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Abstract

The goal of the Burj Dubai Tower is not simply to be the worlds highest building; its to embody the worlds highest aspirations. The superstructure is currently under construction and as of fall 2007 has reached over 150 stories. The final height of the building is a well-guarded secret. The height of the multi-use skyscraper will comfortably exceed the current record holder, the 509 meter (1671 ft) tall Taipei 101. The 280,000 m2 (3,000,000 ft2) reinforced concrete multi-use Burj Dubai tower is utilized for retail, a Giorgio Armani Hotel, residential and office. As with all super-tall projects, difficult structural engineering problems needed to be addressed and resolved. This paper presents the structural system for the Burj Dubai Tower. Keywords: Burj Dubai, Structure, Worlds Tallest, Tower, Skyscraper

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 1: Typical Floor Plan ............................................................................................. 10 Figure 2: Rendering ......................................................................................................... 11 Figure 3: Construction Photo ........................................................................................... 12 Figure 4: Construction Photo ........................................................................................... 13 Figure 5: Three Dimensional Analysis Model ................................................................. 15 Figure 6: 3D View of Analysis Model ............................................................................. 16 Figure 7: Dynamic Mode Shapes ...................................................................................... 18 Figure 8: Reinforced Concrete Structure .......................................................................... 19 Figure 9: Reinforced Concrete Raft Pour ...20 Figure 10 SCC Conc. Flow Table Testing .21 Figure 11: Raft Conc. Placement Test Cubes.22 Figure 12: Test Pile (6,000 tonnes))......23 Figure 13: Cathodic Protection below Mat ......24 Figure 14: Aeroelastic Wind Tunnel Model..25 Figure 15: Vortex Shedding Behaviour .26 Figure 16: Tower Massing.27 Figure 17: Wind Behavior.29 Figure 18 Construction Sequence Models igure ..31 Figure 19: Predicted Vertical Shortening vs. Story at 30 years32 Figure 20: Burj Al Arab Under Construction......33 Figure 21: Elevation of Shear Wall Setback ..35 Figure 22: Predicted Load-Deformation Response of a Strut & Tie Designed Reinforced Concrete Link Beam..................................36 Figure 23: Self-Climbing Formwork System..37

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1

Time line ..................................................39

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1.0 Introduction
1.1 Introduction to Dubai
Dubai is one of the seven emirates of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi. Dubai and Abu Dhabi are the only two emirates to have veto power over critical matters of national importance in the country's legislature. Today, Dubai has emerged as a global city and a business hub. Although Dubai's economy was built on the oil industry, currently the emirate's model of business, similar to that of Western countries, drives its economy, with the effect that its main revenues are now from tourism, real estate, and financial services. Dubai has recently attracted world attention through many innovative large construction projects and sports events. This increased attention has highlighted labour rights and human rights issues concerning its largely South Asian workforce. Dubai's property market experienced a major deterioration in 2008 and 2009 as a result of the worldwide economic downturn following the financial crisis of 2007 2010 Dubai's GDP as of 2008 was US$ 82.11 billion. Although Dubai's economy was built on the back of the oil industry, revenues from oil and natural gas currently account for less than 6% of the emirate's revenues. It is estimated that Dubai produces 50,000 to 70,000 barrels (11,000 m3) of oil a day and substantial quantities of gas from offshore fields. The emirate's share in UAE's gas revenues is about 2%. Dubai's oil reserves have diminished significantly and are expected to be exhausted in 20 years. Real estate and construction (22.6%), trade (16%), entrepot (15%) and financial services (11%) are the largest contributors to Dubai's economy Dubai is also a hub for service industries such as information technology and finance, with industry-specific free zones throughout the city. Dubai Internet City, combined with Dubai Media City as part of TECOM (Dubai Technology, Electronic Commerce and Media Free Zone Authority) is one such enclave whose members include IT firms such as

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EMC Corporation, Oracle Corporation, Microsoft, and IBM, and media organizations such as MBC, CNN, BBC, Reuters, Sky News and AP The government's decision to diversify from a trade-based, oil-reliant economy to one that is service and tourism-oriented made property more valuable, resulting in the property appreciation from 20042006. A longer-term assessment of Dubai's property market, however, showed depreciation; some properties lost as much as 64% of their value from 2001 to November 2008. The large scale real estate development projects have led to the construction of some of the tallest skyscrapers and largest projects in the world such as the Emirates Towers, the Burj Khalifa, the Palm Islands and the world's second tallest, and most expensive hotel, the Burj Al Arab. The Dubai Financial Market (DFM) was established in March 2000 as a secondary market for trading securities and bonds, both local and foreign. As of fourth quarter 2006, its trading volume stood at about 400 billion shares, worth $95 billion in total. The DFM had a market capitalisation of about $87 billion. Dubai's property market experienced a major downturn in 2008 and 2009 as a result of the slowing economic climate. Mohammed al-Abbar, Chief Executive Officer of Emaar told the international press in December 2008 that Emaar had credits of $70 billion and the state of Dubai additional $10 billion while holding estimated $350 billion in real estate assets. By early 2009, the situation had worsened with the global economic crisis taking a heavy toll on property values, construction and employment. As of February 2009 Dubai's foreign debt was estimated at approximately $80 billion, although this is a tiny fraction of the sovereign debt worldwide.

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1.2 Introduction to Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa formerly known as Burj Dubai, was named after Khalifa Bin Zayed, the president of the United Arab Emirates, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and the tallest man-made structure ever built, at 828 m (2,717 ft).Construction began on 21 September 2004, with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October 2009. The building officially opened on 4 January 2010.The building is part of the 2 km2 (490-acre) flagship development called Downtown Burj Khalifa at the "First Interchange" along Sheikh Zayed Road, near Dubai's main business district. The tower's architecture and engineering were performed by Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill of Chicago. Adrian Smith, who worked with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill until 2006, was the chief architect, and Bill Baker was the chief structural engineer for the project. The primary contractor was Samsung C&T of South Korea, who also built the Taipei 101 and Petronas Twin Towers. Major subcontractors included Belgian group Besix and Arabtec from the UAE. Turner Construction Company was chosen as the construction project manager. Under UAE law, the Contractor and the Engineer of Record are jointly and severally liable for the performance of Burj Khalifa. Therefore, by adoption of SOM's design and by being appointed as Architect and Engineer of Record, Hyder Consulting is legally the Design Consultant for the tower.

The total cost for the Burj Khalifa project was about US$1.5 billion; and for the entire new "Downtown Dubai", US$20 billion.Mohamed Ali Alabbar, the Chairman of Emaar Properties, speaking at the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat 8th World Congress, said in March 2009 that the price of office space at Burj Khalifa had reached US$4,000 per sq ft (over US$43,000 per m2) and that the Armani Residences, also in Burj Khalifa, were selling for US$3,500 per sq ft (over US$37,500 per m2).The completion of the tower coincided with a worldwide economic slump and overbuilding, causing it to be described as "the latest ... in string of monuments to architectural vacancy.

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3.0 Records
Burj Khalifa holds various records after the construction is done, and has surpassed many facts of Taipei 101 tower which previously was the tallest structure. Here are a few records.

Tallest skyscraper Tallest structure freestanding, which earlier was CN towers Tallest and first tallest structure to include residential areas Worlds highest elevator installation Elevator with longest travel distance in the world Worlds fastest elevator speed at 64 km/hr or 40 miles/hr Building with most floors 160 Highest vertical concrete pumping for any structure in the world Worlds highest installation of aluminum and glass facade at height of 512 mts. Highest outdoor observation deck in the world

4.0 Why this design?

The base design of the building is triple-lobed footprint which was inspired by the flower Hymenocallis. The flower has 6 spokes each representing the sides of the lobes of the tower. There are 3 elements of the tower radiating out of the central core. This structure is made with an inspiration, along with the fact that central base can keep the building stand strong when any natural calamity tries to break it down. Over 28,000 glass panels are used to cover most of the exterior, and there are 3 horizontal tracks which would help in cleaning the outer glass of whole building.156 floors is build up with concrete, and from there above everything is made of lighter steel.

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5.0 Architecture

The architecture features a triple-lobed footprint, an abstraction of the Hymenocallis flower. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good floor plates for residential. Twenty-six helical levels decrease the cross section of the tower incrementally as it spirals skyward. The central core emerges at the top and culminates in a sculpted spire. A Y-shaped floor plan maximizes views of the Arabian Gulf. Viewed from the base or the air, Burj Khalifa is evocative of the onion domes prevalent in Islamic architecture.

5.1 Wind Tunnel Testing


Over 40 wind tunnel tests were conducted on Burj Khalifa to examine the effects the wind would have on the tower and its occupants. These ranged from initial tests to verify the wind climate of Dubai, to large structural analysis models and facade pressure tests, to micro-climate analysis of the effects at terraces and around the tower base. Even the temporary conditions during the construction stage were tested with the tower cranes on the tower to ensure safety at all times. Stack effect or chimney effect is a phenomenon that effects super-tall building design, and arises from the changes in pressure and temperature with height. Special studies were carried on Burj Khalifa to determine the magnitude of the changes that would have to be dealt with in the building design.

5.2 Floor Plan


Concourse level to level 8 and level 38 and 39 will feature the Armani Hotel Dubai. Levels 9 to 16 will exclusively house luxurious one and two bedroom Armani Residences. Floors 45 through 108 are private ultra-luxury residences. The Corporate Suites occupy fill most of the remaining floors, except for level 122 which houses a restaurant and level 124, the tower's public observatory.
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For the convenience of home owners, the tower has been divided in to sections with exclusive Sky Lobbies on Levels 43, 76 and 123 that feature state-of-the-art fitness facilities including a Jacuzzis on Level 43 and 76. The Sky Lobbies on 43 and 76 additionally house swimming pools and a recreational room each that can be utilized for gatherings and lifestyle events. Offering an unparalleled experience, both pools open to the outside offering residents the option of swimming from inside to the outside balcony. Other facilities for residents include a Residents' Library, and Burj Khalifa Gourmet Market, a gourmet convenience store and meeting place for the residents. Valet parking will be provided for guests and visitors.

5.3 Interiors

The interior design of Burj Khalifa public areas was also done by the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP and was led by award-winning designer Nada Andric. It features glass, stainless steel and polished dark stones, together with silver travertine flooring, Venetian stucco walls, handmade rugs and stone flooring. The interior were inspired by local cultural while staying mindful of the building s status as a global icon and residence.

5.4

Structural System Description


Designers purposely shaped the structural concrete Burj Dubai Y shaped in

plan to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability. The structural system can be described as a buttressed core (Figures 1, 2 and 3). Each wing, with its own high performance concrete corridor walls and perimeter columns, buttresses the others via a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub. The result is a tower that is extremely stiff laterally and torsionally. SOM applied a rigorous geometry to the tower that aligned all the common central core, wall, and column elements. Each tier of the building sets back in a spiral stepping pattern up the building. The setbacks are organized
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with the Towers grid, such that the building stepping is accomplished by aligning columns above with walls below to provide a smooth load path. This allows the construction to proceed without the normal difficulties associated with column transfers. The setbacks are organized such that the Towers width changes at each setback. The advantage of the stepping and shaping is to confuse the wind. The wind vortices never get organized because at each new tier the wind encounters a different building shape. The Tower and Podium structures are currently under construction and the project is scheduled for topping out in 2008.

Figure 1 Typical Floor Plan

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Figure 2 Rendering

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6.0 Definition of Worlds Tallest


From the outset, it has been intended that the Burj Dubai be the Worlds Tallest Building. The official arbiter of height is the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) founded at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and currently housed at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, Illinois. The CTBUH measures the height of buildings using four categories (measured from sidewalk at the main entrance). The categories and current record holders are as follows:

1. Highest Occupied Floor: Taipei 101 439m 2. Top of Roof: Taipei 101 449m 3. Top of Structure: Taipei101 509m 4. Top of Pinnacle, Mast, Antenna or Flagpole: Sears Tower 527m Although not considered to be a building the Tallest Freestanding Structure is: CN Tower 553m. Although the final height of the Tower is a well-guarded secret, Burj Dubai will be the tallest by a significant amount in all of the above categories.

7.0 Architectural Design


The context of the Burj Dubai being located in the city of Dubai, UAE, drove the inspiration for the building form to incorporate cultural and historical particular to the region. The influences of the Middle Eastern domes and pointed arches in traditional buildings, spiral imagery in Middle Eastern architecture, resulted in the tri-axial geometry of the Burj Dubai and the towers spiral reduction with height (Figure 4).

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Figure 4 Construction Photo

The Y-shaped plan is ideal for residential and hotel usage, with the wings allowing maximum outward views and inward natural light.

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8.0 Structural Analysis and Design


The center hexagonal reinforced concrete core walls provide the torsional resistance of the structure similar to a closed tube or axle. The center hexagonal walls are buttressed by the wing walls and hammer head walls which behave as the webs and flanges of a beam to resist the wind shears and moments. Outriggers at the mechanical floors allow the columns to participate in the lateral load resistance of the structure; hence, all of the vertical concrete is utilized to support both gravity and lateral loads. The wall concrete specified strengths ranged from C80 to C60 cube strength and utilized Portland cement and fly ash. Local aggregates were utilized for the concrete mix design. The C80 concrete for the lower portion of the structure had a specified Youngs Elastic Modulus of 43,800 N/mm2 (6,350ksi) at 90 days. The wall and column sizes were optimized using virtual work / LaGrange multiplier methodology which results in a very efficient structure (Baker et al., 2000). The wall thicknesses and column sizes were fine-tuned to reduce the effects of creep and shrinkage on the individual elements which compose the structure. To reduce the effects of differential column shortening, due to creep, between the perimeter columns and interior walls, the perimeter columns were sized such that the self-weight gravity stress on the perimeter columns matched the stress on the interior corridor walls. The five (5) sets of outriggers, distributed up the building, tie all the vertical load carrying elements together, further ensuring uniform gravity stresses; hence, reducing differential creep movements. Since the shrinkage in concrete occurs more quickly in thinner walls or columns, the perimeter column thickness of 600mm (24) matched the typical corridor wall thickness (similar volume to surface ratios) (Figure 5) to ensure the columns and walls will generally shorten at the same rate due to concrete shrinkage.

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Figure 5 Three Dimensional Analysis Model (3D View of a Single Story)

The top section of the Tower consists of a structural steel spire utilizing a diagonally braced lateral system. The structural steel spire was designed for gravity, wind, seismic and fatigue in accordance with the requirements of AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (1999). The exterior exposed steel is protected with a flame applied aluminum finish. The structure was analyzed for gravity (including PDelta analysis), wind, and seismic loadings by ETABS version 8.4 (Figure 6).

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Figure 6 - 3D View of Analysis Model

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a) Mode 1; T = 11.3s

b) Mode 2; T = 10.2s

. The three-dimensional analysis model consisted of the reinforced concrete walls, link beams, slabs, raft, piles, and the spire structural steel system. The full 3D analysis model consisted of over 73,500 shells and 75,000 nodes. Under lateral wind loading, the building deflections are well below commonly used criteria. The dynamic analysis indicated the first mode is lateral sidesway with a period of 11.3 seconds (Figure 7). The second mode is a
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perpendicular lateral sidesway with a period of 10.2 seconds. Torsion is the fifth mode with a period of 4.3 seconds

c) Mode 5 (torsion); T = 4.3s Figure 7 - Dynamic Mode Shapes

The ACI 318-02 (American Concrete Institute) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI, 2002) was accepted by the Dubai Municipality (DM) as the basis of design for the reinforced concrete structure (Figure 8) for the Burj Dubai project. The Dubai Municipality (DM) specifies Dubai as a UBC97 Zone 2a seismic region with a seismic zone factor Z = 0.15 and soil profile Sc. The seismic analysis consisted of a site specific response spectra analysis. Seismic loading typically did not govern the design of the reinforced concrete Tower structure. Seismic loading did govern the design of the reinforced concrete Podium buildings and the Tower structural steel spire. Dr. Max Irvine (with Structural Mechanics & Dynamics Consulting Engineers located in Sydney Australia) developed site specific seismic reports for the project including a seismic hazard analysis.
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The potential for liquefaction was investigated based on several accepted methods; it was determined that liquefaction is not considered to have any structural implications for the deep seated Tower foundations.

Figure 8 - Reinforced Concrete Structure

9.0 Foundations and Site Conditions


The Tower foundations consist of a pile supported raft. The solid reinforced concrete raft is 3.7 meters (12 ft) thick and was poured utilizing C50 (cube strength) self consolidating concrete (SCC). The raft was constructed in four (4) separate pours (three wings and the center core). Each raft pour occurred over at least a 24 hour period. Reinforcement was typically at 300mm spacing in the raft, and arranged such that every 10th bar in each direction was omitted, resulting in a series of pour enhancement strips throughout the raft

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at which 600mm x 600mm openings at regular intervals facilitated access and concrete placement (Figure 9).

Figure 9 - Reinforced Concrete Raft Pour

In addition to the standard cube tests, the raft concrete was field tested prior to placement by flow table (Figure 10), L-box, V Box and temperature. -

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Figure 10 SCC Conc. Flow Table Testing

As the Tower raft is 3.7m (12 ft) thick, therefore, in addition to durability, limiting peak temperature was an important consideration. The 50 MPa raft mix incorporated 40% fly ash and a water cement ratio of 0.34. Giant placement test cubes of the raft concrete, 3.7m (12 ft) on a side, (Figure 11) were test poured to verify the placement procedures and monitor the concrete temperature rise utilizing thermal couples in the test cubes and later checked by petrographic analysis.

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Figure 11 Raft Conc. Placement Test Cubes

The Tower raft is supported by 194 bored cast-in-place piles. The piles are 1.5 meter in diameter and approximately 43 meters long with a design capacity of 3,000 tonnes each. The Tower pile load test supported over 6,000 tonnes (Figure 12). The C60 (cube strength) SCC concrete was placed by the tremie method utilizing polymer slurry. The friction piles are supported in the naturally cemented calcisiltite / conglomeritic calcisiltite formations developing an ultimate pile skin friction of 250 to 350 kPa (2.6 to 3.6 tons / ft2). When the rebar cage was placed in the piles, special attention was paid to orient the rebar cage such that the raft bottom rebar could be threaded through the numerous pile rebar cages without interruption, which greatly simplified the raft construction. The site geotechnical investigation consisted of the following Phases:

Phase 1: 23 Boreholes (three with pressuremeter testing) with depths up to 90m.

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Phase 2: 3 Boreholes drilled with cross-hole geophysics.

Phase 3: 6 Boreholes (two with pressuremeter testing) with depths up to 60m.

Phase 4: 1 Borehole with cross-hole and down-hole geophysics; depth = 140m

Figure 12 Test Pile (6,000 tonnes)

A detailed 3D foundation settlement analysis was carried out (by Hyder Consulting Ltd., UK) based on the results of the geotechnical investigation and the pile load test results. It was determined the maximum long-term settlement over time would be about a maximum of 80mm (3.1). This settlement would be a gradual curvature of the top of grade over the entire large site. When the construction was at Level 135, the average foundation
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settlement was 30mm (1.2). The geotechnical studies were peer reviewed by both Mr. Clyde Baker of STS Consultants, Ltd. (Chicago, IL, USA) and by Dr. Harry Poulos of Coffey Geosciences (Sydney, Australia). The groundwater in which the Burj Dubai substructure is constructed is particularly severe, with chloride concentrations of up to 4.5%, and sulfates of up to 0.6%. The chloride and sulfate concentrations found in the groundwater are even higher than the concentrations in sea water. Due to the aggressive conditions present due to the extremely corrosive ground water, a rigorous program of measures was required to ensure the durability of the foundations. Measures implemented include specialized waterproofing systems, increased concrete cover, the addition of corrosion inhibitors to the concrete mix, stringent crack control design criteria and an impressed current cathodic protection system utilizing titanium mesh (Figure 13). A controlled permeability formwork liner was utilized for the Tower raft which results in a higher strength / lower permeable concrete cover to the rebar. Furthermore, a specially designed concrete mix was formulated to resist attack from the ground water. The concrete mix for the piles was a 60 MPa mix based on a triple blend with 25% fly ash, 7% silica fume, and a water to cement ratio of 0.32. The concrete was also designed as a fully self consolidating concrete, incorporating a viscosity modifying admixture with a slump flow of 675 +/- 75mm to limit the possibility of defects during construction.

Figure 13 Cathodic Protection below Mat

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10.0 Wind Engineering


For a building of this height and slenderness, wind forces and the resulting motions in the upper levels become dominant factors in the structural design. An extensive program of wind tunnel tests and other studies were undertaken under the direction of Dr. Peter Irwin of

Figure 14 Aeroelastic Wind Tunnel Model (Image courtesy of RWDI)

Rowan Williams Davies and Irwin Inc.s (RWDI) boundary layer wind tunnels in Guelph, Ontario (Figure 14). The wind tunnel program included rigid-model force balance tests, a full multi degree of freedom aeroelastic model studies, measurements of localized pressures, pedestrian wind environment studies and wind climatic studies. Wind tunnel models account for the cross wind effects of wind induced vortex shedding on the building (Figure 15). The aeroelastic and force balance studies used models mostly at 1:500 scale. The RWDI wind engineering was peer reviewed by Dr. Nick Isyumov of the University of Western Ontario Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory.

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In addition to the structural loading tests, the Burj Dubai tower was studied by RWDI for cladding,pedestrian level, and stack effect (Irwin et al., 2006).

Figure 15 Vortex Shedding Behavior

To determine the wind loading on the main structure wind tunnel tests were undertaken early in the design using the high-frequency-force-balance technique. The wind tunnel data were then combined with the dynamic properties of the tower in order to compute the towers dynamic response and the overall effective wind force distributions at full scale. For the Burj Dubai theresults of the force balance tests were used as early input for the structural design and detailed shape of the Tower and allowed parametric studies to be undertaken on the effects of varying the towers stiffness and mass distribution.

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Figure 16 Tower Massing

The building has essentially six important wind directions. The principal wind directions are when the wind is blowing into the nose / cutwater of each of the three wings (Nose A, Nose B and Nose C). The other three directions are when the wind blows in between two wings, termed as the tail directions (Tail A, Tail B and Tail C). It was noticed that the force spectra for different wind directions showed less excitation in the important frequency range for winds impacting the pointed or nose end of a wing (Figure 15) than from the opposite direction (tail). This was kept in mind when selecting the orientation of the tower relative to the most frequent strong wind directions for Dubai and the direction of the set backs.
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Figure 15.1 Plan View of Tower

Several rounds of force balance tests were undertaken as the geometry of the tower evolved and was refined. The three wings set back in a clockwise sequence with the A wing setting back first. After each round of wind tunnel testing, the data was analyzed and the building was reshaped to minimize wind effects and accommodate unrelated changes in the Clients program. In general, the number and spacing of the set backs changed as did the shape of wings. This process resulted in a substantial reduction in wind forces on the tower by confusing the wind (Figures 16 and 17) by encouraging disorganized vortex shedding over the height of the Tower. Towards the end of design more accurate aeroelastic model tests were initiated. An aeroelasatic model is flexible in the same manner as the real building

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Figure 17 Wind Behavior

, with properly scaled stiffness, mass and damping. The aeroelastic tests were able to model several of the higher translational modes of vibration. These higher modes dominated the structural response and design of the Tower except at the very base where the fundamental modes controlled. Based on the results of the aeroelastic models, the predicted building motions are within the ISO standard recommended values without the need for auxiliary damping.

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11.0 Long-Term and Construction Sequence Analysis

Historically, engineers have typically determined the behavior of concrete structures using linear-elastic finite element analysis and/or summations of vertical column loads. As building height increases, the results of such conventional analysis may increasingly diverge from actual behavior. Long-term, time-dependant deformations in response to construction sequence, creep, and shrinkage can cause redistribution of forces and gravity induced sidesway that would not be detected by conventional methods. When the time-dependant effects of construction, creep, shrinkage, variation of concrete stiffness with time, sequential loading and foundation settlements are not considered, the predicted forces and deflections may be inaccurate. To account for these time-dependant concrete effects in the Burj Dubai Tower structure, a comprehensive construction sequence analysis incorporating the effects of creep and shrinkage was utilized to study the time-dependant behavior of the structure (Baker et al., 2007). The creep and shrinkage prediction approach is based on the Gardner-Lockman GL2000 model (Gardner, 2004) with additional equations to incorporate the effects of reinforcement and complex loading history.

12.0 Construction Sequence Analysis Procedures


The time-dependant effects of creep, shrinkage, the variation of concrete stiffness with time, sequential loading and foundation settlement were accounted for by analyzing 15 separate three-dimensional finite-element analysis models, each representing a discrete time during construction (Figure 18). At each point in time, for each model, only the incremental loads occurring in that particular time-step were applied. Additional time steps, after construction, were analyzed up to 50 years. The structural responses occurring at each timestep were stored and combined in a database to allow studying the predicted time-dependant response of the structure. Long-term creep and shrinkage testing, over one year in duration, have been performed, by the CTL Group (located in Skokie, IL) under contract with Samsung, on concrete specimens to better understand the actual behavior of the concrete utilized for the project.
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Figure 18 Construction Sequence Models

13.0 Compensation Methodology


The tower is being constructed utilizing both a vertical and horizontal compensation program. For vertical compensation, each story is being constructed incorporating a modest increase in the typical floor-to-floor height. This vertical compensation was selected to ensure the actual height of the structure, after the time-dependant shortening effects of creep and shrinkage, will be greater than the as-designed final height. For horizontal compensation,
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the building is being re-centered with each successive center hex core jump. The recentering compensation will correct for gravity induced sidesway effects (elastic, differential foundation settlement, creep and shrinkage) which occur up to the casting of each story.

14.0 Vertical Shortening


Based on the procedures presented above, the predicted time dependant vertical shortening of the center of the core can be determined at each floor of the Burj Dubai tower (Figure 19), not accounting for foundation settlements. The total predicted vertical shortening of the walls and columns at the top of the concrete core,subsequent to casting, is offset by the additional height added by the increased floor to floor height compensation program

Figure 19 Predicted Vertical Shortening vs. Story at 30 years (Subsequent to Casting)

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Figure 20 Exchange of Gravity Axial Force between Concrete and Rebar vs. Time

Due to the compatibility requirements of strain between the rebar and the concrete in a reinforced concrete column, as the concrete creeps and shrinks, i.e. shortens, the rebar must attract additional compressive stress and forces to maintain the same strain as the concrete. Since the total load is the same, over time, part of the load in a reinforced concrete column is transferred from the concrete to the rebar. This un-loading of the concrete, therefore, also reduces the creep in the concrete (less load results in less creep). As per Figure 20, the rebar in the columns and walls (with a rebar toconcrete area ratio of about 1%) at Level 135

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support about 15% of the load at the completion of construction and the concrete supports 85%. However, after 30 years, the rebar supports 30% of the total load and the concrete upports 70%. This percent increase in force carried by the rebarin creases as the steel ratio is increased and/or as the total load decreases.

15.0 Gravity Induced Horizontal Sidesway


Prediction of the gravity induced horizontal sidesway is more difficult than predicting the vertical shortening. Gravity induced horizontal sidesway is extremely sensitive to the following: Differential Foundation Settlements Construction Sequence Differential Gravity Loading Variations in the Concrete Material Properties

The gravity sidesway can be thought of as the difference between the vertical shortening at the extreme ends of the building causing curvature which is integrated along the height of the structure. Concrete creep and shrinkage properties are variable. Taking the difference between two variable numbers results in a value which has an even greater variability; hence, prediction of gravity induced horizontal sidesway is more of an estimate than the prediction of vertical shortening alone. Based on the construction sequence, time step, elastic, creep, shrinkage, and foundation settlement analysis, predictions of the Burj Dubai tower gravity-induced horizontal sidesway have been made.

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16.0 Reinforced Concrete Link Beam Analysis / Design

Figure 21 Elevation of Shear Wall Setback

The reinforced concrete link beams transfer the gravity loads at the setbacks (Figure 21), including the effects of creep and shrinkage, and interconnect the shear walls for lateral loads. The link beams were designed by the requirements of ACI 318-02, Appendix A, for strut and tie modeling. Strut and tie modeling permitted the typical link beams to remain relatively shallow while allowing a consistent design methodology (Novak & Sprenger, 2002). Dr. Dan Kuchma of the University of Illinois was retained to review the predicted
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behavior of the link beams utilizing the latest in non-linear concrete analysis. The link beams designed by strut and tie are predicted to have adequate strength and ductility (Kuchma et al., 2007) (Figure 22).

17.0 Superstructure Concrete Technology


The design of the concrete for the vertical elements is determined by the requirements for a compressive strength of 10 MPa at 10 hours to permit the construction cycle and a design strength / modulus of 80 MPa / 44 GPa, as well as ensuring adequate pumpability and workability. The concrete strength tests indicated the actual concrete utilized had much higher compressive strength than the specified strength requirements. The ambient conditions in Dubai vary from a cool winter to an extremely hot summer, with maximum temperatures occasionally exceeding 50 C. To accommodate the different rates of strength development and workability loss, the dosage and retardation level is adjusted for the different seasons. Ensuring pumpability to reach the world record heights is probably the most difficult concrete design issue, particularly considering the high summer temperatures. Four separate basic mixes have been developed to enable reduced pumping pressure as the building gets higher. A horizontal pumping trial equivalent to the pressure loss in pumping to a height of 600m (1970 ft) was conducted in February 2005 to determine the pumpability of these mixes and establish the friction coefficients. The current concrete mix contains 13% fly ash and 10% silica fume with a maximum aggregate size of 20mm (3/4). The mix is virtually self consolidating with an average slump flow of approximately 600mm (24), and will be used until the pumping pressure exceeds approximately 200 bar. Above level 127, the structural requirement reduces to 60 MPa, and a mix containing 10mm maximum aggregate may be used. Extremely high levels of quality control will be required to ensure pumpability up to the highest concrete floor, particularly considering the ambient temperatures. The Putzmeister pumps utilized on site include two of the largest in the world, capable of concrete pumping pressure up to a massive 350 bars through high pressure 150mm pipeline.

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18.0 Construction

Figure 23 Self-Climbing Formwork System

The Burj Dubai utilizes the latest advancements in construction techniques and material technology. The walls are formed using Dokas SKE 100 automatic self-climbing formwork system (Figure 23). The circular nose columns are formed with steel forms, and the floor slabs are poured on MevaDec formwork. Wall reinforcement is prefabricated on the ground in 8m sections to allow for fast placement. The construction sequence for the structure has the central core and slabs being cast first, in three sections; the wing walls and slabs follow behind; and the wing nose columns and slabs follow behind these (Figure 23). Concrete is distributed to each wind utilizing concrete booms which are attached to the jump form system.
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The tower was constructed by a South Korean company, Samsung Engineering & Construction, which also did work on the Petronas Twin Towersand Taipei 101. Samsung Engineering & Construction is building the tower in a joint venture with Besix from Belgium and Arabtec from UAE.Turner is the Project Manager on the main construction contract. The primary structural system of Burj Khalifa is reinforced concrete. Over 45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes(120,000 ST; 110,000 LT) were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles, with each pile is 1.5 metre diameter x 43 metre long buried more than 50 m (164 ft) deep. Burj Khalifa's construction used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 55,000 tonnes of steel rebar, and construction took 22 million man-hours. A high density, low permeability concrete was used in the foundations of Burj Khalifa. A cathodic protection system under the mat is used to minimize any detrimental effects from corrosive chemicals in local ground water. The previous record for pumping concrete on any project was set during the extension of the Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant in Italy in 1994, when concrete was pumped to a height of 532 m (1,745 ft). Burj Khalifa exceeded this height on 19 August 2007, and as of May 2008 concrete was pumped to a delivery height of 606 m (1,988 ft), the 156th floor. The remaining structure above is built of lighter steel. Burj Khalifa is highly compartmentalised. Pressurized, air-conditioned refuge floors are located approximately every 35 floors where people can shelter on their long walk down to safety in case of an emergency or fire. Special mixes of concrete are made to withstand the extreme pressures of the massive building weight; as is typical with reinforced concrete construction, each batch of concrete used was tested to ensure it could withstand certain pressures. The consistency of the concrete used in the project was essential. It was difficult to create a concrete that could withstand both the thousands of tonnes bearing down on it and Persian Gulf temperatures that can reach 50 C (122 F). To combat this problem, the concrete was not poured during the day. Instead, during the summer months ice was added to the mixture and it was poured at night when the air is cooler and the humidity is higher. A
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cooler concrete mixture cures evenly throughout and is therefore less likely to set too quickly and crack. Any significant cracks could have put the entire project in jeopardy. The unique design and engineering challenges of building Burj Khalifa have been featured in a number of television documentaries, including the Big, Bigger, Biggest series on the National Geographic and Five channels, and the Mega Builders series on the Discovery Channel.

19.0 Facts about Burj Khalifa


19.1 TIMELINE
January 2004 February 2004 March 2005 Excavation started Piling started Superstructure started Level 50 reached January 2007 M arch 2007 April 2007 May 2007 July 2007 September 2007 April 2008 January 2009 September 2009 January 2010
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Level 100 reached Level 110 reached Level 120 reached Level 130 reached Level 141 reached - world's tallest building Level 150 reached - world's tallest free-standing structure Level 160 reached - world's tallest man-made structure Completion of spire - Burj Khalifa tops out Exterior cladding competed Official launch ceremony

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19.2 Labour controversy


Burj Khalifa was built primarily by workers from South Asia. A reports indicated in 2006 that skilled carpenters at the site earned UK4.34 a day, and labourers earned UK2.84. According to a BBC investigation and a Human Rights Watch report, the workers were housed in abysmal conditions, their pay was often withheld, their passports were confiscated by their employers, and they were working in hazardous conditions that resulted in an apparently high number of deaths and injuries on site. On 21 March 2006, about 2,500 workers, who were upset over buses that were delayed for the end of their shifts, protested, damaging cars, offices, computers, and construction equipment. A Dubai Interior Ministry official said the rioters caused almost UK500,000 in damage. Most of the workers involved in the riot returned the following day but refused to work. On 17 June 2008, there were 7,500 skilled workers employed in the construction of Burj Khalifa.

19.3 Construction Highlights


Over 45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles buried more than 50 m (164 ft) deep. Burj Khalifa's construction will have used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 39,000 tonnes (43,000 ST; 38,000 LT) of steel rebar, and construction will have taken 22 million man-hours. Exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa began in May 2007 and was completed in September 2009. The vast project involved more than 380 skilled engineers and on-site technicians. At the initial stage of installation, the team progressed at the rate of about 20 to 30 panels per day and eventually achieved as many as 175 panels per day. The tower accomplished a world record for the highest installation of an aluminium and glass faade, at a height of 512 metres. The total weight of aluminium used on Burj Khalifa is equivalent to that of five A380 aircraft and the total length of stainless steel bull nose fins is 293 times the height of Eiffel Tower in Paris.
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In November, 2007, the highest reinforced concrete corewalls were pumped using 80 MPa concrete from ground level; a vertical height of 601 metres. Smashing the previous pumping record on a building of 470m on the Taipei 101; the worlds second tallest tower and the previous world record for vertical pumping of 532 metres for an extension to the Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant in 1994. The concrete pressure during pumping to this level was nearly 200 bars. The amount of rebar used for the tower is 31,400 metric tons - laid end to end this would extend over a quarter of the way around the world.

19.4 Floor plans


The following is a breakdown of floors. Floors Use 160 and above Mechanical 156-159 Communication and broadcast 155 Mechanical 139154 Corporate suites 136138 Mechanical 125135 Corporate suites 24 At the Top observatory 123 Sky lobby 122 Atmosphere restaurant 111121 Corporate suites 109110 Mechanical 77108 Residential 76 Sky lobby 7375 Mechanical
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4472 Residential 43 Sky lobby 4042 Mechanical 3839 Armani Hotel suites 1937 Armani Residences 1718 Mechanical 916 Armani Residences 18 Armani Hotel Ground -Armani Hotel Concourse- Armani Hotel B1B2 Parking, mechanical

20.0 STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

It is an understatement to say that Burj Khalifa represents the state-of-the-art in building design. From initial concept through completion, a combination of several important technological innovations and innovation structural design methods have resulted in a superstructure that is both efficient and robust. 20.1 Foundation The superstructure is supported by a large reinforced concrete mat, which is in turn supported by bored reinforced concrete piles. The design was based on extensive geotechnical and seismic studies. The mat is 3.7 meters thick, and was constructed in four separate pours totaling 12,500 cubic meters of concrete. The 1.5 meter diameter x 43 meter long piles represent the largest and longest piles conventionally available in the region. A
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high density, low permeability concrete was used in the foundations, as well as a cathodic protection system under the mat, to minimize any detrimental effects form corrosive chemicals in local ground water.

20.2 Podium
The podium provides a base anchoring the tower to the ground, allowing on grade access from three different sides to three different levels of the building. Fully glazed entry pavilions constructed with a suspended cable-net structure provide separate entries for the Corporate Suites at B1 and Concourse Levels, the Burj Khalifa residences at Ground Level and the Armani Hotel at Level 1.

20.3 Exterior Cladding


The exterior cladding is comprised of reflective glazing with aluminum and textured stainless steel spandrel panels and stainless steel vertical tubular fins. Close to 26,000 glass panels, each individually hand-cut, were used in the exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa. Over 300 cladding specialists from China were brought in for the cladding work on the tower. The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer heat, and to further ensure its integrity, a World War II airplane engine was used for dynamic wind and water testing. The curtain wall of Burj Khalifa is equivalent to 17 football (soccer) fields or 25 American football fields.

20.4

Window Washing Bays


Access for the tower's exterior for both window washing and faade maintenance is

provided by 18 permanently installed track and fixed telescopic, cradle equipped, building maintenance units. The track mounted units are stored in garages, within the structure, and are not visible when not in use. The manned cradles are capable of accessing the entire facade from tower top down to level seven. The building maintenance units jib arms, when fully extended will have a maximum reach of 36 meters with an overall length of approximately 45 meters. When fully retracted, to parked position, the jib arm length will measure approximately 15 meters. Under normal conditions, with all building maintenance units in operation, it will take three to four months to clean the entire exterior facade.

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20.5 Mechanical, Electrical & Plumbing


To achieve the greatest efficiencies, the mechanical, electrical and plumbing services for Burj Khalifa were developed in coordination during the design phase with cooperation of the architect, structural engineer and other consultant. The tower's water system supplies an average of 946,000 litres (250,000 gallons) of water daily At peak cooling, Burj Khalifa will require about 10,000 tons of cooling, equal to the cooling capacity provided by about 10,000 tons of melting ice. Dubai's hot, humid climate combined with the building's cooling requirements creates a significant amount of condensation. This water is collected and drained in a separate piping system to a holding tank in the basement car park. The condensate collection system provides about 15 million gallons of supplement water per year, equal to about 20 Olympic-sized swimming pools. The tower's peak electrical demand is 36mW, equal to about 360,000 100 Watt bulbs operating simultaneously.

20.6 Fire Safety


Fire safety and speed of evacuation were prime factors in the design of Burj Khalifa. Concrete surrounds all stairwells and the building service and fireman's elevator will have a capacity of 5,500 kg and will be the world's tallest service elevator. Since people can't reasonably be expected to walk down 160 floors, there are pressurized, air-conditioned refuge areas located approximately every 25 floors.

20.7 Elevators & Lifts


Burj Khalifa will be home to 57 elevators and 8 escalators The building service/fireman's elevator will have a capacity of 5,500 kg and will be the world's tallest service elevator.

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Burj Khalifa will be the first mega-high rise in which certain elevators will be programmed to permit controlled evacuation for certain fire or security events. Burj Khalifa's Observatory elevators are double deck cabs with a capacity for 12-14 people per cab. Traveling at 10 metres per second, they will have the world's longest travel distance from lowest to highest stop.

20.8 Water supply system


The Burj Khalifa's water system will supply an average of about 946,000 litres of water per day. At the peak cooling times, the tower will require approximately 10,000 tonnes of cooling per hour, which is equivalent to the capacity provided by 10,000 tonnes (22.4 million lbs or 10.2 million kg) of melting ice in one day[61]. The building has a condensate collection system, which uses the hot and humid outside air, combined with the cooling requirements of the building and will result in a significant amount of condensation of moisture from the air. The condensed water will be collected and drained into a holding tank located in the basement car park,this water will then be pumped into the site irrigation system for use on the Burj khalifa park.

21.0 Purpose
Burj Khalifa has been designed to be the centrepiece of a large-scale, mixed-use development that will include 30,000 homes, nine hotels such as The Address Downtown Burj Khalifa, 3 hectares (7.4 acres) of parkland, at least 19 residential towers, the Dubai Mall, and the 12-hectare (30-acre) man-made Burj Khalifa Lake.

The building has returned the location of Earth's tallest free-standing structure to the Middle East where the Great Pyramid of Giza claimed this achievement for almost four millennia before being surpassed in 1311 by Lincoln Cathedral in England.

The decision to build Burj Khalifa is reportedly based on the government's decision to diversify from an oil-based economy to one that is service- and tourism-oriented.
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According to officials, it is necessary for projects like Burj Khalifa to be built in the city to garner more international recognition, and hence investment. Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum wanted to put Dubai on the map with something really sensational.

22.0 DELAY IN THE PROJECT


Emaar Properties announced on 9 June 2008 that construction of Burj Khalifa was delayed by upgraded finishes and would be completed only in September 2009. The design of the apartments has also been enhanced to make them more aesthetically attractive and functionally superior. A revised completion date of 2 December 2009 was then announced. However, Burj Khalifa was opened on 4 January 2010.

Dubai's property market experienced a major downturn in 2008 and 2009 as a result of the slowing economic climate. The Emaar had credits of $70 billion and the state of Dubai additional $10 billion while holding estimated $350 billion in real estate assets. By early 2009, the situation had worsened with the global economic crisis taking a heavy toll on property values, construction and employment. As of February 2009 Dubai's foreign debt was estimated at approximately $80 billion, although this is a tiny fraction of the sovereign debt worldwide.

23.0 Opening ceremony


The opening ceremony of Burj Khalifa was held on 4 January 2010. The ceremony featured a display of 10,000 fireworks, light beams projected on and around the tower, and further sound, light and water effects. Using the 868 powerful stroboscope lights that are integrated into the facade and spire of the tower, different lighting sequences were choreographed, together with more than 50 different combinations of the other effects.

The event began with a short film which depicted the story of Dubai and the evolution of Burj Khalifa. The displays of sound, light, water and fireworks followed. The portion of the show consisting of the various pyrotechnic, lighting, water and sound effects
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was divided into three. The first part was primarily a light and sound show, which took as its theme the link between desert flowers and the new tower, and was co-ordinated with the Dubai Fountain and pyrotechnics. The second portion, called 'Heart Beat', represented the construction of the tower in a dynamic light show with the help of 300 projectors which generated a shadow-like image of the tower. In the third act, sky tracers and space cannons enveloped the tower in a halo of white light, which expanded as the lighting rig on the spire activated.

The ceremony was relayed live on a giant screen on Burj Park Island, as well as several television screens placed across the Downtown Burj Khalifa development. Hundreds of media outlets from around the world reported live from the scene. In addition to the media presence, 6,000 guests were expected.

24.0 SUMMARY
The culmination of the above efforts is a balanced combination of super tall building systems in hot and humid climate on the forefront of safety, energy efficiency, sustainability, comfort and operation. Systems are derived out of the super high rise nature of the building and the hot and humid nature of the environment. The HVAC system has concentrated outside air intakes to isolate the impact of the outside air and most fan components of the system can be dynamically adjusted according to the micro conditions of the building. The plumbing and fire protection systems utilize the height of the building to provide gravity feed systems and water is treated according to the incoming conditions. The electrical system has to account for the high voltage drop and also the possibility of a harsh environment during power outage. All systems have to work together seamlessly and harmoniously to support the activities in this land mark construction.

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25.0 Project Team


Owner: Emaar Properties PJSC Project Manager: Turner Construction International Architect/Structural Engineers/MEP Engineers: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP Adopting Architect & Engineer/Field Supervision: Hyder Consulting Ltd. Independent Verification and Testing Agency: GHD Global Pty. Ltd. General Contractor: Samsung / BeSix / Arabtec Foundation Contractor: NASA Multiplex

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26.0 Conclusion
When completed, the Burj Dubai Tower will be the worlds tallest structure. The architects and engineers worked hand in hand to develop the building form and the structural system, resulting in a tower which efficiently manages its response to the wind, while maintaining the integrity of the design concept. It represents a significant achievement in terms of utilizing the latest design, materials, and construction technology and methods, in order to provide an efficient, rational structure to rise to heights never before seen.

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27.0 References
AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE (ACI) (2002), Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-02) and Commentary, Reported by ACI Committee. BAKER, KORISTA, NOVAK, PAWLIKOWSKI, & YOUNG (2007), Creep & Shrinkage and the Design of Supertall Buildings A Case Study: The Burj Dubai Tower, ACI SP-246: Structural Implications of Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete. BAKER, NOVAK, SINN & VIISE (2000), Structural Optimization of 2000-Foot Tall 7 South Dearborn Building, Proceedings of the ASCE Structures Congress 2000 Advanced Technology in Structural Engineering and 14th Analysis & Computational Conference. GARDNER (2004), Comparison of prediction provisions for drying shrinkage and creep of normal strength concretes, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol.30, No.5, pp 767-775. IRWIN, BAKER, KORISTA, WEISMANTLE & NOVAK (2006), The Burj Dubai Tower: Wind Tunnel Testing of Cladding and Pedestrian Level, Structure Magazine, published by NCSEA, November 2006, pp 47-50. KUCHMA, LEE, BAKER & NOVAK (2007), Design and Analysis of Heavily Loaded Reinforced Concrete Link Beams for Burj Dubai, accepted for publication by ACI (MS #S-2007-030). NOVAK & SPRENGER (2002), Deep Beam with Opening, ACI SP-208: Examples for the Design of Structural Concrete with Strut-and-tie Models, Karl-Heinz Reineck Editor, pp129-143.

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