Chapter 1

Ceramic coatings and surface engineering
Problems • Friction and wear • Chemical corrosion • Conductivity, insulation • Reflectivity • Thermal damage
www.landyonline.co.za

Protection of material surface Surface engineering Ex: Glasses, oxides, carbides, silicides, borides, nitrides

T. Udomphol

www.camcoat.u-net.com

Molybdenum coating on piston head
Suranaree University of Technology

Ceramic coatings (cermakrome) inside/outside for exhaust manifold in Aston Martin
October 2007

Chapter 1

Ceramic coatings and surface engineering
Silicate glass • On ceramic substrate glaze. porcelain enamel. • On metal surface • On glass substrate glass enamel.
T. Udomphol

Porcelain enamel

• Protect surface ( permeability) • Spraying, dipping techniques.
www.tias.com

Ceramic glaze

Glass enamel
October 2007

Suranaree University of Technology

Chapter 1

Ceramic coatings and surface engineering
Oxide coating • Provide oxidation resistance at high temperature. • Provide corrosion resistance.

Using thermal or flame spraying techniques.
T. Udomphol

Cr2O3 coating on Hastelloy C for use in very corrosive envi.
Suranaree University of Technology

Cr2O3 coating on glass fibre-reinforced polymer.
October 2007

Chapter 1

Ceramic coatings and surface engineering
Carbide coating • Provide wear resistance due to high hardness

T. Udomphol

Microstructure of WC/10Co4Cr coating Thermal spraying of tungsten carbide-cobalt chromium coating (WC/10Co4Cr) on to a roll for the paper manufacturing industry
Suranaree University of Technology October 2007

Chapter 1

Ceramic coatings and surface engineering
Nitride coating • PVD technique

T. Udomphol

www.ijs.si/ctp/tin.jpg

CrN coating , HV = 1800, Tw = 700oC

TiN coating , HV = 2400, Tw = 500oC

Suranaree University of Technology

TiAlN coating , HV = 3600, Tw = 850oC

October 2007

Chapter 1

Ceramic coatings and surface engineering
Ceramics for energy
http://www.leonics.com

Solar cell
http://www.energy.go.th
T. Udomphol

Doped with B, Al

Doped with P

www.corrosion-doctors.org/.../solarcell.jpg Suranaree University of Technology

P-N junction

October 2007

Chapter 1

Ceramics in biomedical applications
Alumina in orthopedic implants
99.8% Al, 3-6 µm grain size

Co-Cr alloy femoral head with high strength polyethylene cup (metal on polymer) Replaced by alumina (ceramic on ceramic) to reduce wear particle formation which causing loosening of the prostheses.

T. Udomphol

• Excellent corrosion resistance • Wear resistance • High strength • Biocompatibility

Suranaree University of Technology

a) Extensive arthritis damage, b) same hip after total hip replacement

Various component for total hip prostheses including the stem with an alumina femoral head, and alumina AC cup, and a metal base for the AC cup
October 2007

Chapter 1

Ceramics in biomedical applications
Ceramic biomaterials • Biocompatibility • Bond well to bone (implant-tissue attachment) • Corrosion resistance • High stiffness • Wear resistance Implant loosening Applications • Orthopedic implants • Eyeglasses • Laboratory ware • Dental applications
Suranaree University of Technology

Bone joint

T. Udomphol

Burden from healthcare cost and patient’s life quality

October 2007

Chapter 1

Ceramics in biomedical applications
Alumina in dental implants

T. Udomphol

• Artificial root which supports tooth replacement and crown (porcelain). • Titanium is also a good candidate due to low modulus of elasticity and biocompatibility.

The dental implant component
Suranaree University of Technology October 2007

Chapter 1

Ceramics in biomedical applications
Ceramic implants and tissue connectivity Four types of responses from implant-tissue reaction • Toxic
T. Udomphol

Tissue surrounding the implant dies • Biologically inactive Thin fibrous tissue forms around the implant • Bioactive Interfacial bond between the bone and the prosthesis forms • Resorption (Dissolving) The surrounding tissue replaces the implant material or portions of it.
Suranaree University of Technology October 2007

Chapter 1

Nanotechnology and ceramics
Nanotechnology and ceramics Nanocrystalline ceramic Nanosize powder (<100µm) Agglomerates Compaction 20-50% pore Sintering and densification Very quick due to nanosize
Pore shrinkage through plastic flow (grain boundary sliding) in nanocrystalline ceramics

Improving toughness ?
Ex: TiO2 (< 40 µm) 98% theorectical density after 700oC sintering for 2 h.

T. Udomphol

Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

Chapter 2

composite materials

T. Udomphol

Suranaree University of Technology

www.umms.sav.sk

October 2007

Chapter 2

composite materials
Structural materials can be mainly divided into four categories: metals, ceramics, polymers and composites.

What is composite material?
T. Udomphol

Structural material made of two or more different materials in a macroscopic level. A structure or an entity made up of distinct components. A complex material, such as wood or fiberglass, in which two or more distinct, structurally complementary substances, especially metals, ceramics, glasses, and polymers, combine to produce structural or functional properties not present in any individual component.

Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

Chapter 2

composite materials
Natural forms Artificial forms

T. Udomphol

Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

Chapter 2

composite materials
Polymer Composites Resin Composites Cement Composites

Glass Composites

PMCs
T. Udomphol

CMCs
Composites
Al Composites Ti Composites

Other
Wood Composites

MMCs
Carbon Composites Ni based alloy Composites

Mg Composites

Steel Composites
October 2007

Suranaree University of Technology

Chapter 2

composite materials
Applications

T. Udomphol

Boeing 787 Dreamliner Hockey stick made from fibre-glass

tsa.imageg.net www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca Suranaree University of Technology October 2007

Chapter 2

Matrices and reinforing materials
Composites
T. Udomphol

Matrix
• Metals • Ceramics • Polymers • Wood

+

Reinforcing materials
• Fibres • Filament • Particulates • Flakes • Globular • Platelet • Needles • Woven • Honey comb
October 2007

Suranaree University of Technology

Chapter 2

Choices of reinforcing materials
• Reinforcing materials normally provide stiffness, strength and sometimes improved toughness. • Mostly in the form of fibres, • Properties are directly related to their atomic arrangement and defect content of the reinforcements (manufacturing process***). • Reinforcing materials can be polymers : Kevlar ceramics : SiC, glass fibres metals : steels fibres
Single glass fibres
Suranaree University of Technology October 2007
T. Udomphol

www.millipore.com

Steel Glass fibres

http://en.wikipedia.org

Chapter 2

Different shapes of reinforcing materials
Different shapes of reinforcing materials • Fiber/filament (continuous or non-continuous)
T. Udomphol

• Woven • Flake • Needle • Aggregate • Particulate • Globular • Platelet

Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

Chapter 2

Different types of reinforcing materials
Fibres Particulates

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Carbon fibres Boron nitride fibres Glass fibres Organic fibres Silicon carbide fibres
CVD monofilaments PCS multifilaments Whiskers

T. Udomphol

1) Carbide particles 2) Boride particles 3) Nitride particles

6) Alumina and aluminosilicates
Microfilaments Multifilaments Short fibres
Suranaree University of Technology

7) Nylon

October 2007

Chapter 2

Different types of reinforcing materials
Carbon fibres Boron nitride fibres
• Boron nitrides are extremely hard, only second next to diamond • Temp ~1000-1400oC
sierra.univ-lyon1.fr

T. Udomphol

A cloth of woven carbon filaments

Tensile strength
Schematic structure of carbon fibres
Suranaree University of Technology

2000-7000 MPa 1.75 g/cm3

Young’s Modulus 250-530 GPa Density
October 2007

Chapter 2

Different types of reinforcing materials
Glass fibres
www.vscht.cz

Organic fibre :Kevlar or aramid fibres

T. Udomphol

Kevlar Kevlar fibres

Glass fibres

• Most are silica (SiO2) with addition of Ca, Na, B, Al, Fe. • Can be divided into electrical, corrosion and strength glass.
Suranaree University of Technology

www.fiber-tensioners.com

• Kevlar fibres are long molecular
chain structure of polymer (polyparaphenylene terephthalamide). • Expensive.
October 2007

Chapter 2

Different types of reinforcing materials
Production of glass fibres
www.jmeurope.com

• The raw materials are melted in a reservoir and fed into a series of platinum bushings, each of which has several hundred holes in its base. • The glass flows under gravity and fine filaments are drawn mechanically downward onto a Continuous E-glass fibre production drum (at speed 2000-3000 m/min).

T. Udomphol

Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

Chapter 2

Different types of reinforcing materials
Silicon carbide fibres
Carbon fibre SiC
T. Udomphol

Whiskers • Strongest reinforcing materials available • Defect free, single crystal rods. • 0.1-1.0 µm in diameter and 5-100 µm.

iar-ira.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

1) 2) 3) 4)

CVD monofilaments PCS multifilaments Whiskers Particulates

fb6www.uni-paderborn.de

Tensile strength Young’s Modulus

7.0 GPa 550GPa
October 2007

Suranaree University of Technology

Different types of reinforcing materials
CVD monofilaments • Carried out in a reaction chamber by passing gaseous carbon containing methyl-trichlorosilane (CH3SiCl3). • The core fibre is heated (by passing electrical current through it).
Reaction chamber
www.chm.bris.ac.uk http://sic.eng.usf.edu/cvd/www/

Chapter 2

T. Udomphol

• The gas dissociates thermally at the fibre surface to deposit the SiC. • Deposition of the second layer (graphite or diamond) is subsequently applied in the second reaction chamber to improve the effects of interaction reactions with matrices such as titanium.
Suranaree University of Technology

Diamond coated SiC fibre October 2007

Chapter 2

Different types of reinforcing materials
Alumina and aluminosilicate
igahpse.epfl.ch www.saffil.com
T. Udomphol

Nylon

Aluminium reinforced alumina short fibres

Nylon composite sprocket

• Refractory • Alumina and alumiosilicate fibres can be divided into multifilaments (FTTM fibre) or short fibres (SaffilTM fibre).
Suranaree University of Technology

• Nylon is a thermoplastic polymer (polyamine) and generally used for many applications. • Strong, elastic and has abrasive resistance.
October 2007

Chapter 2

Properties of different types of fibres

T. Udomphol

Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

Chapter 2

Different types of reinforcing materials
Particulates • Normally are in the forms of carbides, nitrides or borides. • High Tm, high hardness, high wear resistance, low density.

T. Udomphol

Carbides

•Silicon carbide (SiC) •Tungsten carbide (WC) •Titanium carbide (TiC) Titanium boride (TiB2)

SiC particles in Al matrix

Borides

Nitrides

Titanium nitride-Tinate (TiN)

Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

Chapter 2

Choices of matrices
• Matrix holds reinforcing material together and also determine the physical properties of the end products. Metals
T. Udomphol

Polymers
• Plastics or resins are the most widely used. • Lightweight. • Easily fabrication. • Low-moderate temperatures. • Low-moderate strength and stiffness. • Also used for reinforcing materials.

Ceramics
• Cements are the most widely used. • Light-moderate weight. • High temperatures. • High strength and stiffness but low toughness. • Fabrication is not too difficult. • Also used for reinforcing materials.
October 2007

• Moderate to high temperatures. • High strength stiffness, moderate toughness. • Moderate weight. • Difficult to fabricate. • Also used for reinforcing materials.

Suranaree University of Technology

Chapter 2

Choices of matrices

T. Udomphol

Specific strength of advanced materials. Maximum service temperatures for different kinds of materials.
Suranaree University of Technology October 2007

Chapter 2

Matrices – Selected properties

T. Udomphol

Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

Chapter 2

Matrices -Polymers
• The most widely used due to cheap fabrication (low temp ~ 300-400oC). • Lightweight applications such as aircraft, sporting goods, wheelchairs • Normally use carbon fibres as reinforcing materials.
T. Udomphol

• Thermosets: epoxy resin*, phenolic resin or furfuryl resin Heat+pressure polymerization with cross-link Thermoplastics: polyimide (PI), Polyethersulfone (PES), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyetherimide (PEI) and polyphenyl sulfide (PPS). Lower temp + better plasticity •
Suranaree University of Technology

Epoxy resin with tools
www.zyex.com

injection moulding
October 2007

Chapter 2

Matrices -Ceramics
• Ceramic matrix composites
• Concrete (cement) • Cermet (ceramic and metal) • Bone (hydroxyapatite reinforced with collagen fibres)
T. Udomphol

• Ceramic aggregate composites
• Asphalt concrete • Dental composite • Synthetic foam (spheres of glass) • Reinforcing material (fibres) is added to improve its toughness and strength (tensile and flexural). • Good oxidation resistance
Suranaree University of Technology

Note:

high temperature applications.
October 2007

Chapter 2

Matrices -Ceramics
enpub.fulton.asu.edu

Cement matrix composite Concrete is the most widely used civil structural materials.
CaO, MgO, SiO2 , Al2O3
T. Udomphol

Fracture surface of carbon fibre reinforced cement

Cement Sand

Curing (Hydration)

• No sand and gravel • Cement and sand

cement paste Mortar concrete

Gravel Admixture

• Cement, sand and gravel

• Fine particulate such as silica (SiO2) fume or polymer such as latex to decrease porosity. • Short fibres such as glass, steel, carbon

Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

Chapter 2

Matrices -Ceramics
Cermet
• Cermet = ceramic (cer) and ~ <20% metallic (met) materials with Ni, Mo, Co as binders for oxides, boride, carbide or alumina • High temperature resistance and hardness.
T. Udomphol

Ex: Spark plugs for internal combustion engine, composed of a shell, insulator (aluminium oxide) and conductor (Cu, Ni-Fe, Cr).
Spark plug http://en.wiki
pedia.org

Dental matrix composite
• Consist of resin based matrix such as methacrylate resin and an inorganic filler such as SiO2 (silica) with a wide range of compositions. • wear resistance and translucency.
Suranaree University of Technology polymers.nist.gov www.cereconline.com

Polymerizable dental Dental composite blocks composite October 2007

Chapter 2

Matrices -Carbon
Carbon-carbon composites
• Highly-ordered graphite fibres embedded in carbon matrix..
T. Udomphol

http://www.composites-bydesign.com

• Strength and toughness superior to conventional graphite. • Stiffer, stronger and lighter than steels or other metals. • C-C composites consist of two brittle phases but are very tough. • Oxidation problem at T > 320oC. required SiC coating or glassy sealant
C-C composite

honeycomb panels for aircraft and helicopter firewalls

Surface energy BUT Fracture surface area Toughness
Fracture of 2D C-C composite: two brittle phases but high toughness.
October 2007

C + O2 → CO2 ↑
Suranaree University of Technology

Chapter 2

Matrices -Metals
ewkmmc.tuwien.ac.at

T. Udomphol

SiC fibre reinforced in titanium matrix composite.

• Aluminium alloys • Magnesium alloys • Titanium alloys • Nickel base alloys • Steels • Copper alloys

Note: Al, Mg and Ti are active with oxygen

chemical reactions at the interface.

Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

Chapter 2

Metal matrix composites (PMC)
Applications
www.fujikura.co.jp

T. Udomphol

www.duragear.com

Nylon steel composites
www.isis.rl.ac.uk

Copper clad steel trolley wires in bullet train

Fibre-reinforced plastic with Al laminates

www.compositesiq.com www.afrlhorizons.com Suranaree University of Technology

Ti/SiC reinforced bling in aeroengine Rolls-Royce Plc.
October 2007

Chapter 2

Mechanics of composites
How many fibres we can put in to improve strength? • Volume fraction of fibres • Fibre arrangement
T. Udomphol

- Square array - Hexagonal array
V f max = 0.785
S

r

r

S 2R Square array 2R Hexagonal array

V f max = 0.907

• Interfacial bonding between fibres and matrix
Suranaree University of Technology October 2007

Chapter 2

Mechanics of composites
Longitudinal stress and stiffness
2 1

σ c = σ f V f + σ mVm
T. Udomphol

3

Ec = E f V f + EmVm
V f + Vm = 1

σ1

σ1

Transverse stiffness
1 V f Vm = + Ec E f Em
Note: let c – composite f – fibre m - matrix 2 1 3

σ2

σ2
October 2007

Suranaree University of Technology

Chapter 2

Mechanics of composites
Example: By assuming the law of mixture, and a square array of continuous fibres, calculate the maximum and minimum moduli that can be achieved in an unidirectional reinforced composite if seven fibre mm-1 is required for the design specification, the fibres are of 100 µm in diameter. Given the modulus of the fibre and the matrix are 450 and 120 GPa.
T. Udomphol

The volume fraction of fibres
Vf Vc = Af Ac =

The minimum modulus
1 V f Vm = + Ec E f E m 1 0.385 (1 − 0.385) = + 450 120 Ec 1 = 5.98 ×10 −3 Ec Ec = 167.2 GPa

π (50 ×10 −6 ) × 49
2

(10 )

−3 2

= 0.385

The maximum modulus

Ec = E f V f + EmVm Ec = 450 × 0.385 + 120 × (1 − 0.385) Ec = 247.05 GPa
Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

Chapter 2

Fabrication of composites
Nature of fibre and matrix Fibre architecture
T. Udomphol

Fibre arrangement Fibre volume fraction Processing route Manufacturing cost
Suranaree University of Technology

Composite manufacturing
The development in fabrication process strongly affects commercial exploitation.

October 2007

Chapter 2

Fabrication of composites
www.imhotepcomposites.co.uk

Open mould (spray-up)

T. Udomphol

Prepreg tapes

Hot-melt prepregging process
Suranaree University of Technology October 2007

Chapter 2

Fabrication of composites
Sheet moulding compound

• Continuous fibres are chopped and fed in the middle of resin filler pastes (from top and bottom) to produce a form of sheet. • The sheet is then rolled for further compaction.
Machine for producing sheet-moulding compound

T. Udomphol

Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

Chapter 2

Fabrication of composites
Premixed injection moulding

T. Udomphol

Injection of thermoset premixed

Filament winding

Automated filament winding process
Suranaree University of Technology October 2007

Chapter 2

Fabrication of composites
High speed resin transfer moulding process

T. Udomphol

Resin transfer moulding
Suranaree University of Technology October 2007

Chapter 2

Fabrication of composites

T. Udomphol

Suranaree University of Technology

October 2007

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