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Colin MacCabe

How does capital function? A bit like this, perhaps. Someone poor and a zero Someone less poor and again a zero Someone even less poor and again a zero Someone richer and again a zero Someone even more rich and again a zero equals equals equals equals equals someone someone someone someone someone less poor. even less poor. richer. even more rich. even richer again.

GODARD: IMAGES, SOUNDS, POLITICS.
Text: Interviews: Advice: Film availability: Photography: Production stills: Production: Colin MacCabe with Mick Eaton and Laura Mulvey Jean-Luc Godard Ben Brewster Roma Gibson, Robert Beeson, Pam Engel Eric Sargent Anne-Marie Mieville Geoff Jenkins, Vic Fanthorpe Tim Fox, Steve Redwood, Angela Martin, John Winckler, Tina Rowe Design: Richard Hollis

Capital functions like that. At a given moment itadds up, and what it adds up are zeros. but zeros which represent tens, hundreds, thousands of yon(s) and me(s). so not really zeros after all, the capitalist would say. We must see, learn to see that when the time comes to add up all the defeats and victories, very often we have been fucked and we've been fucked because we, I, didn't want.to see, you, she, he, nobody wanted to see that all their dreams are represented •.. he didn't want to see that all his dreams are represented at a given moment, given and taken back, by zeros whIch multiply them. Yes, but as they're zeros, they multiply and simultaneously cancel out; and we haven't had the time to see that it's at that moment, at that place, that our hopes have been reduced to zero.
From lei et Rilieurs

M

©Laura Mulvey and Colin MacCabe (Chapter 4), Mick Eaton and Colin MacCabe (Chapter 5), Bela/Sonimage (Text and image from the script of The Story) Colin MacCabe (remainder) 1980 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without permission. First published in 1980 by The Macmillan Press Ltd, London and Basingstoke. Associated companies in Delhi, Dublin, Hong Kong, Johannesburg, Lagos, Melbourne, New York, . Singapore and Tokyo. Typesetting by Paduall Printers, London Reproduction by Fossegraphics Printed in Great Britain by Unwin Brothers Limited, The Gresham Press, Old Woking, Surrey (A member of the Staples printing group) British Library MacCabe, Colin Cataloguing in Publication Data

For Fergus and Johanna

Jean-Luc Godard. I. Godard, Jean-Lac
791.43'0233'0924 ISBN 0-333-29073-9 ISBN 0-333-29074-7 PN1998.A3GI Pbk

This book is sold subject to the standard of the Net Book Agreement. The paperback edition of this book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. conditions

Contents

,.-

..

~

Colin MacCabc teaches English language and literature at Cam bridge University where he is a Fellow of King's College. He is the author of James Joyce and the Revolution of the Word and editor of The Talking Cure: Essays in Psychoanalysis and Language.
Laura Mulvey is a film-maker and teacher.

Page 17 Page 27 Page 49 Page 79

1 Godard since '68
2 3 4 Money and Montage Politics Images of Woman, Images of Sexuality
Laura Mulvey and Colin MacCabe

Together with Peter Wollen she has made
Penthesilea, Riddles of the Sphinx andAmy! She teaches at Bulmershe College of Further

Education in Reading. Mick Eaton is a film-teacher based in the East Midlands. He has edited A I1Ih ropo logy, Reality, Cinema: the Films of Jean Rouch and is currently working on a film script about Marco Polo. Over the past ten years all three authors ha ve contributed to the work of the Education Department of the British Film Institute, the Society for Education in Film and Television, and its theoretical journal, Screen.

Page 105

5 Technology
Mick Eaton and Colin MacCabe

Page 137

6

Television

Interviews with Jean-Luc

Godard

appear at the end of each chapter

Page 163 Page l69 Pugel74

Words and images from the script of The Story Cheek list of Godard's Select Bibliography film and television work

Note on references lind images The majority of references to books and articles give sirn ply a name and a date. Full bibliographical details appear in the select bibliography. Almost all the film images in this book are of whole frames as they appear on the screen. In a very few cases production stills have been used, and some of the images from Numero deux show single images from frames which are composed of more than one image.

9

Two or Three Things I've Heard about Godard
'Well, of course I liked Godard's films before '68 but ... ... since he swallowed all that dogmatic
any more.'

Maoism, he just isn't interested

in the cinema
f-rom Pravda

rrom A

bout de :-suurl'h;-

hnrn PI('-ITU! It, fou

10

11

'The trouble with film-makers

like Godard

is that

they're so obsessed with themselves that they don't care about the audience ...

. When I go to the cinema I want to be entertained.'

Susan George

in The SlranL!eAffair

From Numem deux

Clint

East wood

in

Dirt)' Harry

12

13

'Godard Eisenstein,

is the most important

film-maker

since himself in
1\..tagazinc images in Leuer 10 Jane

...

since 1968, this in vestigation of advertisements

has si mply become and Hollywood

sorry I mean Vertov, Only he has clearly posed the problems of politics of our sexuality,
the grammar

more acute, more political. The investigation

and art in terms of the consumer society ill which we live. He has concerned with the representations which we live and ... of the advertisements

has widened to include every aspect of modern communications.'

From

Deux uu

rro!s chose,

Ill'llll

Vt:nt

d'cst

14

15

, ias he?' . 'B u tG odard hasn't made any films in th e Ias! ten years l

..........

, saY

~ft\m4'1tUelle .'l.
...£1,010,000
tlEl

ThaI1ks a MlttION!..... to~

_......~,.;tbtbesta<G<oUP

The problem

From Le Ga. S.

is:

10 gel back I
1,_3\'OIr

0 zero.

17

In 1968, after a decade of influential making, Jean-Luc Godard disappeared from view.

*

and prolific film-

A narrative variety of film-making engaged immediately enable us to understand '68. The manner because Godard it demonstrates

of his disappearance a set ofterms

and the that will

practices in which he has since introduces his films both before and after is instructive that cinema. some of the problems

of his disappearance

arc details of all Godard's work, both pre- and pOl<I-'68. in InC check list at the end of the book (pp.169-173). A variety of books have dealt with Godard's ear 11' ca rec r of which the most "mabie is ROlld (1970). See a lso Ih e select bibliography, p.I 74.

* There

From Le (_~9i Savotr. SIiH 2: Juliet Bene picking Slill.J: I,., reflection.

presupposed
up a mirror.

is the possibility of direct address to rhe or as members of particular collectivities

audience but as the audience is not addressed either as individuals (family, work, school) they find their place to see and hear only as members of a cinema audience. The only available evidence is that of immediate sight and sound and the film's activity is to make the two coincident. The effect of this coincidence of sound and image is io as men and women, and fathers but images

felt were posed by the traditional

Godard

didn't

disappear

by

SQ wh ...1 is at stake is uee's of uneself

image

offer

us images

of ourselves

fleeing Paris (where he had lived and worked for twenty years) nor by going into hiding. He disappeared by refusing to make films as he had done before. This refusal film-making; indeed, since 1968 Godard has and is currently or did not mean that he abandoned at work on three other projects. distribution film-makers Godard disappeared,

workers and bosses, mothers

that address us in the cinema rather than in any other of our activities. This is not to deny that these images have a reality and a force in our existence but to indicate that their production Godard's is completely divorced from the everyday business of our lives. refu sal to con tinue to mak e films who the as he had done before was a much more radical refusal of the cinema than that made by those directors for political or artistic reasons abominate distribution
I said

completed twelve films and eighteen hours of television programmes (though not all) simply didn'l. exist for the cinema. Without this disappearance

But if his films existed as material entities, most. normal production relations. demonstrating how films and

have reality only within a very specific set of production Godard's concern 1.0 abandon with two aspects of cinema, analyses as indissolubly

and question this reality

implied an engagement separate

aspects which seem evidently linked. On the one hand the and, on the other, the films themselves.

but which Godard

system and its control

over production.

financing of films, the methods of production the organisation

and distribution

Normally such directors merely demand control of the production evidently process rather than asking what relations process itself as it is French filmof as understood. wished In 1968 many to find are at work in the production makers radicalised demonstrations distribution
'Image of on esell
I

of sounds and images which composes that it requires a real effort to them

Both these aspects present themselves as so evident, as so natural, understand how Godard was trying to transform the fact that the production specific forms

by the experience of the strikes and new methods films that they now that it

or why he felt that it was so essential to break with them. However, financed international of films is and through of national

for the political

wanted to make. Godard refused to see distribution the major problem because that presupposed

distribution,

the fact that the audience

has no existence for the makers of the film except as an audience which goes to the cinema and pays money and thus has no identity except a commercial features cinema are a major determinant sounds and images in particular one, these of of
and she sald

was evident how one should make political films. It was this more basic question that Godard was to ask and it is summed Dziga-Vertov up in one of the slogans adopted group: 'The problem by the is not to make between political in 1959,

of what might be called the institution of the organisation

political films but to make films politically'. One Godard concerns imported of the major differences and other political film-makers, and one on

films. Crucially this

req uires a fixed rela tion of depend ence between soundtrack and image whether priority is given to the image, as in fiction track films (we see the truth and the sound(we are told the truth it). In both and the must come into line with it) or to the soundtrack, confirms cases what is

I
• hn:iLgeof nylon'

which he is keen to insist, is that Godard's into his film-making. When,

grew out of his work on film and were not

as in documentary image merely

Godard achieved immediate fame with his first feature film A bout de souffle (Breathless), he was classed as

18

19

part of the nouvelle vague, the generation film-makers Truffaut fascination which included Rivette, and Chabrol.

of young Rohmer,

or cinema.

Instead,

all that we can engage in is a Just an as

repetition of sounds and images in which we are controlled by a language that we do not understand ignorance television Rousseau's curriculum, speaking or film as it does novel so Godard offers to viewers. an imaginary that applies just as much to the makers of ideal course

His films seemed to share their cinema and what singled romanticism [he with cutting style rather than

with Hollywood elliptical

him out for the critics was a pessimistic and a particularly specifically of Godard's advertising political concerns.

If, in retrospect,

suggests a three-year

politics of the image very quickly came to the forefront work in the Iorrn of an obsession
to read Godard

which would enable us to answer the question of who is in any image or articulation description of images. The own mythical three-year course proposed in LeGai Savoir is not an unreasonable of Godard's activity in the three years after 1968. Taking his film at its word: that it was necessary to start from zero; more exactly, as Juliet Berto points out, to get back to zero, Godard began an investigation into the language of film which is perhaps The immediate the most conscious and most

and the relation between sou nd and image, in the light of his

critics continued

earliest concerns until in 1966 with Masculin/Feminin Godard began a series of explicitly political films which ended with his withdrawal image which illuminates from the traditional cinema. work The necessary link between politics and the the whole of Godard's but which critics found so difficult to see finds one of its clearest staternen ts in the film that God ard sh ot for French television before 1969. Entitled Jean-Jacques on education, education consists television Jean-Pierre century film was proposed 1ay 1968 but only edited in the of for television Le Gai Savnir (Joyful Knowledge), as an adaption Rousseau's eighteenth-century

rigorous in the history of the cinema. aftermath of May '68 was, however, composed of a series of false starts. After shooting Le Cai Savoir and before editing it, Godard had to finish shooting a film with the Rolling Stones which was to appear as Sympathy for the Devil (Godard's own version of the film was entitled One Plus in the production of CinCtracts, short silent and in of and One and included no final complete version of the song). In the immediacy of the May events he had collaborated anonymous montages of stills made very quickly for instant distribution, predominantly

treatise

Emile. Rousseau chose to set out his
by writing a novel about the perfect child, Emile. The film in a darkened (played by it may eighteenthform the of

ideas on education

of the eponymous studio between

August of that year he made Un Film comme les autres (A Film Like Any Other) which combined conversations Pennebacker. abandoned attachment that Godard with Godard's a film produced images of May with a soundtrack by the American entitled after composed Leacock between workers and students. Godard then went to America to make

of a series of conversations

two characters

Leaud and Juliet Berte). Although

cinema-verite film-makers,
One A.M. (One American with the producers, subsequently project

seem to have little to do with Rousseau's Rousseau's television education. For Godard, film, the central problem some understanding bombard

Provisionally this project

Movie) Godard whose own

novel, in fact it is very close to the spirit of text in that it takes a contemporary case the novel, in Godard's programme)

disagreements Pennebacker

to the simple truth of the documentary own investigations.

image was in direct contradiction edited the material provisionally that

(in Rousseau's

to set out the problems and for the characters of education

had shot and some footage of his own into One P.M. (One Parallel in Canada, that Godard was able to continue the investigations

Movie). It was only after a further abandoned in the is to provide entitled Communications, Sounds. Commissioned suggests the film is concerned
from Le (;ui Sa\'oir

he had mapped out in Le Gai Savoir in a film shot in England and entitled British by London Weekend and produced by

of the sounds

and images that

us in our daily lives. Such an understanding

must be based on grasping the relation between sound and image because until we grasp that we will not, in the words of Le Gai Savoir, be able to make real television

Kestrel Films British Sounds was never shown in its entirety on television. As the title, with sounds and how sounds can be used against the image of Britain provided by the Union Jack. The film refuses the defining relations

20

21

of documentary provided

in which the image functions as confirmation

of the sound; instead

(Everything's

OK) directed jointly by lean-Pierre

Gorin and Godard.

This project,

there is a struggle between the two which composes

the film. The correct sound,

delayed by a very serious motorbike major stars (Yves Montand on conceptions of subjectivity

accident. in which Godard was involved, used

by a Maoist analysis of British capitalist society, is kept in tension with a provide the material on which the by a television to

and Jane Fonda) to investigate the effects of May 1968 and politics in France and thus to pose, from a nonLater in the same year, !972, Godard and ofthe intellectual's role in the

variety of other sounds and a series of images, none of which provides the correct .image of society but which, in their juxtaposition, spectator must work. ln its emphasis on the sound track, in its refusal of the notion of

sectarian position (there is no explicit Maoism in the film) the problem of the relation between intellectuals and the revolution. Gorin made a rilm called Letter to Jane, which through the analysis of a photograph of Jane Fonda in Vietnam raised again the difficulties revolution dominant and partially forms of cinema. If there is a time when Godard have abandoned film-making, it is not in the aftermath following 1972. when he left Paris and with Anne-Marie called Sonimage at Grenoble in the French Alps. Godard's
(son) and image (image)

a correct image, in its explicit Maoist politics and in its financing the next four films that Godard was to make: Pravda

company which then refused to sh ow it, British Sounds bears a close resemblance (1969), on Czechoslovakia; Vent. d' est. (Wind from the East) (1969). a revolu tionary 'western' (Struggles in Italy) (1969), on a young woman militant in Italy; and Vladimir et Rosa (1970), on the Chicago conspiracy Godard trials. These films were not signed
/

by

but by the Dziga-Vertov

group.

Vent d'eSI has considerable differences from the other film, of this period in that it was largely financed by a rich leftwing sympathiser, in that it included a name actor, Gian Maria Volonre, and in thai it concerned itself more directly with the problems or the fiction film. These difference, do not amount to enough \0 consider it separately from the other Dziga-Vertov films,

*

*;Lotte

criticised Tout va bien for remaining

caught within the to

in Italia

can be considered

of 1968 but in the period Mieville set up a company emphasis on production of sound its title, to consider every

had moved beyond the shooting and editing of the film, the combination which gave his new company at every level of production the possibility aspect of production. considerable considered, stock Thegrowth

of video technology seemed to offer the possibility and Sonimage was set up with seems to have distribution. His At this time Godard of alternative

of gaining some autonomy

Ever since making La Chinoise (Marxist-Leninist).

in 1967, Godard

had

of video equipment.

been in contact with Maoist militants from the French Union of Young Communists On both British Sounds and Pravda he collaborated with such militants and from Vent d'est onwards this collaboration in which Jean-Pierre Soviet film-making became formalised in the Oziga Vertov and of

at least in interviews,

proposals were not for a network to bc run from Paris - one of the emphases of the move to Grenoble was to work against the whole process of economic, cultural centralisation would operate production subjective stated: As for me, I've become aware, after fifteen years of cinema, that the real 'political' a home-movie home-movies
in L'Avant-Scene

political and which

creation of a group which was named after the Soviet film-maker a name to indicate a break not only with Hollywood identified with Eisenstein.
t

-

but rather for an alternative Sonimage for particular purposes.

notion of distribution industry

Gorin was to play the leading role. Dziga Vertov was chosen as but also with the tradition Eisenstein's decision in J924 to make Vertov's

as though

was a handcraft

with customers on the

ordering video programmes was one feature

This emphasis on small-scale Grenoble

of this period, the other being a re-emphasis in the title for the first unfinished

a historical film abou struggle was defined importance than Eisenstein, montage

the battleship Potemkin instead of analysi ng the curren t class as a decisive moment of defeat in Soviet cinema.

which found expression

project, Moi,je (Me, I). In an interview published in Cinema Pratique at that timehe

for the grou p was twofold: on the other hand he con ti nued, much longer to insist that the film-maker's and, on the other, writing. culmination of the Dziga-Vertov group's on the la victoire (Until Victory), prime concern must be the current his emphasis on the importance of practice than did

state of the class struggle;

film that I'd like to end up with would be a film what I am, in other words represent the popular base of the cinema.
du Cinema no.171-2, p.52

before the shooting coincided The

better with the group's

about me which would show to my wife and daughter
Quoted

notions of montage in Eisenstein's experiments Palestinian

was to be a film entitled Jusqu'a revolution.

The use of video and the dual emphasis on subjectivity and production are what unites his next projects, all of them realised with Anneis Ici et la victoire and images Marie M ieville. The first of these, and in some ways the most programmatic, allleurs (Here and Elsewhere), in which footage from Jusqu'a of contemporary Palestinian France are juxtaposed revolution (elsewhere) and French consumer

Material for the film was shot in lordan

in the first half of revolution)

1970. The analysis proposed

in the film (the success of the Palestinian

was, however, cast in doubt by the events of September of the Maoist movement Vertov group and Jusqu'a in France,

1970, when the Palestinians of both the Dzigafilm Tout va bien

were crushed by the 1ordanian army. This, coupled wi th an increasing disintegration led to the abandonment la victoire in favour of a commercial

in an effort to grasp the gap between the society (here). It is the et which is the focus of the film:

(and) which links Ici et Ailleurs (Here andElsewhere)

aa

a3

what is the relation between our existence here and the struggle there and how does one produce sounds and images which would articulate the two? In 1975, after completing and sexuality in contemporary Numero lei et ailleurs, Godard and M ieville made N umero deux (N u mber Two), which analysed the position of women society, Shot in video and then transferred on to film, deux has a multiple-determined title; on the one hand it refers to its on the fact that it the same producer, Georges Beau regard, for French television, was

on the West for the maintenance ideological dependence quantities of,Western programmes

and replacement

of the technology

and an of of

which takes bOIh the direct form of the bu ying of massive and the more indirect form of the acceptance and consumer implicit in the Western institution as a consultant by the government of Mozambique

the relations between producer television. Godard's the employment of Sonimage

interest in these problems has taken a more concrete form with on his findings was later published in Cahiers du

subject matter, woman and anality, but on the other it is dependent was made wi th the same director, Godard,

and his report for the government Mozambique

Cinema. In addition he is presently engaged in producing five hours of television for
entitled Nord con Ire sud (North against South). In addition and Mieville made a further project deteur/deux/enfants of these twelve half-hour programme interviews programmes programmes, to their work for Mozambique, Godard for French television in 1978: Francc!tour! The subject matter at the France. Each which have still not been broadcast
0f

and the same budget as had been used sixteen years earlier to make A bout de sou HIe. A Iter th is, Godard and M ievi lie made a series of programmes which were broadcast communication in the summer (On and Under Communication). of 1976, under the title of Sur et sous la Each of the six programmes
0 f the

(l<'rance!Tour/Delour/Two!ChHdren).

divided into two fifty-minute
to society

sections (whence their other title: Six Fols deux (Six image in relation the la of an individual.
SOilS

Times Two), the first of these sections analysing some as pect and the second consisting concerns that Godard addressed radical the of an interview in Grenoble theoretical

time of writing, is two children, these activities investigations are investigated Some further are then

a boy and a girl, and contemporary

which held in tension was. like Sur et ca \'a*

in terru pts one of the children in the course by Godard. of the terms analysed

their day's activities and in these preliminary

of the first part and the specific situation completed
to the problem

both visually and in the course of a series of produced in the rest of the programme .. The

The final project communicatlon, dissemination problems reference revolu tion. of to

of information: particular

its collection

and

in contemporary rep orting

society. The film Cornmem with f the
0

analysed the

journalism

Port uguese

title moves between two di ffercni meanings. Understood as a q uest ion. il is the convent tonal greeting ~How are you;'. understood as a statement it is the promise of an

* This

do not pretend to reveal to us the reality of the child's experience but of the adult experience The
0f

indicate the opacity of that experience to that most clear of media: television. The opacity of the child's world is used to reflect on the 'clarity' and the ways in which that clarity is dependent programmes France by the detour of Iwo children. Most preparation projects: (Everyone The Story, subtitled for Themselves) 1979 Godard recently, and contemporaneously with the for and writing of this book, Godard has been engaged on two film and Sauve II ui peut For the
1.0

on the forms of television.

cxplanatio» of some particular
movement: 'How it goes'.

can thus be co nsider ed, as one read ing of t he ti tie suggests, as a tour

If Grenoble

was not Paris, it was still too defined by its It is from Rolle with

relation to Paris, by its not being Paris, and thus Godard and Mieville made another move: 1.0 Rolle, a small Swiss town between Geneva and Lausanne. that Godard's most recent
S0

project.s have originated

and while concerns

*, subtitled

BUI!;Sl. to be shot in America;

La Vie (Life), set in Switzerland.

information

persist, such concerns are more and more inflected by an investigation f OLl r su b j ectivity: the family and the opposi ti on bel ween between factory and landscape. Such emphases have

moment Sauve qui peut has taken priority and after shooting it between September and December is now engaged in editing the film as this boo k goes press. What is significant about these projects is that they are, with the exception of Tout va bien, the first films that Godard has made since 1967 (Weekend) stars, In that Stars are one ofthe key factors in the traditional functioning Godard, a further re-definition of the cinema, these films would seem to presuppose to employ economic and aesthetic a new strategy for but insofar

of the coustitu ti ve term

the city and the country,

displaced the Maoist politics of the Dziga- Verrov films. Politics is not strictly absent in Godard' s films since 1972 bu t it takes the form of a set. Q f questions as king wha t a politics here (ic!) in the Western world would be. A constant counterpoint questions
(aif/eurs)

to these

is Godard's

a tten tion to revolutionary

movements

in the Third World of development. from as in no

of his film-mak ing practice in terms of the instituand analysis, two terms will be central to its

which try to break with Western (or Eastern) attempted

patterns

tion of the cinema. The precise forms of this strategy are not predictable as it depends understanding: on his past practice money and montage.
....Godard has since chosen Slow Motion as the English title

Questions other

of television and cinema are crucial in such a break and Godard, a technology and economic

early as 1964, has constantly subjection

to work in the Third World. Perhaps

field are the links between

and ideological
for this film.

so evident. as they are in film and television.

A Third World country's

decision to adopt. the tech nology of Wester n television en tails economic dependence

24

26

Note: The interviews with Godard, largely conducted in English, are edited [rom a conversation taped in Rolle at the Sonimagc studios on Saturday 15 December 1979. I am grateful io Beverley Brown for her help with the transcriptions, 10 Denis MacShane and Helga and Kiernan Ryan for their hospitality in Geneva and to Anne-Marie Mieville and JeanLuc Godard for their patience.

*

Colin MacCabe: For many people your films come to an end in 1968. about what you were doing then

But in fact the only time that you would seem not to have made any films is between 1972 and 1974. Can you say something in the period after you moved to Grenoble? Jean-Luc Godard: Moving. That took a long lime and Ihen one began again in '73 with lei et ailleurs. That took a long time, a lot of work two years. And setting up the studio and moving took a lot of lime. Yes, it was mainly lei et ailleurs and after that we wanted to make two films a year and in fact it's been about one a year. In the immediate very much on production of distribution: were offered. you set up Sonimage in Grenoble it appeared post-'68 period the emphasis was the time that kind I f you want to write a hook about me then there is one thing you must put in: money. The cinema is all money but the money figures twice: first you spend all your time ru nning to get the money to make the film but then in the film the money comes back again, in the image.
Godard in conversation

but in the interviews that you gave around industry,

that you envisaged a different

film and video as a handcraft

Yes, but the more we lowered the prices, the less we And then we turned to television for finance. That was the start of our work for television. There was also a project for a film entitled Moi, [e.

Yes, but it was never made. Could you tell me about it? It was an analysis of ... were a lot of projects, you know, there an awful lot of projects that never got done.

2e

27

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Diana and Frankie ride thru town.They're join the TV crew that's waiting for them Flamingo or the MGM.

going to at the

Night begins to fall. Frankie asks Diana about the book she's starting: " the glamour business".How it's going? May be the network financing the film would also be interested in the book? Diana doing spite asks why it's a european network that's Frankie's project.He answers evasively. In of his name,he has a lot of problems.

Still driving,Frankie says it'd be a goOd idea to start the story in a documentary style,at the very moment when the evening lights go up,like the desire in the people's eyes. People have been working all day long for the industry of day,in factories and offices.Now,they' re going to work for the industry of night: the money earned during the day will be spent on the night of sex,of gambling, and of dreams. Let the images flow faster than money does.

From rhc script

for The Story

I

rom

the

scr.p;

l'or

Tht: S(or)"

30

31

Before starting Godard

work on Sauve qui pent,

Frankie, financial Godard's

a film-maker, determinations,

wants his images t.o hide their to escape their economic effectively as phantasy. to slow down there can a linear view of of

had spent over six months trying to persuade in the negotiations finally decided him 10

Robert de N iro and Diane Keaton to star in The Story. Difficulties already American start work first on Sauve qui peut but by then he had written film. an extensive script of the projected This script is itself a remarkable of mainly illustrates the development

basis so they can function

project is the direct reverse -

the images until the money appears and the phantasy displays its very constitution. be no question it is undoubtedly money opposed context there transformations, And although of a simple development

I

document, the narrative 'story'

as Godard

progress towards an ever more comprehensive in Godard's work undergoes

with a montage of photographs,

the case that the significance a series Initially

I
I

culled from previous

Keaton and de Niro films. The film itself, to the
0 f their

of the title refers to Godard's

two images of money are within a within a

fictional blind child that Keaton and de Niro have in the film, who is, in some sense, the story relationship, acquaintance work researcher, concentrates of theirs, Frankie, film that broken and, finally, toa filmBugsythatamulual is making. brings It is their as a together The film Keaton,

on the one hand there is money in its and, on the other, functions These initial images in the commercial until they

I
I

normal social function where it is understood of work and frustration is criminal money which

I

on Frankie's

context of desire and liberation. which were, and still are, current cinema produced
Phvaical anracrlon i m~1cn SOC reo 0 sou

and de Niro, as a cameraman,

I

I

again in Las Vegas after years of separation. crime and Hollywood Mafia.

were

transformed

by Godard

on the historical links between organised but Bugsy will never be made by the
r pro ri1 lQ
can be an a

a critique

of the image itself. The relation

between desire and money in the image was connected to the relation between desire and money which is the very condition the spectator. institution conditions particularly q(the image and thus to the position of The move from a particular film to the are traced

because Frankie dies in aroad accident arranged film and abou t the character

But we learn a great deal about the projected Bugsy Siegel, a legendary stars and film,

woman

Mafia figure who was a friend of Hollywood shot to death. At the beginning
0f

of cinema and the question of the political of existence of that institution clearly in Godard's work. The condition to the

was engaged in various film-union rackets before being of Godard's Frankie comes to the airport to meet Diane and as they dri ve in to town he talks documentary his film. He says that
From "i'lr're sa vie

of this movement woman question

is an obsession with the position of conditions of existence of

in the image which leads inevitably of the economic

'It'd be a good idea to start the star}" in a style, at the very moment that the eyes. evening lights go up, like the desire in people's People have been working all day long for the industry of day, in factories and offices. Now they're going to work for the industry of night: the money earned during the day will be spent on the night of sex, of gambling and of dreams.' The text continues with the cryptic phrase, 'Let the images flow faster than money does'. It is the relation between money and images and the work and desire implicated starting point in that relation which can provide a for an analysis of Godard's films.

t.hese images. Nothing more clearly indicates Godard's later preoccu pations than the fact that criminal money in The Story does not appear in relation to a particular character's desires but in relation to the institution In A bou I de souffle narrative Jean-Paul crossed development turns around money which Michel Poiccard, (Breathless) of the cinema: the early financing of Hollywood. the fact. that the

the character played by

Belrnondo, came to Paris to collect and cheque which he cannot cash. This money is

which will allow him 10 flee to Rome is in the form of a caught up in a social nexus of financial instit.utions

32

33

opposed to [he cash which Belmond

0

steals from bot h

friends and strangers and which enables him to satisfy his desires without delay, be they to take Patricia (Jean Seberg) out to dinner or to buy himself breakfast. These two types of money set up an opposi [ion between a restrictive freedom, social world and one of individual within the 'cowardly' behaviour. concern with to live of
'" [Ial

spectators'

ability to follow this demonstration of their vision. So

that
0 tten

assures I.hem of the correctness incongruence

in classic real ist cinema is the problem in the image, 1he of views, caused by a woman, and

so

often is it resolved by a man that one can characterise classic realism as a constant effort to keep one's eyes on women, rather problem represents,
ricia, i l must be said,

a series of relations and abnormal is mapped

understood normal 'normal'

film as the opposition (/iiche) behaviour This opposition through

between

to hold them in view. A bout de souffle, action deviate The she than showing it in full, does not

despite its radical CUlling which often 'quotes' fundamentally from this traditional of Patricia organisation. and

on to sexual difference

the contrast

between Patricia's Patricia's

work and a career and Michel's determination only for the moment. Michel is no surprise to the spectator has already told us that the attraction appearance attachment Godard's Woman', sa tt ractive appearance

of the image

what

final betrayal

which the fi lrn LU sara und, is sol ved when rn

because Michel of her physical

we find that she is what Michel has always seen and said
1'1j\'~lpCS ally

cannot disguise the fact that she is a Niche. hides the reality of her to [he social relations which men wish to repealed statement that it is one of his films

I,y n,"

final determination
of sound and
SOu

she was: Niche.

*

coincidence

In Une Femme mariee, which Godard made in 1964, we can notice a different construction focus of attention Both the husband emphasis as the the very of images of women becomes

I"'''~c insofar as Ihe
"'I 1"1 I cl 1 ~

nd,

always remains inrom-

escape. It is in these terms that one can understand that he likes least and that he finds it fascist. Its fascism resides in its re fusal of the reali ty of social rela 1ions and the propagation those relations. of the myth of an existence outside If A bout de souffle who has abolished represents the any restraint

1l"'ilcl1'ible 10 her, an 1\ ruerican. Her last line asks the I, "1'"'" or what Michel's dying \\u, d, rnearu a rid Ihis ernpha"-!hl,,'~I he extent
I t'l.. !I-':Ui

and one in which the spectator's and lover of Charlotte Giraud

look is no longer offered support by a male character. (Macha Meril) are unable to see through
100 k

to which

she

na rra live determination, may offer a II'"'' i~1explanation for Godaru" ,'11011,',· of foreigner, for leading I1"11 urle parts i n his "uri), films.
S.I~·]iconsiderations

her; she lies

equally fluently to both but at the same time her own offers no unifying vision of herself. When we are privy to her inner
t

criminal as someone on desire, Godard's

made

thoughts

they offer

no view

later films reveal this image as too

coil erent accoun disconnected woman's instead attempts

of her situat ion but rat her a stream of This lack of a coherent

simple, as indeed an image of money which disregards [he money in the image. Crucial to the connection and image is the dislocation articulation characters the look although between money of looks of the continuity

phrases.

enables the film to break down a unified image of a body, held in a man's look, and to provide a series of disconnected at unification. images which resist

between spectator and screen. Cinema functions on the of three series of looks, the looks of the on the screen, the looks of the camera and of the spectator. It is no exaggeratlon, to say that [here can be other emphases,

films produced between progress narrative, correctness these

within what I term the classic realist looks, an incongruence view is proved by the camera. which correct, the of a a

tradition depend on setting up an initial incongruence of the film dissolves. one character's demonstrated In the course

It is the
From A bour de-aeumc

34

36

Even more striking is the sequence of advertisements that Charlotte weekly magazine. looks at in EI/e, the women's

Trying From

10'

hang

On to, rhe

image.

Unc Femme manec

The fact that no dominating produced of point escape that narrati ve domination
0f

male look is to

by the story is what allows the camera view and establish ing sh ots. example, the camera's movements

wh ich ties it to a logic

For the sequence

cannot be rationalised

by any reference to t he action in and her to meet her
I.

,I

om Une Femme manee

of shots which show Charlotte

Suddenly we find that the last image is n at a magazine advertisement and that Charlotte, whose look, point a f view we had been assuming, abruptly appears in the shot running along the street. Charlotte's

stepson taking a taxi to the aerodrome husband.

2.

J_

4.

36

3'7

which is the only security that the narrative offers us, is

,I

radically sequence themselves Charlotte's

insufficient of looks

for the task of harmonising in the cinema; spectators

the find

l'<lUnd its genesis in a newspaper

report that housewives prostitution

in the modern

housing the

esrutes around Paris engaged in part-time

in order to purchase

I
I:
II II II II II II II
I I I I I I I I

engaged in an active process of seeing as look refuses to work for them. It is the that produce Charlotte's look within

cunsumer durables which were coming on to the market in the wake of the economic

boom that France was enjoying under Gaullist rule. The importance
thu: it abandons protagonist.
Ilk sound-track I he dominance

of the film is
to the

advertisements

all attempts Janson

to give classical (Marina Vlady),

narrative

determination Godard's

t he film and it is this ap pearance of images as images in the film which entails that money occupies a different position from that which it occupied in A bout de agency and inseparable are an area souffle. Charlotte throughou works in an advertising
0 f the JO k is

Juliette

who engages

in such part-time own voice on has none of The

p roxti tu tion. Instead of an attempt to place her in narrative, poses the question of her position. over the image that is associated

But the sound-track

with classic documentary,

this fact simply emphasises what the film demonstrates t: that the pro blern activity and satisfied from money. Images and their production of economic stimulated made.

opening shots of the film, which present Juliette Janson, regarded as fictional or real, Godard niisdescribes her actions. Insofar as Juliette's

make this clear. Whether it. is

cannot identify the colour of her hair and he position in the film is determined,

where there is a look to be then there is money to be

dorcrmined by the advertisements that constantly produce images for her. II is the I ela lion between image and spectator, the articulat ion 0 f the production and
distribution
mediately

like "iv,"" sa vie occupies a middle posit ion bel ween A bour de soutne and Vile Femme Inariee. 0 n th Cone han d th ere is an attempt to evade a dominating male look, underlined in the first scene where no character', look motivates (he camera position. On. [he ot her tile image of a crirn i nal mo ney remai n sand bloch (he analysis of the position of women in relation (0 (he image. I f the film explores the way in which WOmen are an. nihilated in a man's look, it holds out, at the end, the promise of a lover in whose look Nana (Anna Karina) call finally bloom before her physical annihilation at the hand, 0 f her pi rnp,

* A film

*

of images, that are the focu s 0 f the film's inves ligation and lhis en tails of the image, be it Godard or the cinemagoer, being imposed in the film itself.

the position of the spectator

Nowhere wh i ell alternates shots, from Juliette's

is this clearer than in the scene in the cafe point of view , of a woman reading a magazine

wi I h shots 0 f the pages of th e magazine from the other woman's point of view.

I

'I

I

chosesquejesais opposed (1962) -

In J 966 Godard made a film en titled Deux ou trois d'eUe (Two nr Three Things that I know about her) in which there is is no longer as it was in Vlvre sa vie (It's my Life) to money in our society. The film

From Dell'; ou trois ell oses

no division between legal and illegal money and in which prostitution to legal ways of earning money but becomes the exemplary relation

The normal articulation

of point-of-view

shots merely ,

trlu Ics a look to an obj ect: Godard, by placing one look within another, immediately ( It I~~N Ihe question of the image and of desire. Godard's comments on this sequence
1((lIkl'~

rhls dear:

38

39

object that, in journalistic

This is how Juliette, at 15.37, saw the pages of that language, one calls a. magazine (nne revue) being woman,

nhove all a stimulation consumer, economic

of the eye, that produces This homogenisation

the subject

in pure unity as to the

the source of an undifferentiated organisation

demand

whose only relation is dependent

turned over. And here, some 150 images further on, is bow a~6theryoung face or in profile? And first of all, what is an object? The problem concerns questions abou t the institution
0f

object can be one of possession.

is an inevitable result of the on a demand it is necessary and

similar to her (sa semblable) saw the same object. Where then is the truth? Full of the object is fundamental will demonstrate to the how

of society where production functions

del ermined elsewhere. To understand
10 understand

these relations of dependence in the articulation

how money

of production

of Deux ou trois choses and a brief reflection cinema are immediately

dbl ribution, Godard's
III! portant

analysis of money has one important was that in one particular
0f

similarity with Marx's.

posed by a consideration

For Marx money was the condition
to understand uud employer,

of certain types of exchange but what was exchange, that between labourer

of the object. For, of course, an object does not exist in itself but only in terms of a definite set of relations in which the observing su bj ect figures. Whether I see a bull as so much meat, an element in a landscape or a danger will depend on wh at I am doing. Bu t this interdependence
0 f su bj

what was in question was not an exchange at all but a social relation producti on and those who did not. This between money as money and money as capital. Godard of that analysis. Although of production that production Godard's film-making of an on ever

het ween th ose who possessed the means wus Marx's distinction f\1'eal difference economic

ect and

0 bject,

this relation between world and self, may have little connection of the image is it as a as self~
0f

is what is elided in the image which provides the definite relations in which the object appears and thus implies a place to see it from, a placethat with the spectator. What is important that it removes the object from the subject's separate entity. What must be emphasised that which institutes contained the object as separate about the predetermination is t he reciprocal nature

Iollows Marx in analysing certain exchanges in terms of social relations but there is a in the content practice stresses (he primacy greater increases in demand greater subjection change hands, organisation pOSition. Nowhere is this clearer than in the cinema itself. Films
life I hal

it does so as the consequence is now dependent for the economist

activity in the world to postulate also institutes the subject

analysis which emphasises

this relation:

and that such an increase necessarily

entails an ever is simply a and money

to the image. Whereas advertising the number

unity instead of divided process. The French word for a magazine, selection of a naked woman's

une

means of increasing

of exchanges in which commodities

revue (a re-seeing), emphasises how the image determines advance and Godard's

t he position of our look in in the image so that but only in relation

for Godard

it is not a set of money relations

but a particular in

body as the image from the

of need, demand and desire in which there is an erasure of the being of

magazine stresses how the body and sexuality can be relocated sexuality no longer appears in relation to our activities to an ideal viewer separated

Ihe subject in favour of a series of views in which the subject is always centred,

as a whole

from any real contact with the object. The primacy of client from the Metro, for sex. there role: the act of the film is addressed

the visual in this process is evident in the scene with Juliette's Juliette's undressing

financed by the raising of money against future distribution

receipts. The fact

where the placing of the mirror so that he can see is the necessary preparation refusal to let him watch her undress plays a complementary would introduce process and change where, for the consumer,

to an audience wh ich it can not know except insofar as it for production follow from this fact. The spectator has no I will go and see again what I

!lues to the cinema entails that it is only as viewer that the audience can be addressed. Immediate consequences particu lar in terest in going to see any particular film because it has not been made for him or her and it is this fact that stirn ulates repetitionha ve already seen I his rel1l

must be only position and iden tity. Godard's activity in the film is to rei n troduce the question of bei ng in to vision, to restore desire to the eye.

a repetition that takes two major forms: genres and stars. It is at why the star system is an essential economic since the collapse of the Hollywood
dominant! stars were an important economic factor but one largely controlled by the

point that we can understand ure of the production

of films and why it could be argued that stars have become

even more important it ud io system
From Deux ou trois choses

factors in film production

*. The

gossip columns and the celebrity

* When studio production

was

~hows in which the stars figureare not unnecessary - they nrc an essential part of the economic conditions of the dllcma's of the alienation investigation His earlier themes of the problem of sexual difference and endemic to capitalist society are articulated together in the of demand by advertising. It is this stimulation, existence. It is true that certain films, Alien merely prove that the star is there as in wuuld be a recent example, do without stars. Bu t these vountcr-exarnples
II

studios. The growth of
independent production has

transformed
function

rhe economic

of stars. Whet her a

of the stimulation

guaramee

of the value of the image and that,

depe nds 0 n w heth er a star is

film is financed or no I often

willing to appear in it. Maurice~

40

41

II
I

considerat ions make clear is that the order and content of the images follow the order of money, a sequence made clear at the beginning of Tout va bien when two anonymous voices discuss how to make a film, deduce that The and as a by dist ri bution they need stars and find that to interest the stars they need a story, a narrative. cost of identity is high when th e prod uction of images is determined distribution, and the only way to lower that cost is to change the relations or production relations which appear as an evident set of financial constraints,

Halton's Long Shot explores SOme of The econorn ic and cinematic paradoxes which fellow from the facti haria gel a 8! ar you need money but 10 get money you need a star.

extreme cases, this value can be directly provided money: because their cost guarantees

by

ill inciple in the slogan: Montage

before shooting,

monlage during shooung

and

one goes to sec the special effects in A lien their value, What these

Ilionta)!;e after the shnoting. The constant emphasis of this montage is on separation, nu division, on the fact that there is no object constituted slmultaneously produces a subject. If many film-makers outside a practice which would take the pro-filmic this event in selfbefore the

event as su ffieient in itself, Vertov's emphasis is that to constitute NltbjcCl .. Montage before shooting entails a commitment

~((Hiciency is (0 impose already a view on it, to produce it for and with its appropriate to placing ru rnera mat erial which is not unified in itsel f b ut which already invites contrad ictory
IHISil ions from which to see it

* .Two examples

of montage before shooting should In the how and and
This emphasis on the divisions internal to the image can find a historical placing in terms of Bazin "s praise of deep focus. Godard' s originality is to combine th is wil h a division oj rhe image. This conjunction was elliptically spell out in a famous earl y art icl e on mo ntage t hm Godard contri buicd to Cahiers.

wake clear what is at stake in this principle. Pierre Gorin went to some lengths to emphasise hnportant
II

*

problem of money but which are in fact the problem of the control and organisation of sounds and images. and distribution It is when we realise the relation between production in the cinema, how the order of money determines the order of why Godard both welcomed the political events of was fiercely hostile to placing problems It also makes clear why Godard has One of the crucial effects of May, practice before '68 became explicit investigation in 1968-71 as

Cohters du Cinema interview abou t.Tou I va bien, J eanit had been for them to have unknown actors, mainly young,
at

nemployed

in the role of hours during a the distance

images, that we can understand of distribution developments

workers

the Salumi plant where Yves Montand are held for twenty-four

'68 and yet, in contrast to other film-makers, before problems of production.

June ronda workers

luctory occupation.

It might seem that it would have been more logical to have had for Gorin, between the workers and would have been too great for the group in front of bodies in a situation unified and actors on the economic breadli ne, relations between them and Fonda and Moruand of the film in a way that escaped any some of the
0f

repeatedly stated that May '68 was not a violent break for him but merely accelerated already implicit in his practice. however, is that what was implicit in Godard's

in these roles but,

Il!pcrstars like ronda and Montand

n]' I he camera to be more than a selection
del crrn ined by the script. By employing
Ill'

under the political and theoretical impact of political struggles in France. Previously intuitive choices were made the focus of a systematic production was emphasised over distribution by the narrative together with a total rejection of the and an ever greater separation of an investigation of the or the

envy .jealousy

and guilt were established some of the raw material

which provided
1111.1. rica tion I!'ttl

cinematic ideology of vision. If in Deux ou trois chases or Une Femme mariee the refusal of a view produced various separation relations necessarily matters of expression are the consequence

by the script and which, at the same time, would reproduce

ures of the relations between militant workers and radical intellectualO The second example can be taken from the shooti ng film that Godard was making as t.his text. was being written: Sauve qui peut,
0

situation of women, in British Sounds, in Vent d'est or in Pravda it is the deliberate of the various matters of expression in order to comprehend between sound and image which composes entailed these films being strictly unwatchable some of the the film. These concerns by 'the viewing public'; position. Godard's

III~

1\11 hough there is no script as detailed as for The Story, Sauve qui peut shares many
! I

r iIS concerns:

the place

f the eh ild in a broken relationship,
II

the relations between of images. It also, of the relation between who

mother and daughter however, contains, mit
111

and the place of work in the production consideration

they presuppose an audience united in a set of political and aesthetic concerns and in order to see them it is necessary experiments to share the film-maker's in this period allowed him, however, in a set of money-relations. to formulate more clearly the

as one of its elements,

ry and city which is not evident in the script of The Story _In one of the early played by Nathalie Baye, a photographer move to the country, goes to meet an old acq uaintance who now runs a local and from whom she hopes to get work, Their meeting takes place in a is photographing a traditional Swiss German peasant game side

wcues from the film, the character
WI I n I s to

strategies for breaking with the order imposed by money, or, more exactly, the order which crystallises in opposition group's Eisenstein's the moments [The Dziga- Vertov grou p too k its name almost as much to Eisenstein as in simple commitment to Vertov. Crucial to the was an enlarged conception of montage. Whereas limited to this theoretical
0 f shooting

newspaper

I II' IIIwhere the journalist

I

culled Hornuss. Hornuss pits two sides against each other, each team taking turns to
lUI It small rubber ball from one end of the field to the other while the opposing
~I't ends WOPII. Ilrtlt'ril

self-definition

II
I

writing suggested that montage was an operation of filming the Dziga-Vertov

out across the field and tries to arrest the ball in mid-flight with huge bats of ' Godard had requested the two teams to put on a game of Hornuss for his the times of the trains which ran across the back and he had also ascertained

and editing, for Vertov mon tage was a principle which had group formulated

primacy in every moment

42

43

/

of the playing field. The game of H ornuss, the meeti ng between the two characters and the passing trains provided the montage before the shooting: three elements which escape any simple unification into one image.

I:Ullt'II'~; (f'l,·1;;Il"irI3Vlad'fl and Marianne If\mH.:lJuperi:'Y) uoseIor a euem. versed Iii lilt" ;II'!~ or tourism. l uun Ilcux IIU trots choses

What the Dziga- Vertov grou p mean t by montage in the shooting became clear as filming began. Godard refused, to the poin t 0 f arguing at length with the assistant director, could be synchronised to direct the players of Hornuss so that the action and a train, an exciting moment of the game and the dialogue of montage, of juxtaposition, in favour advertise holidays in a variety of exotic places. Each poster places the subject at the cent re of lhe world. No need to confront
sil 110

would coincide. It was not that Godard did not want all these in the shot but that to direct them would be 10 lose the advantage of a unity imposed by the director. consequence If the actors could nor follow the game as a could not provide that interest for

the question
0["

of where his or her look is The world is

of their own interest then Godard

uared, no need in fact to travel to the place

indeed, even if travel is undertaken,

them. In his refusal to tell the actors what to do it might be possible to discern an ideology of tru t h as spon taneity, Such an ideology, however, assumes a finished and defined representation totally adequate to what is being represented. Godard's activity is in direct contradiction part of the heterogeneous to this: therelations between actors and director are

need to move, no need to undergo the experience of displacement.

centred for us by the camera and we are atthe centre of a world always in focus ..As long as we accept [his centring we shall never be able to pose the question of 'who speaks' in the image,
III

never be able to understand

the dictation

of our place.

raw material oft he film and the director sh ould no t act so as

< ,oda

rd's devotion to

on tage, the insistence on the heterogeneity

ofthe visual field,

to fix the actors in his image. An analysis of montage after the shooting will have to await the finished film but it is certain that the specra tor wi IInot. be offered an object to look at but an articulation the spectator's institu tion journalistic immediately montage
0f

i~the only response to a system which decrees that the order of money determines the order of the image.

of images to consider. Such articulation

always places makes the which in
Scenes from the Hornuss sequence I1l1tl Godard's direction of i l lll'PCar on pp.J61·162.
I<

look in question,

poses the question of its constitution,

cinema the q uesti on of every film When Godard is called a magazine,

*.

introduces

the

object,

language

in Deux ou trois choses,

the object cinema it. Culin MacCabe: Is your dislike of A bout de souffle due to the fact
1hat

poses the question of look and position which in traditional It is the introduction an image, which reintroduces
0 bjeers

would conceal.

of a look where we should find an object, a desire to the eye by which the image presen ts to us and to

where we attend

I I
:1

su bverting its imaginary plen itude. The

which our only relati on can be tha t of possession necessarily represses au r being, our situation in the world. The libidinal investment in the image, an investment on which the economic problem investment turns, is profoundly narcissistic, an avoidance of the of the other. Our acquiescence in this pleasure is bought at the cost of

it has an image of criminal money which seems to offer a simple liberation Jean-Lac Codard: No, not really, it's more. because it's a picture that

I"rom social constraints?

ignoring the conditions

of existence of the image, conditions

from which we suffer

I've done for others. A dream of how to make a picture. Perhaps the film should hove been made but not by me. It's a picture that's more admired by cinephiles than by ordinary movie-goers representative and maybe that's because it was a kind of if you took a certain position to its conclusions. and why it has taken make a movie, it means of what happened

every day. In Deux ou trois choses the backgrounds

are littered with posters which

D4.
~.

lIeel that it's not my movie, that there's too much in the picture and only a little hll of il belongs to me. That's why I feel uneasy about it IIII! almost all the time since to recover myself. I mea" you don't

r

i

th~ movie makes you. It's like work and life, so to recover yourself, to recover at , !I'liNtpart of yourself, or what you think of yourself, "lluiIJmcnt, it means money, it means .•. takes time ...

I

45

In films like Une Femme mariee or Deux ou trois ehoses, all your emphasis is on the way in which money functions the endless stimulation emphasise production, of demand in advertising. in distribution, rather And when in '68 you come to

WIIS

bad. He has a real interest in the cinema even if it's only a monetary

one.

~""drelationship

And there's some who've got more. There are producers about art.

with whom I've had a

and then there are moments when one's speaking about moncy

it seems to follow from this analysis of distribution Do you think that is a correct

nud it's a way of speaking

than from the Marxist analysis of capitalism. description?

It seems to me that in your earlier films your image
to he lor the cinema's economic relation with the spectator was the image of tourism. l'hcre's posters and the promise of a movement Films work like tourism I ry to make sure t hal there

I can't say now. I think that we pretended debate with ourselves before preteuding to distribute

Marxists, or that we weren't fully Marxists. It was largely a feeling that we had to goods to the people. We had to produce them in a good way because if not then wh~it would we have to offer? When we met last year I was fasci nated by your saying that the money came back in the image, that all the images of cinema are also images of money. Maybe I said that. I don't remember what I was them in a getting at. People disagree when their bosses take too much, but they don't disagree wben a star takes tuo much, so it must be that a star represents way. That's why they agree. It's like a king. Sometimes like that so they don't disagree. Sometimes throwaway people dun't disagree if

but never any displacement.

you're offered a voyage that you don't get - but you

is a voyage and the crucial factor in this voyage is
Yes. In '68 you broke with traditional methods of

montage.

production
10

and distribution

and when you returned with Tout va bien, it seemed economic forms of the cinema, I don't

part of a very conscious strategy. Now in Sauve qui peu t and The S tory you seem be using many more of the traditional Perhaps particularly stars. Is this a conscious change of direction? I'm able to see it a bit differently, in financing.

there's a king and there's a part of them which is in the king. A star in a movie is people like to sec pictures which the money, James Bond films or Alain Resnais films or whatever.

wllnt to be used by those forms but I want to use tbem and perbaps use tbem in a lIifferent way. And this raises a lot of difficulties Ntars are a change of direction No, I don't think because every time I could use them, I did. Yes, I'd Particularly

They feel that this is a part of them and they are ready to pay and reimburse to hear a story or even to hear their own stories. The money enters in a lot of different ways but it's always the samelike that .. Sometimes movement. it's investment,

IIkc to use a star but in a way that would not enslave me but help me. I don't want to be obliged to write as though I'm writing an advertisement. In The Story, which is about the 'starry'
II

person wbo' s been able to spend and to tell a story, They agree to pay a high price energy, desire, things

human system and how the story is the

real star, there has to be a star, a big star, for the audience to think of the story as star lightening our human existence. And that. in their story it is tbe story that is reasons: that it's
It was a mistake to

it's money that can be turned into goods and sometimes it's

the main star. And you need a star just for the most anecdotal aheut Bugsy Siegel and H ullywood. And what are the ways of interrupting Oh, we interrupt that circuit? and has no it. At one time I was obliged to What I've discovered une star and the star has to play the character I call Frankie.

is that it has to be just

try to get de Nirn and Keaton for the other two roles. Now I want to get Brande to play Frankie and if that happens then all the earlier trouble will tum out to have been a good thing. In the earlier period you were fascinated Iiollywood
I he

interrupt

it. I didn't

know where I was. 1I's when one is in difficnlties

way of speaking about. it, it's then that you have to begin aU over again. You become an exile. If you are chased out of your country, which you can't work any more, so you go elsewhere ... had a good relationship directors are interesting it becomes a territory in In a way I've always than

with

with and found it easier 1.0 get on with producers

and then you rejected it. How do you situate yourself in relation to I don't know. I feel completely more init and out of as

because at least, and this is the opposite of what is generally said, they because they are engaged in commerce. OK, so they produce a for but it's almost more interesting,

history of the cinema now? the cinema now. I don't. know why I see less movies But their country is my country.

James Bond movie, it's not very interesting me, than Antonioni something. For example, the producer

II, nu I 0 f wbat is considered
CVCrY

or whoever because you can at least talk to them about wonldn't hesitate to tell you that your film

year. I wish I could see more. I see movie people as complete strangers, people who aren't interesting.

rorcigners,

46

47

They're

almost like oppressors,

invaders. That was the sensatlon

I had sometimes a camera

when I saw the techniclans

in the last movie coming near the camera,

that I'd bought or hired. Or again some of the things I see in the theatre. I think of myself, yes exactly, like a member of the French Resistance what he considers his country is run by foreigners. Is that how you feel about the new Hollywood I feel that they're ... usurpers, cinema? when h is country,

yes, that's it. And

they are very arrogant . !Whenever they say, 'the focus should be such and such', I always want to say: 'What do you know about it? You know and I need your skill but don't say if like that. What makes you think you know about it? Let's discuss it and not shoot right away'. And when you say that everybody Isn't there a contradiction If they're usurpers then there's something were, an old Hollywood disappears.

in what you've just said. So then is there, as it I

they've usurped.

that you still feel is the kingdom? No. But, after ali, at the time they were inventing. for

don't know how to say this but people have always had a lot of admiration gangsters because they invent. Whatever means a lot of work and a lot of invention. invention

they do they do themselves and that There's much more invention in a operation. That's There's no why they're

hold-up by ten people than in a strategic command admired by people they are legendary.

invading Vietnam but Capone had invention.

I'rogramme: Are there any films you've seen in the last ten years that you think are really good? Nothing. There are long periods when I don't go to the cinema. Then when I do go to the pictures, I go to every one; I was always like that. To give them ten francs against a legend. I'm like everyone sometimes I prefer to go and see a James Rond picture rather than a Straub I prefer Gone with the Wind. But perhaps The last new picture. It's not as good bot •••

conceptualise

subjeetivity

in terms of class.

From Lotte in Iralla

that's just saying 'in my time, in my time, you know, it was better'. was Marguerite

picture I saw that I was remly glad to see, a good picture and with something

Duras's Le Camion . I was really amazed by Alice Doesn't Live Sometimes I prefer to look at faces or at things in

Here Anymore and some of the Scorsese, That was a discovery. I suppose I could
see more pictures bot ..• paintings picture. because I can look longer and there are more things to see titan in a

48

49

Godard's 'Towards a Political

co mm itmen t to a po Iitical <.:i ncma
0f

I'll

ces: the motorcade

an d the pol ice are enough dcmonstrares

to signal their presence.

In the

was sign a IIed in one

his very earliest
(Godard

art icles,

niovcrncnt of the pan Godard

the distance between rile personal and lure in

Cinema'

on Godard,

tllC political, which is abo the distance between the form of the thriller and the form
IIi'

pp. 16-17). 0 rail 111 earl y en igma tic articles it is th is e one which has proved translator art ides however, discussion. commented are fairly the most opaque; cryptic. th is
0

[lie documentary.

The form of the thriller reduces politics to a momentary
111 otorcad

the English early al III ost is

III~na rra rive: ou ron Iy in terest in the
111i1IlY

e is that it explai ns the presence of so

'while most of Godard's ne

policemen in terms other than the hunt for Michel. In parallel fashion any figures as a central meaning would see Michel and Godard's early films the search for a form the But as the political of politics which of form clearly became than

newsreel in which the motorcade

impenetrably

so' (Godard on Godard, p.245). In fan, Talking of a shot from Gerasimov's The

I'a[ ricia only as part of the public gathered to observe the two national leaders. Throughout
I hriller

certain clear terms emerge from Godard's again in Alpha\'ille,

III politics is also the search for a form of cinema which could discuss politics:

Young Guard which he claims sums lip the whole 0

the war movie in Les Carabiniers. to the demands dilemma

Soviet cinema, he writes: ... in interminable apparition a ~'oung girl in front of her door, silence, tries to suppress the tears

pressure of the 1960s grew more intense, and particularly Vietnam, Godard', incr easingly plans) search for a form adequate a politics No film adequate poses the would also constitute desperate.

the pressures of the war in

to the demands

which finally burst violen II) fort h, a sudden of life. Here the idea of a shot (doubtless with the Sovieteconomic 01'sign, indicating
r r()1 n
l.i.l Ch i noise

more

M uscnlin/F em inin. The protagonist, I'<lrly politics in which his Communist

played by Jean- P icrrc Leau d, occu pies the world of moves so friend, played by Michel Debord,

not unconnected something

posiuon of the oblique stroke in the title caught between the masculine

takes on its real function Godard's cinema is a question an affirmation

in whose place it appears. insistence that politics in the of signification, the affirmation lost

corn f"ortah Iy an d til e femini nc wor ld of teenage magazines and pop music inhabited
11)'

his pop singer girl friend (Chantal Goya). His own desire somehow to unite and of Western cu Iture leaves him without listeners in a

ua ns form these two disparate e Iern ents 01'his experience with the aid of fragmen ts of Ihe Iraditi onal discourses solnude emphasised 11001h. The popular the cinema audience's Inrrnula questions when his only audience is provided by a record-your-own-voice forms of art, despite their appeal, indifference arc increasingly shown as epitomised in and the idiotic by the

that the aest he tic an d the political are in ti mutely linked, aided b y the linguist ic coincidence, in translation, and plan,
Ihe

II

that French has the same word for shot emphasis on a m omen t of emotion as the all these as providing film-making.
It is not usual to consider A bout de souffle a political

arricula tion 0 r Ihe political and th e personalcan be understood terms for Godard's

ineradicably ruined by their relation between producer and consumer, to the quality of the projection [hat Chantal

some of the crucial

Goya is asked on behalf of her audience missing from the habitual stereotype of politics. politics

interviewer for a pop magazine, jlop music world completely Communist party, frozen

At the same time there is a liberating novelty in the of the French admit the it is not a which cannot For Godard

movie; the conventional

wisdom is that Godard docs not reflect on politics until Le room, the radio

in a repressive

Petit Soldat, and yet the terms or the problems of polities are already assembled in the first film. While Michel and Patricia talk and play in Patricia's brings them news of the visit. that Eisenhower analogue. separately installed General de Gaulle. The lovers' international to the political is understood the Champs
0f

demands of art or sexuality into the language

question of posing the problem of politics in terms of popular art, nor of posing the problem of popular art in terms or politics, In Maseulirr/Feminin IICmade concurrently immediately afterwards, {ISA, the problems or politics and art are articulated provided by the forms of cinema, Godard
1\1)1 I

is paying to Paris and to the recent ly affair thus finds a political

and the two films

Deux ou trois choses and Made in in the same terms: the terms the form of the

And yet the analogy is formal and em Ply; the distance from the personal as infinite. Elysees, Later in the rilm Michel and Patricia Michel reading yet another edition of descend

has never simply accepted
0

France Soil" and Patricia

trying to evade the policemen who are following her. Their people and the po Iicemen con trolling them and as to the road we see that the politicians' Elysees, In lact we never see the politicians'

i ical, So used are we to the daily diet

f political in format ion att he international, consciously pursued. It is, that thequestion of

descen t is impeded by crowds motorcade is ascending

lIul

ional or local level that we rarely question the form of politics, the way in which heritage of the revolutionarytradition

the camera pans across from the pavement the Champs

cummunal decisions are taken and social transformations
(' I' cou rse, the fundamental

so

51

the form of politics is itself political. However, i I' Leninism was an attempt to hold together this revolutionary double engagement, narrow definition truth and the necessity to intervene in the given form of which allowed of such a parties to the
1Il0S1

Be fore t ha t, however, Godard had chosen to commit himself fully to the political, to that form of politics, Leninist dissolving, Maoism, heritage. which This promised of audience to revivify solved, with Deux the by
011

the political, the party being the new form of organisation the historical subjection of the political is a testament

of Communist

commitment

10 the bankruptcy

of the Leninist

the problems

and institutiou,

trad iti on in the devel oped wor Id. For us in the ad vanced capi I al i SI cou nt rics t here is perhaps no instance so evident. of the failure to theorise or practically act on the form of the political as the lack developed throughoutthe political remains,

The film that Godard for understanding film-making unbearable

shot concurrently

or engagement
century.

trois ehoses, Made in USA, provides some of the terms why, despite the advances the cinema
W<lS

with the new inforrnation

media that. have One way in

of his

The effects of these media on the form of the in theory or in practice. work is as such a challenge and a

practice, for Godard.

becoming of a more in

still, largely unchallenged

A statement

which it is possible to view the whole of Godard's

immediate despair, it is dedicated to Nicholas Ray and Samuel Fuller and it marks Godard's this period to use the traditional content of the film making final attempt forms of Hollywood

challenge that operates at the level of both theory and practice.

cinema. But the political paralysis which provides the a publicly defeated left which is of its own and others' how often the further harassed by conspiracies

is also a paralysis of form. No matter how is used, no matter insists 'we were certainly in a film about the form of the on a specific organisation the hidden tru tho f which been argued, this

.

_.
0 I'

much polities:

ellipsis

commentary

Walt Disney plus blood',

thriller is finally dependent conspiracy, as an appearance And, organisation constitutive years later:

of image and sound in which politics can only appear as must be made visible. as has already of sounds and images is itself dependent with the audience as we know which is it. British three of the cinema

on the speci fic relation Deux ou trois choses hesitates between the forms fiction and the forms of documentary. of Paris, or the fictional investigation allows both film-maker about her) is represented and audience by Godard's

Is this a report on the urban transformation

Sounds indicated the problem when it announced Ouring the projection

of a woman's life? It is the dash of forms that to appear as the institution own commentary of the cinema and the

of an imperialist

becomes an integral part of the film. The 'I' of the title (Two or Three Things I know on the soundtrack uncertainty of the 'knowledge' foreground participating institution attempt Deux
00

film the scree n sells the voice of the boss to the people. , . During the screen in:;: of a militant the screen is no more than a blackboard co ncrete analysis of a concrete situation.
It is the relation

mm

offering a that

is emphasised by the dissociation of sound and image This putting of the devices of cinema in the
[0

and the increased use of montage, constantly in yet another

forces the audience

experience its status as cincma-gocrs, society. The problems ground
Oil

with the audience

determines

the functioning

on the screen and it is 'if a million politics must

aspect of the consumer the contradictory
0 fthe

of thc can
I,

exactly that relation which Godard broke with in 1968. British Sounds makes the point succinctly: prints are made of a Marxist-Leninist Gone with the Wind.' A film about film it becomes

of cinema become to articulate

which Godard

the terms of the personal and the political and, in hindsigh

trois choses an ticipa res much

reflective essays prod uced by Son image,

52

53

enjoy a different relation with its audience from that of the commercial reality that presenting cinema; it must be
it

lind objective conditions entered into and won.

from which a showdown

with the bourgeoisie portrayed

can be

participant rather

in the than

it attempts

to articulate

The Maoism which Godard in 1967 and which was to determine group culminating
[',0", Le G.i '",0;'

in La Chinoise

itself as an observer that can show us the Insofar as politics is a complex from the economic to the 10 simply to represen tit ranging

in large measure the films of the Dziga- Vertov movies Tout va bien and Letter to Jane was to and of of any in the ascendancy

truth of any situation. set of struggles ideological, people who,

in the Godard-Gorin

a complex phenomenon.
~LI

The history of Maoism in China is not yet complete;

it is impossible

grasp exactly what was at work in the Cultural Revolution, Four Modernisations,

in that very relation,

find themselves

bsequcnr disgrace of Lin Piao and the Gang of Four, in the current programme be based on conjecture. However, the history
10 have

placed outside those strugglcs: rather it must address specific audiences in specific situations. To move from the despair evolution but the product of a complex
0 f the 01'

is a task both so difficult and so foreign that for us in Europe it it had ceased

can only, for the moment, Made in USA to the both national and but the most sectarian arguably Maoism inspiration against confirmed

European Maoism is easier to grasp. Relatively short-lived, the most notable of the French Maoist ideological

Maoism of Hrilish Sounds was evidently nor a question of some ineluctable personal of factors involving international politics. In fact. Godard was to make three more films under his own

meaning by the time that in 1974 La Gauche Protetarienne, groupings, force, movements dissolved itself. If their its political significance

still lives on as a diffuse

name be fore the forrnati on

Dziga- Verto v grou p hu t it wou Id not be ridicu lou s

disappeared

with the failure of the revolutionary

that found

to say that Godard was ready for '68 by the end of 1966. Indeed the fact that the next film he made, in 1967, was La Chinuise. the story of a group 01 young Maoists that was uncannily prophetic of the events of the following year, is some indication of that. Made in USA is a despairing film which yet allows the possibility of hope. lfone fully reckons the left's state of total bankruptcy then at least there is a possibility of USA and starting anew. 'Year Zero.of the Left' is a caption that punctuatesMadein

in the French and Italian revolts of the late 1960s and in the protests war. The events in China after the death of Mao simply that still sought the tried to reconcile the emphases of the Cultural Revolution When the split between Russia and China, nascent in this political death as the small political groupings

the Vietnam

label of Marxist-Leninism

with the slogans of the Four Moderuisations. the late 1950s, became a fact in the early 1960s, almost all other Communist split into a pro-Soviet which the members
I hey

it is from th is year zero that one can begi n coun ti ng agai n. The despair of Made in USA is not a despair of politics and the cinema but a despair ofthe forms of both, the forms of representation on which they depend, but as such it also marks the stan of a had arrived by his own route at a position to build political movements that instead of simply Maoism's appeal t.o tical deba Ie and st ruggle. The
0f

parties

and a pro-Chinese

faction.

In Europe

there was no case in

of a pro-Chinese to Mao's

faction gained control of the party. Instead panics or movements which or the qualifying with the founding features of Maoism. of peacefu I teaching by the adoption

radical search for new forms for both politics and cinema. In this total rejection 01" the existing form of politics, Godard the Cultural Revolution similar to that held by Maoists in the West who, following the Sino-Soviet split and in China, were attempting would combat oppression at every point that it was experienced
0 f poli

left or were expelled and founded new Communist their allegiance Marxist-Leninist. adherence This emphasis

signalled adjective

on the continuity

fathers of revolutionary But this theoretical
I he

politics was one of the distinguishing refusal

took on political meaning in the immediate cause of of the Soviet doctrine this doctrine in which as a refusal to face up to the to a new form of connived
0

challengin g this op pression on the given terrain Godard:

Si no-Soviet.

sp li t: the Chinese struggle, America,

opening word s 0 f La Chi n nise ca n perhaps serve as an index

coexistence. imperialism,

The Chinese denounced social imperialism,

realities of revolutionary On the one hand Iht' French workin~ class will
i III pcrialist su per-power,

a refusal which amounted the Russians

with

the went

to spl it th e world in 10 sph eres

f in fluence t ha t the Third of client ill

not achieve political unity nor stand on the barricades in wages, there will not be in the foreseeable European capitalism

10

ohtain a 12 per cent rise for ...
0n

they controlled.

This stress on national independence

from the super-powers countries,

future a cri~i.~so dramatic
0r

together with an aggressive support and Eastern, which trapped position

for the underdeveloped countries by further

that the mass of workers in order to defend their vital armed insu rrection will never give up power without fighting and to create the subjective

World, against the developed world and an attack on the fonns of aid, both Western underdeveloped was bolstered in the position theoretical states. This political arguments

I

interests will pass to a revolt! tionary general strike the other hand the bourgeoisie principal

withou t being forced to by the revol u tionary actio n of the masses. Th u s the problem of a socialist strategy is, henceforth,

which it was suggested

that the fundamental

contradiction

in the contemporary

world was not that between capital and proletariat. but that between the developed

S4

SS

and underdevel oped countries. Th is thesis found sanction in Lenin's conception labour aristocracy, from a European The Chinese considered a section of the working class whose dominance market made it side with the bourgeoisie. held that although a true revolutionary

of a

lin important

method of break ing with bourgeois idea drawn on by Mao -

notions of identity and politics. cultural revolution, a theory not

in the labour

Sel f-criticism was not, however, t he key Maoist concept. That place was reserved for the second Leninist prom ulga ted u nti I some years after the original Sino-Soviet political seizure of the state and the economic production thatthis contradiction spl it. Th is con cepi had of the means of

Finally, and perhaps most importantly mistakes he could be

point of view at that time, the Chinese refused to condemn Stalin. Stalin had made serious in that he had refused any thesis of peaceful

been advanced by Lenin towards the end of his life to cope with the problem that the reorganisation were not enough to abolish classes or class struggle. It could be argued in factspelt the death of Leninism, of that par ticular auernpt to to deal which would

coexis renee wi Ih im perialism and had constan IIy fought agai nst those who had tried to restore capitalism in Russia. It is this last thesis - that capitalism had been restored in Russia since Stalin's death which contained the theoretical and ideological potential which was to mak e European terms of forms of property condemnation revolutionary featureof Maoism more than just another com mu n ist

theorise political and economic struggle. Be that as it may, Lenin attempted with the problem by talking of the necessity for a cultural revolution wrest ideological power from the bourgeoisie. When, poli tical strue tures threatening which had been associated however, suggestion and its consequences were never properly explored. Mao Tse-tung
0

It was never really more than a found himself in the and and discrimination of cultural

sect. The Chinese analysis was not based on any classic Marxist analysis of capital in relations or forms of labour but rather on a moralistic structures in Russia. II the of personal life-styles in determining of the disparities of wealth and authoritarian potential of a party or country,

same dilemma in China, with a growing hierarchisation to rein trod uce forms with capitalism, The Cultural every activity the major

of the administrative

was this, the stress on the importance

r pri vilege

which was to be the most important
10

he used the concept Revolution task

Maoism in the \VeSI. If workers and militants in Eastern Europe were dislive but in Western countries communist militants could

revolution to engage the Chinese people in a new political struggle, one designed to combat this new hierarchisation. of ideas and of understanding ideological struggle became intellectual disappeared. category of intellectual in the ideological stressed the importance but. if that it directly indicate the specific role of the in terms of class struggle Revolution

satisfied with the life-styles of their political rulers, they had little option but with their dissatisfaction, express their distrust Marxist-Leninist of the bourgeois The stress between the bourgeois strength political,
1.0

life-styles

of their leaders by setting up forms at every level. on the daily struggle

political

parties that would break with bourgeois on the personal, and proletarian

It was an essential tenet of the Cultural

should combat the division between mental and manual labour, on which the very depends, in order that the masses could participate This schematic how it was this strand of revolutionary preoccupations rather than Trotskyism, political tendencies that participated personal struggle, consumer particularly analysis anarchism of Maoism should struggle. activism that focused many of Godard's or any other of the diverse of to the

line in one's own life, was both Maoism's

and its weakness.

On the one hand it really did subvert the form of the This has been the dilemma
1.0 0f

including within its sphere every aspect of life. On the other it threatened 01" the century. The attempt subvert the form of the the pol itical. through

reduce all those other aspects to the political.

Leninist politics throughout this ambiguity Tse-tung resolution.

poli tical has often rcsul ted in an ever grea tel' dominance emphasised contradiction

r n Maoism

in '68. It was the linking of the importance field, with a commitment elsewhere.

crystallised round the figure of Mao himself. ! f the thought of Mao as a principle running every form of offering a final

in the ideological

Third World that made Maoism an appropriate

form for the expression of hatred of Maoism did not struggle, must be reflection. The to

practice, one figure, Mao himself, remained outside contradiction,

society and its basis in underdevelopment

'I

dictate in advance the form of films that must be made; indeed Maoism insisted that Mao's attempt
10

revivify Leninist politics drew on two This practice, which has a
t,

Ihis was an open question which, as in other areas of ideological solved by a combination importance elaborate choices, To pose Maoism components illuminates Godard's relation granted systematically of practical experiment work allowed and theoretical Godard to theoretical

Leninist ideas. The first was the notion of self-criticism. particular Iy barbarous understood in a more favourable light as an atremptto

history in til e Corum u n ist m overnen to understand

can be Iheoret icall y

the opportunity

break with certain notions of himself or herself as a

the cinematic implications

of many of his earlier intuitive

personal identity and to allow the individual series of contradictions became a complete subordination

rather than a fixed essence. In fact, all too often, the practice of the individual to a political identity which whatever, but there can be little doubt that the practice

in terms of its various intellectual
to it but abo

poses that relation

in of

allowed of no contradiction

curiously formal terms. It ignores the extent to which in the immediate aftermath '68 the decision to participate actively in a movement dedicated

was potentially an important one and it was eagerly adopted by European Maoists as

to the overthrow of

66

57

!III

the existing system of oppression
commitment to engage

was not an intellectual in
t otally

choice, of work.

but rather a If Godard', methods

acceptance ofa Maoist analysis of revolutionary address which allows the synchronisation dist urbed , Iftheaudience

struggle. Jt is this different

form of

oneself

new methods

of sound

and vision to be radically this sound is IeI'I openwhich provides both the of the relation
to

commitment

to Maoism was to wane after 1972, his break with traditional permanent. Perhaps the most important

accepts the correct sound that can be provided by a Maoist

of work remained

new element was the Godard

analysis, the question of the images that should accompany the very problem that the films explore. II is this situation interest and the final limitations subversion of the dominance of these militant

decision to work collaborativcly,

The Dziga- Vertov group was always more than the

mere fiction that. it was often taken for. On Brltish Sounds and Pravda the decisive collaboration was to be with lean-Pierre Gorin, another

films. On the one hand the

wor ked wi th J ean- Henri Roger and they were joined on I' ra vd a by Paul Bu rron. Bu t

of the image allows the investigation

of the young

between sound and image which Le Gai Savoir claimed as a necessary preliminary any real television or cinema. On the other hand the assumption track implied the possibility of a correct image to accompany the audience is ineluded in the relation of correctness,

Maoists with whom Godard had [ir xt.cornc into contact while making La Chinuise, It was with Gorin that Godard made the last four Dziga-Vertov Lotte ill Italia, Vladimir et Rosa and the unfinished insisted, both at the rime and subsequently, films - Vent d'est, before, JUS(IU'a la vlctolre -

of a correct soundof

it. The advance is that

There is no question

under their own names, they released Tout va hien and Letter to Jane. Godard has that his contribution work undertaken to these films was with Gorin was
I

p rod uci ng OIl the screen a correct align men t of sou rid and image. Wha t is considered

possible is that in a particular

situation and for a particular

audience it is possible to

largely technical, 80 per cent of the ideas coming from Gorin. The im portancc of this assertion is that it confirms that the collaborative exactly that. It must not serve as an encouragement. Godard also insists t ha t, whatever films were the complete and financial organisation the production
t he

produce correct sounds and images. Hence the fact that to make a million prints ofa Marxist- Leninist film is to transform the notion
0 fa

it into Gone with the Wind. The problem is that
0 I't he

to divide the films into dif'Ieren and to others Gorin, because ce
0f

correct relation bet ween sound and image is unders toed in excl u sivcly audience prod uces a domi nance of alignment of sound and vision. contradiction which

sections to some of which we attach the name Godard, original provenan responsibility

polit ical terms. The poli tical con st it u tion In fact the Dziga- Vertov provided bot h the st rengths
I he

the ideas, the fi n ish ed If the technological

politics where before one had the dominance films work and weak nesses

or the
0f

of both collaborators.

in that constitutive

of the cinema imposes collective work as the condition of ideology of the individual (be it in that form of the 'professional competence' of the

th e origi nul I .en in ist irn pulse and its ion to challenge the form of defined in terms of

of a film, the dominant

Maoist revival. The strength comes from the dererrninat

which privileges the 'creative artist'. the director or actors, or in the complementary form which insists on the sharp delimitation various technicians) often works against developing the collectivity that i, instituted Godard ceased to w ork with Gorin Sonimage was anything but a with and set up Sonimage,

political by including within it a variety of other practices. The complementary

weakness is that finally all these other practices are exhaustively
I

he political. Both Brh ish Sou nds and Pravda investiga te the form of the documentary, what it is to represent country, against be that it Czechoslovakia. Although traditional capitalist form posing the question situation or Britain of in a the political

by the very decision to make a film. Although when he moved to Grenoble return to an individual television, production is undertaken

method of work. Over and above the collaboration as a collective enterprise actively.

Mievillc which provides the basis for Sonimage's unit is expected to participate

work, each project, be it film or in which every member of the
From

socialist

both films work resolutely of the documentary and thc and although

Th e distinguish ing feature of the Dziga- Vertov films is not therefore their collecti ve producti on, which continued but rather the political conditions organisation aftermath situation'. surrender of production. after the group's demise, commercial which allowed the films to be made with a totally situation in France in the immediate however small, for films is a willingness to the

Bri nsh Su u nds

which simply produces

images which accompany is contradictory

prove the truth of the sound-track content of the sound-track sound and a new relation

in places,

different relation to the audience from that implied by the traditional The political of '68 was such that there was a real audience, If all that unifies the traditional

the films persisren t ly pose the existcn cc of a correct between sound and image which would produce the correct image to accompany it. This final goal of both films is evident in the similar closing
• For' f urt her analvsis of Rriri,I, Sounds and I'l"lIvda see chapter 4. pp. 85·87. and chapter .I. rp.tt4·119, respectively.

which were 'no more than a blackboard

offering a concrete analysis of a concrete cinema audience unity which determines
COl]

sequences

in

which

revolutionary

a certain sum of money, it is this financial films, however,

accompany

the image of a red flag.

*

songs

necessity for sound and vision to coincide, for our eye to be see. The Dzjga-Vertov

firmed in its abili ty to unified in its

were made for an audience

58

59

Vent d'est, that it attempts This immediately

the first film on which Gorin is significantly different in of fiction.

In 1969 she is ca lied Rachel Darnev, graduated napalming in chemical analysis from the Vise .·arben of Palestinian farmers in the Nablus and in Un iversi ty in 1\ uremh urg. She spcelalises in the Gaza area who refuse to leave their land. Vent d'est found its original inspiration an idea of Daniel Cohn-Bendit Nanterre,
1.0

was the major collaborator,

to deal with the problem poses the question

of vision more with the

acutely because there is no place in a fiction film for a correct sound except insofar as it is congruent narrative, striking a narrative feature which is guaranteed that we sec it unroll. images which articulate captions which determine actions. which sound-track
My the fact

, the student leader from western in which a or the

In fact the most immediately a narrative. As characters motives and of the 'THI:'

make

a left-wing

of the film is the refusal to provide

mining strike would provide the central dement to think Insofar that onc could make a left-wing as the with film the would preserve as audience

plol. The Dziga- Vertov group argued that it was wrong western. the same

wander across t he screen i[ is the so und-track or written their identities, A typical example of this dominance has been introduced setting by the caption

relationship Hollywood disruption Hollywood found
J"he union delegate is talk il!t. Ltl a lady \~·i a P<11-ol. SI,e i~ barclv III a di~l"~'TJljbk iTI black and w hire bUl C\'''':-Jl in ;:'OIL1L!1" her real ure-, r e Ina ill indistinct.

traditional was the of

comes in the second section of the film,

cinema, it little mattered of the traditional so as
[0

what the content organisation

of the film would be. What. was necessary cinema investigate specific

DELEGATE'. One of the scenes in this section is of an idyllic country characters in which one of the female attended to by a male for us as the union delegate. is being courteously

how images articulations Only be a

their

meaning

within

figure, already identified

VENTO

The second female voice, which has been declared to be the voice of truth, comments: This wuman i.~called SUTanne Munel, wife of the famous pal n ter Clan de Monet, In 1903 she published an open letter in Le Figaro to the President of the French Republic, protesting against her the striking railwaymen painting. 1925: this woman is called Scarlett Faulkner frum Louisville (Alabama). A known who had forbidden

»: EST

LE VENT
»£1.1.' £.S'T"

determined through to

by ideological such an

and political struggles and could there

to engage the film viewer in that investigation. engagement struggle

possibility of making a political film. lf the film chose represent political unproblernatically of learn nothing images and without meaning, accepted capacity engaging the viewer in the construction would
I he

then the spectators u nproblemat of the ica lly

abou t their specific siruat ion; indeed, inso far as they identifications film they would manner, lose their for such The

husband to enter the Gare St Lazare to finish his

to act in a revolutionary

.:~;.::~ ---"_

action depends on attention which the Hollywood

to the concrete situation

nymphnmaniac,
,I

she accused Richard Lcverall , Dick uf having raped her of the horrible

film could only ignore.

Clever and Eddie, a farmhand, immediately

political con lent of a film could not be defined outside a form which engages the viewer in the analysis 01· meaning determining articulation introductory Cohn-Bendit's 'They've
t'rnlll \'ellt d'est

several times. The local chapter of the Ku-Klux-Klan carried out the execution criminals Levcrall, Clever and F.ddie. In 1936 this woman h as become I nes Mussolini, married to the Spanish representative of the Schneider-Krupp troops into Barcelona from the anarchists group. She welcomed Francu's after they had taken Barcelona councils.
From vent d'est

and

signification the correct

-

the

problem line.

of The

revolutionary

of form and content

is evident

in the

section of the film when the sound-track by voices retelling all that is left of plot (later a voice complains that who were to have

is first. occupied

and the workers'

excluded all the characters

been seen in the film') followed by a voice that analyses

60

61

the h istory

0 I'

the ci nerna it! pol it ica I terms, II is the of how to l'ind images for it thai the meaning
0

indicating

how they have changed of the image into

in meaning as the of thai the [he struggles emphasises

account of a strike, now generalised to cover any strike, and the problems compose the film. To understand I' a

film progresses. The aim is [he complete evacuation the meaning surround importance it, struggles all finally determined the film constantly

by the class

strike and to understand become the same thing. Nowhere which the strike

the meaning

of an image of these two meeting into a
Thls h not a ,lust lmage. n's just an Image.

struggle. Although overwhelming
po:~ :

of thc specific analyses of the cinema, the dominance of the determining political

is this interweaving is analysed: misleadingly

concerns more evident than in the fourth clement into [he mass translated (generally and rather

literal equivalent for the French: the general assembly). The original impetus for the strike and the role of the active minorities investigated and the delegate have already been the and the problem now is to understand

)
.~, )_:'(: ~, ~ -;l[]~

U

analysi s lea yes no possibi lit y of graspi ng the effccti vity of the cinema except in terms of it, function as a liar on behalf
0f

-1- LA GREVE 2-l E DElEt;VE

im per iali sm world . I I' of

and

revision isrn ,
d'est

the and the

next stage of the strike as the workers gather for a mass meeting. This section is mainly composed the film company lying around of images 01the and discussing

1 - The S~p"ik'l' ! - "."he ShOll SI(!w:lrd

n
(I ~

complementary Brezhnev-Mosf'ilm audience

Nixon-Paramount addresses

vent

in a different

place from the commercial

cinema, that change of place is not effected by the film but by the political context which provides an audience in a place other than the cinema. If the synchronisation 01 sound and image so vital to the commercial cinema in favour of the It is

~.:) (I ....

question of whether an image of Stalin should be used in the film. This discussion is punctuated is composed the debate pronounced that of fragments arc saying in the finished in
J. -

~r,~",~c-u"'q::
".

"

Q

. ..,

;;:

film with a variety of images of Stalin. The sound- I rack of what the participants and a voice-over analysis

r>

"~

...
0 ,;;.

o

0-

~ ..,.
Q

".u. ~ItiVl , <'<! JIH~Vf l·lf I IffMl~i ~ Tf
A~l5JANH5

has been abandoned, of the dominance sound-track traditional relations

it has been abandoned of one particular

element on the

which unifies all the subversions between image and sound.

by the second just

female voice, which we It is this voice can be meeting,

TllrSltilH! ThC' ShuI' S.1~"'Lm:l The ..clive 'lir~~n"irif;s \

this absolu te dominance film so oddly formalistic. finds its determination politics.

of the poli tical t hat leaves the AU the work on the image in politics rather than in terms

already know to be the voice of truth. tells us that as mass understood understand

of a series of specific relations between the cinema and
Images of Stalin. From Vent d'e.sl

on Iy in terms of the specific circumstances images only if we ask the same questions. as
i1.11

- who are they ror and who are they against? - wccan Thus the image or Stalin is used by capitalists image of repression but from a revolutionary

Lutte in Italla, of the political, interrogates

I

he next film [hal Godard the tcrms of politics much

and Gorin made, while finally retaining the dominance more th or ough Iy th an th e preced ing film, It is the most interesting of the Dziga- Verrov films and it is therefore particularly unfortunate that it has never been shown and accurate. Whereas we in Bri lain or the Un iled States. Like the other films its title is hot h misleading might anticipate and students, endless footage of battling we see instead workers

point of

view it is a repressive image insofar as it prevents the proper analysis of Stalin as a political phenomenon, The voice-over insists on the Maoist assumption that when one has analysed the specific nature or a struggle or an image it will find its place in the determining struggle of the moment: and revisionism repeats, the struggle of imperialism on the mass meeting of Stalin, so, Dziga-Vertov against revolution. the image repetition

images of one young is to

woman and these images are repeated through the four sections of the film. The aim of this repetition investigate
1 he

Just as the section with variations, throughout

the very notion of struggle, to understand

the film, as in the other

terms of political st ruggle across a stru ggle between

movies, there is a constant

or earlier images

sound and image. The first section produces a series of

62

63

images ora young woman militan I, engaged in political act iviiy, buying clothes, with her l'arnily, with her bov.fhend,
inadequate

area

0f

her li tc, to u ndersi an d 'all [he ideological bases Her political programme is subjectivity in terms of the

in her u ni vcrsi ts. Th is very dcscri ption

~is

of which I am made'. class. Although work Alllrusser is most probably 'Ideology published and Ideological

insofar as it ignores the fact Ihat the images are images of one element of each of these

widened so as to conceptualisc this programme

presented

act ivi tits; there is no prcten cc that we can see her in any of these situations, Rather , a small de I '1' m"Icates a .r: • •, e ,al larger pa.lInn of relationships, the larger pall ern being that which the combination of sound and image
attempts

is implicit. in Maoism, Louis

formulations

of the film are taken directly communist
10

from the Althusser.

of the French

the leading Western Marxist State
Apparatuses'

have developed the ideas
1971),
0f

to analyse.

For example,

a shot of a sPOl:'n by a voice-

of Mao T se-tu ng. Pcrh a ps the most signi fican t 0 f his con tri bu ti on sis an essay called (Althusser,
which

scooping soup out of a bowl is accornnanied

was

over which informs us ihar she is with her farnilv. In the second Section the giricommenls ,~on these " ' Images an d produces new ones designed to show that t II e first scri es were. only reflections which failed 10 grasp the reality of her IItc as a revoluti ronary. Th c t hi section reruns the , ' iird images ihar we have alreadvr seen 1"11'1' a VOice-over " ~ "I e attempts to understand the reality of the reflections
<

in france

in April 1970 but which Gorin had discussed with him before cu ltu ral snuggle, developed and frequently presented itself as a
011

mak ing Lotte in Italia. All hong h Mao stressed the im portance this importance im perialists
Althusser

was not theoretically

simple Manichaisrn

which divided the world into good and bad, capitalist-rnaders, the
0 t her.

an d revisioni sts on the one hand and revo 1u ti 0 naries or any mode of production into three instances,

eschewed this moralistic divide and developed Mao's insights the political and the ideological -

in terms of the to

an analysis economic,

or levels -

tha t com posed the Iirst sect ion and t hu s to cri I. icise a nd tran,:fo:'m
the nroragonist's accounr

and his 1970 essay was an attempt

of the reality of'

theorise the functioning

ofthe ideological instance. Althussers essay had two parts. from which we which will bring
J[

her life In the second ~sto demonstrate Imaginary

ran. The

aim of L third Section his of ideology, how our of

The first com baled any not ion of ideology as false consciousness could be liberated - we all live within systems of representations correspond revolutionary question
to the real. There struggle

the importance

which never simply is not a

understanding

of our real conditions

is no moment

of transparency

existence is the site of a constant bauic, [he outcome of which has an effect on those real conditions , , with her family and in the university,
.. ln !lSOI',. as, al the protagon ist ignores til e im porta nee of her relati ens

to an end as the world

becomes evidently visible, particular
0f

of opposing

truth to ideology

but of analysing

ideological

st ruggles - the func ti on of an y pa rt icu lar sys 1 ern of representations produce them. The second part of the struggled theory
eSS<lY

represcn tat ions. These sys Iems practices which of how and

she fails to

are not simply a matter of ideas but of particular

com bar bou rgeois ideology ' on its OWl] te rram. P 0 I" " . ruca I Sl~\~ggle can nOL be understood in terms of simple
rnitiranr evident

was devoted to a consideration to describe

those practices were organised on a political basis which had to be recognised against. The concept that Alth usser advanced was that of' Ideological State Apparatus". the stare in terms of its control organisation
traditional

activities

bUI must be widened
HI

to em brace is made

this political

every practice.

The importance
, ,.

of ideology
L •

Classical Marxist, Leninist.

"e ca n ne ver see reality because reality is visible only in terms of [he forms of explanation film constantly contradictory fourth sounds available to us. The images of the that I'll I' ms 0 f the I .ct accompany them. The section, which
rhe

ill [he progress of I he film itself

analyses

by a specific class and it was this control of the dominant
which

to consider that the state possessed a number of repressive apparatuses originality was to postulate willing to reproduce formulations Ideological State Apparatuses non-coercive of production.

(the police, the army and so on) designed to maintain class. Althusscr's maintained producing the dominance subjects

change their meaning ,"

of the ruling class through the relations

means by Althusser insofar as in our

and final section of the film has the militan r of the second of her lift: and overcmphasisrd political struggle.

~orre(,:{ing the errors ~gnored much Importance of militant

claimed that the two most imporraru and the family, Althusser's
I hey

Ideologica] State Apparatuses

were education

are of the utmost importance

At the end

stress the necessity of ideological

struggle across a whole series of institutions which we have already encountered to transform the concept of the

she resol ves to in Ireduce the class st ruggle into every

hUI they run into the same contradictions brief discussions
From Lout in I.alia

of Mao and Lenin. The attempt

64

65

·I
I

political practices

!O !O

embrace a range of social practices is abo (In attempt the political. Althusscr'x formulation

!O

reduce those of the is an and

always claimed that they were willing in principle make a commercial product and

to

of the 'relative autonomy'

movie, it is difficult to believe that

ideological reveals this contradiction oxymoron;

in its very wording, 'Relative autonomy'

the practical decision actually to make one was not the of the political situation which deprived them Toul va bien is both similar to the Dziga-Vertov films primacy that. to in that it grants from similar of a militant audience, different it preceded assumed rather

eith er the ideological is auton ornous and! hen the st rugglcs on its terrain

are not to be explained or justified in terms of politics, or it is not autonomous This theoretical

then it is ex hausti vely explained by a co nsi deration of! he real ity 0 f pol itical struggle. difficulty which we have traced across form with the decline of in Jordan, If the revolution the work of the Dziga- Vertov group took on a practical Maoism in France and the defeat of the Palestinian Dziga- Vcrtov group found a political justification dissolving. ideological immediate Either they reconstituted response was to attempt a political to reconstitute

politics, different. in that this primacy of politics is not as the very starting the film attempts the decision point of the film, but. it. MO~t
It

for irs ideological struggle in the audience or the struggle on tile The in
two

to demonstrate to work
Ott

political audience which it addressed in its films, that. audience was in the process of front of cinema lost any straightforward political justification. thal. audience

significantly,

in the cinema

necessitates a more specific work

that institution,

is no longer a question of prod ucing correct images for a correct sound, that sound being the guarantee working provided persuade on the articulation by the institution the audience The decision
I :mil.:'
~lIll· lil

different a new the

of the image

ways: first. of all through the capitalist cinema (with the production audience, neither the political audience of the Dziga-Verrov however, were not
1.0

of Tout va bien), films nor

po litical aud ience to watch the film; it is " q uestion of of sound and of the cinema in order to of politics to

and then (with Letter to Jane) with a new form of film which addresses _ e_o~Ilmercial audience of the capitalist (.:inCll!a_,_ These efforts, 1972, In the meantime abandoned Palestinian Jusqu' Godard

of the centrality

be realised until

their livcs. to work in the commercial An cinema requires the usc of both stars and narrative. the institutional logic that determines

and Gorin shot the fool age for the then-to-beloucla recording of her week ly broadcasts

ala victuire and they also made Vladimir et Rnsa to pay for the crash. Yladirntr et
1\llli;:ril,;a.

film. Although work on Tout va bien was to have started after Ihis, it was Dziga-Vertov film, is by far the weakest. Whether this is was financial, because the group's of the

imagi nary dialogue at the opening of the fi 1m sketches the progress from the desire to make a film to the need for stars in order to finance it and thu s th c necessity of a narrati ve
10

long delayed while Godard recovered from his serious motorbike Rosa, the last completed because the primary reason for its production resistant to Maoist. analysis

raison d'etre v..a~ already dissolving or because American politics were particularly '
is not clear, but the stylised representation Chicago conspiracy trial intercut with xhots of Godard and Gorin talking on a tennis court. while other people play around them neither advances the investigation relations between images and sounds nor produces Tout va bien, however, positions from of Lotte in Italia, does develop develops the positions ill Lotte in Italia, the an d of of class, but. for a different the necessity terms of of the an analysis of politics which
It

interest

the stars, The story itself stan, factory

with the at a foodby its

arrival of Jane Fonda and Yves Moruand processing workers. Fonda, a journalist, director

which has been occupied and Montand,
0 I' ad

has arranged to interview tak ing a break vert ising ri Irns, decides

the managing to accompany occupation managing

from his job as a director

her. When they arrive at the factory they them with the involving the

find that a lightning strike has turned into a full-seale and the workers incarcerate director, who has already been imprisoned occu Pi' the firs!

audience. I f Lotte in Italia examined theoretically, the position of a militant, in understanding demonstrating ~ the relation attempts subjectivity

in his of Ike.

The events in the factory,

that necessity across an investigation this necessity to a non-militant

man agernen t, un ions and workers,

between sound and image, Tout va bien

section of the film, the second section examines and Montand
From TOlil va bien
1111111 1:01.11

to prove
0f

effects of the events at r~~raClory on the lives of Fonda and the third section attempts to generalFrance. ise the lessons of the film for contemporary
vu hi('l1

audi encc, this proo f req I.li i I] g a di fferen t ap proach to r the problem sou nd and image, I f God ard and Gorin

66

67

II
The film avoids any explicit sectarian line in its content. However, Maoism is still thc defining theoretical and ideological position from which the fi Im is made and t he film's lesson is a M aoist on c: ih at we, h ould learn how the class struggle functions pu ts it in j IS final moments, in every aspect of our lives. v..'e must learn, as the film tot hink ou rsel ves historical Iy (se penser II istoriquementi, camera and character in order to produce a vision
\CS

sh at/ reverse shot sequ cnccs t a construct nons. However,
I

conversaof the

Tout va hien is much more rigorous and camera, that conTout va

han any of the pre- '68 films in its disruption

idem ification bet ween spectator

gruence of looks which then further enables the adoplion of a point of view within the narrative. looks makes any identification bien's insistence on the d iscon tin uity between these two with one character's correct point of view extremely problematic. It is I his di fficulty of 11 ndcrstand ing, th is "'\. problem content of idemification, which is both form and> in Tout va bien. The first section explicitly and Montand's in the factory. incomprehension To see is not to

If the film uses narrative and stars, it resolutely refuses thar use of the camera which articulates the looks of spectator, which is also, and au tornatically, of alterations know ledge. N 01\11 ere in the fi Imarc there exarnp

in perspective achieved by moving the camera on its axis, as in the pan, point of view alters, it together of itself moves in a travelling shot. That knitting

or by means of the lenses, as in the zoom. When the spectator's is when the camera narrative

and vision, whereby without altering its position the camera can effortBut the rupture ber ween vision and
to

lessly follow and focus on significant clements in thc image, disappears. knowledge point-of-view is made even more evident in the lack of or ,hOI /rcverse shots. It is difficult technical of narrative

deals with Fonda's of what is happening understand.

The striker who silently paints the walls The paintings on the of the To move inside the The manager, all present arc representations

blue makes the point succinctly, walls which he obliterates factory factory is no guarantee the union representative very different but they tell us nothing.

define either of these terms with absolute camera positions independent of specific

precision as they are never the simple organisation

of knowledge.

developmen ts. Crudely, however, a point -of- view sh 0 l can be defined as a shot of a character looking, followed or characters by a shot of an object or person
t

and the strikers

interpretations

of what has happened

and it is important. that there is no action which would visibly reveal who is telling the truth. The difficulty of grasping the si lnation is made even more evident by the fact that Fonda's However, a shared -~; directly journalism. job as a journalist attempts is to understand their the even 1..'; so that she can represen tthem to her listeners. the strikers' background counter to to communicate situati on indicates how m uc h com m unicati on assumes of experience, the organisation an assumption of modern

which i<;thus assumed to be in the visual field of the characterrs) con
fj rm ed

concerned,

his assumption

often being

by a third shot which repeats the first. A shot sequence can similarly be defined as by a second (reverse) shot which
0
Example of a poiru-or-vtew shot ~c'qucnce - Gleuu Ford looks ,lL:ro:s::;a bar at [hoe conuum i011 caused by Lee Marvin in .... ritz l.arl.I;;·~Thl:' Bir; Heat.

shot/reverse

one shot followed includes t he space th is articulation

f I he fi rst shot. Classic exam pies of followed by a

are a ba t tle- field scene in wh ich a shot

from one advancing army is immediately

shot from the position of [he opposing army, or a shot of one character engaged incon versarion followed by a shot, from the first character's and shot/reverse exhaustively point of view, of the Point-of-view butthey other speaker engaged in the dialogue. comprehended

:f~t
I iliitlil IL:I)ro.;~C'lllL;d ,l~

~ \\·C.-=I~~

-_ ...
I'll

The shotswhich

show Fonda and Montand

as workers in the factory merely indicate the distance that separates Fonda
10

them from the strikers. the time in the factory
to reflect

a worker

However, and Montand oppression

forces of

shots not only construct. aspace thai is by the camera

on the reality

in their own lives. She, as a j ou rnalist, has but must assume a knowthat simply to

also constantly offer us the possibility ofidentification with a character', From these techniques dominant point of view. his earliest had often films, Godard's worked use of the
Example ora shot/reverse :::;llOl sequence - Edith Evanson off~r:~ inforrnurion 10 Glenn Ford in the .~amc film. I I Hili nl~·11

face the fact that her report on the strike cannot

include her own confusions against He, as a film-maker, abandon
I ,'III

ledge it doesn't have in order to qualify as journalism. has to recognise making films, as he had done after 1968, and

conventions.

In particular,

he rarely used

68

69

to earn his living by using his technical advertising

skills to make

steward. It is Fonda wh 0 becomes the represen taiive Montand she demonstrates that. she has learnt

0f

films is to avoid the reality of oppression and it is this lesson that Fonda wants Fonda, from the In only in

the strikers in the rest. of the film as in the row with the lesson of their experience her voice-over her by journalism, summary personal political assertion content
0f

and struggle at the level of his work. This evasion of the political is impossible their return however, other short,
1.0

beuer than he. In the final which represents the

drives home in the central scene in the film when, after Paris, they have a row. Montand compartments. to divide his life into different that personal practices relations

scene as we see her walking through the hyperrnarket, commentary, report that she is unable to write in the forms offered to can be read as nothing less than the 1r the strength
0f

realises that such a division is impossible, cannot. be divorced subjectivity with which they are articulated.

t he film's conclusions.

the film is its insistence lives from and social

that we cannot separate the contemporary its weakness

our is its

that. one can understand

economic,

terms of class. But, and here we come 10 the parad ox of the film, if t he filmanalyses inadequate the dominant the snuggles that dominate our life in terms of an economic base and its political representation, political representations. it has no analysis of that economic base nor of If we must understand subjectivity in terms

struggles,

of the dominance is finally a random

of a politics whose only violence. The political is 'Where

question that Fonda asks in the hypermarket

do we begin to struggle against the compartmentalisation uf our lives?" The answer is the morally powerful but politically vacuous, 'Everywhere The content which acts, at once'. But insofar as the film insists that it is political, this vacuity must be given a content. provided traditional Fonda's party's taunting market. communist by an image voice-over. party programme of politics is in the
0f

of class, the content of the notion of class is red uced to the slogan 'it is right to rebel' . That economic analysis is joined to a polit ical one in which the only represen tative of struggle at the level of politics is a communist party which is seen as nothing more political film in that it to British Sounds or in Britain or the the fact that than a repressive fiction. If Tout va bien is a truly remarkable France four years after 1968 (and this marks its superiority Pravda which rarely, there if ever, manage is no place to articulate Programme Czechoslovakia), contemporaneous five years. This weakness section, 'France Today', is exemplified in the third conclusion in which the lessons of the France are followed situated on the outskirts had preven ted many
0f

in iroduces its audience to some of the ideological and social struggles that composed the struggles

most
0f

way, as the visible evidence member

the truth

Into the hypermarket is selling copies they ransack

where a of the After

in the film to include

signing of the Common

by the parties of the left was

erupt a group of leftists.

to provide a political focus for those ideological and political struggles over the next

the communists,

the hyper-

The image of revolt finally enters into the on violence which is the final political La Chinoise

image of consumption. This emphasis of Tout va bien runs through all the Dziga- Vertov films and is present

film are spelt out at a national level. Images and sounds of revolt from throughout of the huge hyperrnarkets If the use traditional
0f

by of th e
The [JI;fI, nagt r 0 r Ih c- rae I(lTY being titncd fur a visit to the toilet b~: one ·of I he ~~J·il.:er·~_

before then in La Chinoise and Weekend ..At the time of its appearance terrorism at the end of the film was in total contradiction by Maoism. emphases But Godard's than it seemed at the time. Terrorism

images and sounds of consumption

as Fonda visits one

was virulently artackcd by Maoists, whose principal objection was that the emphasis
(111

with the political with

towns which had just begun to open in the early 1970s. the camera iden tiIications we experience in the ci 11 erna, of the narrative manner still privileges one their personal and of speaking it is the strikers:

unalysis provided 111meaccurate traditional
Illl· S IIbseq

analysis has, in the long run, proved was in contradiction teaching. However,

Leninist

and with Mao Tse-tung's

the organisation appearance, repressive

W CSI ern Maoism's rej ection of all intermediate uen t inevitability communist IU It r,
From Tout va bien

economic and political demands and

view. In the factory

of betrayal by the delegate provided by the union or the Nevertheless, ten years

their relaxed appearance

party did often leave violence as the only political strategy. Much of the
11

their obvious solidarity contrast with the repressed and of the manager and the shop

",1,1 ririca 1 ion of t he violence in these films is objectionable.
IN

hen

pessimistic view migh t discern terrorism as the only visible heritage of

70

71

'68, Godard's sophisticated feature

analysis seems much more acute than his supposedly detractors allowed at the time,

more politically

criticism by two men of the way is confirmed ci nema Jane's imitation concern
",II'\\'~

i

hat a woman has

chosen to lise her image po lilically, Th is repressive tone when in the section on the history of the expression is rcprcscn ted as a simple status and historic
t

If Godard has never explicitly criticised this of his films, Letter to Jane does criticise the or Fonda in Tout va bien, although it is
Ijfl"l~lgr;-Jph uxerl I,!'!h'r roJane

privileging unfortunate

of her rut her. At the same time, however, its with the contemporary wi th but

that this criticisrn is mainly aimed by the The film a about Tout va bien but about
III

directors at Fonda rat her than at themselves. is not explicitly photograph appeared

d eve Iopm en 1.0 f the image en tai Is a re-engagcmen the dominant forms of the image's dissemination now widened to include photographs, cinematic image. The

of Jane Fonda in North Vietnam which in the pages or most of the Western press in w ith it in the French week Iy central to Tout va bien, of to the revolution. speak The film over
From Letter to Jane

and particularly a new

their use in the news, as well as the more traditional film also addresses audience which is constituted neither by the cinema nor

August 1972. Letter to Jane analyses the photograph and the text that appeared
L

'Express in order

to re fleet both on the status 0 f the

by polit ics bu t rat her by a shared his tory whi chi nci udes both and, speci fically, the film Tout va bien. This new definition of the audience might be considered as a narrowing or merely an indulgence but it is one that will allow Godard occupations to examine most directly his own prein which politics and the cinema both

image and on the problem, the relations of intellectuals which Godard and Gorin

takes the form of a montage of still photographs Although the photogra ph is considered

a commentary: from a n u 111 ber

of di ffcren t perspectives (its com posi ti on, the tex t th at accompanies it, its relation to film images and so on). the good from simply have for ensuring that the distribution, photograph its message is finally very simple. Whatever reasons that the Vietnamese photograph Fonda's crystallises point of view receives world-wide the a relation

figure but which can be more precisely defined in terms of the examination of sound and image. At the same a correct line, still time the film of len lags behind its own practice in (hal the sou nd-tr ack st ill assumes

.I.,,,, ~(",J" lisu-ns
"] ,,"I,"
I

to
ill

he women workers hicn

assumes a political audience which the very strategy of
JUIU'"

to the revolution

that Tout va

bien criticised.

She is used as a Star by the Vietnamese in her own life as an actress the revolution. The film exthe this bien when it considers Gorin claim that

instead of examining plicitly criticises Tout expression on Fonda's Godard the cinema.

discussion of Letter 10 owes much to Anthony ,'vk( ·,,11', and Andrew I ",,<late', remarkable tilm .~I n!,j/m~~I!l_
• My

the film casts in doubr.w Icl et ailleurs elaborates

many of the more

positive element sin I.e tier to J ane and cunsti tutes a more thorough-going critique of the Dziga-Vertov group films. Using material shot for Jusqu it intercuts television. images of the Palestinian French Over these images Godard images of a contemporary discuss the intentions intentions. t he repeated 1970, Godard revolution

lessons or the Vietnamese
"[1

a la victnire,
with and Mieville

revolution

face in terms of the history of and

family watching

ex presxi on, developed in H ollywcod concu rrcntl y wi th the technological development of the talk ies and the New Deal po [icy, which lacks all expressi on
Pilm st il h used In LCU~r [0 Jane

that Godard had in 1970 and the

lessons that can be learned from these images and those Perhaps the film's most telling emphasis is cry, •the sound is Ino loud'. went to Palestine When, in the
to find images of the

poli tical development is one of compassionate

of Roosevelt's understanding

speci fici ty. They fu rt her sta te tha t Fonda's again and that therefore often, a very
0 bj eciionab

in the factory in Tout va bien was the same expression Tout
"II

that had never been seen in France, was too loud, images
<,0

bien had railed.

so und (t he polit ical ana lys: s, the practice of the Dzi gaVerLOV group) impossible quotidian loud that in relation that it was to the it was to see these images

Letter to Jane is both a very interesting and, le film. Its greates t problem, is that it is a which it attempts to avoid by mentioning,

of France,

so loud

'13

impossible This
0 ppr

to see one's

own activity

in the image,

,','II

fro lit ing one's ow n det erm inat ions in an enco un ter for wh ich no else can prepare The films work towards a recognition that circumscribe unchangeable of solitude: Godard's and lessen
OLl

finally too loud even to see what was in the image itself. essi ve and blinding dorni nan ce of the po Iitical is most movingly evoked in a sequence in which Pales" tinian guer ri lias pract ise a military manoeu vre. In three months all the members
of the grot¢

V'HI.
~lll

and our own. The For Sandrine in

nom ic determinants
IIlIleTO

r Iives now begin to appear as

immutable;

by even the most radical politicisation.

deux it is unimportant

whether Pierre is going to work or to join a picket
[0

would be dead,

I, nc. In th c film-making
1"lllnS

as in the films the primacy of prac lice in its heterogeneous If Maoism promised to provide find some common determinant it finally our a theory and a politics, terms

killed in the Sepiern ber massacres, Mieville it is evident, in retrospect, th em train ing are litera lly images

and for Godard and that these images of
0 f life

is now reaffirmed.

which could unify these practices, threatened "lice but there

an d dca th. But was

to diminish them. For Godard it is true that. we must start everywhere at are now no necessarily common which will make

at the time Godard had been unable to see this, blinded by a sound so loud that revolutionary Indeed, films, a concern and impoverishes it is a re-emphasis 10 understand correctness the only message that the image could convey. on the image or the which marks both lei et ailleurs and the subsequent the workings image in our lives, the way in which t he image en riches us. It is this emphasis rather than the the strategy of the of the sound of Maoism that determines the political of practices through awarding

cvcrywheres coincide in the possibility of political action.

later films, If Maoism finally produced a dominance where the aim had been to subvert programme in balance, political, Godard's

Colin MacCahe: The problems of th., forms of politics and the problems of the forms of Hollywood
W Of

cinema seem indistinguishable Did you feel that at the time?

ill your early

is now to hold a variety without
Stills
fl'OI[J

k. Made in USA appears almost. as a co IlS (.:i us last try to put the two together: o

playing one against another of them. Thus Numero not to
Ivi et
9HlCUfS

Nick Ray and Sam Fuller plus politics.

his own activity as an image-maker primacy to anyone

used in Photos

t'l Cie

Jean-Lue

deux's indecision

as to whether it is a sex movie or a was ...

Godard: There were too many things, things were too mixed J don't know what it I don't know.

political movie is an index of its commitment reduce the terms of the one to the other, disappeared from Godard's

up, I wanted to say too many things or to prow something.
to feel and 10 prove to!,:elher ...

It would be a mistake to say that politics has work; it remains one of the elements. But Godard has

l think that. the political thinking thai went with the I)ziga-Vertov films is fairly evident but I'd like to know more about the specific reasons that. you made Tuut va bien. It was more of a Gorin thing. I mean, I was not TIIised ill politics. A lot of the friends I had or the people I know were militants, they heard the lntern.ationale
I hat

drawn, in particularly the revolutionary and technology One might movement point

stark form, some of the bitter consequences

of the failure of

left in Europe during the I970s. For Godard questions ofsexuality are as immediate
to feminism

and as vital as any explicitly political questions. and the increasing importance of the ecology must of sexuality and technology

their parents

as instances of the fact that questions all these movements Leninist politics

at the a!,:e of two. I was going to -

take political forms but Godard's form able to comprehend Godard's

answer might well be that one cannot find any that will not finally reduce them. forecloses all questions of ethics; calculus of

church. Later I discovered. that it was the same thing and they only pretended it was different. For me Mao was just someone who was contradictory who said that yuu couldn't
1"11III

equate socialism with Russia. Even now the terrorists It's like families. It took me a long time 10 leave my I tried to grab, tu be secure, to take all of it. Then throwing me out then I stay

recent films reintroduce

them. Not in the form of a series of universal nor still less in terms of so me utilitarian radical traditions. familiar from Nietzsche, but of an emphasis on

are still for me the inheritors. ily. U 11 iii I was twenty-two I
W!lS

moral laws, Maoist or otherwise,

pleasure and pain, but rather in a form, intellectually more readily available in a variety of popular

ubHged to leave. I was thrown out, If nubody's

In tIll' same place. I don't move of my own accord. I don't want to move. But

74

7&

then I act in that same place in such a way that I'm ohli!!;ed to move because the place ur [he people make me move because they don't want to see me not mm'ing in thai particular problems. way. And a Jot of youn!!; militants ...
lather

1':isl'l1sl!'in's Battleship Potemkin IlIll'r that 's .
100

was about 1905; il was made- twenty years and thai limits thlngs then all the other fi,hns become 'not

much. And then it becomes a masterpiece

Gorin, for example, il
problems,

Iol'l'anse unce you've got one masterpiece masterpieces'

was funny because he has a lot of lamlly problems. And it was [he same with politics -

mol her
He said

Man or the father. I just heard of
A lot of what you've just said seems
LO

someone named Mao who seemed to me to be part ol" tbl' New Wave.

distance you

Ihings dif'Ierently and the i"ew of his texts thai I read, very Iew, made me work to think in a way that no other pulitk!ll texts ever did. And I was interested in the same sense Ihat other penple were, .,
10

f, 0111 politics. And yet. your films and your writings stil! insist on politics. In lei 1'1 uilkurs, you try to understand
I

but not

the' and' between the revolution

in Palestine and and images of

Ill' consumer society in France, between images of revolution

consumption. So the decisions as mililani films or popular decisions? what kind of I'ilms to makeyou didn't participate in those films like Tnul va bien dl'l)cnd -

Or, in the 300th number of Cahiers du Cinema that you've edited, 'On whom does repression on us.' depend -

rhc magazine ends with a directly political statement: on us. On whom does liberation Yes, yes but ....

politics has bern so used, so

I disagreed with most of them because I said movies must be made in this way and rhev said 'Who cares about movies? \\'1' care about Ihe peop Ie.' But those were disagreements and Gorin planned your work. Well, at that time he had a problem. father, This happens again and a!!;ain, Anne-Marie especially men, arc tou overwhelmed I was mure his (Mieville) is uut of it, she can with other film-makers group, how you

misused and I feel that I have used it too much because I bought it under false pretences. Yes, lei et ailleurs is finall~ devoted to evoh'ing values for what's in between, I consider myself much more in terms of bel ween than in terms of some l"ixed place. I think and I
101'0 rk

better when I'm travelling Sumetimes

wh en you're

suppused to be doin!!; nothing,

I need two hours to gel to the station.

on the left. I'm asking about decisions within the Dziga-Vertov

'I'« gu five minutes before kills me. That's not moving . , . you're in one place tllt'n you rush to another one and between them doesn't exist. For me it's the between that exists and the places arc more immaterial. The camera is a bel ween hut because it's a solid object, people, movie people, don't think it's real commu nicat io n. They thin k Iravel is just showing your ticket. They for!!;el the between but the camera is a between, between what goes in and what comes out; the camera is communicalion in
II

say: 'I n Pierro! le lou th is is not bad but this is very bad'. 0 th er people. b~' the name. The public, Ihe cultural They pretend rhev know about with You which is ruinous, public, don't make movies. They pretend,

solid state,

movies, that they know who is good and who isn't. Hut in any rciafinnship me they have tuo much respect and too much admiratiun, can't have a normal relationship, positlon, heavy but he had brought you're constantly bring put in an elevated

Gorin broke with me over money but it was also because I was too thai heaviness on himself. I was making movies with in me that deserves that

him but I was his father. And perhaps there's sumething response. I don't like it. There's a certain glorification terrorism end of Tout va bien - Fonda asks 'What's 'Ransacking a supermarket'. 'gauchisme'.

of violence and Like at the

which Him through your movies which [ find very repellent.

politics'?' and the image replies and anyway the end of Perhaps on TV,
YOII

That was French 'glluchi~me' hu t then tha I 'n aturalness' is .~O unnatu ral Ihat I don'
I.

It's because movies should be done more naturally.

really know whet her

could do it, Wilh movies it's one and a hall' hours and ten years -

it's too much,

76

77

Laura Mulvey and Colin MacCabe

'Do you know, madame, that despite your very light brown hair, you make me think of a beautiful redhead. La Jolie Rousse is
II

poem by Apollinaire.

"Solei! vuici Ie temps de la raison ardente redhead. something

...

". Well, that

hurnlng-brtght

reason which the poet is looking for ...

when it does appear, it an extra

hikes on the form of a beautiful [uce , the presence of awareness,
From S:9I1"'~ (lui peur

That is what can be seen on a woman's which gives her a different, ail-powerful, and it's for that

beauty, Feminine beaut)' becomes something

reason, I believe. that all the great ideas in French are in Ihe femini ne gender' .
lrom Unc Femme manee

Are there objects which are inevitably a source of .'mggeslivencss as Baudelaire suggested about women?
llaTlilcs

78

79

't'oJluwing this line of thought, absorbed the more entirely by tile sphere of consumption, the immediacy of the commodity immediacy of profit, , ,

one might reach only to be by the

the conclusion that wumen haw escaped the sphere of production

to be captivated by

world no less than men are rransffxed

t.lizabeth

Ardell introduces
iLl'd I na kcup

t he 11 personal rst

"FLAWLESS
Spongc-On
l:nt:l :~l\~n.:.l i I~c c l\\'r~·~bt ("nli:.)i Iill' [iuixh. ~ )(,'Cll ht" v~~~ dd n.1.p~_;~pnnht.· 1
'\ i. \U \"I)"Il

FINISH"

Cream Makcup,

:1

~f[~,

r~·ll[lJ rl(il

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crj~:e

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Idob Jild bSl\.

Ti"l ~ ncvv rno i su.retil richcd 111J keu p
1\1f ll)d(!y'~
111,1

n \' fJ res.

The ultimate kitchen.
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dt.Lll.etJ

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a.:r.:o- ~;:.:

rtte ulnmasc ~iKI"!-L'n;it.l'otW 1~(;'[I£(j.j '~~~~;IllX'h; 1

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r,Jf",i(I: 11i If~r.::rn I.-I!li~~ - ror :Jrld~~~L;~. ,.: :"',:;Ut"l~ ::ui.oU ;].d:..:IF.~ cf

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------ ...-------------.~-----~

80

81

· .. \\'0 men m irro r the in] ustice masculine

socie

t}'

has

inflicled on them -

they become lncreaslnglv
Adorno on Veblen

like commodities'.

82

83

In the twenty years that Godard movies one of the remarkable moment. aberrant Perhaps when it.appeared, the most striking

has been nUI~ II U'
rl

look, and says: 'Yes, if she is charming, a striped dress and dark glasses.' standing becomes the deliberate contribution according Godard 10 the modern to their sex appeal. returns to repeatedly

and is wearing

features of his work is its closeness to the coruempora example of this is La Chinoise,

Pal ricia answers his suggestion: women's that

apparently I

look with a cornplicit smile. The deliberate misunderworld can be measured This i~ a point in his films, He sees the

yet con firmed in its actuality less than a year later by t)I,' locked in with the moment" the world taking
1111<1

events of May 1968. But all hi, films arc inextricably

their making, existing on the sharp edge between observing changing shapes.

changing shape and, in giving it concrete form in representation,

being pan of ih«

forces that mould women into a stereotype and reduce During these twenty years, and particular ly in the la,1 them to impotence: maker Godard more than any other single filmup the exploitation society, of a of society. For Godard of the conternpimage raises
11

ten, feminism has emerged as ha ve considered always been in the forefront

crucial new cultural and political force. Feminbh to be a poli tica I issue. G OU1I I'd ha-, And women
III

has shown

images and representations

woman as an image in consumer

of debates on politics and representation.

this image is the very basis of consumer relation he captures in his description the ass). But his own relation further problems. demonstrates but is also cornplicit

have always been central to his films. Yet, on this point. Godard', be out of sync with feminist arguments on the representation necessary exclusiveness their own positions, of his moment. maker such as Godard, of the women's movement,
0f

practice seems

of women. Perhaps tIll" film by the
I

orary world as la civilisation du cul (the civilisation
to that

the need Cor women to develop fern in ism on an established untouched and conflict,

d imin ishes th e in nuence open, otherwise,

The scene from A bout de sout"fle with an eq uatiori of that is, always

10 the political developments movies have remained

It is not that Godard's

woman and sexuality. In his later work Godard breaks down the equation to reveal its construction
rom
Le

growth of feminism - quire the contrary - but his use of images of women continue, from his early through his late films to raise problems the logic of feminist arguments. Two examples,
S0

for those who have followed periods, call
0f

.;ai

S:.1~·ui ...

how the female form and irs connotations risks producing another equation

are used in

from very different

the circular ion of images, Butthis investigation

in dicaie bot h the interest and the problem of the matter. who has just about

f (; odard' s rep resenra t ions

worne

II,

in which women had
10

The first example goes straight to the heart In A bout de souffle Patricia goes 10 a given by the novelist M. Parvulesco, published an erotic novel, him He is with or we bombarding press conference surrounded questions

represent the problem of sexuality if! capitalist society, And this position romantic appearance can he traced Godard's heritage in which woman is divided into an that can be enjoyed and an essence that is Ten Sounds. souffle, Nothing years later genre Godard movie, made commented British on,
0f

by journalists

only knowable at risk, deceptive and dangerous. could be further from A bout de

love and the relations

between the

sexe, and his responses

can be taken as enigmatic society?',

simply banal. When Patricia asks, 'Do you believe thai women haw a role to play in modern recognise that the question narrative, herself. journalist but, at the same time, through Should is a, cliched as the ot hers our knowledge of the as a

a gangster

distanced, but still strongly within the magnetic radius Hollywood, Bri rain in 1969. As Godard u sed and transformed

than this relentless political investigation of the

that it represents a real dilemma for Patricia she try to pu rsue her career or let herself be absorbed into Michel's violence and his

gangster movie in A bout de souffle, so he uses and trans forms the docu rnentary in British Sounds and as A hnut de souffle shows Godard in fluenced by Hollywood and bringing Hollywood to Europe, so British Sounds is a product of the period of revolutionary arou nd 1968 an d Godard's show his involvement rigorous commitment application of

world, a gangster movie made up

or

love for her, on the ru 11 from the pol ice hu l promising dreams of freedom and fortune in Italy? Parvulescn': answer glasses, is short and to the point. He lakes off his a privileged leans forward, giving Patricia

current ideas to the cinema. Both in their different. ways with his moment and the neces-

84

8&

sary unity, for him, of theory and practice. The film critic becomes movies. Godard commitment director,
to applying

simply identifies production labour

woman

and sexuality,

ignoring the

the political theory

militant
rigour

makes and

evident fact that the contrast

with labour in factory of

This combination continually

of theoretical as

would, in the home, be domestic labour, with the all-too-strident noises that investigation

in his films makes one watches

that of wife and mother as producer and reproducer power, accompany it. It is not that Godard's

fascinating,

dilemmas, contradictions relation
0 f theory

being tackled in the course of to the inter-

his films. But it is not only a commitment

lacks interest but it is finally a masculine investigation, ign oring the complex social d eterrnlna tion of women's position in favour of an image of woman outside any social or economic context. The limitations naked Godard's exploitation complicity. female body of Godard's casts position doubts are on evident in the images themselves. For many, the use of a immediately project. The very image for the most visible that worn en end ure ina sexist society cannot Once again, the position is not straightusc of the The

to practice that lin ks A bout de sou Hie to both. After a long line of cars

and British Sounds; a concern with the contemporary situation of women is common over which a voice pronounces of capitalism, the sound-track by announcing opening travelling shot along a production

a classic Marxist analysis prefaces the next section

that 'the relation between man and man

is dependen I on the relation between man and woman' _ The sounds of this second sequence are already more complex, While a middle-class woman's the subjective liberation, benefits and problems a working-class voice talks of of women's the

be used with impunity, cannot be used without a certain forward. It is possible to argue that Godard's image of the body is resolutely length of the shots and the factthatlhe is not presented

man's voice juxtaposes

unexploitative.

discourses of politics and sexuality, the distance between the two grotesquely 'Marxlsm-Lenlnlst exemplified in his demand for the analysis of the natural position 10 these voices con-

image of the body

as spectacle makes us uneasy in our

position of the voyeur. If we look at this woman's body then we are aware of om own look, which is not hidden in the l'olds of the narrative camera. and the movement of Ihe of Similarly there is none of that titillation

fuck'. The images which accompany

trast with the populous and noisy factory floor that we have just seen. The opening shot is of a silent interior of a suburban house in which a naked woman moves from this time a close-up of the talking on with minor room to room and goes up and down stairs. This static shot is followed by another, with a head-and-shoulders the telephone, body framed from waist to thigh, and the seq uence ends shot ofthewoman repeating her conversation

vision on which exploi l at ion depends. What we see is not the product of an unveiling; we gaze at a female body for several minutes. Btlt although these argu menis are valid they do not resolve the problem. The shot of the naked woman is a good example. On the one hand its length and form are an atternpt to dernysti fy the very sou ree 0 f our images of women and yet, at the same time, the potency of that image is such that it is doubt ful that any simple dcrnystiflcation is possible. To use that image is the discourse immediately to run the risk of introducing

differences what the woman's voice-over is saying. The struggle between images and sounds which composes the film starts here. If the image of the factory has a sound to go with it capitalism the classic Marxist analysis of the voice of women's there is no sound for these images of

in which the enigma of woman will offer the truth ofthe male situation: to reveal the truth of the image is to risk the inevitable demand for a true voice Godard investigation investigation
hu [II B ri I ish Sound:;;

silence, of women. For Godard,

liberation and the voice of Marxism cannot be simply added one to the other, not least because we haven't begun to look at the silence
0 f the

to

complete it. between and It could an an be

slides the

continually of

house, at the unspoken of woman

of

images

woman

body of woman. But Godard's

presentation

which uses those images.

88

87

argued that since his collaboration sliding problems has
10

with Mievillc this diminished as the

jeeted in a man's the woman's 'realism',

fantasy thai her body takes on an

a certain

extent

image of power. The spatial limitations .inrroduced by point of view have no necessary link with in relation to her social formation. auernpt to depict woman always implies an predominate. but Godard always uses this reduced space to

of male sexuality example

have been introduced of their collaboration,

directly into the content of the films. N umero deux is the most important from this perspective, deux Godard's but before looking at Numero
10

analyse woman from 'inside',
l-u.m Pierrot Ie fou

Godard makes an important

car lier films shou Id be con sidered, examine the effect that narrati ve 0 f particu Iar between films
0 n the

but this positioning threatening

It is illuminating sexing of poin t 0 fview has films. There is an important

'ou tside' , an al tern ati ve, masculine point of view from which woman's qualities familiar Her image does not relate to women but is a phantasm of the male unconscious, as the Romantic image of La Belle Dame sans merci or as the heroine of the film noir. In Pierrot le fuu, Marianne is the origin of vio lence, lt is here that Godard
.. Thus, for example, Anna Karina plays the Humphrey Boga ["Icha r act or in Made ill liSA.

difference

organised arou nd a male cen tral pro ragonist and those around a female one, a difference they depict. Although Hollywood genre movies, between the worlds infinitely more this rule holds greater sway in its effect,

nuanced and sometimes consciou sly defied, be seen in Godard's films. For instance, fou, in which Ferdinand

* can also

views woman fascinating

from

outside in a fantasy based on fear and desire. She is mysterious, structive. the film's ultimately This 'otherness' narrative elusive, and dedepends on our following point of view.

in Pierrot It'

acts as central consciousness,

the narrati ve referent is fiction and fantasy. The action does not develop in terms of logical relations of time, space and verisimilitude crossed Pierrot, man'), France"), generic a Ford Galax~' ... violence but in great sweeps ('We adventure ('Look, and Go on, shuw me you're a ('detective stories') mariee, On the other in which story is is acted out on middle and end, form
f rom I;"" Femme mod",

from the hero's

picaresque

utopian escape (' the island of Mystery'). hand the narrative Charlotte a considerably literally a slice
0

of Une femme scale.

acts as central consciousness, smaller

Charlotte's

r Iife, wi th a beginning,

[hat is highly organised

on the level of narrative no rounding

and symmetry, but not on the level of narra tive action. The end provides no solution, The dramatic than off of the drama. And, unusually for Godard, thereis no violence. space of Une Femme mariee is social and and film analytic, emerging out of Rouch and Rossellini rather Sam Fuller

nair. Sometimes,
the intimacy

as in of the never

Masculin/Feminln, outbreaks

for instance,

human relations observed is abru ptly brok en by bizarre of violence. But this interweaving worlds. Godard's daydreams; merges two different world of women's use of space

functions both figuratively

and fictionally to limit the it is only when proHC)!,l) Pterrot
j·f

tou

88

89

Marianne Ferdinand. Hollywood

is as mysterious

to the spectator

as to of

women themselves. I t is aim osr as t hough woman hersel f were a factory, value added consumption.
rilm stillused in Une Femme maritv

She closely resembles

the 'heroines'

feeding in the means of production, with a commodity ready for

film noir: the hero leaves his horne and refers to the film nair (Wilder), her

painting on the mask and emerging transformed in the process,

family to follow her into a world of'violence ami amour

lou. The film constantly
tradition: to throw treachery Marianne's
to

U ne Femme mariee contains a great many

frantic search for money scorns

references in dialogue to male concepts of'fernale beauty and their mediation through the image: Robert: 'You ought to do like they do in Italian films ...
Svlvia Harvey (197~) has noted the crucial ah .. nce 0 f! he e family in Ihe/ifm noir, and {he association of woman wh h sexual excess i311ddcst ruction,

back to Double Indemnity

The Lady From Shanghai (Welles), her

powers of destruction

the Past (Tourneur).
Une

*

and self-destruction mariee presents

to Out of

Have you seen any? The women don't 'I prefer American films_ Hollywood ones

*

shave under their arms.' Charlotte: ... they're prettier."

Femme

a marked

contrast to Pierrot, The specta tor watches the deve lopment of the film alongside Char lotte; we kno w wit h her not with her husband the image problem through world,
0 f Ch

Robert: 'Yes, but less arouslug.' There is also a recu rren I emphasis th roughou t the films on images of the f ernale breasts, advertisements try to measure of brassieres themselves Venus de Milo', and both Charlotte with this ideal figure. Charlotte
Frum Une Femme manee

or lover. But, at the same time, as the image in consumer takes a situation society. On recognisable from of

arlot te is di stanced, re-presented

of woman's

the one hand Godard

to 'the ideal breasts

our own direct experience and, on the other, is already

of life, dilemmas them in the The

and Mme CHine

within society, similar to and familiar from the real
he examines image in order experience
to demonstrate
0f

to see how they compare more than a perfect clothes and so on, has body) is

how far that direct of images.

is nothing

an experience

image. But this perfect image, this mask of visibility (which composed an indexical of make-up, relationship to the woman's -

film's foregrounding not at the service produce Godard
0f

its own process of produ ction
0 f verisim

and its break with the con vcntions an experience

ilit ude are
to remember the concept of fcrnin i n i IY reproduced in {he look is not the simple product of the ad verti sing agenc ies bu 1 is caught in a complex relation<hip with the whole tradit ion of rcprcscn tation of women, II is male obsessions and desi reS which achieve tangible form in novels, poems. pajnrings. mo v ies, pi n~u ps, cart oons, providing the' look with a model.
I hm

a formalist aes th etic. Rather, they of the image which allows society a given
10

* JI is important

furthermore equation
1he

a symbolic sign. It represents the concept that is, the world. == sexuality. look as object This feminine mask is

of woman in a given social formation woman

to con front the way that consumer image so that it conforms

moulds woman's

passport to visibi lity in a male-dominated is fractured

*

concept of female sexual appeal. The female body has become indust rialised; a woman must buy the means to paint on (make-up) and sculpt (underwear Iclothes) a look offemininity, look which is the guarantee for each individual means
0f

But Charlotte's spectator subject,

for the

insofar as he or she must assume her look as her point and of view, from which the image which cannot accommodate the Her mask of

a

disintegrates

of risibility in sexist society Ad vert iserncnts attainable on sell the

world of her work (shot. in negative). na ture of woman's

woman.

un autre 7.. jamais. Jaime trap

visibility conceals behind it the diverse and complex place in the social and economic
0f

prod uct ion of the look, sealing it in a gi ven by means of bras, scents and
50

image of feminine desirability, lip-sticks, depending know-how, association

order, where sexual difference is a matter of di vision no form. The invisible women schools, hospitals,
h
w

magic formulae

labou r, a di ff erence and a di vision which has no image, in factories, homes, are formless and unrepreseruable.

on novelty for appeal just as the market for profit. Magazines provide th e and expertise, scaling the
;\·Jagazi DC images used in lJIIt: Femme manee

depends on turnover

techniques

of woman and sexuality in the minds of

urn lhe ph ("I[ 0- call scqucn hivh Chartone attends i r~l 'n~' Fern m r m a rih'

('0;.':

As observer of woman as image and analyser o fthe moulding, mas king process evol ved by consu mer

90

91

capitalism,

Godard

is acute and rigorous.

His con-

shape people and their lives like a sculpting In Deux ou trois choses the landscape gigantic, disproportionate
011

[orce.

sciousness of image as cultu ral product,

consciou sness

has become

of himself as part of and torn by cultural traditions, gives him an awareness of the levels of meaning that the image of woman has acquired in history like the grime on an ancient. monument. Godard is interested He advances the argument between adproduced for another irn porum t step furt her. In U ne Femme marlee, in the relationship vertising and the body, the commodities then indicates how that image functions the home an d to the place
0f

to the people who scuttle and housing complexes. the city's of

like ants among motorways The screen of Deux movers and bulldozers Paris are disappearing. on the sound-track:

trois choses is filled with earthwhich are changing As Godard's proportions

spatial relations. The anthropomorphic

voice announces of the to carry out

women and th e image which sells the commodit ies. He in relation to the woman in the home as
to their dinner guest

'one tiling is obvious: that the structuring Paris region will enable the government monopones aspirations inhabitants'
from Une Femme manec
~.t

its class policy with even greater ease and that the will be able t.o direct and organise the
to a better life of those eight million

the consumer in advanced capitalist society. Charlotte
and Pierre present their apartment in the language of the advertising next to Charlotte, the married capitalism, its crucial function establishes brochure. The image of

economy without really taking into account the _

on the screen, showing Pierre sitting down on the so fa Godard's perception couple market a~ the basic unit of consumer outlet. The married woman's

and the horne they construct about them as is to provide a rationale possessions. for this economic Her body's massIn other word, no norma! li f-rom jjeuc
~ILI

process, and simultaneously
pares of her husband's

to be, herself, prima inter

rc
. ~""'.. Iiliil1.;Yi

trnlx l·hus,"!>;

produced outside,

perf ec ti on ex presses his posi tion in the world the world of production Traditionally, and achievement. elegance in it has been within the bourphysical appearance, her husband's

.l,

The film is set at the moment when luxury goods came w ithin the economic sphere of I he working class, during the boom in consumer rampant Godard forming inflation, people's before durables (before Once again for depression).

geoisie that a woman's and fashionability economic position,

have complemented Illustrating
0f

the shifts inherent under capitalism,

sees ad vert ising as playi rig a crucial role in desires, creating a new market Once again, the family and the and it is the wife's Godard's

the ch angi ng natu re

'su bsistence'

Deux uu trois choses concentrates consumer capitalism

not on the bourgeworking class.

expanding production. job to 'manage'

oisie as in Une Femme mariee, but on the effectsof on the Parisian
0f

home are the point of consumption

the process. In Deux ou trois choses,

The family lives in a new housing estate, a concrete jungle on the ou tskirts th e city, a new world similar to that of Une Femme mariee: bur. the different social context is indicated by the fact that the husband is a car mechanic rather than a pilot. In Deux ou trois choses the landscape the language functions as mise-en-scene, echoing the of advertising seemed to changing world arou nd J u liettc, In U ne Femme mariee and landscape

loosely based on a news item that attracted

atten tion, the wi fe, J ul iette, takes to cas ual prostitu tion to earn the extra money needed to keep up with this new 'image' of a correct standard of living. Deux on trois rhuses marks a move away from the exotic perception of a woman's selling of her sexuality present in Yivre sa vie or Vne Femme est une femme, where the heroine is a stripper. However, the centrality of sexuality to any

9&

93

image of woman is, if anything, ou trois choses, Godard's economy is simultaneously

more marked in Deux of women in the and obscur-

beautiful but arid dead-end on a Mediterranean cut off from history. followed, together the privileging of sound

island,

perception

In the more political films that over image went say determined, a

illuminating

antist. His analysis of the place of the image in relation to consumption, alienation 10 our patterns of living, is acute and of capitalism and the a crucial it shows up the between level, it There is, however, sexuality which, succeeds in linking the oppression of sexuality. between sexuality

'with, one could almost Indeed, Godard

decreased interest in images of woman. did not return specifically with Anne-Marie under to the question Numero Mieville, attempt capitalism, deux of women until 1975, when he made in collaboration the problem and self-conscious of sexuality

flaw in the analysis because, although close relations system, woman displaces, woman's determined apocryphal and it finally reproduces

and an economic

It is his most thorough
to depict

the equation at another

but. at the same time leaves the spectator family by the postmight have are

If one series of Godard's

films assumes a

with a sense of hesitancy and pessimism. The changes brought about in the working-class Goods stood
11ow

point of view, it is a point of view that is by her sexuality. In the tradition of the Jesuit dictionary containing the entry films conflate woman of With the very important exception

war developmen t 0 f ca pitalism seem to ha ve stabilised. which, in Deux ou trois choses, for the embourgeoisement part o f the basic subsistence
0

'Woman: see Sin', Godard's
and sexuality. Tout va bien Godard

of the consumer f work ing-class li fe.

boom, such as a television or a washing-machine, Pierre's earphones rooming everywhere

never shows women placed in marriage. only

an economic or social role that is not an aspect of their sexual function or its social rationalisation, It is as though through traditions, woman her sexuality. can only be of interest

for listening to music appear to be in the earlier films have grown imprison0f

his status symbol. The concrete blocks of flats mushroots and lost any promise ofa new way of life. In fact, the new way of life is one of claustrophobic ment. Godard's old sensitivity to the limits women's

At the point where the most own cult ural his place in a

rigorous challenge is necessary, Godard's the legacy of romanticism, system of desire, overdctcrrnine Going back to Pierro', home, the advertising

his analysis of woman.

mobility in the world now focuses on the rigid division between inside and outside. The housewife is tied more tightly to the home and the camera prisonment, echoes her im0f

escape from the confines of the language of his elegant wife and

friends, lies for Ferdinand in the world of fantasy: 19th-century romanticism or 20th-century cinema or strip cartoons. And in this cultural tradition woman, once again, becomes the sign for the sexual desires and fears of men. The phan tasm appears again, an image of mystery, essential otherness and, very often, violence attempt to articulate and deceit. From Pierrot until 1968 this crisis became more and more acute. Godard's the cultural traditions pressures cinema was disintegrating possible to separate cultural traditions of classical art and the popular under the In are immediate It was no longer violence of Hollyand the high
From Prerror re tou IIon1 d"I1~

never moving ou tside the con fines

the

flat, except to show her once, returning from a doomed search for work, refusing to give her attention demands woman campaigner for Chile. The camera to the registers its own of the outside world, refusing to listen to a

this scene from the balcony above, maintaining sense of imprisonment. ing the interior/exterior shots,

This same camera position division

is

used for the ot her exterior scene in the film. Emphasisas one of sexual Pierre, in successive from work superlying asleep in bed. d iff erence, the screen juxtaposes leaving for and returning imposed over an image ofSandrine

of the war in Vietnam. the romantic

wood from the violence of imperialism,

The bed evokes a space more intimate yet more confined, the cosiness of the home inside the prison block,
:\urII.(ont

from Velazquez to Picasso lead to a

94

95

but at the same time takes us back to essential associations between woman and sexuality. Numero deux opens with a long introductory seq lienee. Firs t Godard hi msel f presents its apparatus Beauregard. with Godard images (film and video combined)
t he

em otional level. IN0 rk is one factor tha t d isru pts Pin re and Sandrines or command Sandrine enjoyment of sex. Pierre comes home chain and is unable to satisfy reduced to virtual impotence by the hierarchical at the factory,

film,

and its mode

(she says' If I was rich I'd pay for it') or do But there is also a theme which has in Godard's earlier works involving as a result. Pierre rapes in the un-

of capitalisati on by his old friend and prod ucer Georges Then the themes of the film are presented commentary and rather written than in a pre-d iegeiic voice-over that

more than feel a mixture of sympathy and resentment at her complaints. been important

* seq uen ce. U si ng twa vidco mon itors
titles, an assortment of ideas and coherently for the

brings together

* di"gesis: [he fie ional world the narrai i
I 1iC"

relations between the sexes: that of female deception
of

and the violence provoked man. The scene is probably film, repeated equivocally daughter Sandrine

are suggestive

Sandrinc anally in revenge for her sleeping with another the most important often with varied presentations,

argued. Cinema, spectator

sex, politics are the recurring images

that start to work together almost subliminally area of interest. One monitor

but actually define quite explicitly the film's shows documentary

shown as a scene of male violence and

assault on a woman and a scene witnessed by their little Vanessa. terrible happened. guy, She wouldn't tell had fucked another Pierre: 'One day something

footage of a May Day parade, the other shows scenes from kung-fu movies, porno movies and trailers finally posing the issue (voice off): 'N 0, it's no t about politics, it's about politics. ' sex.' 'No, it's not about sex, it's about

me who. I wanted to rape her, She let me and finally I nuggered her, Then she started screaming. AHerwards we realised that Vanessa had seen it all. The little girl's witnessing sexual violence reproduces visual realisation, distraction of Freud's concept of this act of in its of the primal

The diegetic section of the film keeps the video format, sometimes juxtaposing two monitor and screens within the single cinematic space. The film uses roiling superimposition, vision-mixing in another. kind direct superimposition in which one image appears as an insert levels simultaneously, within the single developing image a

I suppose that's what ramily life is all about'. a cliche, shocking

This allows the action of the film to exist on itself,

scene. But the presence of the little girl acts almost as a from the underlying force and importance that of the rape. It. is here that Godard shows the hatred and disgust, the virulent rejection of sexualdifference, brings the roman tic concept of woman to life. J I is only a mornen t of violence that gives Pierre sexual potency. Later on he says 'Sometimes her it's ... she is the man and I am
gU),

different. spatial or montage providing deep-focus

the spectator cinema.
Nurnern

with the kind of pleasure in

juxtaposition

that can be obtained from the best use of deux is about the family unit, with children (a boy and a girl)

the couple in the centre,

the woman. Hut seeing that I'm a guy, sometimes with it's as though I was fucking another It must be because I like her putting her finger up my arse, I often ask her to do it.' It is these mornen ts that mark a crucial shift in the terms of Godard's problem woman;
Images from Numere deux

com ing aft er them and a grandrnot h er and grand father before them. Here we sec the basic unit for production and reprcducti on of labour power, with the woman, in the home, the 'factory' However, question of domestic that carries labour under
0 ut

the process. with the but

the film is not primarily concerned

presentation is not

of sexuality. For by a the

capitalism,

the first time the chickens came home to roost. The of sexuality the problems wholly signified and of male sexuality,

rather with the effects of capitalism on sexual relations and Ihe oppression
0 fthework

ing class on t his personal,

96

97

auendanr

undercurrents

of misogyny

and violence, now

language, the nudity of the young, the nudity of the old and so on. In Une Femme marlee and Deux ou trois choses, formation, economic Sandrine Godard showed woman functioning within a social her sexuality as part of an function. by the by

come out into the open. Godard explicitly investigate that turns woman founding moments

and Mieville

the nature of the male sexuality into an image of its desire and, as one or the The violence of that sexuality.

crucially, the repression of homosexuality

chain. In the second part of Numero deux, takes on a rather more symbolic

agains l women, the emphasis on anal sex, turns arou n d this ambiguous man's relation to other men. It is another body that turns it into an penis in Sandrine's

Whereas the first part of the film is dominated San d rine' s Callstipation: '\Vhen you can'l.get

image of the anal rape, the second part is dominated on with a man you

object of desire but also into an object that must be punished for arousing that desire. It could be objected that Godard's repression daughter treatment of this problem presents this violence as inevitable. and the When and the subsequent dance
ts

can always leave him. But what do you do when it's a state? When a whole social system rapes }·ou?' Her blocked but she cannot produce. shit. Sandrine body comes to stand for the She eats but she is unable to
0f

In one of the key scenes of the film the mother while the son is eating. moth er atternp disgust.

blockage in the social system as a whole; she consumes is simu lraneous ly at the bottom the

to persuade the hoy to join th em, she in a gesture of sexual shame and from a

is angrily repulsed

This image of male self-exclusion
0 f The

line, a woman defined by passivity, and elevated, as the image of woman has so often been elevated before, to an abstraction not fantasy Sandrinc
[0

female world in wh ich the body is m ore easily accepted is one that recu rs i[] the script qui peut, its most pessimistic, given sexual identity nor ha ve any hope generation Story and i[]Sauve

or an emblem. Godard and Mieville are and escape from the 'inside' into day-

centring the issue on Sandrine, positing that sexuality is within a dreams and fiction, but is rooted deeply into the home. has her own desires beyond what she may represent for men but there is a sense in which she seems become an empty sign for male desires. The film be criticised for choosing to deal with one but the tendency to however much is familiar from once again the cannot

There is a sense in which Numero deux, at shows people trapped which they neither understand

0 I' transcend

ing, and breeding a new desire, bu t by the both Pierre and

into the same pattern. And the given sexual that defines their lives. 1t

iden tity is sealed, not by personal needs of the social formation is not a question of conditioning:

aspect of life rather than another, define woman that definition Godard's important

in terms of sexuality, is socially mediated,

Sandr ine are bitterly aware of their own shortcomings and seem to intuit the source as corning from outside themselves. But as an isolated unit imprisoned in a concrete block they can do no more than act out their anger against one another. Sandrine neeted frustrations its more
showing,

earlier films, remembering exception

of Tout va hien. Working-class before and after child-

women have always worked

Pierre attacks

Sandr ine.

rearing - and often du ring it - and playa vital part in the labour force. The fact that their image is fixed in the home, the reluctance like yet another relation duction
Images from ~lIlni!-m deux [0

rejects Pierre. The film shows the interconof sex and violence as permeating points: a relentless insistence on

of the labour movement itself to and services, is hospitals, women visible in

every aspect of' ordi nary' Iife. This is, per haps, one of radical on the cinema screen, the place of sex in the to the children, part of everyday

reeogn i se women at wor k in production level of masking:

man, invisible in the factories,

home: in front of the children, explained to the children, mystified

offices and so on. Woman's

vulnerab Ie place in pro-

is linked to her place in the home, producing

98

99

and reproducing film ever shot -

labour power, but. both are two sides the Lurniere brother,'
0f

of the same coi n , It is evocati ve to rcrncm ber the first record of wor kers lea ving their factory. Most out of the factory women. There is another skin around. grandfather, juxtaposition in Numero and Both by deux that Godard and M ievi lle suggest and yet seem to The two old people, grandmother have their own moments
to speak.

fantasy

(the phantasm

projected Godard deux,

by men) and how and has acted as a the radical body is forms of

those relations are caught in the image. This conjuncture has always fascinated key point for his inquiries. In presentation
0

t he people goi ng

gates on that day in 1895 were

N umero

despite

f sex and the family, Sandrine's traditional

shown without questioning

uses of female

beauty and sexual allure in the dominant

image prod uction. Yet the film rigorou sly undercu ts its own imagery by its refusal of the usc of an image which we can simply gazcat , Female nakedn ess carries associations of the exploitation degree of formal subversion the fragmentation reminiscent Charloue's iconography images? The Godard's contrad ictions apparent
wi thin

are shown naked, the woman washing accompanied speaking about about straight to camera. divided
0

her voice off, the man si ni ng at a table wit h a dri nk and The woman's speech is seeming
to

of women

that almost no deux, of the

woman, oppression

into two parts, f the paradox. woman

can displace. How far can

represent the t \1"0 sides violence,

Th e fi rs 1 part is of male to make things

of the image in Numero

and

as victim

in some ways of the fragmentation body in Une Femme mariee, undercut of woman contained

the need for her, herself,

change. The second pan is about violence done to the natural world in the name of female narcissism, a litany of death and destruction world, journeys difference for the adornment of her politics body. The man's speech is "bout his experience in the to distant lands, adventure, and class consciousness, Iife, one tied
10

within the separate

depiction

of women,

the contradiction

between his use of the female form to signify sexuality and. his rigorous surrounding is a productive understanding further questioning of the film form itself co nstit ute a Slat ernen to f'thc con fusions and di Hiculties images of woman. This lack of coherence springboard meaning, both as a starting point for image accumuof a cinema and also as a basis for how and why woman': the construction

H ere again one sees the spati al

bet ween m ale an d fcrna Ie expec ration s of the body and the other free to roam and the difference between the spatial

take action. This paradox takes us back to the original point of departure, representation
0 f social

lates its particular

rclat ions in U ne Femme mariee
0f

development,

and fantasy in Pierrot le fou. But both depictions exist thernsel ves w ithi n Ihe institu tion (though in Gradually apparently conscious cultural that Godard
0 pposition

which challenges those meanings and assumptions.

cinema all d within the question to face, the

to) a dcfinit e cult ura I rrad i rion. seems to emerge, the hardest

a question impossible and

has always offered, political

to answer: how can we effect a interaction between on the one hand and

forms of representation

economic and social relations on the other? How does one affect the other'! Should one show what is what should be or the dreams that evade the other two? All these questions pose t he issue of the rela lions be [ween for women by society) and a a real (the mask produced

100

101

Colin MarCabe:

The title
IWo

0f

N umero deux is a pun that indicates the

I
!

Your early films seem to use two different images of women. On the one hand there's woman as enigma and mystery, Marianne in

main themes of the title: women and shit. But isn't the concern with anality on to the concern with women? The woman just becomes a Yes, sure, sure. You know that picture by Cassavetes, instead of being the real subject of the film.

xuuply transposed metaphor

j

Pierrot Ie fou. On the other there's woman as consumer, Femme mariee, Does that distinction Jean-Luc Codard: Probably ... it depends ... seem valid?

Charlotte

in Une

I

.:t Woman under the Influence? Well, all my film's are made under the But I think that my Influence. Perhaps it's the weather, perhaps it's ...
Numero

deux was made
II

originality is that I don't make any distinction like two kinds of animals, I put my direction man's mouth or in a woman's I put my philosophy their uwn character.

between men and women. It's just and my lines in a man's body and a mouth without worrying that have their that

limier the inl"luence of MicvilIe. She wasn't there and she was angry because I'd iuken a lot from her and I said to her thatI'd d"I1't know how other film-makers always done that. If I make pierurc of the sun I'd take from the sun. I can't produce things frum myself. I do it. I'm always taking, I never invent.

body and a woman's characters

because she's a woman she can, or because he's a man he can't, say it. Sometimes in thrcc different whereas most directors represents If they're on the left then one character

Is your criticism of images of women in consumer "Kiely contaminated by the fact that you reproduce certain images'! Men and Yes, su re. I was both criticising it but usi ng it in the sume way. I understand. Rut I think women should do more pictures. cuntrol too much. I try to make pictures like other people cook. To make enough ume that one doesn"! have to go to a snack bar or have to make hamburgers
,"Iud. You have to have time 10 enjoy it. I explain to people that I don'tenjoy

point of view and the other one plays ping pong. That was the difficulty people had in understanding character's understand expressed by any one of the characters. People expect you to be Ior this

Le Petit Soldat ; that my own opinion was not

view or that character' s view, I say I'm for the picture. Renoir did the what was going on. I say what I've gut to say in any kind 01" mouth I don't think about whether it should be

same in some pictures, La Grande Illusion, for example, and people didn't that I like. If it's woman, it's a woman. a man or a woman. The image of prostitution metaphor relationship for contemporary society. It was. Because sometimes for money. It's hundredth it's easier to have a love that's 01" a second. In marriage it's a whole is very important in your

,'nnking because ynu only have one life and you only have time to enjuy one thing. That's why I say to Anne-Mane, 'Finding the money to make a picture is We're 100 but half, they're tin' same as making a salad fur you'. Rut ),011 can't have both together. NllmlL \\'e're just human bodies and human bodies are at maximum
1I1'\'Cr

early films. Around the time of Deux ou trois choses it becomes the all-important

entire. I'm always amazed when people say -

it comes from Descartes,

.vnu sa}' it in your questions - 'I think that'. I always wonder how someone can
~".V

'I' like that. I think I'm the only person, apart from perhaps Mao or other who thinks of himself as half, as not help me to think that way and working Movies and curnmunicatiun with someone else. In your more recent projects there's more and more

Ilt'Ullle that I haven't heard about, complete. (ugdher

lifetime and maybe you don't really have much more. So there's something wrong but it's the truth of what's wrong, it's real. And then there's another prublem that I can't really express: you have to talk. Particularly

if you live in a by Most you hunks, or music are creations ~ullltll)mduction
L '"

city or are enslaved by the fact that more and more people are dominated cities. And that means that you can't just sit and look and say something. of the things that I want tu say, nobody is interested can talk with money-makers becomes too specialised. or technicians in hearing. Sometimes

an emphasis on children. Of course. Because now I'm probably too old to pictures, or In a living creation ...

but not tor very long because it or technical questions.

hnvf' (·hildren. I'm looking at a real creation,

You just talk of money-making

...

from nothing.

Rut they have a relationship. You see things
to

Ih(' old fla~'s I very often spoke of my movies as babies. And for me to try to run a Were you conscious in films like Une Femme mariee of telling the woman's stronger than the men. story from her point of view? No. Rut it's a fact that my wumen characters are house is like Anne-Marie with the children. ht·ginll.lng, you're obliged to be this and not that and learning and beginning to lulk and to memorise. So I was interested
untlcrvruml

by children and I was interested

what's wrong with the relation betwcn work and 10Ye by lookin!!: at what

t'hildn'lI "':1111. I know now that if I make a picture it's just to speak about what I 'Ill

loa

103

doing, about myself', hut it's also giving something take a part of me, Bu t the normal production love in the work. It is supposed love is the result of work. And in the movies children, . , what do they want?

to other people so that they can
Miek Eaton and Colin MacCabe

process makes su re that there's no more
YOII

to be done with love, Work is a result of love and can't have bolh. That's why it's

always a love story. Because there's no more love, But people still love to go. Hut

/\1 n time when the social debate i.sgetting angrier and angrier -

yet more

ruhcrcnt and specific, he lonks very like a man huddling in the shelter of his gadgets - und only through gadgds,
\~urm I II exists,
F rom a review of ,iumrro deux in the O~fSenJer, 30 January IY77

and machlne-like

presentation

to admit that human

'I'hr lords of imperialism

haw transfurmed
From 1.(: Gai Savnir

technology

and sexuality into

I!lsi ruments of repressiu n.

104

lOS

v»~ ~Kt. ~.~..I-dftvvttAtNY<-,
Fiction

i:if ~,~i;~~i,')- i:~::-;;;:'! }':~~-,' <~::;:l~~£;::~f{
r~~ :,);i1; m,~ :cl-!" ~~~ ~.:i,)r :', ,~~ ,,()......

No:-t:"·'l

"

From Ntlrnho

dr.lL~

106

107

To say that we live in place of our age. this commonplace Art is not the reflection of reality, it is the reality of that rertcctlon.
From I.. Chino lsc
HUI

<I

world of images is a com monthat to

perhaps only Godard has taken destroy a world. Proonly to produce, work, par I icu larly our

ar irs word and deduced
[0

displace the image is literally fessional film-makers,

report ers and the inst it utions more sounds and images

which employ (hem seem concerned relentlessly,
l'or
Oll

even fearfully,

r cons um pt ion. Godard's

since 1968, has been concerned more wit h <Ill in terrogation of the sounds
.::;.::;~;~ .. -:

and images which prescribe
1 han

. a:9ithe.~~Y8.

.Thocamerajhai~"'~

~r$tvfEi'
.' ~30<l.5hutrer_Wi1h

cult ura I horizons
production.

with add ing to thci r ceaseless for cameras shown of the of Art (he in0f

The

advertisements

He ±t?sUn+AllUilli:.'X'

here reflect photographic

the notion

that the production and technology laws

image i~ a unique combination

-J""""»'L,mo~e cernera. , X!:-- means 's~tsting ~~nl 'l'kL! 4'I'IWns . 1
·you.t:a~shoot~5;tlaJl~~t'\Q . 'rQm ca"dIt)ij!l~U" )'Iftgflt ec t1Jiiil't: , ;. The.S¢C!et~ ~.:ttie su:paf-{a'st' ,
111.2~1i$.it~

and Science, of aesthetics instrument.
1

tuitive eye of the artist and the mechanical
~.:

the in the

.the=g~ ~jVdtK;M .Ieawr~:a~d 'rn{)~b ~m~

speed Kod.~ 'Ekt."h'Om,qSO' ,,'

~tgh~~.;.::

.

The traces of this split arc manifested
I

YOu ean mrik~

ai.lpef"'S· ..

hroughou t

he rangc cinematic

0

f institutions

engaged practice:
I heauteur'

.t~· ~~.~ p~I'ore~ OOy~~.frt for -.phCi1~gtap~, pt cmJl",sO, yOUoan lJ.S¢]{

.r11?V1~·IFr1~~~~ lfghUng

~':mi:::lttioiY&··"

photographic,

and telcvisual

od?tihroms 'II movie fnm_

film artist as opposed to the film technician; and the camera operator, and the neutrality duce thai message. At its worst this widely-held carries with it the implication
'I
!.:;!~''l'

.Arto~· $paci~1 raati:rre: the \Jnl~ binoeul:ar g~4':J, W~iMhaips. -voo 'ke.ev·t66 ·C;;21mef~r.{eorlysreadY. ThIi.KL3aq"",. UJI!{IIl:, Md Ih~X15il,\<Iitl\ pow .. zoOm,·Cr.).!;.t:l). (:1:15'Oa~

the 'social message'

of art

of the technology

required to proformulation

that the camera is merely

III~' [-:::dHl'lllu!;!.y

rc

[1:-',

YI ~I' Irl~·.... 'JH

the lmagcs'

an inst rumen! to be used by the film-maker as a neutral tool for recording cit her the world as it exists 'out. there' (in documentary maker's films) or the expression of the filmof own peculiar and subjective view of the world The specifications technology and the social and economic can have no of the film or tells
LIS,

(in fiction films or 'an cinema'). photographic formations determining agency

in which they are produced influences on the 'messages'

the ways in which they are received. As the advertising hired by the camera to us manufacturer 'Leave (he technology you invent the images'. preoc-

But images of what? for whom? Given this cultural context Godard's cupation technology, in his life with cinematic as well as his experiments and ielevisual

with different,

108

109

more

collaborative

methods

of making

films,

is

Godard's

famous maxim, 'Ce u'est pas line o!:!_ the fact that no

dismissed by pro fession aI cr itics as an obsessio n wi th gadgetry; Thc questions his film; r;i-~e abou;- Wl~~-t -it mean"
10

image [uste , c'est jus!_(' une image' ('~his is not a just image, it's just an image') ~sis]s image h~ a£~e~) ~~s own ou rside ~ instil u tiOl~ wh ich exis-t t;;-j-ixits meanings. Film does not exist as a neutral medium 10 convey messages ",.hich arc independent, .
0f

be a film-maker, this indulgence sl.Opping Godard from

and what it means to be a as id le sci f-i ndulgen re. is seen as personally contributing to 'the consocial lrom involving himself in

film- viewer, arc condemned Moreover, stipating,

rather it finds it s mean ings ina series which place producer tain meanings and consumer are possible.

social rela t ions

'the real issues', debate' . of cinematic

so that only cer-

'In every image we must

We are as ked technology

10

thi nk tha I the devel oprn enr especially in that the cameras has that towards an increassync-sound

know who speaks' - thus Gociard, and this imperative de mands that we u ncove r the terms a f ad dress in the cinema, spectators. philosopher the terms in which we are conxtrucred Godard's films pose, as as the French lies in which and the it are has been

has evidenced,

I
I

the last twenty years, a progression ingly unmediated development the increasing relationship of light, portable sophistication

with reality -

Gilles Dcicuze ha- said, 'questions which whose importance Questions support

with the ability to film for longer periods of time and of video equipment \.... arc assured 'e allowed the events of the world to be captured directly and unproblcmatically. the spectacular these events understanding has become.
\IS

silence answers', questions
ways of talking about reveal that both discourses
From

the very fact that they disrupt and displace our routine the cinema. it and the cinematic surround technology ideological.

easily,

usc of the latest rechnnlogy can bring the Olympics, the Iranian revolution, us closer national concerned with -

which

fundamentally many of the technicians
II

and profoundly

whatever - into our own living rooms, increasing our of the world and bringing The picture editors of together as citizens of the global village that the world newspapers films tells and the m akers of television documentary that a photograph can in itself sum up a film can

the beginning

of his career Godard

on his films might say obsessed with ruil 1965 all d then only for his sh ort shot and, in his early films. Stories practice of the time, on who had been a sti II

r ill C mat ic techn iq ues and technologies
i\ IInou gh he did not use 16mm cameras vkerch

no rmally associat ed with direct <.:i nema, Cameflex, the sequence-length

for Paris vu par -

the hand-held

purticularly,
nuiuralistic
1];1111

use of direct sound all feature prominently against conventional Godard H is cameraman, cinematic wanted shooting. For example,

decade, a war, a person, that a documentary show us what is happening or in our
(Win

nhound of his insistence, ral light conditions.

in other parts of the world that

to film A bout de souffle in

backyard.

Raoul Cou tard,

These arc all ideological constructions tice 'cinema is not the reflection

photographer,
110
III()V

recommended

using llford HPS stock for shooting in daylight with this was a stock for still cameras, not for the
0

Godard has resolutely worked against in his tilm prac01' reali ty, bu I the meaning, reality ol"that reflection'. Cinema<.:onstructs

extra artificial lighting. However,

ics. So for the film they stuck together the 17 Y2 -rnetre lengths Cameflex as its sprocket To process
1his

f the stock to

make reels of the required length for motion-picture relal ively lightweight 111 ose
0f

shooting and then shot with the most closely to

it does not embody it, and the material appamtu<> of the

holes corresponded

dncma1S
reason,

integral to that constru(.:(ion.

It is for that that

a 35ml11 sti!l camera.

they had to borrow a machine as no

not for some idiosyncratic in Godard's

indulgence,

cornmercial laboratorv

could afford to develop at the speed they wanted, which was For U ne Femme est une fern me several sequences were

cinematic technology

is so often part of the pro-filmic films, and that

much raster than that normally required. ,t I,) I iIt a studio - originally because th is allowed easier camera manipulation
III~lengthy and complicated

event, the subject matter. and 'fiction'

the cinematic insritu tion' s categories of' docu rnen tary' are so continuously thrown into crisis in the manipulation of that technology,

during

sequence shots. However, when it came to the shooting that a ceiling be

( I()J<ird would not allow any of the walls to be moved and demanded

110

111

bu i II for the set, allowi n g a more the advantages colour lighting. Vine of shooting stock

natu rali s ric claust ro pho bic space in the first place a problem of direct usually sound -

but removing

a II

,llIdepelident

reality

which

film captured

but rather"

l'ilmic art icuiation

of reality

in

in a studio is slow,

especially

as this was a studio

wh iell hOI h montage
III hi JI

and mise en scene had a par! to play. This theoretical wit h the For break
0 pposit

film and colour Although

solved

by overhead

with

one

opposition direct ci nerna

was and

some use was made

for this film it was 110t until with only some of the of the scenes documentary several only one film

,'0)

cd wi t h a prartica

I break

ion between of direct

sa vi e that a film was shot completely of the [ilrn being was used,

using sync-sound In several

"ililn

montage

or mise en scene. film-makers, and montage

practitioner,

cinema,

usually of the
W',iS

music track
microphone maker

post-synchronised. or Rouch, the other

(II 'l"Illllcntary I

was anathema,

evidencing of

manipulation course, editing

as is the practice sound, for

the French scenes

rimed

footage

til us of

the spectator
hours ninety

(although,

and pioneer

of direct

even though

mikes

I" "d;\illgly

accepted -l.wenty-one
lO

offootage minutes) of the

for Rouch's

Chronique d'un Nt
impossible event. the pro-filmic

were employed

all the mixing

was done Similarly,

on the spot. Godard

1i:1(1I () he reduced
from normal

a distributable

and mise en S('('newas

departed

cinernat ie'
II> fuu. made

III i luu I

it would
careful

consriture
and precise

manipulation

object,
of direct

convention Colour

towards

a more

direct

approach and

with his usc of colour

in Pierret the colours

,,,liard's

lise of the techniques aims 01 direct

cinema

was in radical he insisted -

film stock

is very unstable filming.

has to be corrected practice, dating

-

L(lll

I radietion

with the ideological on is the reality

cinema,

The reality

uni for111Technicolor, requires However, and many

in the lab after

Common

from the early days 01 This blue normally in the lab. this in

:,,,<1 illSisLS -

of the experience

of film, and the importance of film to capture of direct cinema

or thai
'OUL

is to use human red make-up,

skin-tone which

as a basis

for this grading. by adding I .ight of Day' English

1(',lIily in the lives of the spectators,
I linC" l'or us 'back

not the ability the technology

reality

heavy

is later

corrected entitled'

here'.

for Godard, through

is used for the

as Coutard other

[Joints out (in an article

from which translation

illve\1 igation 01' reality II' (Kess of investigation.

film, not for the negation

ofthe reality of film in that
cinema refused to produce the coherence Godard used forgot of a

of the anecdotes 1965/6):

in this section

are taken -

Sigh; and Sound, Winter filming against while

'with someone like Godard, who has a passionfor goes
10

I f the ideologists ,'"Iwren! Ilruduced reality in front of the camera, by the screen they

of direct

Willis, everything 'make-up
There

pieces

if

(he walls turn blue',
a neutral make-up

nevertheless

ignored

For the shoot ing of the film, was used Coutard again:

then,

for that reality

on to which a film is projected.

men have their habits, their normal working

I 11c ir Iech n iq ues 10 di sr u pt 1.11 e co herence

of the pro- filmic even t bu t he never a moment ignored

methods, lind it is a crusade to get a more naturalistic kind a/make-up
are a h osr of sim ilar stories across The fundamental and techniques even work about the relentless and pursuit or 'naturalism' convention. all the clements question of direct in the

out ofthem.
of cinematic' still remains: cinema/

'

111~ other

moment

in ihe cinematic These

process,

by the ideologists

t hal cou ld be told

tI i reel cinema,

the moment

of consumption. considerations explain why Godard was eager to

technology why

professional

vrit icise Richard

Leacock

so vehemently camera

in 1963 and yet only a year later wasworking operator, for the sketch MontparnasseLeacock's

this insistence in the

on the technologies of film texts

cinema
arc

wit h Albert
L~vflllois 'candid

Maysles,

Leacock's

verite

production anti-naturalistic,

which,

early

stages,

which camera'

was to appear Godard

ill the collection

Paris
in mure

I'll

par. About
one,

fundamentally

which

resolutely

against

the filmic and proon reali ty captu red the pro-

had written: I.eaeock is Candide what ways than ... busily

filmic cod es 0 f Lhe cinema verite docu men tary, on the run, filmic event its naive and impossible then [he film will capture Godard's cinema montage a certain theoretical opposition between spectator 1956, that and combined techniques belief

wi th its insistence
totally was cinema independent thus with from

that i r you refuse

to manipulate

hunting

down

truth

. , , without are staging, words,

asking and that

truth

he is after

they have 110 ..

a reality cinema of direct

of the cinema? the beginning to both a

Itlell what

it is the)

pure reportage for a fighter

docs not exist, in the avant-garde, th an fiction.

Honesty, in other purt icularly huter returns when

is not enough

a commitment which

he docs not know

tha t if reality

is stranger

the

mise en scene,

He thus combined

three approaches Andre formulated Bazin,

were, and to

the compliment.

(Godard on Godard, pp.202-3).
But Leacock's refusal to order events in front of the of new skills on the pan to everything of the cameraman, for constant-

extent

are, widely held to be incompatible. had

the film critic and forties an cumera led to the development to pay the script brough attention

men tor of Cahiers du Cinema, bet ween montage, the film spectator with free access had which

in the late the transparent

was held to interrupt filmed, Italian and a form nee-realists, argu ing

relation

ly having l.evallois

in the viewfinder. rehearsed

Montparnasseof the shooting as if he the

and the object to this the was in front

of mise en scene, o f len which allowed on montage was never the in an

was written

and the actors

in advance

exemplified Godard

reference
[0

wi I h
were

Maysles faced

t in to film on 16mm, over which

acting

'as a newsreel no control.

cameraman,

what

of the camera.

In an article t ha t there

by real events

he had

I tried

to organise production',

re I'll sed

opposition,

Imppcning

in the best way possible,

but not to direct

it like a theatrical

112

113

(Godard on Godard, p.212). lfrnuch

ofthis attitude to the technology

and ideul'i!'.\

as pop music and sound from television programmes.
BUI

of direct cinema explicit.

was implicit in Godard's

pre-'6S movies, it was not until he iliad, to I he ideology of direct cinema were m.ul. in lie

this is overlaid with the defining and controlling organised as a discourse for the Vladimir (Lenin) and Rosa (Luxemburg). 'Transport are still quite a few in the large cities", and would rat her wash thel r This commentary which the thus image,

Pravda that the terms of his opposition Pravda March German practice television. rather
I

voice of the commentator, between This narration less fortunate

was shot. in Czechoslovakia as a documentary or contemporary Today it can most profitably documentary

i.<, oth descriptive: b workers', 'There particularly workers

1969 ostensibly

for West

small shupkeepers d isda in I' u I: 'Many
5U

seen as a repudiation revisionism technology's

han as the analysis

of Soviet bloc or the

cars than ruck their wives'. pplies us with

I hal it claims to be. Every clement

ill formation

film's construction

denies the possibility of cinematic access to reality. insistence on

themselves are not adequate to supply. It is as if the film has moved away from direct cinema, where sounds and images are deemed capable of 'speaking toward, for where themselves', conventional but only to move bad a more

privileged

It is the Dziga- Vertov group's

the primacy of montage which organises the film rather than any notion of a pre-existent reality which finds The guiding principle
10 I h e

style of television documentary,

its correct visual representation.

the co m IIIcnt ator acts as an in termed iary bet ween the images and the au dience, interprei.i llg them for us, anchoring
to

o 1'1his mo ntage is analysis bur, and here we come morn en tat which th e film final Iy produce, for the spectator, the analysis
L<,

a coherence given in

their ambiguities with case,
0f

into one definite meaning

always

be consumed

advance of any image by the correct political line. The refusal of an ideology of vision in favour or a political analysis Pravda, i~ indicated throughout the last section of when shots of the cameraman i, bringing reveal thai his hack to us from Lillie Red approach.

At the end

this section t he commentary and unprofitability of this which

declares the redundancy

What emerges is JUSt a "travelugue",

might have been prod uced by 'Marker previously Marker's documentary commitment Godard had contributed company has been political

or the ... '1ew

eyes ale not Focused on the reality or the pro-filmic event which the camera Czechoslovakia but on a copy of Mao's

York Times", by the left or by the right. Two years

a section to the SLON. consistent struggle Marker's
III

film Far from Vietnam, production work to analyse

which was made by Chris its in

Rook. If finally this dominance as oppressive as the dominance

of a polit ical analysis is of vision that it seeks to
0f

displace, and there is a voice a II he end made in Pravda. documentary those words,

the film

\'i

h ich are
0 I' a

both

suggests this, ncvcr thelexs certain steps forward bclicvi ng' , th at t he camera can illust ra tc the words commentary these founding

France and abroad: Vietnam 'aesthetic in which imperialism'

in Cuba, Chile and Vietnam, for he talks primarily in making of American of his own but

Above all, the idea that 'sccing is with images that confirm ideas of film and telein Pravda. of of images of the film consists -

exam plc. Yet Godard coruri bu ted a section to Far from personal difficulties films which resist the film-making,

vision practiccare images

torn apart, dismembered, Czechoslovakia

which, at the same time, isolate him from the working class in France. Although eye-piece
0 f his

The first section of modern

those scenes with him at the

1\'itchell camera ca n be easily dismissed

revi si 0 11isrn, as it were - ad verrisi ng ,I 0 g<'l.n, old men x walking in the streets, young workers, a couple washing their car, shops, television,
I

as empty solipsism one thing emerges as dear from his investigations of political 'evidence
f-rom Pru vd...

at this time and his rejection of the kind cinema associated with Marker: the

and so on. The sound0

rae k con wins sync-so

II

nd

0f

some

r the images

as well

of our senses' cannot be trusted and is no

114

115

basis lor analysis

because

those senses arc always

put in in which making arc

Thecommentary images anti-aircraft

accompanies in a munitions for the North of

a sequence

place by the common that ideology which

sense of the dominant takes truth asevident And

ideology,
and rhus

of workers
guns

factory
mak ing the ill

Vietnamese

ignores our place in that truth.
inc ludes surprise Mitchell, film about rejects terms: this

that place always
must include" in his

intercut and

wi t h images
images for

fi I m workers consumption, work

techn ological
that Godard, a product Vietnam. evidence

dct er min ant s so it is 0 I' Ii ule as a film-maker. of American The dominant senses

sounds structure

popular between that both

of the relation ia entailing either

and politics of workers

technology, voice in the

Czechoslovak fail 10 consider consequently.

groups

in Pravda following

the effects

of the work they do or, in [hat work. its confusions, or its out. more those to their never

of the

their engagement This is not without

'It isn't enough

because it is only the knowledge
now we must we need knowledge", part of the film announces of a concrete situatiun". peasants interviews an indication and rise above this to ~truggle to trans-

perceived

by our senses; knowledge,

condescensions, But how much confused

as critics more

have been swift to point how mud]

perceptive
form

condescending,
films, which those

it intu rational

are those and images

photographs, to bring situation.

The second

itself We see

sounds audience

presume
of a foreign that is

ax a 'concrete
interviews worker"

analysis with

the true picture

students, of these merely

industrial

considering every
\ __ hll'Wll ill I~II Iljlj·.~ 4ifJ

how the audience to speak 1.0

they

feel they have in the

but none

is sub: irled or that these
Harold
PU~(' LV,lIl~'~

right

constructed

translated.
people victims

Is this

organisat

ion of their sounds The film attempts

and images? to resolve these problems that is is

do not know of some

what they are saying.
'false them
1.0

ihai rhey arc
, that for them-

~l

revisionist allow

consciousness' to 'speak

in its third section with 'he dictum, sick add prernissed guaranteed is enunciating. questioned a sound on the that is not sick'. of

'to a picture
Such the

the film is refusing: selves'?

a decision

Or is it, more pertinently, interpret us with?

ro ask what \'/e would these foreign words, to the our the

correctness

sound-track,
line that Rosa is hesitantly

k !lOW even if we could question film could

by the correct In fact

revolutionary this correctness

the basis of any uansparent
provide from The Czechoslovakia 'If you don't

knowledge film stresses when Czech

by Vladimir 'You

at [he close of the film: with t we en u Id seize the and suunds acted dog-

distance commentary better sound

ironically know

say true texts hilt with what, you though

advises: it fast'. The fact

you'd

images relations

still half-false, of production

learn

between images
in tact you've ultimately adopted

that

the

dominant

relations

of

just

like that,

by chance: you've

and image

always

presuppose

thai the audience

matically; posters

what

is a lnt nf tak en a

is divorced in that

from their production ion is underlined

and the choiccx made in the short section

and slogans. result:

You thought we've taken

that you'd twn steps

product

step forward

that Pravda

deVOLl'S to the Czechoslovak as always. or by the revi si 0 n i srn' the xound-track 'Here, just

film industry. necessity to
0 f I he

back wa rds.'
Vladimir's in the balance with so a fourth
1 he

Overdetermined, construct Czech
I he'

intervention

carries

little weight

'\\' esternism'

of the film and in any case the film ends section which finally finds a correct correct from the '[ ntcrnarionale'. image: chosen red. What to go wit h the is important

people,

to the section as in Hollywood, mall,

is none the movies

less important: are made withnut people's point

1I nd,

for the common cnming from them.

YOII ~o to the penple [he

revolutionary pel'S pective sound is never

You criticise taking

here is th at the relation

0 f co rrcct

shortcomings

withoul

the people's

to correct

image,

even if still held as a possibility, terms of film and

of view.'

considered

in the standard

116

117

television documentary. the peasantry.

Nowhere is this more evident Rosa spells out the The

continuously

even when nothing
0 f movement

is recorded

on it,

than in that part of the third section which deals with On the sound-track lessons of lenin's handling image that accompanies of the peasantry.

whilst the illusion easy harmonisation interests

is ach ieved by rh e rapi d there can be no in the which is readily of

flickering of still images. For Godard of constructing a world

of these two technologies

this analysis is that of two

peasan ts loadi ng a hay can, an image which constan tly changes as the camera zooms in and out. The zoom always functions at the service of an ideology of vision as knowledge and 'distance'. will never use a in documentary around film practice, this ideology operating metaphors of 'closeness' Rouch for one,

accessible because easily perceived. that is continually questioning cinematic technology, 'experimental of resolution, be separated

If Pravda is a film

its own deployment Rather

that is not necessarily to say that it is truly an

the result is mere confusion. that the technology

film', which insists, even at the expense of cinema can never from the way that it is used, from who i.,

Some documcnrarists,
I.OOm,

preferring

to move closer to the

subject being filmed, rather than 'spy' from a distance. III television documentary functions zoom-out social films the zoom-in generally to convince the
to 'get close' to the subject,

using it and from the p urpose for wh ich it is being used. However, that a correct analysis
0f

Pravda,

like the other

Dziga-

Vertov films, never ultimately escapes the assumption sound-track is possible, that a correct the sit uat ion is a vai 1 Ie an d th ott, finally, a ab

viewer that he can really see what is going on, whilst the is characterisrically One might Republic used to 'put the subject also think here of in its context', picture'. Antonioni's so that the spectator can receive' a total frequent use of the zoom in the films he of China, where he

correct image can co mp lete the ideal film. The gra nting of primacy to the political meant that both audience and film-maker committed were defined in political terms. It was described the want not just that the films were made for the politically but that politics exhaustively situation of the film-maker. the second section of Pravda, When, at the beginning of the commentators

made in the People's

would con tinually zoom in on some small id iosync rat ic detail - an old man in a crowd, for example - which questioned lost by the 'total social picture' he was allowed to which is use here is very effects, as film, picking out, as it were, the individuality
100 king

to start from til eir own si tuation this entails an analysis of the social relations which enabled them to hire the car in which they travel throughout Maoist emphasis amounted political. definition on the importance
to a definition

at t he masses. Godard's themselves to themselves lens technology

different. products differently -

The zooms of

are too sudden, and functioning

the film. The struggle

calling attention

as technical

slogan to count on one's own force" and its of personal (exhausting, of the personal in terms of the exhausted) in the move away from does not therefore have increased technology. which underin in terests in questions of in video

from the human eye. More significantly from the sound-track

the zoom receives no motivation to reinforce of reality.

It is this exhaustive which is abandoned

Rosa's analysis takes no account of it-

it functions by an But

the fact that the visual image produced Every image already presupposes ofreaiity.

Paris. The interest in technology recede - if an yth ing Godard's this period, particularly cinematic and televisual technology However,

the camera is, in itself, insufficient articulation

to give us a picture

with other images and with a sound-track, articulation

with an already-understood

the insistence on correctness of subjectivity,

- and th is is the question Godard poses - understood by whom? And to what purpose? In one sense sounds and images arc always in contradiction in film the sound-track running

lined the Dziga- Vertov group's seded by questions questions of the personal

films has been superwhich are not just of the

but also questions

relaiionshi p bet ween th e subject and in forrnati on, an d

118

119

the technology programmes

required to construct on communication, of the personal

that information.

or

television

fiction

generally.

Similarly,

video

Two of the episodes

from the television Six Fuis deux, will and questions of
I h~"dml'l ""anI f.lr~)~n':'js_ I h~'~ w:JIII 10 be first.

technology

offers the possibility of writing directly on

to the broadcast image, or of punching on captions in a
way which is much simpler than film allows, where an

serve to illustrate some of the terms in which the tension between questions ideology Marcel and and technology both are articulated. The two and Co) and with

opt ical pri nting process wou ld be necessary. Again we sec til i~tech niq ue in election-nigh t br oadcas on or to complicate documentary two techniques
IS,

or at the

episodes arc Photos el Cie (Photography are specifically photography. examines

Miss World event, but we never ,ee it used to comment the flow of images in, say, a speech. These are with the relationof the of has experimented film or a politician's that Godard

concerned

The first episode examines news photofilm-maker, Ior

graphy - the public face of the image - whilst Marcel the work of an amateur whom image-construction this hobby. But although other people's concerned is a hobby, an escape from these programmes
0f

since Nurnero deux in order to complicate
to include

ship between images, sounds and words, and thereby the spectator has in the construcrion
01'

the work he docs during the week, work which finances deal with work, they are none the less continually techno logy and the thernsel ves, offers a range of and the re~ Just as the
0 f sound
From Photo:"; et Oe
111)111 PI'!O[OS

image, to throw the ideology Again television broadcasting the situation
d Ci~~

the visible into crisis. the possibility people, dialogues of

created with but,

wit h the deployment

interviews demanded,

(on st ruct ion of images in the programmes Contemporary televisual technology between

between people, which could be as long or as short as in the interests sched uling, ratings and the need 10 main tain the aim ost imperceptible flow of television, what we have instead of the public' These are those short interviews where a television professional patronisingly
011

techniques which provide the possibility ofthecreation of new relationships the spectator text. Most of these are, of course, systematically pressed in inst itu tional television practice. technological innovations

quizzes a 'member

of the early sixties, marking on the whole, to of docuof more recent of

how he/she felt when their roof caved in or when n I"ron ta t ions allow the interviewees
0 I" tak 110

a new range of possi bili ties f01' the articu lation and image, quickly became confined, the service of an unproblematic mentary reality, years in video technology na turalised sports events, outside so the innovations rendering

their pel goose learned to play the xylophone.
(.:0

possibi lity of liberates the a
0-

reph rasi ng the questions or answer television interviews from

ing their own time 10 constraints

them. In Six Fois deux Godard these

have been (on fined to, and and so on. Once not as somea
1'lmllM:arcel

by, their use for spectac ular reporting broadcasts innovation being

rnem ber of the public, like Marcel, th e arna teur phot time
10

grapher , or Louison, the dairy farmer, is given as much speak as Rene Thorn, terms, an expert). the mathematician The dialogues (in are or and television cond ucted patronisation, examination economic

again, we sec technological implications, particular overlaying but rather

thing wi th a force, a progress, wi th its own determining used to support ideology of the visible. For example, visionway of one image onto another, or of inserting a where we see But it is comedies

with ou t profession al spectacularity, So, whilst conducting of the technological, determinations operating ideological

a theoretical on the images, us, the members
It is as if we are

mixing allows for a very simple and rapid

smaller image into a portion of the screen. This is used time and again in sports broadcasting, starter's gun in the top corner,
]:I'OI~l

public and private, which surrounds
Yuns trois

of the Sonimage construction

team never hide the technological

athletes lining up to start a race, with an insert of the for example, situation never used in drama productions,

of their own broadcast.

seeing television for the first. time. The first section of Phott,s et Cie gives the

120

121

II

audience the opportunity at a news photograph

to look for about ten minutes bayoneted, impact before our else. The photoof Biharis accused of army. It was taken in war. It is a

As we w'al.(.:]l the Bihar is being endlessly the photographer takes us through the technical and economic determinations determinations of an immutable and natural of the image,

~ something which is construct-

ed to make an instant sensational eyes move on to look at something graph chosen is of the bayoneting collaborating with the Pakistani

which in his discourse are simply pari. order in which his own

place is not a subject for interrogation: 'It's a situation you can't control; you can't pose your subjects in photo-journalism. comes down to the technical reflexes you have, especially in this type of situation ... For maga:r.ines have So you've ~ot to deliver the goods. This black-and-white photo might get by ill a daily. which doesn't magazine often needs colour pictures in a cas!' like this one, which can't do that reporting camera,
);011

Dacca towards the end of the Bangladesh typical photograph opportunity'

in many ways, but we should repress photographers So we out of

so it

member that the event recorded was set up as a 'phototo which Western had been expressly invited.
II. was an event that had

been initiated so that it would be photographed. are invited to look closely at this photograph its context

colour photos, But an Italian or German news

and for a long period of time ~ perhaps and one of those that

0'· an event,

sorn e might say it is less of an in vita tion a nd more of an act of force, but this is a rare opportunity duration is one of the fundamental attributes which only the cinema or television could achieve as media (though, professionals of course, this is not an attribute

you've gut to he able to glve them colour as well. Hut don't cuntrul, you a flower, yes, I could photograph

that calmly ill colour and in black and white. In war you can't aHord to miss an event with your you've got to catch it. I get it in black and fast I used

in media are interested in, or rather their

sole interest in the time of the image is to deny it ~ we must change images quickly lest the viewer becomes aware of time). While this photograph view its photographer the determinations such a photograph. such a photograph magazine, seconds, intuitively operating is presented
to

white and forget about the culonr. So there, in Dacca, where things were happening black-and-white ... Tri-X stock, a very fasl film. We speed for capturing abrupt

delivers a monologue

on some of of

were in full sunlighl so I set it at a five-hundredth This is the standard movement. Colour is much more difficult to use

on the construction

Given that the normal context for i~ the newspaper or the news i~ to know, that

because colour film is much slower, so you're wurking at slower speeds and it's less spontaneous and less sincere than a black-and-white is Iaster. Also, in sunlight, so ewrylhing be surprised is in focus ... photo, which you always set the camera so if anything happens for it and we Iry nol to our job.' it is

where it will be looked at only for a few the task of the professional we are led to believe, how to capture its 'message'

precise five-h und red I h of a second wh ich will's u 111 up' the event, 'communicating' As Donald professional McCuliin ... to the reader. to know which if we for very puts it later in the film, the to press that button':

between 11 and 16 with a wide-angle lens, a 28mm, to surprise us we're prepared As is evident.

must have 'the knowledge

by an action, that's

is the right moment long, if we consider ha VI' failed, it can't technology

in this monologue,

have to stop and look at the finished product it as a photograph,

impossible to separate the question of the construction of images from the question of their exchange value. It is the image's ideological double position in an economic which stimulates and the circuit of exchange

then it must

h ave com m un icated effecti vely. to be at the service of a reality to a spectator.
I
I~ IIIl

Once again, of course, every aspect of photographic is understood simply waiting to be represented

chasse aux images, the hunt for images. The specific
image from Bangladesh
Phcres
~t

chosen by the Sonimage team

Cte

III

123

was exem plary in this respect in that the various images of this execution of the economic articulation question the editor comments: became competitors and ideological, of humanist conscience Times, for the Pulitzer Insofar morality Harold as this as a in Prize, an award which aptly illustrates the articulation is generally recognised it tends to be dealt as, for example,

10

the newsmen

who 'represent'

the general public? organisation of

Always rernernber ing that the very notion of 'general public' is dependent on a particular information. contradictions Over the image of the event Godard drawing out. the of the event: / Radio Press TV

writes the following set of polarities,

with in the discourses of individual

of the Sunday

Evans's, crew be the People /

'People were murdered for the camera; and and a television the acts camera might not

I

some photographers absence committed.

departed without taking a picture in the hope that in the

of

cameramen

/1
Silence People /

Others [el! that the mob was beyond

appeal to mercy. They stayed and won Pulitzer Prizes. Were they right?' (Evans, 19n, p.xiv). This moral discourse which refuses to consider the circuits which organise information evident in a certain kind of left-wing moralising. rnoralising contents itself with deploring state of the media but considers that nothing refuses to confront is very Such more is that There

I

/ TV

Noise

the actual and over the direct sound recording hear another voice: 'Not producing, recording. produced Not consumlng.
by others

needed than a change in personneL This kind of stance the necessary displacements

of the speech we Only .. ,

I

would interrupt presen
t

the series of exchanges on which the discourse that than that filmed at a

organisa tion of inf orma tion is founded. problems of subjectivity

Just taking stock, Sounds and light by' others and consumed

'II
I

are few better examples of a moralising refuses to confront of the French Communist Communist attacking although conference

Radio, the press and television. Racing to the tour corners of the world. Sticking to events. Getting paid for that. Getting paid for that .. professional ... for radio. photography ' economic and ideological in one of in arc elaborated The assumptions hidden being a prufessiunal. , being a and television

Party. Photos et Cie stresses at which Georges Marchais, party, made a speech The irony of this is that

this in the next section of the programme, general secretary of the french television reporting.

Marchais was speaking against the media we

of photography sifts through

see that, in effect, he was speaking for them. In front of the stage from which he delivers his speech are gathered the massed ranks of newsmen from the press, radio and television frantically employed in recording what he are says, Th e members of the pu blic, Marchais' s followers, the manual and intellectual workers of France, confined to the gallery, separated the crowds of professionals speech addressed? from the speaker by
hom 1'11010' <"I

the most striking sequences which Godard c... talking all the time: 'Professional

from the programme, a pile of photographs, There are

photographers.

things yon could sa)' but you have to have the time, When you have the time you don't have the space and when time.
}'OU

have the space you don't haw the

below. To whom is the

To those who have come to listen or

la4

las

'A photo of a tourist who pays for the right to take ph otos. . . . Amateurs pay and professionals don't pay ....

They always photograph are duing the torturing victims face on .

the oncs who from the back and their

That one, yes, she's a model, must be a professional.

The first phutu taken was that of a flower,

The first photo published Hut not that one ... ,

was of .. ,

the gunned- down Communards

And those, whil{ they're being searched in prison, they can I!;et.lost if the)' think they're going to get paid hy the photographer .. ,

A square of paper. When you look at it closely it's a real landscape made of paper. When you look at it close up it smiles ...

Vietnam, How much were all those people paid'! That's the real scandal. The magazines of the world made a fortune out of photos from Vietnam. The world is far away, but television is there, near us, reassuring us'.

Captions. A Chinaman who's shaking hands with Nixun. man." who's courageous The caption reads: "This brave courageous It's the Chinaman

To be able to see you have to turn youreyes. Open your eyes wide. To do that you need time, and you need space .. .'

shaking the hand of a man like that ...

188

127

In the final section of this programme see, for the first time, context, here this context advertisements 'in formation' taining news photographs in its relation -

we

in their to all the and

in the last seven years, as an attempt to base his factory, his studio in the countryside. For Marcel, the factory and the ccun tryside are rigorou sly scpara ted, a Ithou gh
the viewer may find his position at the edit i ng ta ble and

in the pages of Le Nouvel Observateur. Bur is affirmed in the magazine 'news'

bolstering

up, and being bols tered up, When all thc pages conwhen this

his position at his work bench almost identical. His photographs on what is 'beautiful'; of nature; be expected he rarely takes from his super-B deliberately pictures concentrate His this, in effect, means the world of people,

by the demands of commerce. literal act of deconstruction little else remaining. commodity by itself; news photography circulation; Marcel

ad vertisi ng have been removed,

has been achieved, there is demands the context of

What docs remain cannot stand it cannot be separated from it.

camera is set on a tripod, his pans arc a, smooth as can equipment, he focuses clearly on the wild Iife and wild flowers of the Alps and he has no difficulty at the editing stage of the work in eliminating those images which are 'defective'. Similarly, Marcel seems to keep himself out of his own images as much as possible. He will not speak his own commentaries
to his films but relics on music because

makes super-B movies and 35mm of the nora and fauna of the j ust a, much in Photos et Cic, yet from everyday Though the

colour transparencies

Alps. His lifc is engaged in imagc-making as are those of the professionals this is seen as a hobby, a 'liberation

work'. As an amateur he pays for this hobby from the money he earns working as a watch-maker. interview with Marcel is anything but a simple illustration of certain theses, and this because of its length and Godard', method of asking questions to which he does hc is caught labour. in a circuit of exchange as that in which the can he from the
from Mart~1

he feels his speaking nology, However, conservatism broadcast, The Sonimage photography, it. Rather, determinations money?'

voice is not good enough. from another

His

ideas about himself, just as much as his use of techseems to be coming
to dismiss

place. of the

this practice

as an aesthetic

would particularly

be to miss the point

not know t he answer, it is nevertheless clear tha t, as an image-maker, every hit professionals as determining

in its relation to Photos et Cie,

team may not be setting up Marcel's bu t nei ther are tb ey
(0

practice as an escape from the demands of commercial ncerned 10dismiss are the the now familiar what are being investigated -

These determinations

read across the whole range of his work type of equipment

he uses to the aesthetic decisions he The contrast like Marcel between the repeats the the

on that practice

makes and to the places in which and the people to whom his work is exhibited. professionals and someone

questions of 'who speaks in an image?' or 'where is the are being asked in relation to another son of are approached, for example, in the image-making. These questions following section of dialogue in the film around the differences movies. It should be noted that the conversation because the French word for production therefore strong in English. Marcel: 'I can, in slill pholograph)', whatever 1 want. I can gu from a tulip to a woman's in movies.' Godard: 'Don'l you find you're
001

shifting polarity which runs through polarity work
exclusive,

Numero deux -

that of the usine (factory) and paysage(!andscape), so central
to advanced

between stills and

capitalism

in which

loses some of its force in English follows another pick up is not as

and

enjoyment

are understood

as mutually to enjoy in our

line is the same as chain (fa chaine) and necessarily

To work in our enjoyment,

the emphasis on how one operation

work, such possibilities organisations it is only the interfusion real satisfaction, can understand

are denied in contemporary of the two that can bring any

of space and time. And yet, for Godard, Indeed, it is in these terms that one his successive physical displacements

face; you can't do that

so free, then, with movles]"

'Yes, exacuy; with movies I'm less free because I

128

129

haw

to choose

a way.

It's like writing line, then?' 'Yes,

a hook

...

things

have to I'olluw on from

~Ic men tin Godard's
(,(ldard's increasing

film- rna kill g, t ha t tee h no logy has been in which video is perhaps

U

nders rood ror the last important
element. as some extenthe

one another.'

'It's a bit like a production

seven years as a technology
interest line a marvellous production

the most

in, and use of, video

is not to be understood fantasy of a mechanical

a production

linul approach

to reality, nervous

still less as Ihe Mcl.uhanite
system which would a question

line. The production 'The

line of happiness.'

production
it's more

line of what?'
'The

viurt or the central
,,1'1 he relation ( ,l)d,Hd' s work

complete of video which

our humanity,

Rathel'

q nest ion or the image is now as much

as of film, and specifically is one of the focal points of

production
a production

line of happiness." linc.' every process.'

between the two. It is this relation
since shooting

'Hut

diHicult

to follow 'Yes.

Numero
to film.

deux on video

and then transferring on to video complicated

il on to for editing operations which

you h ave to go t hrough

lilm. Sauve qui pcut was shot 011 film but it may be transferred .md [hen transferred has finally, back after To carry out these

'And

don't

}'OU feel imprisoned'!'

'Yesv a Iiule imprisoned. imprisonment. 'And don't "'e

The production line for watches.

line is an BUI it's nol

Godard
I ransf'orms

a long

struggle,

obtained

a tclccine, him
(0

a machine work

have where I work
there's something have their ·Yes.'

II

production in curnmun

a film image media.
In

into video and which of that work,

will enable

more directly will silence om

the production you think between them? All factories

line 01" happiness.' lines.'

on both

The result

the new questions

which

all swcrs, project.

ust awai t i ts use in the ed iling of Sau ve qui peut or in some

fu rt her

production

'And

don't

you think

there's

a similarity

between is a production that, line of

that prnductlon images? and think about

llne and the fact that that?' 'Yes,

in a film there looked

Perhaps it's the first time you've

at itlike

hut you can try
it's not the same line ynu

bill I'll tell you that perhaps line is open, deeper, the ind u strial point my opinion.'

AATON
inbe by

production

line, The production

iI's the production

fi n d in natu re . , . lind from there's an enormous

the material, Thai's

01' view, I think

difference.

Not only does this sequence illustrate rcrviews
technical the break with normal television

hO\N

Godard's

patterns but it demonstrate,
questions of form: and the image, relations which

how, for Godard, between cannot

questions or

immediately film-spectator

engage

of the relations which

film-maker

understood

by any notion

of cinema

or photography

would

limit them

to a

series of technical move towards

descriptions.

It is 'within this context, control

ever more stressed resources Godard's

since the

autonomy

and greater that

of technological

signalled collabnrauon

the establishment.

on Son image,

one can understand Beauviala. of his radical

Aaron makes J.-L. Godard a 35 mm camera. Ultimate steadiness

with the Swiss camera-maker, tempted hands

Jean-Pierre a product and

Beauviala work

has constantly in optics,

at-

to keep his inventions,
of the large corporations Beauviala spccif'icati elaborated

out of the methods designed or
10

to insist

on non-production-line a 35mm camera,

construction. Godard's Godard

is currently

producing

oris, wh ich will to a certain in the early sixties, of a super-S combining camera.

ex lent conso lidatc a 1\'1 itchell's

the practices

tha 1

,"<lui -~,

.... , l~ :

~~~~~~~~~i~~:
mil'
imq~, :lind the ~ rri ,hIlJ1I:1_
m~ •• ln~.: :11: [Inlll '('A. I-~ r_l:. :Lr.~I' ~,~.~

~;~~~~~~~~:~ ~~~~:~~~t~~;~~ ~!t~i~~~~i;f~:~t~::;l~ ~:~~lIi;7~~;~1\;J~ ~(~i'~~~!:j;~\l'~;:;~~~:~
~•. ~ ....~I~ ~~I~~

quality

of image with

r'''IL"nn ,

",,~h

In .. ~nl ~U>:.'.

:-~el

~~'~.t1

~ .\y~~1~ld,~o!:i~ I~ '",n;",".bI~:1I I'AI ,,(~ Mil<·-~II (1~ j~u~l~ !XN~.J.'~~W'. .~, ~i.. llk An;" -..,:..~-:-~~: -ne: ~.:: !.= ,>I;-.", .,..,.:1

""~lllOl':~.

~~r!~ :Y!I.

'<!'"~"

P:IL'".

,"I'~

~I~':lf

';'j'-o(J(Il

... "h

:... " ,

the size and flexibility

But. if the technology

ofthe

cinema

is an ever more crucial

130

131

Colin MacCabe: Could you explain your constant interest in the latest advances in technology? Jean-Luc Godard; I usen't the police, the law or circulation, he aware of the reason but nnw I am. It's from
been made, it

OK. You say there's no difference rantaslic commitment.

between the real

:II1U the image. At the same lime, before you make your image, you have a

to the real. On the Hornuss field, for example, an interesting
(0

* you

could have tried to synchronise

bit of the game, a train passing and make it happen.
If I go to

the dialog uc. But i r il d idn' t happen,
(iodard's direction ai rhc game (II" Hornuss, see Chapter 2~ 1'1,·4:\·44,

yo u wouldn't
10

just because that when it's new it is less rigid, and there are less instructions There is not less law, but it hasn't

* For a descriptionof

I'm trying the woods

make music in the cuuntry,

make good music, a music inspired b~'

isn't written down, It is before the written , . , You can handle it, or think you can ha ndle it, which is not the same. You have no ru les so you have something live with, you have to invent some rules lind to communicate
, A re these rules good?'

the wood or the animals and then shoot every animal

to

uud chop down every tree so that I was sure I was making my own music . well, it's the same with the film. I'd still like to understand commitment to the real. The factlhal you wouldn't better the basis of the direct .... I don't see. There's no when the camera

with other people.
Bu t

"Dn yuu thi n k this is a good way to cross a street?'

that's all ... attacked

I was interested

because there were no rules. At the time I was

an d then it became the new mood and I was agai nst it. Because I'm not camera or sensitive stock. Sometimes you need a hand-

against that rule, I'm against the fact that it's only that rule, always. I'm not I"or or against the hand-held held camera, sometimes discover that there are or to love, Remember, only make big pictures. Why have you always used very small crews? Sometimes because I liked it but sometimes I was obliged to. When you have huge crews it's like going to a city. You know no one. You're not obliged to talk. People discover that it's much more difficult to work with me in a small crew because if you're trying to work differently then you're just obliged to invest. You're not just a hired professional you're making is about childhood. you think as a father' because the question is you just sa}, 'Hello',
100

Out I'm directing a direction. isn't turning. 'That's something Something that is interesting
The tape-recorder

difference between shooling and the followinl!, of something

you need a steady one. I'm against always being obliged new there i~ les~ law and then you in wurking with you tu make pictures with to
WQ'

which people in the movies don't understand. not always. Of course, in television they only

to use just nne. As soon as theft' is something

about video is that the camera is always running.

Jew people who are interested and condemned

is not running,

because they are lost. You have to find rules in yourself and when to work more I was condemned small money, Wh~'? I could use a 101 of money hut then you'd be condemned

use that for live shows. Out for me it's always running. To shoot is to re-run. nut before, when I'm going to shoot, I'm not sure. A novelist doesn't think that
the only time he's writing a novel is when he's sitting at a table writing.

Or a

painter or a musician. It's an attitude

YOIl

only find in the movies and that's they wuuldn't react at all.

incredib le or just silly. I prefer to say' silly' to people because they are angry when you say that but if you said 'incredible' Could you give the chronology

of your interest in video'! ... I remember when I tried made by Philips in '67 in La Chinoise, I then ... I don't know why I got

I can't reallv remember
In use one of the first video outfits

who can escape. If you're a 'What do

father then the director has a right to speak to you about belng a father if the film You can ask your camera operator, and then the operator discovers that he doesn't like me The tact is that I don't make

wanted the characters interested.

to shoot themselves and then use the footage for self-

criticism but it was too new as equipment

Maybe because it wasn't run by movie people so there was no law. It

rough. But if you haw a huge crew you never know, 'Wonderful'.

was movle eq uipmen t an d there was no law. So I was au Ihurjsetl, Even with a camera, a Pentax or a Nikon, there are so many peuple who'll say, 'if you're out "I' focus, that's no good'. So you hesitate to use it because you think, 'I'm nnt
lillie to'. Just like Anne-Marie

I
I

'How are you?',

an) distinction
II

between reality and the image of it. That's what yuu must
110

nderstand.

A sci en tlst, a physicist is only a physicist when he sl ud ies, when he's diHerence between reality

often says about movies. And I say, 'Just hy

working on physics, not when he's at home. I see and life i,~a picture'. It'svery

sa}'ing that you prove that you are able'. Tt'.~very hard to convince people. Of
('(HHS~

and an image of reality. For me they're the same. I always sa}" 'A picture is lire And when I make pictures, it's making lire and that's why atleast hard for the crew to follow and that's why I prefer to keep them small. well, the picture would never get done.

there is skilfulness

in a tot uf areas hut the whole process should he more and the director were

lIlT{'ssible. I don't know what the rules were in England but when I began to ruuke mnvies in France only the camera-operator l'llthorised wus like the Middle Ages. Everybody to look in the viewfinder ..The other members of the crew couldn ' t. It had a category.

Because at least, even if we don't talk, even If thera's no relationship, they can rollow. If there were a hundred,

132

133

So the interes was cheaper and that there were less rules?

l

ill vi cleo grew ou t of l he fan t hat it
huoks
100

One can't say it ...
like Jovee

It's fifty years since I read call he dnne,

or Celinc,

Rut I think that in a movie soml,thing

Yes, maybe. Maybe the tape-recorder. borrow,

because you haw the whole

that you can mix things like Joyce but in a normal way and mure accessible too,
lIul

~ystem. You ha ve a theatre which is the TV set, You have a laho nit 0 r} wh lch is At any time yuu can always make a picture. I can always You just need small money, you don't have to be!;:from or kill someone,

difficult because to look is 1I0t somethin!;: uneasy,

a hanker. So at least I feel secure. Possibly it's like a hunter who has a bow lind arrow, Yes, there arc cannons but the bow works all the same. I think there is something everything in that. I've never done it tbllt way. But I always not true, you can make a picture'.
SlI},

liltI;-~,

F;)'

topl Sing:)-) <mgty,
3

meekly h){ls~, defendy

nous from

'if I lose say the}; can't the

!,II'}, labuu1S, Make

I can still)!;o on now, more than ever", If rnovie-makers

make a film, I say, 'that's tape-recorder nohudy's

Ther e's slides,

there's small cassette recorders, interested

like the one we're usin)!; now. ,"'hen lstarted

took lip half the room. It's not true. You can record a sound and if in hu}ing then the only on e to blame, maybe not [he only one one, is yourself. I've been particularly struck by the lighting in your you use ill lighting? That's why I was inter ested in

hut the most important

s' un tire curst. EllJC;1, Hut the duvlin I'll \va~ in GluggcL, that. lost-ro-lurning. PU(lcL Be",';],; sbutfiilg ::;puling, ms.:;\ng like anisinevwhipI,in!!, Lis cYCS(ult ;mel gnatsching his te-ars OVer the brividics from ,'Xlstu-, and tilt: outher liubbucb of li He halth kelchy chosen I davbladc and makes prayses V) his tlln'r;' (,f clubs. T» p:lrl from IIII.'~~, ElY' cor-ers, is imu :,vcrlv;ling {~:,,;-,Acts of led) hoof Jnd ,
~../'

II

video programmes. video
(00,

Could

YOLI

say what principle,

Iarrety; athletes lcngfoot. Aminxt that nomore
j

D jow 1, IlpLerc ~
('\'CilLg:j)

I'

,

flUW

jJlerce u] in tneir
l' ,-

'

f

SO~

I wish I could be ... from (he photographer

it <tivcncss were those fir,,! girly stirs, with zittenngs of fHght re1('<I'kd and twing!ings
1[lgS

because at least you can look at the lighting and be)!;in to tree yourself as the sorcerer who knows (h~ mal/;ic that you don't

(If t'""itchbd!s
rather

in rondcl after, with waver-

that nude
J

shi rn mersh.il.e
~ ..

!laightily

an the duskcendcd Sammy, call of the
1.111-

know. He knows what's in the black box and all ynu knuw is that he takes it away and I'our days later he hring~ it back. But at least ill video you can sa)" 'It's dreadf'ul' dreadful or 'It.'s beautiful, I like il thai way'. And (hen he says, 'You like this and all the social things. And that's because at least there is no rule; And then you discover that They hope there's a thing?' and you say, 'Yes' and you can learn, can bt'l/;in to Jearn but

.urs and shvlir beaconmtn
(1)1.

frum shehind hims back,

Mirrvlamh,

she was shuHt:rim;

all the diseasinesses

lind of. tvlary to uisan Shousapinas Iii~

~ If Arck could no more salve

then it means ~harir;)!; the whole equipment

:w:no!s from the ,,,des of will v wool y ,v(:oJf1 If;J

n the

airish

why most of the time I don't light. I don'lli)!;hl

there is only one rule: to try tn get the right aperture.

',[)..';ni~'iof lin dirr:mdu;:p hdDJ1it from an Father Hogam till lI;c 1-1ut die!' ,Mas:ills ,~ould l\(;t 1hat G lugg to cateL her by the
I

there is a whole world of d ifference between 2.2 and 5.6 an d the 0 perator duesn ' t knnw why he's choosing one world rather than another, reason and Ltry to work on that reason but before the silootin)!; and then they don't want to work, they just want to do their jub. Or if they're famous fur opening at 5.6 then they're like Steve McQueen. He's paid five million dollars for flvc and then he acts in a certain VI'a),but you l'all't ask him to do something

.ilour

I

" ~'i IU,;;: (k, I)'ervinGl
themes over (r wimomine)

cf her hridcnc'is! Bur,

. nul' 1nora; not
1

L~or H 0\(\ Scvi]]a nor Ci 1n,mdlc; not
'\"

,i l n

]

a even nul'

"I <Ii

, 0 1" tnem

I, 'l'r

mor;trugc

stick in the mc!melcd.e ~2wr,
en

t

,lI\1

:l11 rhees rhi!lg. Up tighty in the tronr, dc",'n
clrirn

,Ii~.lin en

and drumrr.i

her 1>1Ck

3.

l)()P

million dollars. The more he's paid, the less you can ask. JustIike a king. Although couldn't Joyce's Finnegans the children's colour', very important difficult parlor
lO

hum her ,,:List/(,.
I;p

lUI is fhat; 0 hU\vtlU()PcrS?
and
:;...;.~
h.~

Isor givin yoe)

in your work, I
"I•

he ~)ndpk:d, glee
C',h)l"_, !
• .(,~ ...

find any way to talk about it. lt 's like a difficulty thai I have with
rV(lke. The most complex,

~

1("')"1"; """'('"..• } <.! ~ y">" ,/ v::

... ~-:i. ~

gees, with (;car,,); ;; i1;ng did die !Jcn , r' J' " l"'C'j ','n(i ii vou WiLH ',;'CII m_',,' c.ru till J.
:-")' ~ • .,.

the book is about sexuality and to

III (

r

)\'1'11 ",',d" l l' "11f'!"'" <.» -:-f('l!. ~} (" I) • ,j ......~\~ , ~ ... 'w.
r~ ::...~, ....

r

discovery of colour and how that's related there's something

.\ n ,1
J.j

t j"p,:~""y"l;

", t ",,, ........ -,

me: ~"'"

(;ce .. .(,~

'j ~.

("j" r~ ~ ... >.,.:\¥

\' :\iC \(:1, {nne

«.

f(Jl'-'

,

shame. I'm convinced

there but 1 can't say it.

134

135

If I'm making movies it's only because it's impossible to make TV, because it's ruled by I!;overnments everywhere.
Godard,

The Listener 12 Decem her 1968

My ideas only get through

on televislon.
Godard, Periscope 24-30 September 1975

136

137

Unlike t elevi sio n as an in l'erior version work in television indeed, Gndartl's since and
0 l'

many

film-makers, theme

Godard

has never

regarded

it sprays or

/ arroser

fi lm , Early in h is career he ex pressed
in his interviews has become films were from with television of the Dziga-Verrov irs major regards medium

his d esi re to

and it has becn a recurrent financial 1968. connection

since 1964. And, of the utmost financed French by and on the lhl' territory that it declares

it floods
it~ own. and

/ ino ndcr

importance television Mozambique as so many importance a 'medium common audience

AU but one has received But if Godard it as the same

And

as i,I doesn't

have its

OWI1

pwgrammes, who

Sonimage television.

commissions

it goes into debt culturally already possess
technical

financiall)'

to nelghhours,
0 r floodin

close or distant,

television as film.

as important, Indeed

he does not,

the same system of sprayin)!; (cf. Tele/Zairc),

g. to buy the and financial which action will, mine or

do, regard of institution,

his insistence

And as it has already'

gone into debt cultural capital

and technology

prevents

any acceptance sound

of the notion and image,

01
arc

equipment
or later,

it is thus

11 double

of communication". to film and television, are very different. that he wanted

If the matters
the institutions Godard When

of expression, and technology,
[0

debt that it takes sooner virus particular

on, accumulating shatter its hopes

in this way a parasitic of independence

the forms

and the lie

(like a delayed

said he wanted

work

for television,

so true is it that communications something to do with cancer). The Questions

(l'information)
which

in general

has in

did nOI mean

to make

films for television;

his ambition

was to work

on news and sport Television Indeed teicvision 'effects'. other Godard's own it promote programmes is endlessly reveal how debated primitive but little understood. our thinking about what image, enterprise like Sonimage

a television

and cinema

asks itself 'Before

are the following: sending out an hnage, perhaps we should ask

is. A Imost all deba tc abou t television 'Does violence?' 'Docs

ci rc les rou nd i ts possible

or po ten rial

or an image of what?' 'Before appointing a letter, a minister of posts, perhaps we

it discourage

literacy?' These and many
in whom the 'effects' of to a slowness amounts workshop with which of mont'}'. should ask if une needs class determined
[0

questions arc always couched in terrns of an individual
can be measured. the individual Psychology, the science in all his or her multitudinous
0 f television.

or wants what?' And

to write

and to whom

and why

television examine

of a ruling facets,

(to do what) and against

is called

understand is that that

if time sometimes 10 these questions

equals

money,

the speed different

or

new activity, the

the watching

And the prem iss 0 f the inves rigatiou separate from the other practices

one replies

are each worth

activity is discrete, const it ute OUf li ves.
of which hand, run through

separable

and

Sonimage In con tr adiction Godard's theory
1','

does nol claim these

to be any thinj; in a practical

more

than

a

i rh this position

two em phases,

bot h

in which

one can pose unseself prariquement

problems

fashion

and practice, television society.

need to be made. [he wider

On the one and to

(un tapis ou l'on

peut se poser

ces problcrues).

it is only

possible

to consider in our

within On

economic

ideological inves tigare, There

divisions

of labour

the other,

it is necessary
conception

Principles

of reflection

rat her til an take for gru n ted, the forms 0 f vis ibi Ii ty t hat television staremenr document of how these emphases that Souimagc into produced affectone's

off er<,. A.
• Godard' s document talks 0[" the difference bet ween plusieurs ""0 seut. I have I ranslated IJ/rlsieur.s as many ih rough out ;'''0 seu! either as atune Or as one talone).

is a panicutarlvclear in a short This

in a cinema people

of television government. principles provide provide

for the Mozambique the current situation,

a re many

document

was divided

four sections: aspects.

to be alone

* (I.oget her) * in front of t he screen.
linked to a TV aerial (together) to be mall}

for reflection, one
0 f the

possible

work and financial
0 f Godard',

The first IwO sections an d

clearest

s taterncnrs to discuss

think i ng on television

B.

in an apartment people in front are alone

the terms

in which

his own programmes:

of the screen alone many (cinema) (TV)

Current

situation

that's

to say: set A: many alone to be (become) to be (become) set B:

In general, (after several first going transmitters in for radio (stations) particularly) from

a country begins

which

goes in for television itself with one ur

by equipping

which

138

139

that's to say:
A = many

bel ween the one and [he many and it points to a crucial difference in the organisation -------------">one (alone) man}' of sound and image. In cinema it is the articulation posil ions the individual spectator, the spectator
I am indebted 10 Stephen l leath and Gillian Skirrow's an i121e; Television: oil world i n aU ion' (1977) for my understandinu of the i rnponance of direct add ress. Many of my other comments 0[1 [be functioning 0 r Godard's relevision arc slm llarly indebted.
1<

of narrative

and vision which

8 that's to say: journey out (aller)

=

one (alone) ----------~

in television it is direct address which established ofthe announcements, within a general pauern entertainment will

as part of a national audience and holds the variety of programmes in place x . It is the importance of the placing of programmes of entertainment image in place.

{from

cinema} toTV

or

{

from loB

A}
or {

from many to one (alone) from

}

which holds the variety of sound and Any evening's
0 I' these

incl ude fict ion, news, docu mentary, etc. Each

return (retour)

from

TV

{ to cinema thus the following schema:

}

or

{

from B } loA

one (alOne)} to man}'

organ ises sou nd and image in specific ways but they are of at the touch of a switch
011

securely located within a pattern of an evening's viewing. The whole functioning television is to produce a world visible and comprehensible and in whose production no other effort is required. If a film

television might thai I',e and to the of the

one (alone)

make different announcer's

claims (the images will become visible only on condition those claims are subordinated in the television magazines to the announcer

follow a narrative), supports

and the television pages of the are almost

press. Given this dominance many Sonimage is situated at the crossing between the departure and the arrival of information. Sonimage is a manufacturer throwing ligbt on a situation to see itclearly of light in the sense of to draw the veil. or, on the contrary,

of direct address in television and its control television programmes

image, it is perhaps not surprising that Godard's eac h programme.

tot ally with ou t d irect address, al ih ough there is a grca t variety of form s used wi thin If Godard wishes to comment on an image, he uses the possibilities to write directly on the screen thus producing by the form. many of the Dziga-Vertov a comment whose

01" vision-mixing

relation to the image is not authorised Although transmission
Sonirnage

films were made

for television, they were made as films with little, if any, concern for their possible God ard' s est imat e 0 f t he curren t si tuati on stresses how television finds its place not as an isolated clement within the individual's pan of a complex of social developments of economic an appropriate relations form capable of of producing a commodity Crucial in
1<

on television. The work with video that started with the selling up of obviously prepared Godard for a greater liberal reforms interest
0 I' the

life hut as

in television.

This

which involves not only the development as technologically these developments, social changes which make television

imerest achieved some possibili ty of realisati on wit h Giscard d' Estaing' s electi on in 1974. Com mitred to a series state, one of Giscard's
0 f cosmetic

authori tarian Gaullis [ thai two was, units. It was one

complex as television but also the concomitant entertainment

first actions was to break up [he ORTF, the organisation into a series of semi-autonomous with Sonimage. art), that was to co-produce

*.

corurolled French broadcasting series of television as its title indicates, in France commission, Children) programmes

and crucial 1.0 Godard's

concerns, is the ever increasi ng only in

division of labour in a developed capitalist economy, a division of labour which cannot be understood terms of economic patterns of living: development most crucially, it. for it includes wider the potentially ion

Perhaps the only beck which fully addresses these problem, i, Raymond Williams'v

of these, INA (the national institute of audiovisual sous la communlcatiun)

The first, Six Fois deux (Sur et of two units of 50 minutes of 1976. The second
011

Television: Technology and Cultura! Form (J 974). t he first
two

Six Times Two (On and Under Communication) each composed

mo bile nuclear fam ily and th e form s of accommodat and entertainment that accompany

chapters uf which contain a penetrating analysis of television's place i n a developed capitalist economy.

six programmes Sundays

each. It was mad c in Grcnob Ie in 1975 and 1976 and was shown on the th ird channel on six successive France/
III

in the lare summer

tou rIdetou r I deux! enran ts (France/T

r/Del

0 II

rITwo!

It is to this family that television is addressed which do not exist in the cinema. To watch a film is entertained as an individual. To watch television
10

in forms

was

ade in Paris and Rolle in 1978 and is made up of twe lve hal 1'- h on r
0f

go out of the home and he

programmes

which were intended to be shown daily over a two week period by the writi ng th ese program mes ha ve yet to be broadcast

is to slay at home and ht:

second channel. At the time

en tertained as a m em ber of a national pu blic, This is the poi n t 0 f'Godard" sdi srincti, 1n

a nd, if they are, they are unlikely to be shown daily but rather in four blocks of three

140

141

in a slot reserved The Fois deux, Photos discussed between section in the the two examines and hoi ds

for films by great
I "'0

directors

*.
of Six been relation first and of an

units or the third programme have already and the

et Cie and Marcel,
previous units a the chapter is typical problem second, in

of all six. The theoretically the form

Godard's television programmes ha v c only been shown at special events ill (ire: II I::lri tai n. Ho \-\,:C v-cr. Ihe nril j::.il Film lnstirute has LlOW obtained Hrjt i:')h righ I s fnr tWill series of programmes and thl'Y should soon be avuilublc for gene-ral dis: ri bur ion in English versions:

"*

.

~,-,.

1t
. .

The Ii fth programme

i, entitled first half

N ous truis is entirely an
0 I'

(Us Three)
without

and

Renete)s.
dialogue.

The i\ man

spoken

in prison writes

end less let t er, re p rod uced on the screen, Their face, are juxtaposed a, Godard

10 his lover.

. 'i~.i:J:'L

on I he screen in a frenzy

;~;i)~ , i . :~;~ vision-mixing
sought

attempts

to understand

in

conceptually int erview, tension

term sol' vi deo a mystery in the films;

whose cxplanat ion i, en d lessl y
a relationship in wh ich is" I hird term with a life of its produced?

sorn co

f the concern experience

s of the first half in of an individual (N obody's life. The There) [ir.<,t programnu deal, peasant with urban

how from

with

the particular problems and arritudes

there are Dilly I wo terms
OWJl,

considered

of work:

Y a persoune

the relai ion itself, paradox

Godard reflects
from
10 the

on

unemployment
overwork The second the image.

to work while in Louison complements

a French

talks of i hr in the towns. in relat ion a division
t

this

at a variety the birth

o I· levels

t he most most an the

in the country addresses

which itself

the lack of employment particularly

evidently o rigorously interest ye ars ,

material, formal. that Godard led which

of a child,

to problems

of signification, about Things) things'

It is rhe interest claims Godard Thorn to date to about

in formalism, from interview his catastrophe

Lecons de choses (Lessons
between

takes its title from

ill

his earliest

French kindergarten
about validity things words'

'lessons about
in doubt;

(Iecons de choses) and' lesson .
was to cast the to identify and wax of ii,

(Iecons de mots] but the strategy
indicating a system a particular outside question that must a system of meaning,

of the programme

mathematician theory,

Rene

of such a distinction

how it Vi/as impossible

and how he understood and life. But Thorn's mathematics banal

the relations grinning offers rather than

between commonway offering for to had the

outside
no image

with its specific
place. the particular

production message

mathematics sense in which of stating new Thom the

distribution that

in which could

one was allotted be understood Its repeated

Its insistent

simply truisms

another

conditions and when

the most

production yourself ness

and reception. there'!'.

was 'Where be posed
!O which

do YOIl Iintl a question and strange-

explanations, is not other treated

evidently with

offended

Godard, accorded Godard with

It was this question brings home

to the image, the whole

the sympathy Indeed rush while

which related

t he image 10 one's

own Ii fe and experience. the extent to erasing

The repetition

interviewees.
011 Louisori's

of [his question

contemporary in [avour

commented written might

of speech that, should

opera: ion of sound and image is devoted of an image which This in vesrigation

that life and experience of interest Jcan-Luc,

admonition

to viewers Louison

although be listened comments

they
to are

appears with its own guarantee
was followed by the interview

and appropriatene-,-.. in which Godard wa-,

have had enough, true overlaid The final with

a~ he spoke frequently

(iI dit nail,

Thorns

questioned programme programme and ~Tanas,

by two journalists considered was emitted Both titles

from the French
in Photos (No explanation. either
't

radical

daily Liberation.

photography Pas d'hbtoire need can some

ct Cie and

Hlstorv)

The

.1[1;]lysi.o;. of Photos t.:I Cic and Mared see abo ve
2111

* for'

Marcel

*, The

The third f'ou rt Ir

the brief me

written

comment: with a

'f'alse ',
retrospective project entitled followed talks

program series,

operis

of t he whole 'doill)!;

a consideration

of the which This Godard is is

pp.t2()·13().

of

telcvlsion (Before

differently",
and After). in which

phrase

pas d'histoire
the relation accounts

be understood

as an indicative,

no history/no
tries t ,\ thill ill tn a'

Avant

at apres

storv, or as a colloquial
understand four women's

imperative, between of their term 'fuss' lives.

Don

make a fuss. The programme
and then t.o understand make

by Jllcljlleline
who

et Ludovic communicate together

and narration lt is they who which ofall

to two people

"differently": sets of idiomatic

up the contributors adequately translated

Ludovic,

who can only string

:\Tanas; the title is a generic

for women

is most

con nect ing p h rases, about her attempts The programmes single delivered speaker's

and J acq u cline, wh 0 talks n uent ly to marry Pope direct Paul

Birds. This episode
of Nanas women. than copies when Neither

is much

the least satisfactory scorn on Gndartl'x succeeds for some although

six, as Micvillcstatcs to say something more than would

at thcer« I aboui

VI.
in the Th e is not

she pours

attempts in doing

lack

of

address

half of the programme Indeed

stating

rather
IJul

is em phasised consideration but

in A van I et apres, of the series

proving

relationships.

time

Soriimagc

not send their mind.

of this fourth

programme,

they have now changed

to camera

to an invisible

interlocutor

142

143

with a hesitation emphasised ordinary viewing, sharply

and idiomatic from these

quality to thc speech 'quotes' a section of evening's which the
An the announcer viewer
10

when the programme continuity There arc three

a standard further programmes

elements

distinguish

[rom

with Ken(- Thotn ~ i mages are used io punctuate the mathemat ician' s words, iT is evident that they are nOI hi~·images nor some neutral i llustration bu I materia) provided by Sonimage 10 work against his words:

* \VhCIl [[1 the interview

alone

I

he further problem of what it would be to sec for One of the emphases of the first three to is how odd people find the request professionals,

ourselves. programmes

provide images to express their thoughts or positions: that is the job of television communicators. of skilled is the implied response. But it is a job

television that we arc used to watching. probably the most immediately of footage inferior quality shot from a fixed camera

The f·ir~t, and
wdCUL1l('S an e v O:llill~.'~

striking, is the amount position. The puts even

tha t Godard and t he Son image team refu sc to take on If Louison cannot provide irn ages to accompany

*.

01 the image in television

crucnuinmcnt. Ouored in A'":::I,n~d :::1.,.-6

what

he is saying, so be it. Louison talks directly to camera for nearly an hour and, apart from that and his arrival at the site of the interview in a tractor, the only image provided is of him bringing his cows in to be milked, an image shot from the road; the view of an outsider. The political question of who has the right to use images in Godard's texts. And such a for the position poses itself insistently

more emphasis on holding attention cutting

through constant

change of shot , Normal television works on frequent from one shot 10 anot her in such a way that articulated but that articulation change from one by and space is comfortably point

never jars because or the continual of view to another,
0f

all guaranteed

gu ar an ieei ng th e re lati on and constructing programmes attention choice particular, establish

visio n, all const rue ted by In the Sonirnagc that draws In

question is not without its implications of the viewer. The assumption image is the specialised job every turn in Six Fois deux.
0f

a visible world.

that any work on the pro ressionals shatters at

the camera rarely moves and, if it does, to its movement an ineluctable

there is a deliberation rather than

to what is scm as the product of a particular epiphany. the interviews are shot from one position shots which in tile the interviewee and the interviewer Thorn and Godard fame and success

The third striking [eature ofthe television programmes is the selection of people to be interviewed. confer.
It is, after
0

Itis not simply that, with the exception of which all, a standard strategy of television

himself, they are people with 110ne of that inevitability

wit hout any of the usual shot/reverse

docurnen tary to consider the lives normally rigorous] y determined arc typical
0 I the

r 'or dinary'

peop 1c. Bu t su ch considera [ions are

same place at which we, the viewers, look. The effect of this dislocation is to place the interviewer and viewer in place from which their relation the same indeterminate

in advance. We wi11100k at that cou ple because they

u pper- middle income brad et, we wi II100kat this adolcsccn t in order in relation
10 an

10 understand

ch angi ng aui t udes to violence. In every case l he indi vid ual represents agreed image of society. Godard's interviewees The crucial factor in their selection is not their typicality but their

to the in terview mus t be con st rucred. 'W hen and where

a type, understood arc very different.

do you find yourself there?' The question forces itself upon us. The second very evident change in relation
to normal

willingness to consider questions to which neither they nor the interviewer (Godard) already know the answer. This is made evident in Ya personne when a selection of unemployed people answer an advertisement
0 f those

television
0f

is the selection

of images. The

for a job that Sonimage had placed at interviewed are wi Iiing to con ti n ue rb e but the joint of

whole organisation professionals hundred po Iitical struggles

te levisi on assu mes that t here are

the local labour exchange. Thejob

is simply to be interviewed by Godard about their

who can select our images for us. The for free speech over t he last three

at ti tudes to work. However, on Iy two feature of these interviews of a problem,

interview past the stage where the answers are known in advance. The determining is not the representation or positions itself not fully defined in advance. exploration participate This method

years mean [hal there is a general awareness

that people have the right to use their 0\"'11 words, although that still leaves open the question of what it is
to speak

interviewing places great strains on the viewer. He or she must be equally willing to or else they will simply lapse into boredom. The radical demand that Godard addresses
1.0 the

for oneself. denies

But the existence of television that there is any question of

professionals

whether we should be able to use our own images, Jet

viewer is to actively participa te in the produ ction of meaning. The emphasis is al ways

144

145

on a joint exploration, interviewee, and

on the dissolution who

of an object under investigation, the interviewer acting

I he

com plicated. The pleasures television,

0f

iden ti fication are not so easily denied nor can t hey be work in film and
to

a subject

investigates,

as the the

"i !ll ply rejected. What this book has done is to argue for Godard's for the knowledge ignore the problem, presuppose less banal than it might appear, Finally, a different system of distribution: of boredom.

represen tative of the viewer. For Godard we only communicate message being produced. position as a viewer,
0f

at Ihe momen t w hell to our thai an y

and desire that they incite. So to do is inevitably the lessons we learn from Godard's

we, too, are listening to what we say, when we listen to ourselves to understand
It is only at the moment

that we pay attention

work

'where

an d when we find oursel ves there',

film and television which would no and technical centres but which work rests on the contradiction

comm unication can take place. Th is view of cornm unicat ion is spel t ou t in Lecons de choses when Godard analyses the behaviour of the sailors from the battleship for Godard is that when the sailors they didn't know in advance what is true but Godard insists that their fixed political The to indicate what they had Potemkin in Odessa in 1905 . What is important went into [he town to bury one of their comrades, they were doing. That they were demonstrating demonstration cannot be understood form. They were attempting emphasis in Godard's Godard's which is incapable
orary

longer be relayed through financial, administrative wou Id be distribu led amongst producers. of being constructed (hat we can be interested and in its absence Godard's

Such a distri bu tion system shows little sign

in it only in so far as we are interested in Godard. In A van t et apres when members of t he Sonimage team in the first series of television programmes, they

in terms of the contemporary

consider what has been accomplished

to show people something,

reflect on the paradox that in order to show their work to neigh bours in Grenoble, they ha ve had to pass th rough Paris, through the centre. To indicate what alocal TV might
be (in France/tour/detour/deux/enfants

done on their ship. They were demonstrating,

not going on a demonstration.

analysis is th at the eommun icating su bjecr ' s own ignorance of

what is being said is a crucial factor in any real act of communication example of a stereotyped of communication Because form is the contempeverybody nothing is

*.

frequent reference is made to the fact that is

the programme Godard's

is not pan of national TV but a TV of the l Sth arrondissement in
It is because

political

demonstration. Godard's

knows exactly what is being expressed, communicated. expositions tion and politics are inseparable of moments
0

of communica-

and make clear the of a comrnu nication

critique to which he lays himself opcn. The privileging f radical change,

communication is L h u.s. di rcct I,' opposed to a comrn un icat in n S them)' which holds loa model sender, receiver, message and channel. There is no message independcn I of Ihe relation bel ween sender and receiver and that relation is nOI understood ;~ terms of some neutral channel bin rather as a complex which cannot be analvsed into th ree separat ~ component clemcuts.

*Godard·stheoryof

Paris) one has to appear on national TV. The turning point of this contradiction own name. of his fame, constructed that Sonimage's themselves by the traditional relations of production and consumption, programmes

or

work is possible. And it

is within a cen trally organised system that it finds its distribu ti on
complication I hat there is a real sense in whichfrench relcvlslon refused ro distribute rnem. Six Foi. deux was put out on the minority Ihird channel and most of it was broadcast in August at the height of the holidayseason.

* tl is an added

* .It is true tha t the

work against th at system in h· . 1 that. they demand an interest t at IS not simp y provided by vision, by an agreed image of a national
r

au dience,

but is the product.

0

f a speci

ric

work on between

which displaces the subject. into a new identity, ignores the necessary snuggles and pleasures of stereotype. Demonstrations are not just methods to communicate
to reverse the advances

new

I;",nc./to"r/Mlour/deu~/ ""funiSis unlikely to receive

sound and image. We follow the dialogues

states of being, they are also one of a number of methods of affecting and inflecting the political process. The recent attempts tions and petitions. Godard's arguments of the Abortion seem a Act of 1967 have been largely stopped by the mobilisation short step from the abandonment Godard's attempted has been of people in demnnstra

1 he regular half-hour spot for . which il was intended. lnstead 11 will be presented a' the work of u Iamous film-maker.

Godard and Lou ison, or Marcel, as active participants. But the basis for that activity can only (apart from I .I those who know Louison or Marcel or are active y be our interest in Godard's continuing work, in a project on which he is engaged. When the Sonimage

engaged in similar practices) commitment
I cam

that these forms are stereotyped

to the particular (escroquerie)

of the whole ground of political struggle. further to this book and to the discourses the institutions with which this book has of 'communication

consider this problem in A vantet apres, t hey attempt to explai n it in terms of on which the whole television system is based and in which name is simply another fraudulent moment. This answer is, however, ingen uous. It ignores both the under which such work could be more generally
0f

And this political critique can be extended work, or more specifically, to argue in favour of Godard's on the way in which work. The emphasis throughout

rhe 'fraud' Godard's conditions

engaged in and the confronts this

entertainment', Godard's

film and television, entertain

by erasing, give pleasure in exchange is an unmaking in which of the snares of production and

p [0 b lem of the viewer who has none suppo~iti(!n of the attention
xeries of programmes

that commitrnen t to Godard which is a preGodard
0 fFrance/tour

for being, hide their own work so that the spectator can relax. Crucial to the thrust of work and to this book's operated by systems divorced. are rigorously exposition identification consumption of signification

necessary to avoid boredom.

tlro b lem directly in the eleven th episode

I detour I deux/cnfan

ts. Th is

differs considerably

from the first. Considerably

shorter at

But there is a point at which the discourse

IIUI an hour, each episode has a similar structure, f
w

generating some of that repent ion length and structure,

stops, where the argument

comes to an end in a series of choices which are more

IIieh is so general in television.

These Iwo considerations,

146

147

mean that France/tour/detollr/dellx/enfants programmes material dominant gramme studio, music. handles other. task: supper used and the refusal to order forms of television,

resembles

conventional

television of the

more than Six Fois deux. At the same time the heterogeneity

it finally for the viewer breaks with [he

French word histoire means both history and story. Of len Godard'.' use of I hi, word "an on! ,. be understood if hot h meaninas arc borne in mind. ~

* The

a sequence

entitled

HISTOIRE

(STORY)

*

is introof this

duced by one of the two adults. The 'directness' address is both emphasised by the colloquialness undercut and undercut. and hesitancy

Emphasised

of the speaker;

The opening credits sequence of ea<:h proshows two young children, and a boy (Arnaud microphones handling a girl (Camille These is that
to the

by the fact. that in each of the twelve proby which I

grammes exactly the same hesitant speech is delivered (except for the changes of gender determined think now that child has just been talk ing): 'And I thin k that -

Virolleaud)

Martin) in a television and camera. of popular

images are accompanied

by a soundtrack

we need a story, and not her own and both ... bul

The only variation the microphone, The opening und ressing

in this sequence leaving the camera

story, not a stn r~' thai wou ld come from her but she would come from a story ... both before: she before and the story after, the story

whichever child is to be the 'subject' sequence

of the programme

of each programme to sch 001, eating shots constantly attempting, to de-compose as the these

before and her atter __ . above and below.' It is this story which then foI10\\'5 in a short sequence of images and sounds which are finally cornmen ted in another seq uence en titled TELl<: V ISIO:>.' which ends with the promise of another story. The complexity grammes truth is astounding: require another of material
to do them

observes one of the children engaged in a routine daily for bed, going and so on. These opening emphasises,

move in and out of slow motion, spoken commentary ordinary movements in
0 ur

in these projustice would the

so that we can see what is at stake to the next brief (spclt The of

most routine task s. The reflections prom pted by

book. The aim is not to produce

this sequence serve as an introduction

of our society by an appeal to an innocence

section in which the themes of each programme out in block capitals on the screen) are introduced. ing for bed and then went onto considerations obscurity section caption and chemistry, is introduced
VERITE

unsullied by our fallen world; the children provide the detou r which allows [he Sonirnage learn to pose certain questions programme interrupted passage of
II

first program me started wi th sho ts 0 f Cami lie undressthe processes by which we The next by the of prowe sec

about the contemporary Godard's questioning

world. In the first of the child is

by the voice of Belly Berr which states: signal'. What the children say is given the for the rest of the programme; and contrasted with STORY. it simp ly on by Indeed, to it is

start a night

or a television
(TRUTH).

programme. In the majority

'he doesn' I want to obtain an image or a sound bu t the caption TRUTH bu t this tru th is not one which prov ides the explanation
TELEVISIOI\

with and punctuated

grammes Godard talks to one of thc children about the themes of the programme. them participating In some, however, (or nut) in one of the series of verbal

provides the raw material which is commented

exchanges in which they are addressed in the school or with their family. In both cases the camera frames the child in dose-up and we never see Godard or their other interlocutors. a sequence tagonists: children's This material, entitled which composes most of proFrom I he first episode of Ji rnnee/four idd O~ r/ tI rm: /enfants

continue with the first episode as example, it is evident that Camille has little conscious idea of obscurity; only clarity for which she can find examples which she can relate her life. It is the detour question, obscurity
STORY to take place. Camille's

and to of the
II

each programme,

is commented

on in voice-over and in by the adult

the traverse of [he signal, that enables the inabili ty to thin k abo of
I

TELEVISION

t

Betty Berr and Albert Dray. The end of the contribution is announced by the only television when
I 1,1111 II~t-I LI~! crusodc of I, "'lIrli r: I'H'j'/d(-:t(lu ...id'·II:r.:h:~nfanh

gives extra

force 1.0 the unrolling beginning

he

STORY; a consideration

of the most obscu re chemistry, of all: the birth of a

moment of direct address in Godard's

the most mysterious

148

149

child. The process by which two becomes how this generation has superimposed image of a baby, altogether. resources Godard image of quite ext raordinary one that

three and woman her out of how

series

0f

shots

0f

a set
10

0f

dice bei ng rol led as Ihe number 01

also spells death is examined in an force: a pregnant finally blots on her stomach an ever-growing

commentary calculations possibilities plexity

spells out the unthinkable necessary that make up one human processes

specify the various biological body. These involved in

con sidera lions lead to Ihe conclusi on that it is t he comof the physiological reproduction which have led the monsters inventions:

H this inventive of television enables

use of the technological there can be no

gives us an example

* to their

us to see anew,

two most important reproduction

a sexuality

which of

question but that the failure to pay the closest attention to the progression Without alternately of the images, to the in flection of'the attention the images become sound will result in an immediate lapse into boredom. the closest too static and too frenetic, too slow and too of a simple point of view

exceeds and cannot be reduced

1.0 the physiology

and a death which nas nothing to do with but is

the external possibilities of physical annihilation accompanied by an extraordinary

a sentence im posed from with in. These conclusion s are montage of images and of sex and destruction news magazines.
Throughout France/tour! dCtour! deux/cuf.nt, adult humans are referred to as [he monsters'.
L

fast ~ there is no question that we can adopt.

culled from pornographic

From I he III h episode of Fran ce/ [our idt·.~ f" idt'"u ~/t·11 It!

*

r.,. n I~

Hom [he finl episode of F ea nee/to uri dt-l ou ... d e u~! ellfants /

The political and aesthetic problems of this practice are made absolutely evident in the penultimate programme sequence between ofth e series. The int rod uctory slow motion shows Camille setting the table for supper asks what the relations art:
Ihe
I. rrun 11K II Ltl episode of h'lI!I{'(' /. ~ ... d e I (I uri d~~11 en III i x/

while the .comrnentary

family and larger social uni ts. The seq uence zoom factory shot that moves from a

ra n I.~

which suggests the themes of the progam me opens wi th an extraordinary conventional smoke-belching around followed image of natural nestling beauty to reveal the This shot i'

The section en Iit led TRUTH frames Camille as she eats wi th hef pareu ts and younger listening and occasionally conversation. participating brot her, in the family

in the mountains

The scene recalls the image of a hand

the lake we have been admiring. by the captions:

scooping soup from a bowl in Lotte in Italia. The visual d i rrcrence is that we now see the face to which the hand i~ delivering soup and the result is a very different

TOUS (ALL), REALIH

(REALITY) and LOGIQV E (LOGIC) w hich in trodu ccs a

180

151

emphasis from that of Lntte in Italia.ln the image was a visual clernen
I

the earlier film
nOI

If in l.e Gai Sa voir Godard cia irned i ha t rh c eye must' listen before it looks', that the dominance speak,
10

[hat could

be comIhat

of

preh end cd ou lsi de the id eologi ,'.11 sr ruct ures the analysis meaning. accorded of ideology,

sound was total, now the struggle is to make the image hear what cann
01

produce the family. It was only work on the sound, on that could give an image grants a i'rance/tollridi'luur/deuxi('ni"ants

be said. If the em ph asis a I'
0 Il

the Maoist period was the unity to be found in a class posi Iion. the work si nee lei ct ailleurs insists solitude which is the lot conferred
realu v is a body so complicated

Ihe to in-

new primacy to the image. W hal. we sec is that in our places we are not visible. LJ nablc to follow logic that her family is en" concentrate on Camille, on
1.0

on us by biology and
(Iff

rei n forced by society. The logic that links us sexuality and a death that leave us almost

visually the conversational gaging in, we are forced

that all it can offer is a move from Paris that cu ies when In

her invisibility wit hin the family, on the fact that nobody hut us is looking at her. Ifwe see Camille react ing I o the conversation or her parents' nou ncernents
-[0

communicable the necessity dominant Godard

islands. Sonirnage's of confronting

to Grenoble and then to Rolle becomes an analogue or the solitude impose but disavow. themes It is solitude which is one of the in the interview Jean-Luc from Liberation. a discourse

her 1-<11 her's q uestions about school
<II

laughter

her younger brother's

pro-

that he doesn't

want to sleep with ladies we arc also aware that

(dames) but only with fathers -

talks to the journalists of film-making.

these reactions are not registered by the family, caught up in the rou tine of a family supper. Dray's Godard's and Ben's comments on this of
trom

place of a discourse which generalises politically from the practice Godard adopted, however hesitantly. after '68, the journalists relation to the everythat loses is its

sequence spell out the consequences the audience

and problems

FI'fL.llt"L' :"rrjllr

llu.. III h -::pi.~nd~,· ' ul /d~·lilnr :·deu~/ellf::lll.'

from liberot ion discover a disco urse which only 01'1' ers its particular situation and its particular demand image in answer to any generalisable The impossible where at once communication everywhere someone is replaced political question.

and Sonimage ' s project. Ben (om phi n '; I ha t is going to be bored by the length of the

scene. Dray objects that as the audience is engaged in family meals all day long it is impossible for the scene to be too long for them. Berr replies thai it is precisely because it is wh at. the audience does all day long Iha t renders it unsuitabl e for televi sion, This answer allows Dray to repeal an emphasis which runs through all the prog ram rnes: Fra nce/tou r/ dero u r/ deu x/ en ranrs produces television which assumes that it is the subjects of the programmes the producers their subjects who consume who are interesting and not the makers. He argues that [he interest is not provided by but by those who they have chosen as subjects who are also the very people television, In response to this Herr

to start the revolution by the statement

is possible only at the moment when

changes places: when the individual else. If the strength of solitude, to consider The lessons of this position

himself or herself in the effort of showing an image to radical refusal of any dialogue acknowledgement comitant creation munal refusal action. which is not also an its weakness is its conthe possibility of the television of the for compro-

of social meaning,

of the grounds

grammes are unequivocal:

once meaning has become but becomes

fully social it.ceases to be communication

II

changes tack to argue that the centre of interest in the scene we are watching Dray refuses
[0

a repel ition rha t bind s us un know ingly in ou r so Iirude. One of the lew artists to ", .hom Godard has . made constant reference at almost every stage of his that serves as one either
0 f 1he

is not Camille but her parents.

accept this, insisting that the interest is

not some content that the child is presenting (it is exactly the parents who present their lives to each other and the children) but the solitude that is being discovered,

wor k is Brecht. In the interview wi th tb e j ou rnalis IS it is Brec ht, and hi s so li tude, crucial references. But Godard ignores, or

162

153

deliberately political related episode

rejects, what Brecht always held in tension the participation in popular and composes the STORY The

[here is the possibility of elaborating there to be seen. I fOray,

in sound what is sim p ly

with that solitude: by Albert

and perhaps Godard,

forms. That rejection

want s an image without sound it is Godard h imsel f who has taught us that. it is always a question of the relation between formation logical component Godard
lrom .Jeau-Lur

Dray at the end of the eleventh

of F"rance/touridetourideuxienfants. Seguy, the leader

the two. It is the understanding of that relation, its institutional pre con dit ions, of any politics its sexual which is a necessary

and transand technoand social It is

story starts with Dray holding up a book on May '68 by Georges dominated of the Communistcompletely outunion, the CGT. He wants to explain the lie the Communists,

implications,

and fundamental who is most

that has allowed

in the West today.

stripped by events at the time, to claim the heritage of May '68. Dray's explanation or a demonstration. tions arc like television: that nothing gets through. considers silent footage how demonstraso readily that it story is He emphasises

who has most fully formulated,

fully formulating,

the terms or that relation.

they communicate

It is only when you disrupt is not getting through, Dray's

sound and image, when one can hear nothing, becomes clear that something that is becomes unambiguous: stereotyped possi ble to listen.

it was the failure to break with the political forms such as the demonstration to paralyse the novelty arc virtually logic of
From the- III h episode of t"raHC"~/. nil'" (detour.! deux /~·nr... b n

which allowed the Communists of May with their rhetoric. political and aesthetic variants indistinguishable, communication.

In this version of history problems of a general

To participate

in the established

Colin MacCabe: In conventional representatives in terviewees? Jean-Lac
II

forms, be they political or televisual, is to lose what is speci fic to you r experi ence and si t uation, to cornrn unicate easily at the cost of communicating The pessimism not be lightly dismissed, have not despaired ignore the contradictions scene of the progamrnc. nothing. should one of such a position

television a great deal of care is to find How did you select your

taken in the selection of people for interview and that selection is operated of certain classes or groups.

it is all too possible that we but neith er should of Dray's position, contra-

enough,

Godard: We didn't select people carefully like that but it took

long time to find them. We reached them, the right people, at the right places

dictions that Ben hesitantly

points to in the very final then none of us would of the form was

but after a lot of time. We reached the peasant who was close at hand but after we'd tried workers in Paris, workers elsewhere, and finall)' then we reached tbe only one we could reach. Rut tbe fourth episode was completely because we didn't reach tbe right people. One of the most striking features of you r television is
t

If the logic of the specific is

carried through to its conclusion the constant recuperated happened, statement after

out-dated

have anything to say to each other, no message except of the limitations that we were using. To allow that something

May is to allow that something of a cornrn unity in which solit ude can

he lack of direct address. Tbe address is provided by the work before the It's to be there for that It's in the mise-en-scene.

to admit the possibility of political action, and acted upon. If the image remains amount of time.

some conception be recognised

.~hootinl!; and after the shooting.

IS4

ISS

about solitude,

In you r own interview, Jca n-I. \I(~, yo u tal k a lot Are your interviews a way of escaping that. solitude?
It was the only way for me to speak to someone. I

-

it's a hundred people during six months.

In such a place you could change but Hut lhen America can changes its system of ... bul it's It's

then it doesn'l

change in the movies, irs even more fixed there than anywhere

rise. Iran is changing fast, it changes faster than America. stop the war in Vietnam very much faster than Hollywuod making
II

was unable to listen to them and not to talk. There was a man who was eunsidered ill - who was saying silence and that was not. heavy at all. I you can't avoid it, listened. With the other ones it was very difficult because you have to talk, you have to enqui re, to talk and then yo II look like a prosecutor But at least I was interested.

picture. Hollywood

has changed,

the studios have changed instead of small companies.

technical. It's technical. ,
;1

It's big companies

people I don't know. It's not Jews from Hungary, nited"; it's a conglomerate;

it's not Selznlck. Now it's a

it's business. But still there is a camera, always just

camera and a script and you go. You go into that country if you want to write a

In Jean-Luc the journalists from Liberation asked you a series of questions which you seemed to regard as stupid but which, nevertheless, f want to repeat. In brief; 'I sn 't the conclusion television work that the whole organisation bet ween producer and consumer to be drawn from your the whole relation be any real television? of television,
'I

~ood script. It's the only place where I think that irs easy to change if you want to. Hut then since I haven't succeeded in changing things I think that there must be something else. And that's the point of The Story why there's no change.

In Six Fois deux you seem to suggest that it's the

is such that there can

division of labour that. is the original sin. Yes, but I'm from a Protestant family. II's not a sin bu t a curse. Even in the last film we made a joke of the division between vide« and camera equipment .. It's like Cain and Abel, 'What have you done with your hrother?' I dun'l think it's the division of labour but a division of love and you say labour. Love is labour and yuu say that a woman who is having a child -

And the fact that, as Godard, you occupy a certain cultural position which allows you to make real television ... '?' Well, once in your life lsn'f much ... Once in my life. But the pessimism of what you say offers very lin le perspective for anybody else. It's almost as if you're saying that the structures Yes. Make movies. But isn't your posi tiou on television so pessimist ic ... '! It's industry. If's a pari of myself. I think it could be better. There's too much of it, like the car industry or any other kind of industry ... Is there a chance of setting up a different television in Mozambique? There was a chance. A chance, It's over. Could you explain that? country. It's too far away and the chance is over because it is It's difficult to say. It's like a possibility. It's rather well-defined in the when you sa}' iCs not possible, it was not possible Why? Because one of
:1

of

that she is in labour, It's not division of' labour but division of love and labour. There i~ a division between love and labour but they are two aspects of the one thing, And they say it's two different things but there's one thing with two diHerent moments 1I0t a division. Could you explain your analysis of the sailors from
Potemkin

television are so rotten that there's nothing you can do .

or states, There is division and the)' shouldn't

be divided -

they should be together.

And if they were together it would he a multipllcatiun

kind of

and communication

that you pul fnrward in Lecuns de choses?

Potemkin is a famous movie and critics have always
heen interested in it but I read a book b)" all Englishrnan, or the Italians, who never enquire. a journalist I think, which really told you the facts. The Anglo-Saxons
It'., not like the French

are much better at enquiring. In the British, the

Anglo-Saxon,

tradition,

there is real work. They enquire about the scandals -

uhnut the facts. It was a small book which wasn't political but it was very serious. It was just interested this book told communicatinn,
[til'), lOU

beginning and then afterwards and you change direction

in the facts. And it.wasn't at all like Eisenstein showed It. Su something. As nobudylistcncd
OWl'.

to go on then it becomes difficult to say. It's like a love affair. You cross a street and then you have to separate. you lived here and one of you lived over there. You could change your life but you don't change your life that easily. TV is 100 big. A movie is interesting because it's smaller, everyone is !ivillg in a small place. A movie is a small place

what the sailors had done. And I tried to analyse it in terms of

In fact they were communicating

had to go back to the cruiser and try to find a port and then it was all

nul that was the real story of Potemkin,

It was not what the Russians say in In a

their boo ks or in their schools. Th use were the facts. That's what happened.

156

157

sense they were making a movie when the}' were parading. heard by some others, ..

They wanted to he

But then my problem - and it may well be mine and not yours - is: How do you find a way of explaining what's good

It's almost as if you are saying that in order to communicate you must find new forms. Yes, they were usinga and that's why it was so crucial and so unfulfilled new form of cemmunlcatiun in a sense at the time. It was in It's what

about your work without. laking up a very moralistic discourse which condemns more traditional and conventional work as bad? I'm trying to do what you then, good, we're
YOIl

No, I'm not saying ... want to do, You want to record the machine's recording it. That's why I like technicians ..bout something or doctors.

1905 and iI was only fulfilled twenty years later. In the West, in our time, it Iukt" thirty years, more or less, for an image to appear and to be fulfilled. they call the age of reason same for an imaj!e to become an adult it takes thirty years and il's till·

recording -

They say 'Well, if we took can speak you can't speak

*.

"* The

the magnetic out of the tape then it.wouldn't

be any good.' Then

age of reason is rca",.-Ilcd at the age of thirty ill French.

that's what I call speaking. And sometimes

a bOIL t a solid obj eel, you speak about immaterial

objects but if you're really what people are speaking

You almost seem to be saying that if there's a powerful enough feeling it will be communicated. will communicate itself, No. I'm Iryinj! to say, in opposition defined by the standard trying 10 kill the czar. They were not making a revolution, themselves as revolutionaries. something somethlng into something different. They were communicating. to t.he histnry think or bill texts, that they were not revolting, that they were nOI they didn't They were tryin~ to Imr later. It was It will find a new form and il

speaking then that's material as well. But then there's another way of speaking ahout most or these things and Ijust don't understand about, It's all right maybe with football fans because I know what they're speaking about so I can relax. There's a third term. But most of the time people are speaking the other way and there's no communication. ..ngle to understand. communication, And you don't have to speak There's no speaking but you understand You must have an there's play, playing sport. You

because you are viewin~ direct

else. Which may be the real methodIor revolution

You can't return a tennis ball and speak to your partner.

they did not think of themselves in the way they were represented

don't have the physical strength to do both together. If I said the trouble with your television programmes

Are you saying that at the moment became an image they ceased to communicate? Well, I don't know ... which I like because it's been torgouen, Che Guevara. Which is what?

the sailors

is that they're boring .. exhilaration -

, No, the trouble is that you can't see their in all my work. They don't suit tbe time tbat You claim that what you do is good but it's oblige me to make a picture their way. to make it their see them like that. be dune I

But this was the real story,

the exhilaration

like the real story of the death of

you're looking at them because you're obliged to live in this society .. If you're too much alone, you become exhilarated. too good ...
lUll

like the other stuff is too bad. I don't want to oblige people to

When he said: 'Let's make three or four Vletnams, he didn't realise that because they were fighting if you make three Vietnams make three USAs as well. All through the book I'm concerned to explain hr (' I

make pictures my way but they shouldn't

lit) to now it's been me who's been more under the obligation look at them all at once then they're boring but you shouldn't

wav, It should be more just .. ' But of course I don't think it's boring. If you
t

!lut then you can't sec them the way they should be seen. But if you catch ten minutes out of the hour you watch In such a concentrated

value of your work on sound and image and to write against that organisation sound and image which puts you in the position of the tourist. But I'm also conscious that very often what I want to see is not a television programme Fois deux or France/toor/detour/deux/enfants Yes. It's like that for me too.

that's very rich. And it shouldn't

way -

I should do it every month.

But also you should

like Si~

remember that they're made for people in my country,

not for people outside.

but Dallas or Blake's Seven.

tlun" pretend to interest people from outside. Or only perhaps with movies. And then only once ever}' four years or something like that. ' . not every time. . .. If I was master of the world there would only be une picture and I would oblige even' country to make it each year in turn. The

IS8

IS9

same actors, the same stor}' would ~o out from a different

country each year. I W(lS

I wasn't saying that I found them boring.

talking of people who do find them boring and till; problem of convincing them ... BUII'm not trying to convince people. Hilt people believe that when you usc a certain way of thinking thai you are tryillg to convince them and it's hard 10 explain thai you're not. In France/tour/detour/ deux/enfants whal .• say is thai if you look you can see that it's not good but how can you escape it? And it looks as though we're tryi n It to have the last wunl. But we're trying to have the first word. So it's not a question of convincing having the first word? Yes. But in a wayno matter what I dn ... polite they say I'm sarcastic, thing ... if I'm angry they say I'm insincere, way.
\011

people

bUI

of

if I am do your

You try to be strong bu t in a smoother

But what. arc you trying to do? I need to talk and to show me talking, to show and show me showing. and philosophically. And when I've done that I need to talk about il technicallv
f need to have a philosophical
I"

talk on the technical aspect wlw was ju,1 whid, an!!;ry that thl')

and a technical talk on the philosophical

aspect, It's like Socrates. got so completely

trying to talk to people. And then everybody

obliged him to commit suicide. He was just trying to say 'Are you sure?' what they did. But it was too strong. I don't know why. All he was .~a}'in!!;o t

was his way. They should al least have talked to him for a bit instead of doing people was' Are you sure you're right?' •ls your hair well-ell I?' •Do you Ih ink that's Ihe righ t way to cu t it?' A nd they said' Oh , Socrat es, '\ ..hat are What are YOIl dril'il1!!; at?' And he said 'I'm nol driving at anything sure )'OU r hair is right?'
}'UU

d u in g "
}'(UI

but are

Gori.n d directing. rhe f/()rnuss sequence from Sauve qui peut (see ppAJ-44). Pt odnction stilts lrom rhls scquvucc arc ~11\)\\"noverleaf.

160

161

.,"(,

.. ~.

At the some time that they exchanged themselves I t h i s would at last be get a divorce, Reno being sO close they spoke of Frankie's project

newS CDncerning the occasion to to Las Vega, ),

Roberto thinks that rrankie has the desire to make a pot of dough an(j a new name for h imse If _ But he's ta kt n q , big risk too, if he says anything at ,II ~bout the Mafia and show business, Didnd e q r e e s , to a certain extent, but also thinks that Frankie wants to do something that's never been done, and she believes in Frankie's sincerity.
\

182

163

:hel-02' S CI s t o rv L:,o:=:-t'r'Jt: I', '.lS / ....c; i,rli ttl 8 t.h o r P('(.';)lC, t he tor y .;: :)1"1 t=: 0::. 0.1.) t, 0 n jill Q n d goes belC k hcrll€ ~n to t--;Pt' .'\n~"j t rcr e , nSldf:', vo , 1 00 ~:P t rn cz . And tncn t+rc "S i.. f) r-y t-P':I p p e o rs ~:1 c h i ~ diS h n rn , a n d yo: .... fi n d t+e : o u t s td r i r: the outer '~':)'-Id. ilrl:i ~r.i~'rp.~you Cd~~ s(,c· o~din t h e st or,.
:=.. I

I I j" (i U [", chi s t o .j r C l: r·: t r L' n 0 IJ S C omm c p o u r t a IJ t. rrc n d e , I ' h i s t o i re sort de chez 1" i e t r e n tr e :tle7 fJlp Et lj , j l! int~rieur-~rin oerd sa t ra re Et. pu i sell e r e s s o r t !un e n fa n t o s t n e , ~t I)rl Cf'OIJV~ Ga dchoy·s ~ b 1 'ext~rieuT·_Et l~, on 'Ie ~~ (Ie n nu v c ar, I' h j"::. to i r·l'
1e

164

166

Alone
and

in her room, Diana, "fter swjtching off Dn the I \ght seweral times ,finally cal I 5 a number she finds in a magazine about las Vegas, and ~sks .if instead of ~ woman ,the agency [ould send her a man.
No p r o b l em Th e y call back and 53y it being SO late ,all that's left t s a Mexican,i. it all the same to her.Diano says yes.
v

He

goes towari her.He says that f"ankie asked him to tel I Oiana that he couldn't come.They've all got a date the next morning to decide about the rest of the shooting in Las Vego'(when "'ked (later/what by Did~a , Roherto said something about Howard Hughes and the hidden years).

Diana asks him why he didn't say something eight away. Roberto s n swe r s that she d i d n ' t ask him anything either. She immediately jnsults him obscenely. He sits down ned to her II·esay' well it looks I ike nothing' s ch.ng~d.
\

166

167

Frum [he ~... '["ipl for Tile S10,.y

Check list of Godard's work in Film and Television
There Godard's Wben t itlcs, the American, is a complete filmography or pre-1968 film in ROLld (1970)_ there arc two English-language first i, British. t he second

Films made by Jean-Luc

Godard

1954
Operation b~lolI 20 minutes Production: Actua Film (Geneva) Photography: Adricn Porcher Editing: Godard

1955
Une Femme coquette JO minutes 16 mm Production: Jean-UIC Godard (Geneva) Script: Hans Lucas (Jean-I .uc Godard), based on Maupassams story L(' Signe Photography: Hall> Lucas Edi ti ng: Hans Lucas 1?57 Tnus les garcons s'uppellent Patrick ou Charlotte et Yeronique (All Boys Arc Called Palrick) 21 minute, Production: Les Film, de la Plerade (Paris) Script: Erie Rohmer Photography: Michel Larouche Editing: Cecile Decugis 1958 Charlotte N son Jules 20millllle.1 Production: Les films de la Pleiade Script: Godard Photograph y: M ichel Latouche Editing: Cecile Dccugis Une Histnire d'eau 19 minutes Production: Les Film, de la Pleiade (Pierre Braun berger) Co-Director: Francois Truffaut Script: Truftaur Photography: Michel Larouche Editing: Godard

1959
A bout dc souffle (Breathless)
g9 minutes

Production: George> de Beauregard, Societe Nouvelle de Cinema (Paris) Script: Godard based Oil an idea by Francois Truffaut Photography: Raoul Coutard Editing; Cecile Dccugis, Lila Herman

\

168

169

,I
1960 I.e PeW Solda4 (The Little Soldier) 87 minutes Production: Georges de Beauregard, SNC (Paris) Photography: Raoul Coutard, Michel Larouche Editing: Agnes Guillemot, Nadine Marquand, Lila Herman 1961 IJne Femme esl une rernrne (A \\'oman Is a Woman) 84 minutes Production: Rome-Paris Films (Paris) Script: Godard, based on an idea by Genevieve Cluny Photography: Raoul Coutard Editing: Agnes Guillemot, Lila Herman TAlParesse (sketch in Les Sept Peches capitaux) Production: Films Gibe, Franco-London Films (Paris), Titanus (Rome) Photography: Henri Decae, Jean-Paul Schwartz Editing: J acq LlCS Gaillard 1962 Yiv re sa vie (It's M~' Lire; My life to Live) 85 minute, Production: Les Films de la Pleradc (Paris) Script: Godard, documentation from Ou en est ta prostitution", by Judge Marcel Sacotte Photography: Raoul Coutard, Claude Beausoleil, Charles Biisch Editing: Agnes Gu illeruot, Lila Lakshrnanan Le /I.·ou,'eau Monde (sketch in RoGoPaG) 20 minutes Production:Lyref~lm (Paris), Arco Film Cineriz (Rome) Photography: Jean Rabier Editing: Agnes Guillemot, Lila I .ak sh manan 1962-63 Les Carabiniers (The Soldiers; The Riflemen) 80 minutes Production: Rome-Paris Films (Paris), Laetitia (Rome) Script: Jean-Luc Godard, Jean Gruault, Roberto Rossellini, from Jacques Audi berri's French adaption of Benjamino Jcppolo's play, I Carabinieri Photography: Raolil Coutard, Claude Beausoleil Ed i ti ng: Agnes Gui llernot, Lila 1.ak shm a I ,;, 1963 Le (irand Escruc (sketch in Leo Plus Belles Escroquern-; du mondey 25 minutes Production: Ulysse Productions (Paris), Prirnex Films (Marseille), Vides (Rome), Toho (Tokyo), Caesar Film (Amstcrdann Photography: Raoul Coutard Edi I.i rig: Agnes Guillemot, Li la Lakshrna ".111 Le Mepris (Contempt) Une Femme mariee (A Married Woman; The Married Woman) 95 minutes Production: Anouchka Film>. Orsav Films (Paris) Script: Godard Photography: Raoul Coutard Editing: Agile, Guillemot, Francoise Collin 1965
,

Deux OU trois choses que je sais d'cll., (Two or Three Things I know abou titer) 90 minutes Production: Anouchk a Films, Argos Films, Les Films du Caresse, Pare Film (Paris) Scri pt: Godard, suggested by two article, of Catherine Virnenet, 'I.a Prostitution dans Ies grands ensembles', Le Nouvel observateur, 29 March a nd 10M ay 1966 Photography: Raoul Coutard, Georges

Liron
Editing: Francoise Collin, Chantal Delattre Antlclpation ou L'an 2000 (sketch in LI! Plus vieux metier du monde) Production: Francoriz Films, Films Gibe, (Paris), Rialto Films (Berlin), Rizzoli Films (Rome) Photography: Pierre Lhornrne Editing: Agnes Guillemot 1967 La Chinoise, ou p[ut01 ii la chinoise 90 minutes Production: Anouchka Film" Les Productions de la Gueville, Athos Films, Pare Films, Sirnar Films (Paris) P hotography: Raoul Coutard, Georges Lim" Editing, Agnes Guillemot, Delphine Dcsfons Camera-Dell (episode in Loin du Viet-nam; J J 5 rninu tes (entire film) Production: SLON (Paris) Uncredited supervisory editor: Chris Marker L'Amuur (original title: Andante e ritomo dei rigli prodlghl) (sketch in A more e Rabbia; original title: Vangeio 70) 26 minutes Production: Castoro Films (Rome), Anouchka Films (Paris) Photography: Alain Lcvcnt Editing: Agnes Guillemot

Alphaville ou Une Hrallge avemure de Lernmy Caution 98 minute> Production: Chaumiane Production (Paris), Filmstudio (Rome) Photography: Raoul Coutar d, Georges Limn Editing: Agnes Guillemot Pierrot Ie fou 112 minutes
Production: Rome-Paris Films (P aris), Dino de Laurentiis, Cinernatografia (Rome)

105 minutes
Production: Rome-Paris Films, Films Concordia (Paris), Compagnia Cinernatografica Champion (Rome) Script: Godard, based on Alberto Moravi.i novel, J! Disprezzo Photography: Raoul Coutard Edi ring: Agnes Guillemot, Li la Lakshrn a 11. ,11 Montparnasse-Levallois (sketch in Paris vu par ... ) 1R minutes 16mm, later blown up to 35m "' Production: Les Films du Lcsange (Paris I, Barbel. Schroeder Script: Godard Photography: Albert Maysles Editing: Jacqueline Raynat 1964 Bande ii part (Rand or Outsiders: The Outsiders) 95 minutes Production: Anouchka Films, Orsay HI,,,·, (Paris) Scrip l: Godard, based on Ihe novel }ewl \ Gold (Pigeon Vole) by Dolores Hitchcu , Photography: Raoul Coutard, Geor!(e, Limn Editing: Agnes Guillemot, Francoise ("II",

Script: Godard, based on Li onel \VIl itc' s novel Obsession Photography: Raoul Coutard, George>; Liron Editing: Francoise Collin 1966 Maseulin/Feminin (Ma~culine/Feminint") 110 minutes Production: Anouchka Films, Argos Film" (Paris) Svcnsk Filmindustri, Sandrews (Stockholm) Script: Godard, loosely based on two stories by Guy de Maupassant, La Femme de Paul and Le Signe Photography: Willy Kurant Editing: Agnes Guillemot Made in USA

I'

90 minute>
Production: Rome-Paris Films, Anouchka Films, SEP[C (Paris) Script: Godard, based on Richard Stark's novel Rien dam le coffre Photography: Raoul Coutard, Georges

Liron
Editing: Agnes Guillemot

170

171

Films made by the Dziga- Yertov G rou p
\'''cekend 95 minute, Production: Comacico
Copernic (France),

Films made by Jean-Luc and Jean-Plcrre Gorin 1972

Godard

Television

produced

and directed

by

Jean-Luc Godard Mih'i11e
1976

and Anne-Marie

Lira Films, Films ASCOl Cineratd (Rome),

Photography: Raoul Coulard Editing: Agnes Guillemot 1968 Lc Gai Savoir 95 minutes Production: Originally ORTF (French Radio and Television); later Anouchka Iilrns (Paris), Bavaria Atelier (Munich) Ph otcgra phy: Jean Leclerc Editing: Germaine Cohen Uu Film cornme les autres (A Movie Like the Othrrs) Time cstirna tcs run hom 100 to 120 minute>. 16 mm Filmed by the Dziga- Vcrtov grou p, wi th shots by the' Etats Generaux du Cinema' in te r, pcrs ed One J'lus One (producer's title: Sympathy for the Devil) 99 minutes Production: Cupid Productions, Inc. Photography: Tony Ri<:hmond, Colin Corby Editing: Ken Rowlcss, Agnes Guillemot
1%8-69

From the establish men lor the Dziga- Vertov group, Godard and his collaborators have done their own editing, unless otherwise staled.

1969
Brltlsh Sounds (See You al Mao) 52 minutes, 16 mm Production : Kestrel Productions (for London Weekend Television) Photography: Charles Stewart Editing: Elizabeth Kozrnian Pravda 76 minutes, 16 mm Production: Centre Eur opeen Cinema Radio Television
1970

Toni "a bien 95 minutes Script: Godard and (;orin Photography: Armand Marco Editing: Kcnout Peltier Letter 10 Jane 52 minutes. 16 111m Production: Jcan-Luc Godard and Jean-Pierre Gorin

Sur et SOil, la COlli munlca lion (Six rois deux) 600 In inures (six programmes, each composed of two fifty-minu te sect ion'» Production: lnstirut National de I' Audiovisuel (Paris), and Sonimage
(Grenoble)

Video Engineer: Gerard Teissedrc Photography: William Lubtchansky, Dominique Chapuis
1978

Films made bv Jean-Luc and Anne-M~ri{' Mihillc

Godard

Yento dell'est (Vent dcst; East Wind) 100 llliTIIJ[.~S. 16 mill (also 35 mm blow-up: Production: CCC (Berlin), Poli Film (Rome), Anouchka Films (Paris) Script: Daniel Cohn-Bendii Photography: Mario Vulpiano Lotte in Ifalia (Luues en Jtalie; Struggle in Italy) 76 minutes. 16 mill Production: Cosmoseinn (Rome), for th~ RAI (Italian Radio & Television) Vladimir et Rosa (Vladimir and Ros:1I 106 minute>. 16 rum Production: Grove Press, Evergreen Film' (USA). German Television Jusqu'u la victnirc (Till Vidory) 16mm Til is fi lrn rernai ned unfinished. Much footage was used in lei et ailleurs

1974
Ici el a ilkur, 55 rninurcs. 16 111m Production: Institut Nariona) de l'Audiovisuel (Paris) and Sonimagc (Grenoble)

France/ tour / detour /deux/ cnfun I~ Production: Inst itul National de I' Audi ovisuel (Paris) and Sonirnage (Rolle) 360 minutes (twelve half-hour programmes) Script: Loosely based on 'La Tour de la France par deux enfants' by G.Bruno Video: P. Bin~elli Photography; W.Lubtchanskv, D.Chapuis, P.Rony

1975
i\ umero deux RH minutes Production: Sonimagc (Grenoble), Hela Productions, SNC (Paris) Video Engineer: Gera rd Teissed re Te~hnicai~'Collahoral()[,s, \lilka AS5af, Gerard Martin

One American Movie/1 A.M_ Defi ni I i vely a bandoned by Godard in March 1970. 16 mill. Footage from this film, plus fool age on the film being made, were put together by the producer, D.A. Pennebaker, and entitled One P ... . This H film was released in 1971. H2 minutes Producr ion: Leacock-Pennebaker, Inc. Script: Pennebaker. Godard Photography: Richard Leacock,
0.,11.. Pennebaker

1976
0

r I II'

78 minutes
Production: Soniruage (Grenoble), National de l'Audiovisucl, Bela Productions, SNC (Paris)
Photography: 19KO William Lubrchansky

Comment

~a "3 lnstitut

Editing:

D.A. Pennebaker

Sauve qui peul (La Vie) /(Slow Motion) 90 minutes (approx.) Production: Sonimage (Rolle), Sara films (Geneva), l'vlK2, Saga Production> (Paris] Photography: Renate Berta, William L u btchans k y

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Select Bibliography

The British Film Institute's Book Library Bibliography no.19 (1976) is the most complete guide to writings on and by Godard. There is also a full bibliography in Brown (1972). I would like to lake this opportunity to thank Andi Engel of Artificial Eye for Jelling me consult his large collection of newspaper and magazi ne cuttings on Godard.

Althusscr, Louis (J 971) 'Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses: Notes towards an investigation' in Lenin and Philosophy (London: Ncw Left Books) L 'A vent-Scene nos.l71-172 du Cinema July /Septcmber 1976,

and other essays.

Heath, Stephen and Skirrow, Gi llian (1977) 'Television: a world in action' Screen vol. 1R, no.2, pp.7-77 MacBean, James Roy (1975) Film and Revolution (Bloomington, London: Indiana University Press) Roud, Richard (1970) Jeun-Luc Godard, 2nd edition. (London: Seeker and Warburg) Williams, Raymond (1974) Television: Technology and Cultural Form (London: Fontana)

Brown, Royal S. (l972) editor Focus on Godard. (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hail) Coutard, Raoul (J 965) 'Light of Day' , Sight and Sound, Winter 1965/6 vol, 35, no.l. pp. 9-11 Evans, Harold (1978) Pictures on the Page (London: Heinemann) Godard, Jean-Luc (1972) Godard on Godard, edited and translated (London: Seeker and Warbnrg) Godard, Jcan-Luc (1979) editor

by Tom Milne

Cahiers du Cinema, no.300
Godard, Jcau-Luc (J 980) Introduction unO' veritable histoire du cinema, vol, I Pari>: Editions Albatross. Two further volumes forthcoming.

a

Harvey, Sylvia (1978) "Woman'x place: the absent family 01' rilm noir' in Women in Film nair edited by E. Ann Kaplan. (London: British Film Institute)

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