INT506T NETWORK ADMINISTRATION

Show the working of HUB

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Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all other devies of the network can see it. Therefore it allows data sharing between all devices connected to the hub. A hub works at the physical layer of the OSI model. Basically the main function of the hub is to connect the multi computers with the single device and then perform like a single network. Different computers are connected with the hub with the help of individual ports and then perform different type o networking tasks as a single network. A big advantage of the hub is to share the different applications without the individual access and can share the resources with the help of hub Repeater hubs also participate in collision detection by forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a collision. A network hub is an dumb device in comparison with a switch. Types of hub: There are three main types of hubs: Passive hub, Active hub and Intelligent hub. Passive hub: these hubs do not provide any additional feature except for working just as an connection between the nodes in a network. These types of hubs do not help in rectifying the signals they pass on in the network. A passive hub simply receives signal(s) on input port(s) and broadcasts it (them) on the output port(s) . Active Hubs Active hubs come with various features, such as receiving the signal (data) from the input port and storing it for sometime before forwarding it, this allows the hub to monitor the data it is forwarding, some hubs come with a feature that helps in transmitting data that has high priority before the data that has lower priority. Intelligent Hubs Intelligent hubs add some more features to that provided by the active hubs. Intelligent hubs help in improving the performance of the network. As an active hub helps in finding out where the problem persists, an intelligent hub itself finds out the problem in the network, diagnoses it and tries to rectify it without letting the problem hamper the performance of the network. Working When a hub receives a packet (chunk) of data (a frame in Ethernet lingo) at one of its ports from a PC on the network, it transmits (repeats) the packet to all of its ports and, thus, to all of the other PCs on the network. If two or more PCs on the network try to send packets at the same time a collision is said to occur. When that happens all of the PCs have to go though a routine to resolve the conflict. The process is prescribed in the Ethernet Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol. Each Ethernet Adapter has both a receiver and a

If the adapters didn't have to listen with their receivers for collisions they would be able to send data at the same time they are receiving it (full duplex). 5-port network is not as significant. . The result is when a person using a computer on a hub downloads a large file or group of files from another computer the network becomes congested. The affect on a small. In a 10 Mhz 10Base-T network the affect is to slow the network to nearly a crawl. A network collision occurs when more than one device attempts to send a packet on a network segment at the same time. Collision domains are found in a hub environment where each host segment connects to a hub that represents only one collision domain and only one broadcast domain.transmitter. the maximum bandwidth is 100 Mhz and that bandwidth is shared by all of the PC's connected to the hub. Because they have to operate at half duplex (data flows one way at a time) and a hub retransmits data from one PC to all of the PCs. A collision domain is a section of a network where data packets can collide with one another when being sent on a shared medium . 100 Mbps (million bits per scond). Collisions are resolved using carrier sense multiple access with collision detection in which the competing packets are discarded and re-sent one at a time.

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