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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Porn" redirects here. For other uses, see Porn (disambiguation). For other uses, see Pornography (disambiguation).
Front box cover for a pornographic video
Pornography or porn is the explicit portrayal of sexual subject matter for the purposes of sexual arousal and erotic satisfaction. Pornography may use any of a variety of media, ranging from books, magazines, postcards, photos, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, film,video, or video game. However, when sexual acts are performed for a live audience, by definition it is not pornography, as the term applies to the depiction of the act, rather than the act itself. Thus, portrayals such as sex shows and striptease are not classified as pornography. A pornographic model poses for pornographic photographs. A pornographic actor or porn star performs in pornographic films. In cases where limited dramatic skills are involved, a performer in pornographic films may be called a pornographic model. A distinction is often made between erotica (the portrayal of sexuality with high-art aspirations, focusing also on feelings and emotions) and pornography (the depiction of acts in a sensational manner, with the entire focus on the physical act, so as to arouse quick intense reactions).  Pornography has often been subject to censorship and legal restraints on publication on grounds of obscenity. Such grounds and the very definition of what is or is not pornography have differed in different historical, cultural, and national contexts.
an industry for the production and consumptionof pornography arose in the latter half of the 20th century.3 Religious objections 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading o o 13.1 Non-commercial pornography 5 Technology o o 5. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Sub-genres 4 Economics o 4.2 3D pornography 6 Production and distribution by region 7 Legal status 8 Effect on sexual crime 9 Statistics 10 Anti-pornography movement o o o 10.1 Computer-generated images and manipulations 5.With the emergence of social attitudes more tolerant of sexuality and with more explicit definitions of obscenity in law.2 Opposition 14 External links Etymology .1 Advocacy 13. The introduction of home video and the Internet saw booms in a porn industry that today generates billions of dollars a year worldwide.2 Legal objections 10.1 Feminist objections 10.
"prostitution"). meaning "state of. "to write or to record. The word did not enter the English language as the familiar conjunction until 1857  or as a French import in New Orleans in 1842. No date is known for the first use of the word in Greek. thus meaning "a written description or illustration of prostitutes or prostitution". "graph").pornea. "prostitute" and πορνεία . "Pornographie" was in use in the French language during the 1800s. a figurine with exaggerated sex organs . and the suffix -ία (-ia." or "place of")." derived meaning "illustration." "property of. which derives from the Greek words πόρνη (pornē." cf. and γράφειν (graphein.A French caricature on "the great epidemic of pornography." The word is similar to the modern Greek πορνογραφία (pornographia).[dead link] History The Venus of Willendorf.
Nineteenth century legislation eventually outlawed the publication. Depictions of a sexual nature are as old as civilization with depictions such as the venus figurines and rock artexisting since prehistoric times. retail and trafficking of certain writings and images regarded as pornographic. titled Olympia was a nude picture of a French courtesan. However. and would order the destruction of shop and warehouse stock. see History of erotic depictions.Oil lamp artifact depicting coitus more ferarum. literally a "prostitute picture". meant for sale. For more details on this topic. Depiction of sex by Édouard-Henri Avril. shocking the Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of the Roman . It was controversial at the time. For example the French Impressionism masterwork by Édouard Manet. the private possession of and viewing of (some forms of) pornography was not made an offence until recent times. But the concept of pornography as understood today did not exist until theVictorian era. When large scale excavations of Pompeii were undertaken in the 1860s. much of the erotic art of the Romanscame to light.
the Act did not define "obscene". the publication of obscene material was treated as a common law misdemeanour and effectively prosecuting authors and publishers was difficult even in cases where the material was clearly intended as pornography. The moveable objects were locked away in the Secret Museum in Naples and what could not be removed was covered and cordoned off as to not corrupt the sensibilities of women. They did not know what to do with the frank depictions of sexuality. Fanny Hill is considered "the first original English prose pornography. which led to an explosion of commercially produced pornography. The authors were charged with "corrupting the King's subjects. and endeavored to hide them away from everyone but upper class scholars. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources." The world's first law criminalizing pornography was the United Kingdom Obscene Publications Act 1857 enacted at the urging of the Society for Suppression of Vice. made the sale of obscene material a statutory offence. leaving this for the courts to determine. Those that were produced were produced underground by amateurs starting in the 1940s. depictions of erotic imagery were common throughout history. Two of the earliest pioneers were Eugène Pirouand Albert Kirchner. Kirchner directed the earliest surviving pornographic film for Pirou under the trade name "Léar". and the first pornography to use the form of the novel. It continued to be banned in other countries. Le Coucher de la Marieshowed Louise Willy performing a striptease.Empire. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. However. which applied to the United Kingdom and Ireland. The 1896 film. where the common law continued to apply. Processing the film by commercial means was risky as was their distribution. (December 2010) Main article: List of pornographic sub-genres . Distribution was strictly private. "whether the tendency of the matter charged as obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences. Prior to this Act. The Act did not apply to Scotland. The Victorian attitude that pornography was for a select few can be seen in the wording of the Hicklin test stemming from a court case in 1868 where it asks. Pirou's film inspired a genre of risqué French films showing women disrobing and other filmmakers realised profits could be made from such films. where it was sold "under the counter" or (sometimes) shown in "members only" cinema clubs. The Act. and had to be smuggled in. children and the working class. Denmark was the first country to legalize pornography in 1969. Sub-genres This article needs additional citations for verification. giving the courts power to seize and destroy offending material." Despite the fact of their suppression. Sexually explicit films were soon characterised as obscene and rendered illegal. Pornographic film production commenced almost immediately after the invention of the motion picture in 1895." It is an erotic novel by John Cleland first published in England in 1748. It is one of the most prosecuted and banned books in history.
as well as the types of sexual activity featured. Reality and voyeur pornography. lesbian pornography. such as: Alt porn Amateur pornography Fetish pornography Sexual-orientation-based pornography (heterosexual pornography. . genitals not visible. use of hidden camera or "upskirt" photography. and legally prohibited acts also influence the classification of pornography.Former hardcore porn star Penny Flamein a Cheesecake image (no penetration. fetish. Pornography is classified according to the physical characteristics of the participants. softcore refers to pornography that does not depict penetration (usually genitals are not shown on camera). Economics Main article: Sex industry Revenues of the adult industry in the United States are difficult to determine. a Federal study estimated that the total retail value of hardcore pornography in the United States was no more than $10 million. sexual orientation. animated videos. involving. Latino. bisexual pornography) Orgy pornography Race-oriented pornography (e. Asian.. etc. and hardcore refers to pornography that explicitly depicts penetration. The genres of pornography are based on the type of activity featured and the category of participants. gay pornography. black.g. for example. interracial) Reality pornography Softcore pornography Glamour photography and Cheesecake. no nudity. In 1970. but implicitly sexually suggestive content) In general. non-nude images of women posing in a sexual or suggestive fashion Voyeurism.
but some pornography is produced without human actors at all. A significant amount of pornographic video is shot in the San Fernando Valley. HD DVD format war (the high-def format war)." The Alt Sex Stories Text Repository focuses on prose stories collected from Usenet. This should be distinguished from commercial pornography falsely marketed as featuring "amateurs. which has been a pioneering region for producing adult films since the 1970s. Forrester Research published a report on the online "adult content" industry estimating $750 million to $1 billion in annual revenue. through photography (still and motion). Studies in 2001 put the total (including video. The . other forms of video. In the early 2000s. With the invention of tiny cameras and wireless equipments voyeur pornography is gaining ground. pay-per-view. computer-generated pornography depicting situations involving children and sex with fictional characters. such as Lara Croft. Computer-generated images and manipulations Digital manipulation requires the use of source photographs. Technology Mass-distributed pornography is as old as the modern printing press. the Forrester study speculated on an industry-wide aggregate figure of $8–10 billion.6 billion and $3. digitally manipulated pornography could not be produced cost-effectively. including being a factor in the VHS vs. The idea of completely computer-generated pornography was conceived very early as one of the most obvious areas of application for computer graphics and 3D rendering. Almost as soon as photography was invented.In 1998. and has since become home for various models. Internet and magazines) between $2. The pornography industry has been considered influential in deciding format wars in media. Various Usenet groups are focused on noncommercial pornographic photographs. there is a large amount of non-commercial pornography. is already produced on a limited scale. and other assorted businesses involved in the production and distribution of pornography. actors/actresses. it became a growing segment. Non-commercial pornography As well as the porn industry. As of 2004. and the Internet. after being published in Eric Schlosser's book on the American black market. a practice known as sexting.9 billion. Some claim[who?] that pornography has been a driving force in the development of technologies from the printing press. and forwarded as MMS. Betamax format war (the videotape format war) and in the Blu-ray vs. production companies. Mobile cameras are used to capture pornographic photos or videos. Until the late 1990s. as the modelling and animation software matured and the rendering capabilities of computers improved. to satellite TV. As an unsourced aside. which was repeated out of context in many news stories. it was being used to produce pornographic images.
the sex film industry is centered in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles.October 2004 issue of Playboy featured topless pictures of the title character from the BloodRayne video game. Production and distribution by region Main article: Pornography by region The production and distribution of pornography are economic activities of some importance. 3D pornography Due to the popularity of 3D blockbusters in theaters such as Avatar and How to Train Your Dragon. Budapest is regarded as the industry center. when a group of filmmakers filmed 3D Sex and Zen: Extreme Ecstasy released in April 2011. Legal status Further information: Pornography by region Sex and the law Social issues Age of consent · Antisexualism Censorship · Essentialism Ethics · Homophobia Miscegenation (interracial relations) Norms · Objectification Pedophilia · Pornography · Public morality Red-light district Reproductive rights Same-sex marriage Slavery · Violence Striptease Specific offences (May vary according to jurisdiction) . In Europe. In the United States. The first case of this occurred inHong Kong. companies are now looking to shoot pornography movies in 3D. The exact size of the economy of pornography and the influence that it has in political circles are matters of controversy.
Hardcore pornography. The production and sale. Most countries allow at least some form of pornography.Adultery · Buggery Child grooming · Child pornography Child prostitution · Circumcision Criminal transmission of HIV Deviant sexual intercourse Female genital mutilation Incest · Pimping Prostitution (forced) Public indecency Rape (statutory · marital) · Seduction Sexting · Sexual abuse (child) Sexual assault · Sexual harassment Sodomy · UK Section 63 (2008) Zoophilia Portals Sexuality · Criminal justice · Law v·d·e The legal status of pornography varies widely from country to country. In some countries. of child pornography is illegal in almost all countries. on the other hand. is usually regulated. . softcore pornography is considered tame enough to be sold in general stores or to be shown on TV. and to a slightly lesser degree the possession.g. rape pornography) and/or pornography depicting sex of a human with an animal. and some countries have restrictions on pornography depicting violence (see e.
including pornography producer Larry Flynt and the writer Salman Rushdie. A failed US law would have made these same restrictions apply to the internet. law enforcement officials have been unable to find any such works. . a person receiving unwanted commercial mail he or she deems pornographic (or otherwise offensive) may obtain a Prohibitory Order. There is usually a minimum age to go into pornographic stores. The UK Government has criminalised possession of what it terms "extreme pornography" following the highly publicisedmurder of Jane Longhurst. either against all mail from a particular sender. mailorder. among other means. by applying to the United States Postal Service.Pornographic entertainment on display in a sex shop window. Most countries attempt to restrict minors' access to hardcore materials. limiting availability to sex shops. In the United States. or against all sexually explicit mail. Child pornography is illegal in most countries. with a person most commonly being a child until the age of 18 (though the age does vary). any film or photo with a child subject in a sexual act is considered pornography and illegal. Despite extensive work to ascertain the truth of these rumors. and television channels that parents can restrict. Many of these efforts have been rendered practically irrelevant by widely availableInternet pornography. disseminating pornography to a minor is often illegal. or the materials are displayed partly covered or not displayed at all. have argued that pornography is vital to freedom and that a free and civilized society should be judged by its willingness to accept pornography. Some people. More generally. There is usually an age minimum for entrance to pornographic stores. in which murders are filmed for pornographic purposes. In those countries. There are recurring urban legends of snuff movies.
Feminist objections Main article: Feminist views on pornography Feminist critics of pornography. generally consider it demeaning to women. and correlation does not imply causation. and coercion of women. They believe that most pornography eroticizes the domination. from three primary sources: law. most of these studies focus on various correlations. Statistics More than 70% of male internet users from 18 to 34 visit a pornographic site in a typical month. religion and feminism. and support legislation restricting its publication. and contributes to the androcentric objectification and abjection of women. reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment. or a decrease in the rates of such crimes. such as Andrea Dworkin and Catharine MacKinnon. However. Legal objections See also: Legal objections to pornography in the United States Religious objections Main article: Religious views on pornography Some religious groups discourage members from viewing pornography.Effect on sexual crime Main article: Social effects of pornography Research concerning the effects of pornography is inconclusive on the issue of crime.humiliation. while others have shown no effects. Some studies support the contention that the viewing of pornographic material may increase rates of sexual crimes.  Anti-pornography movement Main article: Anti-pornography movement Opposition to pornography comes generally. These positions derive from broader religious beliefs about human sexuality . though not exclusively.
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