This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
DNA replication is a biological process that occurs in all living organisms and copies their DNA; it is the basis for biological inheritance. The process starts with one double-stranded DNA molecule and produces two identical copies of the molecule. Each strand of the original double-stranded DNA molecule serves as template for the production of the complementary strand, a process referred to assemiconservative replication. Cellular proofreading and error toe-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication. In a cell, DNA replication begins at specific locations in the genome, called "origins".
Unwinding of DNA at the
origin, and synthesis of new strands, forms a replication fork. In addition to DNA polymerase, the enzyme that synthesizes the new DNA by adding nucleotides matched to the template strand, a number of other proteins are associated with the fork and assist in the initiation and continuation of DNA synthesis. DNA replication can also be performed in vitro (artificially, outside a cell). DNA polymerases, isolated from cells, and artificial DNA primers are used to initiate DNA synthesis at known sequences in a template molecule. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a common laboratory technique, employs such artificial synthesis in a cyclic manner to amplify a specific target DNA fragment from a pool of DNA. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA.
Both RNA and DNA
are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language that can be converted back and forth from DNA to RNA by the action of the correct enzymes. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand. As opposed to DNA replication, transcription results in an RNA complement that includes uracil (U) in all instances where thymine (T) would have occurred in a DNA complement. Transcription is explained easily in 4 or 5 steps, each moving like a wave along the DNA. 1. RNA Polymerase moves the transcription bubble, a stretch of unpaired nucleotides, by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotides. 2. RNA Polymerase adds matching RNA nucleotides that are paired with complementary DNA bases. 3. RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase. 4. Hydrogen bonds of the untwisted RNA+DNA helix break, freeing the newly synthesized RNA strand. 5. If the cell has a nucleus, the RNA is further processed (addition of a 3' poly-A tail and a 5' cap) and exits through to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. Transcription is the first step leading to gene expression. The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unitand encodes at least one gene. If the gene transcribed encodes a protein, the result of transcription is messenger RNA (mRNA), which will then be used to create that protein via the process of translation. Alternatively, the transcribed gene may encode for either ribosomal RNA(rRNA) or transfer RNA (tRNA), other components of the protein-assembly process, or other ribozymes.
A DNA transcription unit encoding for a protein contains not only the sequence that will eventually be directly translated into the protein (thecoding sequence) but also regulatory sequences that direct and regulate the synthesis of that protein. The regulatory sequence before (upstream from) the coding sequence is called the five prime untranslated region (5'UTR), and the sequence following (downstream from) the coding sequence is called the three prime untranslated region (3'UTR).
Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid. In mRNA. Instead. mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template. or polypeptide. Meanwhile. transcription has a lower copying fidelity than DNA replication. DNA is read from 3' → 5' during transcription. promoter clearance. translation occurs across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in a process called vectorial synthesis.  Transcription is divided into 5 stages: pre-initiation.  As in DNA replication. This is because RNA is only single-stranded. Many types of transcribed RNA. among others. or UGA). Prokaryotic ribosomes have a different structure from that of eukaryotic ribosomes.Transcription has some proofreading mechanisms. In translation. ribosomal RNA. A number of antibiotics act by inhibiting translation. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of tRNAs withcomplementary anticodon sequences to that of the mRNA. as in DNA. Amino acids are brought to ribosomes and assembled into proteins. In many instances. as opposed to double-stranded DNA. the stop codon induces the binding of a release factor protein that prompts the disassembly of the entire ribosome/mRNA complex. but they are fewer and less effective than the controls for copying DNA. the entire ribosome/mRNA complex causing it to bind to the outer membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and release the nascent protein polypeptide inside for later vesicle transport and secretion outside of the cell. Although DNA is arranged as two antiparallel strands in a double helix. where the large and small subunits of the ribosome are located. elongation and termination. only one of the two DNA strands. do not undergo translation into proteins. The other DNA strand is called the coding (lagging) strand. This process requires two . and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis: the ribosomes. such as transfer RNA. that will later fold into an active protein. Here. When the tRNA has an amino acid linked to it. No tRNA can recognize or bind to this codon. these include anisomycin. In Bacteria. initiation. and puromycin. Termination of the polypeptide happens when the A site of the ribosome faces a stop codon (UAA. the correct amino acid is covalently bonded to the correct transfer RNA (tRNA). tetracycline. translation is the third stage of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). The amino acid is joined by its carboxyl group to the 3' OH of the tRNA by an ester bond. and thus antibiotics can specifically target bacterial infections without any detriment to a eukaryotic host's Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a molecule of RNA that encodes a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. therefore. Translation proceeds in four phases: activation. which terminate protein synthesis. Initiation involves the small subunit of the ribosome binding to the 5' end of mRNA with the help of initiation factors (IF). In Eukaryotes. cycloheximide. the nucleic acid polymer is translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein. it is termed "charged". messenger RNA (mRNA) produced bytranscription is decoded by the ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain. and small nuclear RNA. The use of only the 3' → 5' strand eliminates the need for the Okazaki fragments seen in DNA replication. except the stop codons. streptomycin. the complementary RNA is created from the 5' → 3' direction. elongation and termination (all describing the growth of the amino acid chain. In activation. chloramphenicol. is used for transcription. and bind to the mRNA.erythromycin. translation occurs in the cell's cytoplasm. UAG. because its sequence is the same as the newly created RNA transcript (except for the substitution of uracil for thymine). called the template strand. This means its 5' end is created first in base pairing. genetic information is encoded in the sequence of nucleotides arranged into codonsconsisting of three bases each. initiation. The tRNAs carry specific amino acids that are chained together into a polypeptide as the mRNA passes through and is "read" by the ribosome in a fashion reminiscent to that of a stock ticker and ticker tape. or polypeptide that is the product of translation). In molecular biology and genetics.
tRNA molecules bearing different anticodons may also carry the same amino acid. We first examine the simplest way of looking at protein synthesis as expressed in the so called Central Dogma of Biology.other types of RNA: Transfer RNA (tRNA). Protein synthesis involves two big steps and several other smaller steps depending on the organism. the enzyme that is the site of protein synthesis in all living cells. that is the central component of the ribosome's protein-manufacturing machinery. because the genetic code contains multiple codons that specify the same amino acid. Transcription involves the synthesis of an RNA transcript using the cell's DNA as a template. that is used in biology to bridge the four-letter genetic code (ACGU) in messenger RNA (mRNA)  with the twenty-letter code of amino acids in proteins. which aid in decoding the mRNA codon sequence. The two big steps are called transcription and translation. and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). The mRNA encodes a protein as a series of contiguous codons. but. Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome. The anticodon forms three base pairs with a codon in mRNA during protein biosynthesis. The tRNAs bring the necessary amino acids corresponding to the appropriate mRNA codon.that mediates recognition of the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid. namely that the direction of information flow in the cell is from DNA to mRNA to proteins. a reaction catalyzed by the ribosome. The role of tRNA as an adaptor is best understood by considering its three-dimensional structure. Ribosomal RNA provides a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids and interacts with tRNAs during translation by providing peptidyl transferase activity. . In eukaryotic cells transcription happens in the nucleus. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA. eEF-1 in eukaryotes). each tRNA is covalently attached to the amino acid that corresponds to the anticodon sequence. leading to messenger RNA(mRNA). Each type of tRNA molecule can be attached to only one type of amino acid. Once delivered. tRNAs are delivered to the ribosome by proteins called elongation factors (EFTu in bacteria. typically 73 to 93nucleotides in length. One end of the tRNA carries the genetic code in a three-nucleotide sequence called theanticodon. Once the messenger RNA is made it then is transported to the cytoplasm where the information contained in the mRNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide. This covalent attachment to the tRNA 3’ end is catalyzed by enzymes called aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. On the other end of its three-dimensional structure. each of which is recognized by a particular tRNA. Protein synthesis is important because it is through the use of genetic information to synthesize proteins that the genes in the DNA are expressed in the phenotype. a tRNA already bound to the ribosome transfers the growing polypeptide chain from its 3’ end to the amino acid attached to the 3’ end of the newly-delivered tRNA. During protein synthesis.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.