 2. however. b=3. The above instruction is equivalent to: b = 3. a = 2. a = 2. Any changes to that binary file will cause the execution of it to alter.  Whatever changes have been made will likely be acceptable to pirates who do not usually require high quality copies. d = b + c. 5. b = 3. Key generators and Serial keys are no longer sufficient for copyrights purposes • One method for embedding a watermark in a binary file works as follows.rate and offset or delay. This can be an affective attack on audio files. d = b + c. Robustness Attacks: Attempt to diminish or remove the presence of a watermark.

Steganalysis is the art and science of detecting messages this is hidden analogous using to steganography. decrypt. recover that payload. even by casual observation). but rate not makes steganography while impossible.all you have is a probability. In order to avoid detection in the network. and. high compression reduces the amount of data available to hide the payload in. • If we use 8bit image then preferably it would be a grey scale image. It is complicated primarily by four things: • • The suspect files may or may not have The payloads. 7.the carrier is the same) will compose the payload. • This leaves limited room to embed a message without noticeably changing the original object. • The size of the medium used to hide the data. you often 9 . may have been any data encoded into them in the first place. • The image has to be compressed. if possible. then the receiving party may not know that there is a hidden message. If they don’t. using an extremely high compression difficult. if any. compression errors provide a good place to hide data. determine whether or not they have a payload encoded into them. and inspect the payload. It would be better to use a 24bit image. raising the encoding density and facilitating easier detection (in the extreme case. • Some of the suspect files may have had noise or irrelevant data encoded into them (which reduces stealth but can make analysis very time-consuming). cryptanalysis applied to cryptography The goal of steganalysis is to identify suspected packages. can't be sure whether you really have a file used for transport or not-. encrypted before being encoded into the carriers. In general. 8bit image stegonized files cannot be used for sensitive document transfer. • Unless you can completely recover. LIMITATIONS OF STEGANOGRAPHY: • Both parties must agree on the method used. In order for steganography to be useful the message should be hidden without any major changes to the object it is being embedded in.

This package contains two sessions. The second session deals with decoding and encoding with data security by providing a password in audio. 10 .• Use more than one digital watermark so detect We propose a steganalysis technique to embedding using sequential steganography algorithms. Secret data embedded in the that Originality can be detected if image is degraded. it must also be cracked The effectiveness of the process i. compressed file would not be easily found and people would not suspect that there is something hidden in the file. It retrieves data from the image file and audio file decompresses it. Abrupt changes in statistics due to sequential steganography are detected during this process to estimate the message location and length. Hiding a message with steganography methods reduces the chance of a message being detected. if discovered. if that message is also encrypted. robustness. Analytical derivations are presented for the cases when the stego parameters of interest are completely and partially known. However. CONCLUSION: Steganography has its own place in security. data hiding within audio & image mainly depends on the medium data in which data is hidden. • Digital watermark can be made visible only if author wants 8. Retrieving & Authentication of data followed by compression and decompression of data in images. The proposed method is characterized by perfect transparency. Presentation shows that the proposed method is promising. high bit rate.. It is not intended to replace cryptography but supplement it.e. low processing load and particularly high security. The first sessions deals with Embedding. The data hiding approach in the data compression domain has recently become of great interest.

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