The Colonization Of Mars By Ian Beardsley Copyright © 2012 By Ian Beardsley

The Colonization Of Mars Chapter One The year is 2043 AD. Humanity realizing that since oil was produced by the fermenting of dead plant life and other dead animals underground for millions of years, and that because of that, producing oil overnight in the laboratory, that would do the same thing, would make it cost around a million dollars a barrel, they had decided to save oil for those uses that would only contribute to the progress and well being, of humankind. As such, James Rider road a horse across the fields of rye and fescue out to the launch pad to see it off: The rocket was of three stages and of chemical fuel propellant. It was to launch the first group of colonizers, in their one-year journey to mars, the red planet.

The Colonization Of Mars: Chapter Two Most people stayed home, and instead of driving to work to carry out their business, they did it all on the internet – all the computers were interconnected, so they could all talk to one another. This was so, because they would actually have more if they stayed home and did not work. Burning oil to drive 40 miles to work used more resources, by far, than burning oil to make the electricity for their computers to operate. It would be soon that they would not even need oil for transportation. With the advent of efficient solar power, they could drive electric transportation powered by the recently developed efficient electric batteries that were charged with free energy from the sun (solar power). These new efficient batteries did not require much of the valuable resources to make as before, and they had thousands of recharge cycles. People would charge the batteries that would run their cars at home, for free, with free energy from the Sun. James Rider sent some text out to everyone in the United States. It read: I would like to remind you all why you don’t work. A workforce makes the Earth less valuable as a resource. You all have more by staying home, which I know you certainly are not complaining about, but I think I should explain how this works: If we give some thought to how the human race can optimally sustain itself we arrive at the following flow chart: Resources Are Money -> Money Is For Spending -> Which Is Use Of Resources -> Which Determines Ecological Health Of The Earth In How We Use Them -> Which Determines The Amount Of Resources We Have -> Which Determines The Prosperity Of Humanity And Wealth Of Humans, Or Money We Can Have -> Which Draws The Conclusion That: The use of resources such that the ecology is healthy means an economic system that is based on the science of ecology because it yields the highest wealth of the people in a way that is the most sustainable. Let me illustrate how this works:

Energy is defined in terms of bucking hay. I say to lift a 60 pound bale of hay 3 feet and set it on top of a flatbed trailer two and one half feet high, requires 244 joules of energy. I define, then, one buck as 244 joules. It would be nice if in 2012 one got one buck (one dollar) for each bale of hay bucked, but the going rate in Oregon in 2012, I would guess, was 5 cents a bail. Let us convert the bucking of a bale of hay from joules to calories. (244J)(0.239 cal)=58 calories. Consider that bale of hay must be driven to the barn and stacked, so we will double the energy spent in labor: 58x2=116 calories Now we look at a box of grapenuts. It has 200 calories per half cup serving (58 grams). The entire box has 680 grams of cereal. It costs about $4.50 a box in 2012. 680/58= 12 servings 12x200=2400 calories per box Let us say I buck 500 bales in an 8 hour day. Then I need to burn: (116 calories)(500 bales of hay) = 58,000 calories (58,000)/(2,400) = 24 boxes of cereal I must eat 24 boxes of cereal to put in the day’s hay. I earn (5 cents)(500) =25 dollars But, I must buy (24)(4.50) = 108 dollars of Grapenuts to do the job. Of course, when one was bucking hay in the 1980’s, one was getting about three cents a bale and probably putting in two to three thousand bails in a day. Again that was in the 1980’s. But in 2012, I would guess the going rate was closer to ten to twenty cents a bale. I hope so. Let us ask some important questions: 1. How much irreplaceable oil was burned driving the hay from the field to the barn? 2. How much beef did that hay produce?

We see clearly that the heart of economics is the study of energy. Further we see that solar energy is important because it is free energy, and, it is theoretically possible to power everything with it, including that flatbed trailer. We also wonder what it takes in energy to produce a box of Grapenuts. That includes looking at the oil burnt to ship it to a store 1000 miles away. Clearly everyone would benefit if we didn’t do that and grew our calories locally. Let me explain biology in terms of physics where energy is concerned.

We have to understand that energy can neither be created nor destroyed and that it always goes from a form of usable to unusable. There is a set amount of energy in the universe and as it is used, less energy exists and it can never be replenished, unless energy can be supplied by a source from outside the system one is considering. In the case of the earth that outside source is the sun. It is the primary source that supplies all life with the energy it needs through the complex cycles that make up our ecosystems. Let us look at what energy is. In physics there are two types of energies: potential and kinetic. Potential energy can be understood like this: If I move a mass m, say a stone, a height h against a gravitational attraction of g it will have a potential energy of the quantity mgh. If I let it fall from the height h, that potential energy will convert itself into kinetic energy, or energy of motion in other words. That energy of motion can be described by the quantity m, of velocity v, and is given by (1/2)mv^2. It would follow that as the stone falls its potential energy decreases because its height decreases, and its kinetic energy increases because it has been falling a longer amount of time. We would conclude, then, that the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy equals a constant quantity of energy. That is what is meant by energy is conserved: as kinetic energy is gained potential energy is lost such that the energy of the system is constant. We would write then that: (mgy) + (1/2)mv^2 = C Where y is the height at any given moment and C is a constant. In this case C is mgh the maximum amount of energy or the potential energy before the stone was dropped from a height h. We can the write: (mgy) + (1/2)mv^2 = mgh

If the stone was dropped from a height where h is 10 meters, and we know earth gravity is 9.8 m/s^2, and the mass of the stone is 3 kilograms, then mgh = (3)(9.8)(10)= 294 Joules where joules is energy in the kilogrammeters-seconds system. We can then write: (mgy) + (1/2)mv^2 = 294 Joules If we take y to be zero, that is the potential energy has converted completely to kinetic energy, then the term mgy vanishes and we have: (1/2)mv^2 = 294 Joules or v^2 = (2)(294 Joules)/(3 kilograms)= 196 Thus v = 14 meters per second. That is the velocity of a stone dropped from 10 meters when it hits the ground.

The energy that gave the stone this velocity when it hit the ground was determined by how high the person in question lifted the stone against gravity and how massive the stone was. Once it fell the energy was spent and could not be created again unless energy was supplied from outside the system to restore it to its initial height. The energy from outside the system is the energy a person spends in lifting it to a potential. Ecosystems are like that. Ecosystems are communities of life interdependent on one another and their physical environment. Just like the falling stone they have a potential energy that is lost as they carry out their functional parts, and almost all of the energy from outside the ecological system that keeps it going comes from the Sun. Light from the sun is energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. We know this if we stand in the sun because we feel that it warms us: heat is another form of energy. But it is not energy that animals can use to move about, they require chemical energy, like carbohydrates, or sugars in other words. Light can be converted into chemical energy, just like the potential energy of a stone can be converted into kinetic energy. Light provides the energy for plants to break apart water molecules and carbon dioxide gas that is in the air, and recombine it into a carbohydrate like sugar. No energy is created just switched from the form of radiation to chemical energy, a form of energy that can be stored in the plant as starch and eaten by an animal like a rabbit and that he can use to go about his daily activities. The rabbit can use this energy to make proteins, what we call meat, and it can be eaten by humans to fuel their metabolisms and make them active. The plants use the sugars they made, to fuel their metabolic needs as well, so ultimately all of our energy comes from the sun. Plants in making carbohydrates, or sugars, using energy from the sun, make the oxygen as well that humans need to burn the sugars they eat. The humans, in the process of using the oxygen, exhale carbon dioxide gas that the plants need to carry out the process of making the sugars, and oxygen all animals, including humans, need. We see the sun powers everything. It even powers the evaporation of water, in renewing water in the water cycle, and plants need nitrogen fixing bacteria, single cellular organisms that live in the soil to fix nitrogen from the air so plants can carry out the processes that all of life needs. These are just a few of the elements that make ecosystems work, but we see the entire ecosystem needs to exist for life to exist.

Sincerely, James Ryder

James Ryder, The Man Out In The Field Maintaining The System That Allows You To Not Have To Work And Humanity To Succeed.

Chapter Three: The Colonization Of Mars In 2042, Scientists had figured out how to build Hyperdrive and it was now 2043 and they were working on building it. They expected to have it in 2044. That is why it was odd they were sending a chemical rocket on a one year mission to mars with the first colonizers, because they would be able to jump their instantly in a mother ship a year from now. That which was stranger was what Ian Beardsley wrote in his book FictionReality Entanglement: Levinson, Asimov, And Clarke, which read: I have written three papers on the anomaly of how my scientific investigation shows the Universe related to the science fiction of Paul Levinson, Isaac Asimov, and Arthur C. Clarke. In my last paper, “The Levinson-Asimov-Clarke Equation” part of the comprehensive work “The Levinson, Asimov, Clarke Triptic, I suggest these three authors should be taken together to make some kind of a whole, that they are intertwined and at the heart of science fiction. I have now realized a fourth paper is warranted, and it is just the breakthrough I have been looking for to put myself on solid ground with the claim that fiction is related to reality in a mathematical way pertaining to the Laws of Nature. I call it Fiction-Reality Entanglement. In my paper Paul Levinson, Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke Intertwined With An Astronomer’s Research, I make the mathematical prediction that “humans have a 70% chance of developing Hyperdrive in the year 2043” to word it as Paul Levinson worded it, and I point out that this is only a year after the character Sierra Waters is handed a newly discovered document that sets in motion the novel by Paul Levinson, “The Plot To Save Socrates”. I now find that Isaac Asimov puts such a development in his science fiction at a similar time in the future, precisely in 2044, only a year after my prediction and two years after Sierra Waters is handed the newly discovered document that initiates her adventure. So, we have my prediction, which is related to the structure of the universe in a mystical way right in between the dates of Levinson and Asimov, their dates only being a year less and a year greater than mine. Asimov places hyperdrive in the year 2044 in his short story “Evidence” which is part of his science fiction collection of short stories called, “I, Robot”. Here is how Ian Beardsley explained the calculation:

I had tried to predict mathematically when we would develop hyperdrive, and it came out just a year after the character, Sierra Waters, in the science fiction piece by Paul Levinson titled “The Plot To Save Socrates” was handed a newly discovered document at the beginning of the book that got the whole story rolling. I wrote in my piece “Forecast For Hyperdrive: A Study In Asimovian Psychohistory: It is a curious thing that the Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the third brightest star in the sky is the closest to us and very similar to the sun in a galaxy of a rich variety of stars. This closest star to us is a triple system known as Alpha Centauri A, B, and Proxima Centauri. Alpha Centauri A is, like our Sun a main sequence spectral type G star. Precisely, G2 V, just as is the Sun. Its physical characteristics are very close to those of the Sun: 1.10 solar masses, 1.07 solar diameters, and 1.5 solar luminosities. It is absolute magnitude +4.3. The absolute magnitude of the Sun is +4.83. If ever the option existed for humans to travel to the stars, this situation speaks of it, whether or not Alpha Centauri has an earth-like planet in its habitable zone. It has been said that the base ten place significant system of writing numbers stems from the fact we have ten fingers to count on. In so far as science can save us, it can destroy us in that science is not dangerous, but humans can be. Traveling to the planets is possible with chemical fuel rockets, but traveling to the stars is another story, because of their immense distances from us, and from one another. What are the odds that our development in technologies will take us to the stars before we destroy ourselves first? In other words, what are the intrinsic odds for humankind to develop the hyperdrive before without bringing about its own end first? We do a random walk to Alpha Centauri of 10 one light year jumps. We make 10 equal steps randomly of one light year each, equal steps that if all are towards Alpha Centauri we will land beyond it. If 10 are away from it, we are as far from it as can be. And, if 5 are towards it, and five are away from it, we have gone nowhere. In this allegory we calculate the probability of landing on Alpha Centauri, in 10 random leaps of a light year each, a light year being the distance light travels in the time it takes the earth to make one revolution around the sun, light speed a natural constant. (continue to the next page)

The probability of making n steps in either direction forms a bell shaped curve. After 10 randomly made steps the odds of going nowhere is highest and, is represented by five in the bell curve corresponding to 0. Let us round the distance of Alpha Centauri to four light years, giving humans the benefit of the doubt. The number positive four in the bell graph has written above it the number 7. Seven out of ten times 100 for effort gives a 70% chance of making it to the stars without becoming extinct first. I believe the percent understanding of our technological development towards hyperdrive, where we have just entered space with chemical rockets and developed fast, compact, computers, is given by:
W N (n1 ) = N! n1 n 2 p q n1!n 2!

Evaluated at n1=7.

N is 10 steps. And n1 is the number of steps towards Alpha Centauri, n2 those away from it. And, p is the probability that the step is towards Alpha Centauri, and q is the probability that the step is away from Alpha Centauri. N = n1 + n2 And m = n1-n2 is the displacement And q+p=1

The trick to using this equation is in knowing the possible combinations of steps that can be made that equal 10. Like five right, five left with a displacement of 0 or, 10 right, 0 left with a displacement of 10 or, 7 left, 3 right with a displacement of negative 4. To land at 4 light years from earth, with 10 one light year jumps, one must go away from Alpha Centauri 3 jumps of a light year each then 7 jumps toward it of one light year each, to land on it, that is to land at +4, its location. So n1 is 7 and n2 is 3. The probability to jump away from the star is 1/2 and the probability to jump towards it is 1/2. That is p=1/2 and q=1/2. There are ten random jumps, so, N=10. Using our equation:
(10!) 1 7 1 3 3628800 1 1 120 15 ( ) ( ) = = = = 0.1171875 ≈ 12% (7!)(3!) 2 2 (5040)(6) 128 8 1024 128

We would be, by this reasoning 12% along in the development towards hyperdrive.

Ian Beardsley June 2009 If human technology has ever been anything, it has been exponential, growing in proportion to itself. In other words, two developments beget 8, eight beget 16, and sixteen begets 32. My grandfather rode a horse when he was a child, as a young man he drove a car, and when I knew him as a child, he saw humans land on the moon.

It wasn’t long before we made computers small enough that people could keep in their homes that did more than computers did in the 60’s that filled an entire room. Having calculated that we are 12% along in developing the hyperdrive, we can use the equation for natural growth to estimate when we will have hyperdrive. It is of the form:

x(t) = x 0e kt
t is time and k is a growth rate constant which we must determine to solve the equation. In 1969 Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. In 2009 the European Space Agency launched the Herschel and Planck telescopes that will see back to near the beginning of the universe. 2009-1969 is 40 years. This allows us to write:
12% = e k(40)

log 12 = 40k log 2.718

0.026979531 = 0.4342 k k=0.0621 We now can write:

x(t) = e(0.0621)t
100% = e(o.0621)t

log 100 = (0.0621) t log e t = 74 years 1969 + 74 years = 2043 Our reasoning would indicate that we will have hyperdrive in the year 2043. Study summary: 1. We have a 70% chance of developing hyperdrive without destroying ourselves first. 2. We are 12% along the way in development of hyperdrive. 3. We will have hyperdrive in the year 2043, plus or minus. Sierra Waters was handed the newly discovered document in 2042.

There is a common thread running through the Science Fiction works of Paul Levinson, Isaac Asimov, and Arthur C. Clarke. In the case of Isaac Asimov, we are far in the future of humanity. In his Robot Series, Asimov has man making robots whose programming only allows them to do that which is good for humanity. As a result, these robots, artificial intelligence (AI), take actions that propel humanity into settling the Galaxy, in the robot series, and ultimately save humanity after they have settled the Galaxy and made an empire of it (In the Foundation Series). In the case of Paul Levinson, scholars in the future travel through time and use cloning, a concept related to artificial intelligence (it is the creating of human replicas as well, but biological, not electronic), and the goal is to save great ancient thinkers from Greece, and to manipulate events in the past for a positive outcome for the future of humanity, just as the robots try to do in the work of Asimov. In the case of Arthur C. Clarke, man undergoes a transformation due to a monolith placed on the moon and earth by extraterrestrials who have created life on earth. The monolith is a computer. It takes humans on a voyage to other planets in the solar system, and in their trials, humanity goes through trials that result in a transformation for the ending of their dependence on their technology and for becoming adapted to life in the Universe beyond Earth. That is, the character Dave Bowman becomes the Starchild in his mission to Jupiter. The artificial intelligence is the ship computer called HAL. So, the thread is the salvation of man through technology, and their transformation to a new human paradigm, where they can end their dependence on Earth and adapt to the nature of the Universe as a whole. At the time I was reading these novels, I was doing astronomical research, and, to my utter astonishment, my relationships I was discovering pertaining to the Universe were turning up times and values pivotal to these works of Levinson, Asimov, and Clarke. Further, I was interpreting much of my discoveries by developing them in the context of short fictional stories. In my story, “The Question”, we find Artificial Intelligence is in sync with the phases of the first appearance of the brightest star Sirius for the year, and the flooding of the Nile river, which brings in the Egyptian agricultural season. It is presumed by some scholars that because the Egyptian calendar is in sync with the Nile-Sirius cycle, theirs began four such cycles ago. I then relate that synchronization to another calculation that turns up the time when the key figure of the Foundation Series of Asimov begins his program to found a civilization that will save the galaxy. We later find his actions were manipulated into being by robots, in order to save intelligent life in the galaxy by creating a viable society for it called Galaxia.

In the case of Paul Levinson, I was making a calculation to predict when man would develop hyperdrive, that engine which could take us to the stars, and end our dependence on an Earth that cannot take care of humans forever. That time turned out to be when the key scholar in the work by Paul Levinson, began her quest to help humanity by traveling into the past and using cloning, in part, to change history for the better. I can now only feel her quest to save humanity is going to be through changing history to bring about the development of hyperdrive, so humanity will no longer depend on Earth alone, which, as I have said, cannot take care of life forever. Finally, where Arthur C. Clarke is concerned, I find values in the solar system and nature that are in his monolith, and I connect it to artificial intelligence of a sort, that kind which would be based on silicon. I will present, now, my work that pertains to these writers in the following order: 1) The Question 2) Addendum to The Question 3) Asimovian Prediction For Hyperdrive Arthur C. Clarke and Cosmic Archaeology

The Colonization Of Mars: Chapter Four It was 2044 and the Mars colonizers had landed on Mars and set up camp. Also, on schedule a hyperdrive engine was built and installed in the mother ship, on schedule. The crew of this ship would not be meeting up with the colonizers on Mars, but rather would be making a trip to the nearest star system, Alpha Centauri. They were going to this star not just because it was the nearest, but because out of three stars that made up the system, one was just like the Sun: a medium sized, yellow star on the main sequence. They hoped to find a habitable planet there, but not just that, but why the calculation Ian Beardsley made in 2009 based on Alpha Centauri predicted when they actually would build hyperdrive, and why it was that this event was entangled with fictional stories by Paul Levinson and Isaac Asimov, which he happened to be reading at the time of making the calculation.

The Colonization Of Mars: Chapter Five There were three months left in 2044 and the crew of the Mothership with hyperdrive hyper-relayed a message back to Earth that they had landed on a solid, earthlike planet orbiting Alpha Centauri A, the star in the triple system that was just like the sun, and that the planet was in the habitable zone, that distance from a star where water can exist as a liquid. They further reported that there was plenty of water and the air breathable. Also know implemented on Earth was the full plan of maximizing the Earth’s potential without damaging it and bringing well being to all people. We are so far into the future that precisely the jobs that a massive amount of people did in offices were done at home. The idea actually comes from the geophysicist Hubbert, who showed that if most people were paid to stay home, everyone would actually do better, because the system of society was really so poorly organized it disregarded the science of the earth. There was now such technology powered by free energy from the sun, that only a small fraction of people at anytime would need to do anything at all -- robots could do most. Things that required people to do them could be rotational. Their society was based on economics called bioeconomics -- what Hubbert called steady-state economics: you calculated at what point investment is not sustainable,... Sustainable being, we do what allows the earth to sustain us.

The Colonization Of Mars: Chapter Six The population for 2050 was estimated to be just over 9 billion back in 2012, but it was now 2044 and the population was a little under 8 billion thanks to the simple, but cheap, idea of providing free contraception, and life was not that bad considering there was now a more egalitarian approach to distributing the wealth, not to mention there were many technological advances like growing meat in large sheets that could provide food in some of the more often draught stricken countries, such places as countries in Africa. As for the environments that man had turned in to desert in such places, it was now possible to repair such things, and the process was under way.

The Colonization Of Mars: Chapter Seven Humans existed on a planet that had what they needed: water, food, an atmosphere that held warmth, a source for warmth, the sun, trees to build houses with, metals that conducted electricity that could do work on a load, like tungsten, to provide light, but all of these resources were in finite supply, so if humanity wanted to continue in this universe, it would have to one day go out into space to find new worlds, orbiting new stars, that had the resources that would allow us to continue. Or did we have to solve the problem of how to go to other worlds? Perhaps we were not supposed to continue on beyond that time with which our given supplies on earth would last us. Perhaps we were supposed to conclude that supplies were limited, because when they ran out we would just leave our bodies and go on to something better as a reward for just having the courage to take that chance. Maybe we were supposed to work out the problem of space travel, or maybe it was a temptation offered up by what ever brought us about. We could not know which it was, because we had no way of knowing why we were here, if for any reason at all. We could not know, because we couldn’t determine how we got here in the first place. There was even another possibility. Perhaps we were created by something so that in making the decision as to whether to take our destiny in our own hands by figuring out how to go out into space, or to just let things play out without trying to do anything about our situation, we will have made a decision for them that they did not want to make. After all it would prevent them from making a decision like the one we had to make, based as well on information they didn’t have, much like we didn’t have. One might say, if we could not have available any information to make a decision, but had to make a decision, our situation was absurd, and, how else to address absurdity but with absurdity. Indeed existence was a paradox and that is why we made an absurd decision where the space colonization was considered: We chose to send a slow, chemical fuel rocket to the nearest colonizable, in fact only colonizable planet, Mars, which would take a year to get there, when we knew we would develop hyperdrive in a year that could jump through hyperspace to the planet instantly. Further when the slow, chemical rocket arrived at Mars, we would be making the jump through hyperspace to the nearest star, Alpha Centauri, whose primary in that triple system was just like the Sun, an indication that we were perhaps supposed to go to it, but just as easily a temptation. That which we simultaneously discovered on Mars, and at Alpha Centauri, would perhaps answer the question to the fourth possibility: perhaps reality was a dream, and one we could take command of, as indicated by The Fiction Reality Entanglement of Ian Beardsley where his mathematical prediction for hyperdrive came true, yet was already written into existence by Paul Levinson and Isaac Asimov in their stories “The Plot To Save Socrates” and “I, Robot” to be invented over the time he had predicted.

The Colonization Of Mars: Chapter Eight Reality was a dream all right, but god was the dreamer and we and the Universe the story that was unraveling in his mind. At least this was the story up to the point we made the jump through hyperspace, and landed on a planet orbiting Alpha Centauri A, because in that moment we became gods ourselves, or dreamers in other words –no longer the dreamed -- and this we knew because the men on the planet orbiting Alpha Centauri A ceased to be the product of a dream and were dreaming. In their dream they created another Universe, One in which a planet orbiting a star in a galaxy in that Universe was habitable, and would begin to host primitive single cell life in swamps with methane and ammonia gas hanging over them. Perhaps one day these single celled organisms would evolve into intelligence. It depended on how the dreams of the Alpha Centaurian Gods unraveled. Indeed Alpha Centauri, and the whole Universe ceased to be a dream, but became real and it could because we had hyperdrive now, and enough knowledge to use it take care of ourselves in something that was real.

The Colonization Of Mars: Chapter Nine James Rider wondered, now that he was a dreamer, what determined how his and his people’s dreams unfolded. Clearly their daily actions as real entities in a real Universe, he thought. Realizing this, he thought in order for his people’s dreams to unfold nicely, he and they had to do what was right to be a benevolent God. Not only was it right that the world he and his people had dreamt up did not suffer as its story unfolded, it was necessary to ensure because when its inhabitants made the jump through hyperspace, and became real, became dreamers themselves, he and his people would be able to face them when they one day would come to meet one another. Everyone that had now become real, realized this as James Rider realized it because they were all different elements of one consciousness, carrying out their particular daily activities. James and everyone realized, now, as a spacefaring people, their objective was to find he who dreamt them up before they became real, so they could rate their performance as dreamers, and perhaps to learn something new, for they still did not know everything.