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a)Students will list 5 possible health hazards to miners today.

b)Students will write a paragraph explaining the history of the use of canaries in
the mines.

This lesson will emphasize personnel health and safety aspects and engineering
design and control practices to ensure the productive health and safety
environment. This lesson will cover the health and safety of the individual miners
as well as the safety of the working environment.

Health and Safety Issues-

Among possible threats to the health of miners are the following: exposure to
toxic gases and dusts, exposure to excessive heat and humidity, inadequate
illumination, noise and vibration problems, and oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
Some of these environmental stresses may interact to produce a greater overall
effect, for example: excessive vibration combined with low illumination may lead
to higher order stress than either one being present alone. In combination or
alone, if environmental stresses exceed human tolerances levels for prolonged
periods of time, performance and productivity will drop. Threats to a miners
safety may arise from many sources:from falls of roof, face, rib, or side; form
haulage or other machinery; from electrical equipment, explosives, or ignitions or
explosions of gases and dust; from sudden inundations of water or gas; or from
mine fires.

The environmental stresses must be managed and under control at all times.
Consequences of inadequate control can be sudden and catastrophic-such as
injuries and loss of life through suffocation, hat strokes, and explosions-or slow
and low enduring-such as lung diseases including coal worker's pneumoconisis
or black lung. The debilitation can be permanent .

Role of Government

Today there is a strong measure of governmental control and inspection of mines

to safeguard the health and safety of the miners. The changes are directly
related to new and better technological improvements. The "bird in the coal mine"
was used until better technology became available.

The US Bureau of Mines was created in 1910 about 45 years after it was first
proposed. There have been legislative actions that continued to improve safety
culminating with safety acts in 1966, 1969, and then the Federal Mine Safety Act.
In 1969, the congress declared that the first priority and concern of all in the coal
mining industry must be the health and safety of it most precious resource, the

OSHA ( 1970) was the most significant piece of legislation with reference to
workman's occupational health and safety in US history. MSHA , the Mine Safety
and Health Administration, is the federal agency responsible for enforcing the
1977 Mine Act.

Three decades have passed since the enactment of the 1969 Coal Act. This act
and the regulations it defined, set the standards for what constitutes a good safe
operating mine. Stringent standards have been presented for, among other
things, respirable dust, noise, illumination, ventilation, roof control, electrical
equipment, and escape ways. These have necessitated changes in mining
layouts, mining operations, mine equipment and miner training. Provisions for
government inspection of mines and for assessment of penalties and violations
have been revamped. Yet the fundamental requirements for a safe mining
system continue to be :

1) a well engineered system in which all well known hazards that can be
eliminated by design are,

2) a motivated work force that is trained to recognize hazards and to insure that
all operations are carried out in the safest manner,

3) an effective management that not only maintains the integrity of the system
but is constantly searching to improve on existing standards.

Miner Training

Miner training must emphasize the general and job specific health and safety
aspects . Management training must develop in its managers an ability to
interpret safety statistics, perform cost analyses on investments promising health
and safety improvements, and understand human behavioral patterns.

Mine Design

For maximum success, mine design must have sound health and safety policies
in place. Many changes have taken places in work procedures and practices to
control the mine atmospheric contaminations from gases, dust, heat and
humidity, and radiation.

Air Quality-Exhaust Gases

Methods to control the diesel engine exhaust are constantly being explored and
improved. The quality of diesel fuel, well maintained engines, new exhaust
treatment systems and changes in operational procedures has the potential to
improve to greatly reduce the gaseous components in exhaust. MSHA
determines the maximum engine generation rate of the worst single gaseous
pollutant, and the volume flow of air to dilute that component to a safe level is
calculated. Emission levels varies among engines and with different conditions of
operations. Aftertreatment solutions include:waterbath exhaust conditioners
( water scrubbers), oxidation catalytic converters (purifiers), diesel particulate
filters (ceramic monolith filters- traps).


Ventilation is an important consideration in mine design. It must supply fresh air

to the miners, control gas, dust, heat and humidity though as well thought out
approved plan. Computer equipment include: methane monitoring, smoke
monitors, air velocity monitors, carbon monoxide monitors, carbon dioxide
monitors, oxides of nitrogen monitors, relative humidity monitors, pressure
monitors, temperature monitors and vibration monitors. These digital /analog
sensors are connected to a central station. The number of sensors can be from
one to hundreds, depending on the size of the mine system and layout.
The mine ventilation system consists of fans, airways (opening to the surface and
interconnections to the mine between openings in the work areas), and the
control devices for air courses. In coal mines, the intake air and return air are not
allowed to mix. Fans can be used to overcome the resistance to flow. Natural
ventilation is result of differences in elevation between mine openings and the
addition of heat energy to the air as it passes through the workings.

Canaries in Mines

Noise and Illumination

Through mine machinery/equipment design and proper planning, the noise and
illumination problems can be minimized. Improved lighting and controlled noise
has reduced the visual and hearing health problems. Due to the high degree of
mechanization involved in the industry, and the number of operations and people
employed, noise is one problem that must be addressed.
MSHA has federal jurisdiction of enforcement and activities in the mining industry
. The criteria involves exposure to specific levels of noise for specific time
intervals. For each 5-dBH increase in the noise level, the maximum exposure
time is halved. OSHA standards differ from MSHA by assigning. 85 bBH for 8
hours for hearing conservation purposes. For enforcement purposes, OSHA also
uses 90 bDH for 8 hours.
One of the most basic instruments is the sound level meter (SLM), which is used
to measure the overall noise level. With various electronic weighting networks
built into the instrument. Another instrument frequently used is the personal noise
dosimeter. The instrument is worn by the employee and measures the noise
exposure accumulation for up to 8 hours. There are noise recorders for
equipment, and noise recorders that collect data on frequency distribution of

Illumination in a mine is a challenge to the engineers. Room dimensions and

surface reflectance in underground mines are defined by the deposit mined. The
dust and explosive atmosphere complicate matters even more. The majors
concerns to be addresses are adequate illumination for hazard and operational
working of equipment, the quality of lighting and health maintenance. The
instruments required to evaluate lighting systems and components. The tools are
called photometers. The photometers are used to verify MSHA lighting
regulations, to design and evaluate lighting systems. The lumination system
should be at the planned usage ( fluorescent lights warmed etc.)
The effect of illumination levels on visual perception is an extremely complicated
process by which the brain receives most of its information about the outside
world. Low level light caused nystagmus, a an individual inability to look directly
at an object and constant eye movement, in the mines before 1940. The electric
headlamp has eliminated the miners' nystagmus and provide illumination for
close task operations. With working areas and various equipment, the
recommendations are very straight-forward. The lighting must be adequate in
walk-ways, 20 ft in all directions from the main frame, area in front of and behind
rubber tired or crawler mounted scrapers, graders, loaders and tractors. The
lighting must meet regulation beside and in front of buckets or blades for at least
5ft. 10ft. around holes being drilled by vertical drills. The standards are a
minimum but accommodations are made at each mine site to provide for the
optimum operations and safe working environments. It is to the companies
benefit to have their skilled workers working in safe environments to avoid
injuries and damaged equipment that can set mine operation way behind .

MOVIE:How did the miners have light before electricity?

2 Movies:1)Big Trucks 2)What You Can't See Could Kill Someone!

These movies require Media Player . Free download here if you need it

Computers have contributed to better monitoring of atmospheric conditions mine-

wide. Important information as well as automated corrections to atmospheric
conditions have offered improvement in the health and safety in mines today.

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration

MSHA: Mine Safety and Health Administration

Occupational Injury- any injury that occurs at he mine and that medical
treatment is administered.

Occupational Illness- an illness or disease of a mine worker that may have

resulted for work at he mine or for which an award of compensation is made.

Worktime: worktime includes numbers of workers and number of employed

-hours worked.

Degree of Injury: FATAL injuries result in death, NFDL is nonfatal injuries with
days lost, NDL is injuries with no days lost

Permanent Total Disability: injuries that are not fatal but permanently and
totally incapacitates a worker form any gainful occupation or an injury that results
in loss of limbs or eyes.

Permanent Partial Disability: injury or illness that is caused by work that results
in the loss of any member of the body, or permanent impairments

Incidence Rate: is a incidence rate defined as the number of injuries per

200,000 employee-hours rounded to 2 decimal places.

Number of injuries X 200,000 =IR

number of employee- hours

The highest rate is 99.99 even if it is higher.

Lost Workdays: (LWD) Lost workdays consist of days away from work.

Noise: unwanted sound

dBA noise level: the overall noise level measured in decibels, A-weighted

Frequency Distribution: the range of frequencies that compose the the noise
spectrum, typically in the audible range of 20 to 16,000 Hz.

Acoustical Materials: any material specifically designed for or used to reduce

the noise levels.
Retrofit: to modify existing equipment.

Noise Dose: the amount of noise exposure that an employee is exposed to over
a given amount of time.

Pneumoconisis: black lung

AAC 05.070. All Occupations in Connection With Mining

All occupations in connection with mining are considered dangerous and

prohibited to minors, except the following:

(1) work in offices, in the warehouse or supply house, in the change house, in the
laboratory, and in repair or maintenance shops not located underground;

(2) work in the operation and maintenance of living quarters;

(3) work outside the mine in surveying, in the repair and maintenance of roads,
and in general cleanup about the mine property such as clearing brush and
digging drainage ditches.


A (PDF) condensed report combining hundreds of studies and publications on

various safety and health hazards in the mining industry worldwide.The report is
60 pages long but it covers metal /nonmetal mining with charts that that show
changes as health and safety regulations have changed. The table of contents is
helpful for navigation.

Hearing Protection- an Excel document that lists

The following spread sheet contains a list of hearing protectors with their noise
reduction ratings. This list is updated by MSHA's Directorate Technical Support
every six months.

MSHA (Mine Safety and Health Administration)

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)

a. Student will locate mining jobs of interest on the web to locate what training is
required and the average pay scale.

b. Students will list various heavy equipment that may be used in an underground

08 AAC 05.070. All Occupations in Connection With Mining

All occupations in connection with mining are considered

dangerous and prohibited to minors, except the following:

(1) work in offices, in the warehouse or supply house, in the

change house, in the laboratory, and in repair or maintenance
shops not located underground;

(2) work in the operation and maintenance of living quarters;

(3) work outside the mine in surveying, in the repair and

maintenance of roads, and in general cleanup about the mine
property such as clearing brush and digging drainage ditches

Sample: TECK-POGO Preliminary Staffing List

Mill/Process Environmental
Mine Department
Department /External Affairs
Administration Management Staff
Mine Department
Mine Superintendent Salaried 1
Mine Foreman Salaried 1
Operating Supervisor Salaried 6
Technical Supervisor Salaried 1
Chief Engineer Salaried 1
Chief Geologist Salaried 1
Engineer/ Geologist Salaried 6
Senior Technician Salaried 3
Technician Salaried 6
Total 26
Clerk/Reception Hourly 2
Jumbo Driller (Senior) Hourly 15
Jumbo Driller Trainee Hourly 5
Bolter (senior) Hourly 6
Bolter Trainee Hourly 2
Powder Crew (Senior) Hourly 12
Powder Crew Trainee Hourly 4
LHD Operator (Senior) Hourly 22
LHD Operator Trainee Hourly 6
Truck Operator (Senior) Hourly 12
Truck Operator Trainee Hourly 4
UG Labor Hourly 16
Constuction Experienced Hourly 4
Construction Trainee Hourly 4
Back Fill Underground Hourly 8
Diamond Driller (Senior) Hourly 6
Diamond Driller Trainee Hourly 2
Road Maintenace (Senior) Hourly 6
Road Maintenace Trainee Hourly 2
Mechanic (Senior) Hourly 20
Mechanic Trainee Hourly 8
Electrician (Senior) Hourly 6
Electrician Trainee Hourly 2
Hoistman (Senior) Hourly 3
Hoistman Trainee Hourly 1
Cage Tender (Senior) Hourly 3
Cage Tender Trainee Hourly 1
Crusher Operator (Senior) Hourly 6
Crusher Operator Trainee Hourly 2
Lead Mech/ Electrician Hourly 8
Total 192
MIll/ Process Department
Mill Superintendent Salary 1
Metallurgist Salary 1
General Foreman Salary 1
Operation Foreman Salary 4
Mechanical Foreman Salary 1
Electrical Foreman Salary 1
Chief Chemist Salary 1
Assayers Salary 4
Metallurgical Technicians Salary 2
Total 16
Grinding/ Floatation
Hourly 4
Hourly 4
Tailing/ Dewater/Backfill Hourly 8
ADR Operator (Carbon
Hourly 4
Refinery Operator (Senior) Hourly 2
Reagent Operator Hourly 4
Labor/ Helper Hourly 6
Tailings Stacking OperatorsHourly 4
Mill Wright (Senior) Hourly 3
Mill Wright Trainee Hourly 1
Welder Pipefitter Hourly 2
Electrician Hourly 3
Instumentation Electrician Hourly 2
Apprentice /Helper Hourly 4
Total 51
Environmental /External Affairs
Environ/External Affairs
Salary 1
SR Environmental
Salary 1
Environmental Engineer Salary 1
Salary 2
Total 5
Finance Department
Chief Finance Manager Salary 1
Accounting Clerk Salary 1
Payroll Clerk Salary 1
Purchasing Agent Salary 1
Total 4
Warehouse Inventory Hourly 2
Warehouse Yard Hourly 2
Expeditor Hourly 2
Total 6
Catering/ Housekeeping
Salary 1
Total 1
Hourly 20
Total 20
Administrative Manager Salary 1
Human Resources Director Salary 1
Administrative Secretary Salary 1
Administrative Assistant Salary 1
Receptionist Salary 1
Safety/ Security Director Salary 1
Safety/Medical Trainer Salary 1
Total 7
Security Staff Hourly 4
Total 4
Management Staff
Mine General Manager Salary 1
Operations Manager Salary 1
Administrative Assistant Salary 1
Total 3
Propsed Work Schedule 4 Days on 4 days off
Total Salaried Positions 63
Total Hourly Positions 273

TECK/ POGO Total 336

Read the following articles about employment in the mining industry.

Mining and Quarrying

Oil and Gas Employment

Tools of the Trade-This page is devoted to the various tools used to extract
placer gold in the field and the methods for final separation of the yellow stuff
from the heavy black sands usually associated with gold.

Gold Mining Equipment

Alaska Mining & Diving Supply is a leading supplier of equipment for recreational
and small mining needs. Gold pans, sluice boxes, suction dredges, metal
detectors, digging tools, vials, snuffer bottles, and all the other small equipment
needed for gold mining are kept in stock. Related items such as rock tumblers,
scales, and more are also kept on hand. This online selection is only a small part
of our actual product line. More items will be added here as time allows.

Assalammualaikum Mas Bengki, Apa Khabar ?

Mas, thanks for info nya. Gimana khabar si jagoan kecilnya, udah bisa apa aja ?
Ibu sekarang ada diyogya, karena eyang agak kritis dan ada di RS Sarjito Yogya, semua
anak eyang udah ngumpul, kecuali om zul masih dilaut.

Mas, Aku diminta bos utk mempelajari ttg reklamasi didaerah pertambangan yg
kebetulan mereka sedang mengadakan pengembangan perusahaan pertambangan di
daerah Jambi. Mereka tau aku dari teknologi pertanian, tapikan aku udah lama nggak
berkecimpung dibidang tsb apalagi dikaitkan dgn pertambangan. Yah mau gak mau aku
coba cari2 info.

Aku udah mendapat info dari Reporting of business continuing 2006 dari KPC yg
kebetulan termasuk didlmnya ada PT Dharmahenwa yg beroprasi di Bengalon Kutai
Timur di perusahaannya Mas Bambang. Sekarang aku sedikit taulah walaupun tdk detail.

Punya gambaran sedikitlah dari info laporan KPC (Bumi Resource Tbk) tsb, namun perlu
sedikit informasi teknis ttg HSE terutama reklamasinya. Mungkin salah satu sampel di
daerah operasional Dharmahenwa di Bengalon, yah sbg benchmarking lah. Itu kalo Mas
Bengki gak keberatan sekalian topic email utk berguru kpd mas bengki…. Hehee.
Mas mungkin ada sedikit pertanyaan nih al:
1. Setelah areal tambang habis dibuka, ada beberapa lapisan penutup areal yg
terbuka tsb. Apakah areal tsb 100 % atau berapa % harus ditutup atau sebagian
dpt berupa kolong/danau
2. Lapisan penutup tsb diambil dari daerah mana ? dan apakah tdk mengurangi
dampak lingkungan lain dimana tanah penutupnya diambil ?
3. Bagaimana teknis penutupannya atau tahapannya.
4. Saya membaca dari laporan KPC, selain akasia, lamtorogum, ada tanaman2
produksi juga dpt ditanam, misalnya jeruk, durian, coklat, jarak bahkan sawit.
Apakah hasilnya baik, mengingat bekas areal tambang & beberapa limbah B3 yg
mungkin dpt permanen mengendap di areal tsb, kecuali tanaman keras yg dapat
bertahan seperti akasia & lamtorogum. Atau khusus utk areal bekas tambang
tertentu saja.
5. Tanggung jawab reklamasi dibawah departemen/divisi apa ?, apakah HSE atau
lebih khusus lagi.

Oke mas, maaf terlalu panjang. Heheeee.

Salam utk istri & si jago kecilnya


Bang An (Subhan Herialdy)

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