Why do we fall ill?

HEALTH- “A state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of a disease.” Physical well being- It refers to physical fitness of an individual. Person should have adequate strength and stamina to carry out daily activities. Mental well being- Person should be emotionally strong and able to handle the emotions like tensions, hatred, fear, love, anxiety etc. that affect the health. Social well being- A socially healthy person has qualities like tolerance, helpfulness, caring, pleasant and affectionate attitude. Difference between HEALTHY and DISEASE FREEA disease is a disturbed state of body or mind. The disease can be in any part of the body and due to malfunctioning of the body organ. Conditions essential for GOOD HEALTH1. Proper nutrition and balanced diet 2. One should be disease free 3. Social equality and harmony

Conditions essential for being DISEASE FREE1. Proper balanced diet 2. Good habits of adopting clean and healthy life.

Difference between symptoms and signs of a diseaseSymptoms refer to the general visible changes and we feel as being ‘wrong’. Symptoms do not indicate a specific disease as symptoms of a number of diseases look alike. e.g. headache, loose motion, fever etc. Signs of a disease means definite indications of a particular disease. Physicians recommend specific tests on the basis of signs to identify the disease correctly. Differences between ACUTE and CHRONIC diseases1 2 3 4 Acute Disease Lasts for a few day only Does not cause major effect on vital organs of the body Does not have major bad effect on general health No long term effect on health Chronic Disease Lasts for long time Causes poor functioning of some of the vital organs of the body Leads to poor general health May have long term effects

Causes of diseases- Levels of causes1.First level- It refers to the immediate cause e.g. viruses, bacteria, protozoans, worms etc. 2. Second level- It refers to the contributory causes. It deals with the immediate cause. e.g. *where did the virus come from? * is it due to unclean drinking water? *why did not other children get it? * is it due to poor health of the body? 3. Third level- It also refers to the contributory causes such as

diabetes etc. Penicillin blocks the bacterial process that makes the cell wall. bacteria. the growing bacteria become unable to make cell walls.They commonly block biochemical pathways important for bacteria. water.They are the substances.g. anaemia. e. fits. Brain SPECIFIC MANIFESTATION cough. anthrax. allergies. stomachache sneezing. influenza. What are antibiotics?.etc.acne Skin infections Malaria. vomiting loose motions. viruses protozoans etc. night blindness. fungi multiply very quickly. As a result. contact and insects Caused by malnutrition. Liver 3. e. bronchitis headache. Why do antibiotics not work against viral infection?. kala azar. bloody sputum yellowness of skin and eyes. fever. chicken pox. contact and insects Caused by infectious agents like bacteria. tuberculosis. and die easily. Nasal chambers 5. cancer. unconsciousness . NON INFECTIOUS DISEASES Cannot be spread from diseased person to healthy person by means of air. water. chest pain. cholera. food. tuberculosis. cancer. malaria. iv)Many important life processes are similar in the bacteria group but are not shared with the virus group. food. Ascariasis IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT INFECTIOUS AGENTSi)All viruses live inside host cells. ii) Viruses. Diseases and infectious agentsInfectious agents Viruses Bacteria Fungi Protozoans Worms Diseases Common cold. chicken pox. cold. malfunctioning of body organ.Viruses do not have their own biochemical pathways and so antibiotics do not work against viral infections. Intestine 4.g. dengue fever. cholera etc. vomiting. E. How do antibiotics function?. while worms multiply very slowly. coughing. AIDS Typhoid.*why was there no clean drinking water? * Are public services poor in the area? * Is there lack of good nourishment? * Is it due to poverty? Difference between INFECTIOUS and NON INFECTIOUS diseases1 2 INFECTIOUS DISEASES Can be spread from diseased person to healthy person by means of air. primarily produced by certain microorganisms in low concentrations and are antagonistic to the growth of harmful microorganisms. ORGAN SPECIFIC and TISSUE SPECIFIC MANIFESTATIONTARGET ORGAN 1. iii)All bacteria are closely related to each other but not to viruses. breathlessness. high/ low blood pressure.g. rickets. Lungs 2. whereas bacteria very rarely do. sleeping sickness Elephantiasis.

Diphtheria and whooping cough are major health problems. polio are available at primary health centre.The vaccines against tetanus. diphtheria.Rabies virus present in saliva of dog. fever. It is caused by Human Immuno Deficiency virus (HIV) Symptoms of AIDS. Symptoms of Rabies. caner or swelling of lymph nodes. Available immunization programmes. skin cancer. These form public health programme of childhood immunization.AIDS. loss of thinking power etc. whooping cough. decrease in number of platelets.Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. RABIES or HYDROPHOBIA. measles.1. . night sweats. Causative agent. loss of weight.High fever 2.Severe headache 3.Fear of water IMMUNISATION.Painful contraction of muscles of throat and chest 4.Lung disease.Process or procedure of making a person immune to a disease by artificial method. brain damage.It is caused by bite of rabid or mad dog and other rabid animals.