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Introduction to Programming I

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Author Florence Tiu Balagtas Team Joyce Avestro Florence Balagtas Rommel Feria Reginald Hutcherson Rebecca Ong John Paul Petines Sang Shin Raghavan Srinivas Matthew Thompson

Requirements For the Laboratory Exercises
Minimum Hardware Configuration • Microsoft Windows operating systems:

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Processor: 500 MHz Intel Pentium III workstation or equivalent Memory: 384 megabytes Disk space: 125 megabytes of free disk space Processor: 450 MHz UltraTM 10 workstation or equivalent Memory: 384 megabytes Disk space: 125 megabytes of free disk space Processor: 500 MHz Intel Pentium III workstation or equivalent Memory: 384 megabytes

SolarisTM operating system:

Linux operating system:

Disk space: 125 megabytes of free disk space Recommended Hardware Configuration • Microsoft Windows operating systems: Processor: 780 MHz Intel Pentium III workstation or equivalent Memory: 512 megabytes Disk space: 125 megabytes of free disk space Processor: 500 MHz UltraTM 60 workstation or equivalent Memory: 512 megabytes Disk space: 125 megabytes of free disk space Processor: 800 MHz Intel Pentium III workstation or equivalent Memory: 512 megabytes

SolarisTM operating system:

Linux operating system:

Disk space: 125 megabytes of free disk space Operating System NetBeans IDE runs on operating systems that support the JavaTM VM. Below is a list of platforms that NetBeans IDE has been tested on. • Microsoft Windows XP Professional SP1

• • • • • • • • •

Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional SP3 Solaris operating system (SPARC® Platform Edition), versions 8, 9, and 10 Solaris operating system (x86 Platform Edition), versions 8, 9, and 10 Red Hat Linux 9.0 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3

Sun Java Desktop System NetBeans IDE is also known to run on the following platforms: • Various other Linux distributions Mac OS X 10.1.1 or later Open VMS 7.2-1 or later

Other UNIX ® platforms, such as HP-UX Software NetBeans IDE runs on the J2SE JDK 5.0 (JavaTM 2 JDK, Standard Edition), which consists of the Java Runtime Environment plus developers tools for compiling, debugging, and running applications written in the JavaTM language. NetBeans IDE 4.0 has also been tested on J2SE SDK version 1.4.2. For more information, please visit: http://www.netbeans.org/community/releases/40/relnotes.html

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Revision History
For Version 1.1 August 2005 Section Version Number Revision History Appendix E: Hands-on Lab Exercises

Details Change from 1.0 to 1.1 Added Added (c/o Sang)

Chapter 10: Creating Your own classes Added subsection on How to set classpath at packages section Chapter 11: Inheritance, Interfaces Polymorphism section and Polymorphism • Added example that uses another class whose method can receive a reference variable Interface • Added sections • Why do we use Interfaces? • Interface vs. Abstract Class • Interface vs. Class • Relationship of an Interface to a Class • Inheritance among Interfaces

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Table of Contents
1 Introduction to Computer Programming.............................................................. 11 1.1 Objectives............................................................................................... 11 1.2 Introduction............................................................................................. 11 1.3 Basic Components of a Computer................................................................ 12 1.3.1 Hardware.......................................................................................... 12 1.3.1.1 The Central Processing Unit.......................................................... 12 1.3.1.2 Memory .................................................................................... 12 1.3.1.3 Input and Output Devices............................................................. 13 1.3.2 Software........................................................................................... 13 1.4 Overview of Computer Programming Languages........................................... 14 1.4.1 What is a Programming Language?....................................................... 14 1.4.2 Categories of Programming Languages.................................................. 14 1.5 The Program Development Life Cycle........................................................... 15 1.5.1 Problem Definition............................................................................. 16 1.5.2 Problem Analysis............................................................................... 16 1.5.3 Algorithm design and representation.................................................... 17 1.5.3.1 Flowcharting Symbols and their meanings...................................... 18 1.5.4 Coding and Debugging....................................................................... 19 1.6 Number Systems and Conversions.............................................................. 20 1.6.1 Decimal............................................................................................ 20 1.6.2 Binary.............................................................................................. 20 1.6.3 Octal................................................................................................ 20 1.6.4 Hexadecimal..................................................................................... 20 1.6.5 Conversions...................................................................................... 21 1.6.5.1 Decimal to Binary / Binary to Decimal............................................ 21 1.6.5.2 Decimal to Octal (or Hexadecimal)/Octal (or Hexadecimal) to Decimal.... 22 1.6.5.3 Binary to Octal / Octal to Binary.................................................... 23 1.6.5.4 Binary to Hexadecimal / Hexadecimal to Binary............................... 24 1.7 Exercises................................................................................................. 25 1.7.1 Writing Algorithms............................................................................. 25 1.7.2 Number Conversions.......................................................................... 25 2 Introduction to Java........................................................................................ 26 2.1 Objectives............................................................................................... 26 2.2 Java Background...................................................................................... 26 2.2.1 A little Bit of History .......................................................................... 26 2.2.2 What is Java Technology?................................................................... 26 2.2.2.1 A programming language............................................................. 26 2.2.2.2 A development environment......................................................... 26 2.2.2.3 An application environment.......................................................... 26 2.2.2.4 A deployment environment........................................................... 27 2.2.3 Some Features of Java........................................................................ 27 2.2.3.1 The Java Virtual Machine.............................................................. 27 2.2.3.2 Garbage Collection...................................................................... 27 2.2.3.3 Code Security............................................................................. 28 2.2.4 Phases of a Java Program.................................................................... 29 3 Getting to know your Programming Environment................................................. 30 3.1 Objectives............................................................................................... 30 3.2 Introduction............................................................................................. 30

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3.3 My First Java Program............................................................................... 30 3.4 Using a Text Editor and Console................................................................. 31 3.4.1 Errors .............................................................................................. 46 3.4.1.1 Syntax Errors............................................................................. 46 3.4.1.2 Run-time Errors.......................................................................... 47 3.5 Using Netbeans........................................................................................ 48 3.6 Exercises................................................................................................. 66 3.6.1 Hello World!...................................................................................... 66 3.6.2 The Tree........................................................................................... 66 4 Programming Fundamentals............................................................................. 67 4.1 Objectives............................................................................................... 67 4.2 Dissecting my first Java program................................................................ 67 4.3 Java Comments........................................................................................ 69 4.3.1 C++-Style Comments......................................................................... 69 4.3.2 C-Style Comments............................................................................. 69 4.3.3 Special Javadoc Comments................................................................. 69 4.4 Java Statements and blocks....................................................................... 70 4.5 Java Identifiers........................................................................................ 71 4.6 Java Keywords......................................................................................... 72 4.7 Java Literals............................................................................................ 73 4.7.1 Integer Literals ................................................................................. 73 4.7.2 Floating-Point Literals ........................................................................ 73 4.7.3 Boolean Literals ................................................................................ 73 4.7.4 Character Literals .............................................................................. 74 4.7.5 String Literals ................................................................................... 74 4.8 Primitive data types.................................................................................. 75 4.8.1 Logical - boolean............................................................................... 75 4.8.2 Textual – char................................................................................... 75 4.8.3 Integral – byte, short, int & long.......................................................... 76 4.8.4 Floating Point – float and double.......................................................... 77 4.9 Variables................................................................................................. 78 4.9.1 Declaring and Initializing Variables....................................................... 78 4.9.2 Outputting Variable Data.................................................................... 79 4.9.3 System.out.println() vs. System.out.print() ......................................... 79 4.9.4 Reference Variables vs. Primitive Variables............................................ 80 4.10 Operators.............................................................................................. 81 4.10.1 Arithmetic operators......................................................................... 81 4.10.2 Increment and Decrement operators................................................... 84 4.10.3 Relational operators......................................................................... 86 4.10.4 Logical operators.............................................................................. 89 4.10.4.1 && (logical AND) and & (boolean logical AND)............................... 90 4.10.4.2 || (logical OR) and | (boolean logical inclusive OR)......................... 92 4.10.4.3 ^ (boolean logical exclusive OR).................................................. 94 4.10.4.4 ! (logical NOT).......................................................................... 95 4.10.5 Conditional Operator (?:).................................................................. 96 4.10.6 Operator Precedence........................................................................ 98 4.11 Exercises............................................................................................... 99 4.11.1 Declaring and printing variables......................................................... 99 4.11.2 Getting the average of three numbers................................................. 99 4.11.3 Output greatest value....................................................................... 99 4.11.4 Operator precedence........................................................................ 99 5 Getting Input from the Keyboard..................................................................... 100 5.1 Objectives............................................................................................. 100

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5.2 Using BufferedReader to get input............................................................. 100 5.3 Using JOptionPane to get input................................................................. 104 5.4 Exercises............................................................................................... 106 5.4.1 Last 3 words (BufferedReader version)................................................ 106 5.4.2 Last 3 words (JOptionPane version).................................................... 106 Control Structures......................................................................................... 107 6.1 Objectives............................................................................................. 107 6.2 Decision Control Structures...................................................................... 107 6.2.1 if statement.................................................................................... 107 6.2.2 if-else statement.............................................................................. 109 6.2.3 if-else-if statement........................................................................... 111 6.2.4 Common Errors when using the if-else statements:............................... 112 6.2.5 Example for if-else-else if.................................................................. 113 6.2.6 switch statement............................................................................. 114 6.2.7 Example for switch........................................................................... 116 6.3 Repetition Control Structures.................................................................... 117 6.3.1 while loop....................................................................................... 117 6.3.2 do-while loop................................................................................... 119 6.3.3 for loop........................................................................................... 120 6.4 Branching Statements............................................................................. 121 6.4.1 break statement.............................................................................. 121 6.4.1.1 Unlabeled break statement......................................................... 121 6.4.1.2 Labeled break statement............................................................ 122 6.4.2 continue statement.......................................................................... 123 6.4.2.1 Unlabeled continue statement..................................................... 123 6.4.2.2 Labeled continue statement........................................................ 123 6.4.3 return statement.............................................................................. 124 6.5 Exercises............................................................................................... 125 6.5.1 Grades........................................................................................... 125 6.5.2 Number in words.............................................................................. 125 6.5.3 Hundred Times................................................................................ 125 6.5.4 Powers........................................................................................... 125 Java Arrays.................................................................................................. 126 7.1 Objectives............................................................................................. 126 7.2 Introduction to arrays.............................................................................. 126 7.3 Declaring Arrays..................................................................................... 127 7.4 Accessing an array element...................................................................... 129 7.5 Array length........................................................................................... 130 7.6 Multidimensional Arrays........................................................................... 131 7.7 Exercises............................................................................................... 132 7.7.1 Days of the Week............................................................................. 132 7.7.2 Greatest number.............................................................................. 132 7.7.3 Addressbook Entries......................................................................... 132 Command-line Arguments.............................................................................. 133 8.1 Objectives............................................................................................. 133 8.2 Command-line arguments........................................................................ 133 8.3 Command-line arguments in Netbeans...................................................... 135 8.4 Exercises............................................................................................... 139 8.4.1 Print arguments............................................................................... 139 8.4.2 Arithmetic Operations....................................................................... 139 Working with the Java Class Library................................................................. 140 9.1 Objectives............................................................................................. 140 9.2 Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming............................................. 140

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9.3 Classes and Objects................................................................................ 141 9.3.1 Difference Between Classes and Objects.............................................. 141 9.3.2 Encapsulation.................................................................................. 142 9.3.3 Class Variables and Methods.............................................................. 142 9.3.4 Class Instantiation........................................................................... 143 9.4 Methods................................................................................................ 144 9.4.1 What are Methods and Why Use Methods?........................................... 144 9.4.2 Calling Instance Methods and Passing Variables....................................145 9.4.3 Passing Variables in Methods............................................................. 146 9.4.3.1 Pass-by-value........................................................................... 146 9.4.3.2 Pass-by-reference...................................................................... 147 9.4.4 Calling Static Methods...................................................................... 148 9.4.5 Scope of a variable........................................................................... 149 9.5 Casting, Converting and Comparing Objects............................................... 152 9.5.1 Casting Primitive Types..................................................................... 152 9.5.2 Casting Objects............................................................................... 154 9.5.3 Converting Primitive Types to Objects and Vice Versa............................ 156 9.5.4 Comparing Objects........................................................................... 157 9.5.5 Determining the Class of an Object..................................................... 159 9.6 Exercises............................................................................................... 160 9.6.1 Defining terms................................................................................. 160 9.6.2 Java Scavenger Hunt........................................................................ 160 10 Creating your own Classes............................................................................ 161 10.1 Objectives............................................................................................ 161 10.2 Defining your own classes...................................................................... 162 10.3 Declaring Attributes.............................................................................. 163 10.3.1 Instance Variables.......................................................................... 163 10.3.2 Class Variables or Static Variables.................................................... 164 10.4 Declaring Methods................................................................................ 164 10.4.1 Accessor methods........................................................................... 165 10.4.2 Mutator Methods............................................................................ 166 10.4.3 Multiple Return statements.............................................................. 167 10.4.4 Static methods............................................................................... 167 10.4.5 Sample Source Code for StudentRecord class..................................... 168 10.5 The this reference................................................................................. 170 10.6 Overloading Methods............................................................................. 171 10.7 Declaring Constructors........................................................................... 173 10.7.1 Default Constructor........................................................................ 173 10.7.2 Overloading Constructors................................................................ 173 10.7.3 Using Constructors......................................................................... 174 10.7.4 The this() Constructor Call............................................................... 175 10.8 Packages............................................................................................. 176 10.8.1 Importing Packages........................................................................ 176 10.8.2 Creating your own packages............................................................ 176 10.8.3 Setting the CLASSPATH.................................................................. 177 10.9 Access Modifiers................................................................................... 179 10.9.1 default access (also called package accessibility)................................ 179 10.9.2 public access................................................................................. 179 10.9.3 protected access............................................................................ 180 10.9.4 private access................................................................................ 180 10.10 Exercises........................................................................................... 181 10.10.1 Address Book Entry....................................................................... 181 10.10.2 AddressBook................................................................................ 181

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.............................. 226 Using a Text Editor and Console.................................................................................................3 Overriding Methods................................................................................................................ 196 11........................................6........................................................................................... 196 11.... 227 Setting the Path......2..................2 The Shape abstract class..5 Relationship of an Interface to a Class....... 210 Installing Netbeans in Linux... 200 Appendix A : Java and Netbeans Installation...................1 Catching Exceptions1.......... 258 3...................................................................4 Exercises..........................................................2...6.............. 182 11................. 197 12......................6 Exercises.................... 193 11......................................................................4 Abstract Classes..........5... 201 Installing Java in Linux...2 Interface vs....... 261 5............................................................. 251 Chapter 1 Exercises.................................................1 Declaring and printing variables....................................... 187 11...........................5.............................................................................................................................3 Interface vs..5... 251 1.....................................................1 Writing Algorithms.....................1 Hello World!.............................. 197 12..................5............................................. 251 1.................... 222 Appendix B: Getting to know your Programming Environment (Windows XP version)....................................... Abstract Class................................................................................... 192 11...... 200 12..................... 254 Chapter 2 (No exercises)...............5 Interfaces...........................................................................3 Output greatest value...........................................................................................................2 What are Exceptions?.......................................................................3 Polymorphism..............................4.......... 186 11.................................. Polymorphism and Interfaces................2 The Tree.2 Getting the average of three numbers.4 Final Methods and Final Classes..............................6 Inheritance among Interfaces.........1 Extending StudentRecord...........................1 Objectives.. 257 Chapter 3 Exercises..........................................1 Objectives.................................................5......................................................................................................................................... 193 11................................................................................................................................. 185 11........................................................4 Operator precedence.................. 260 4.............................................. 197 12..........................................................................................................1 Defining Superclasses and Subclasses............................................1 Why do we use Interfaces?................................4 Creating Interfaces...................................................................................................2........................ 182 11. 263 Introduction to Programming I 8 ....... 240 Using Netbeans.......................................................................................1 Last 3 words (BufferedReader version).... 192 11....J.............................5............................................................................................................................................................................. 188 11..................................... 226 My First Java Program.............................................E............................................ 259 4............ 259 4.......................2 Inheritance.. 258 3...................................... 202 Installing Java in Windows........... 192 11.............................................................2 The super keyword........................................................................................................................ 213 Installing Netbeans in Windows............................................................................................. 195 11...................D.................................... 241 Appendix C : Answers to Exercises.. 261 5.................... 197 12................ Class......................................... 195 11................................................................................. 259 4.. 260 Chapter 5 Exercises..3 Handling Exceptions............. 196 12 Basic Exception Handling...........I 11 Inheritance..........4.. 190 11.................... 183 11..............................................2.................................. 262 Chapter 6 Exercises...........2 Number Conversions.......... 200 12........................................................................................2 Last 3 words (JOptionPane version)...... 182 11....................................................................... 258 Chapter 4 Exercises...........2 Catching Exceptions 2.....................

................. 308 10.............................1 Address Book Entry.................................................................1 Getting Input From Keyboard via BufferedReader.......... and Run Hello Java Program using NetBeans........... and Run Hello Java Program.............................................3 Write........................................................... 300 Chapter 5 Hands-on................................................... 295 Note to the Teacher........................ 301 5........... 274 Chapter 8 Exercises....E............................................................................................................................................1 Days of the Week.........................................................................1 Create your own class......................................................................................................................................................................................1 For Loop......................................................................................................... Compile................................................................................................................................. 296 3..................................................................... 299 4.......1 Things to check before you start the lab ..........................................1 Pass-by-Value.......1 Print Arguments............................................................................2 Catching Exceptions 2............................................................ 303 6.................................................................................... 305 9.................. 273 7...3 Packaging.......... 304 Chapter 8 Hands-on...... 289 Appendix D : Machine Problems............. 275 8................ 303 Chapter 7 Hands-on...................................................................................... Printing Variables................................................. 301 5.........................................................................3 Comparing Objects......................................................................................................1 Extending StudentRecord............... 270 Chapter 7 Exercises....................................2 Java Scavenger Hunt.................. 295 Chapter 2 Hands-on..2 Write. 284 11........................................................D............................. 316 Chapter 11 Hands-on................. 287 Chapter 12 Exercises............................................................................... 284 11........I 6................................. 308 10........................................................ 302 Chapter 6 Hands-on.............. 307 Chapter 10 Hands-on............................ 306 9.................................................................. 263 6.......................................................................................... 313 10.............................................................................................................. 293 Machine Problem 3: Number Conversion......................................................1 Arrays................................................................ 276 9.........................2 Abstract Classes............................1 Grades .................................... 292 Machine Problem 1: Phone Book............... Initializing...............................................................3 Hundred Times.................................................................................... 277 10......................................................................... 267 6....... 292 Machine Problem 2: Minesweeper.......... 298 Chapter 4 Hands-on................................................................4 Powers............... 321 Introduction to Programming I 9 ..................................2 Overloading........ 275 Chapter 9 Exercises....................................... Compile..........................2 Getting Input From Keyboard via JOptionPane.......2 Pass-by-Reference...................... 265 6.............................................................1 Declaring..................................... 305 9............................................................................................................................ 276 9................................................................................................................................ 297 3.....1 Defining terms................................................................. 305 Chapter 9 Hands-on...................................... 279 Chapter 11 Exercises.................................................... 294 Appendix E : Hands-on Laboratory.............. 277 10......... 273 7.... 276 Chapter 10 Exercises...............................1 Catching Exceptions 1.............. 289 12...J................................ 289 12.................................2 Number in words.....................................................................2 Greatest number........................................2 AddressBook......................................................................... 295 Chapter 3 Hands-on................................................................... 299 4................... 304 7................................................. 295 Chapter 1 Hands-on.....2 Conditional Operator..................................................................................... 296 3.......................................................................

............................................................. 326 11.............................1 Exception Handling....................................................................................2 Inheritance .......................................................... 337 11.................J..................................2 Overloading.........3 Polymorphism............................................................. 349 Answers to Hands-on Exercises.................3 Packaging............................. 350 10. 358 11.......................6 Interfaces 2..... 349 12.. 330 11..............................................4 Abstract Classes.......... 321 11...........................................................................................................................1 Create your own class..... 344 Chapter 12 Hands-on......... 352 10...................................5 Interfaces 1............1 Inheritance – Constructor........D...................... 350 10............................................3 Polymorphism....................................... 340 11................................................................................................................................ 355 11................E.....................................................2 Inheritance ..........6 Interfaces 2....................................................................................................... 355 11............................................Overriding.........1 Inheritance – Constructor. 357 11............. 362 Introduction to Programming I 10 ..............................................Overriding............................I 11........................................................................4 Abstract Classes.......................................5 Interfaces 1...................................... 360 11................................................................ 354 11........

both hardware and software.I 1 Introduction to Computer Programming 1. At the end of the lesson. different number systems and conversions from one type to another will be discussed. It is a data processing machine which accepts data via an input device and its processor manipulates the data according to a program.J. The second major component is the software which is the intangible part of a computer. we will be discussing the basic components of a computer.1 Objectives In this section.2 Introduction A computer is a machine that performs a variety of tasks according to specific instructions. It consists of data and the computer programs. The first one is the Hardware which is the tangible part of the computer.E. the student should be able to: • • • • Identify the different components of a computer Know about programming languages and their categories Understand the program development life cycle and apply it in problem solving Learn the different number systems and their conversions 1. We will also be giving a brief overview of programming languages and the program development life cycle. Introduction to Programming I 11 . It is composed of electronic and mechanical parts. The computer has two major components.D. Finally.

1 Hardware 1.J. The CPU accesses the memory with the use of these addresses.D. Examples of processors are Pentium.3 Basic Components of a Computer 1.1. 1.E. Main Memory The main memory is very closely connected to the processor. It is used to hold programs and data. all information residing in the main memory is erased. 2. It is used to hold programs and data for long term use. that the processor is actively working with. It does the fundamental computing within the system.3. This means that information residing in secondary memory is not erased after the computer is turned off. It is divided into several storage locations which have corresponding addresses. 1.I 1. Athlon and SPARC.1 The Central Processing Unit The processor is the “brain” of the computer.2 Memory The memory is where data and instructions needed by the CPU to do its appointed tasks can be found. It is not used for long-term storage. It contains millions of extremely tiny electrical parts. The computer's main memory is considered as volatile storage. The Secondary Memory The secondary memory is connected to main memory. Examples of secondary memory are hard disks and cd-rom. Secondary memory is considered as non-volatile storage. Main Memory Fast Expensive Low Yes Secondary Memory Slow Cheap High No Property Speed Price Capacity Volatile Table 1: Comparison between main memory and secondary memory Introduction to Programming I 12 . This means that once the computer is turned off.3. It is sometimes called the RAM (Random Access Memory).3.1.

J. Introduction to Programming I 13 .3 Input and Output Devices Input and output devices allows a computer system to interact with the outside world by moving data into and out of the system. but it itself is intangible.1.3. Some Types of Computer Programs: 1. Since it is highly impractical for people to create programs out of zeros and ones. Windows. printers and speakers. The data that the computer uses can be anything that a program needs. mice and microphones. for this purpose. Compilers • The computer understands only one language: machine language. Examples of input devices are keyboards. It is kept on some hardware device like a hard disk. 1.D.2 Software A software is the program that a computer uses in order to function. Unix. MacOS 2. there exists compilers.3. Programs acts like instructions for the processor. Solaris. Application Programs • • Programs that people use to get their work done Examples: • Word Processor • Game programs • Spreadsheets 3. Systems Programs • • Programs that are needed to keep all the hardware and software systems running together smoothly Examples: • Operating Systems like Linux.I 1.E. there must be a way of translating or converting a language which we understand into machine language. Examples of output devices are monitors. Machine language is in the form of ones and zeros.

Fortran • 2.J.I 1. C++. A programming statement may be translated into one or several machine instructions by a compiler. but they are much easier to program in because they allow a programmer to substitute names for numbers.4. Low-level Assembly Language • Assembly languages are similar to machine languages. assembly language was considered low-level and COBOL. Originally. to some extent platform-independent. Many programmers today might refer to these latter languages as low-level.1 What is a Programming Language? A programming language is a standardized communication technique for expressing instructions to a computer. High-level Programming Languages • A high-level programming language is a programming language that is more userfriendly.E.4. Assembly languages are available for each CPU family. 1.D. etc. There are different types of programming languages that can be used to create programs. and precisely what actions to take under various circumstances. Note: The terms "high-level" and "low-level" are inherently relative. were considered high-level. and abstract from low-level computer processor operations such as memory accesses. Programming languages enable a programmer to precisely specify what data a computer will act upon. each language has its own syntax and grammar. these instructions are translated into machine language that can be understood by computers. C.2 Categories of Programming Languages 1. how these data will be stored/transmitted. Like human languages. Introduction to Programming I 14 .4 Overview of Computer Programming Languages 1. and each assembly instruction is translated into one machine instruction by an assembler program. C. Basic. Examples are Java. but regardless of what language you use.

that breaks the process into a series of tasks.D. 4. The problem we will solve will be defined in the next section.J. 3.E. Problem Definition Problem Analysis Algorithm design and representation (Pseudocode or flowchart) Coding and debugging In order to understand the basic steps in solving a problem on a computer. Instead.I 1.5 The Program Development Life Cycle Programmers do not sit down and start writing code right away when trying to make a computer program. they follow an organized plan or methodology. 2. Here are the basic steps in trying to solve a problem on the computer: 1. let us define a single problem that we will solve step-by-step as we discuss the problem solving methodologies in detail. Introduction to Programming I 15 .

Computer programming requires us to define the problem first before we even try to create a solution.I 1. Usually. the problem must be well and clearly defined first in terms of its input and output requirements.2 Problem Analysis After the problem has been adequately defined. name to look for Output of the program: the number of times the name occurs in a list Introduction to Programming I 16 . the simplest and yet the most efficient and effective approach to solve the problem must be formulated.1 Problem Definition A programmer is usually given a task in the form of a problem.” 1. A clearly defined problem is already half the solution. this step involves breaking up the problem into smaller and simpler subproblems. Before a program can be designed to solve a particular problem.J. Let us now define our example problem: “Create a program that will determine the number of times a name occurs in a list.5. Example Problem: Determine the number of times a name occurs in a list Input to the program: list of names.5.E.D.

output the result Expressing our solution through a flowchart: YES Figure 1. If the keyname is the same with a name in the list.1: Example of a flow chart Introduction to Programming I 17 . through a graphical representation like a flowchart or through a pseudocode.3 Algorithm design and representation Once our problem is clearly defined. it is normally required to express our solution in a step-by-step manner.E. let's call this the keyname 3. Compare the keyname to each of the names in the list 4. Tagalog). how do we express our general solution in such a way that it is simple yet understandable? Expressing our solution through Human language: 1.I 1. Get the list of names 2. which is a cross between human language and a programming language.D. An Algorithm is a clear and unambiguous specification of the steps needed to solve a problem. Get the name to look for.J. In computer programming. add 1 to the count 5. If all the names have been compared. Now given the problem defined in the previous sections. we can now set to finding a solution.5. It may be expressed in either Human language (English.

E. form. or explanatory notes as clarification. or location of information.1 Flowcharting Symbols and their meanings A flowchart is a design tool used to graphically represent the logic in a solution. Also functions as the default symbol when no other symbol is available. Decision Symbol Terminal Symbol Represents the beginning. You can use any symbols in creating your flowcharts. Here are some guidelines for commonly used symbols in creating flowcharts. Introduction to Programming I 18 . they state the concept in English or mathematical notation. as shown. which makes data available for processing (input) or displaying (output)of processed information.The lines connect Flowline Symbol other symbols. Rather. Input/Output (I/O) Symbol Represents the sequence of available information and executable operations. or on the right. The vertical line and the broken line may be placed on the left. Represents an I/O function.J. the end. Symbol Name Meaning Represents the process of executing a defined operation or groups of operations that results in a Process Symbol change in value. Flowcharts typically do not display programming language commands. comments. or a point of interruption or delay in a program. Annotation Symbol Represents a decision that determines which of a number of alternative paths is to be followed. as long as you are consistent in using them.2: Example of a pseudocode 1.I Expressing our solution through pseudocode: Let nameList = List of Names Let keyName = the name to be sought Let Count = 0 For each name in NameList do the following if name == keyName Count = Count + 1 Display Count Figure 1.D.5. Represents the addition of descriptive information. and the arrowheads are mandatory only for right-to-left and bottom-totop flow.3.

But when you follow the code's logic. Most of the time. the same piece of code keeps executing over and over again infinitely so that it loops.5. etc. after the programmer has written the program. Other types of run-time errors are when an incorrect value is computed. Compile-Time Errors occur if there is a syntax error in the code. and therefore. another part of the flowchart. and unfortunately. the programmer is unable to form an executable that a user can run until the error is fixed. It's something the compiler can detect as an error. This process of is called debugging.J. However. the program compiles fine into an executable file. This type of error is called runtime error. The first one is compile-time error. Introduction to Programming I 19 . the program (or even their whole computer) freezes up due to an infinite loop. This is especially true for logic errors such as infinite loops. The compiler will detect the error and the program won't even compile. In such a case. the wrong thing happens. when the end-user runs the program. The programmer has to add some fixes to the program in case of errors (also called bugs) that occurs in the program.4 Coding and Debugging After constructing the algorithm. compilers aren't really smart enough to catch all of these types of errors at compile-time. Using the algorithm as basis.D. Table 2: Flowchart Symbols 1. and the other is runtime error. for example. is a compile-time error. Compilers aren't perfect and so can't catch all errors at compile time. it is now possible to create the source code. or exit to. At this point. Also serves as an off-page connector. the source code can now be written using the chosen programming language. Predefined Process Symbol Represents a named process consisting of one or more operations or program steps that are specified elsewhere. There are two types of errors that a programmer will encounter along the way. the actual syntax of the code looks okay.I Symbol Name Connector Symbol Meaning Represents any entry from. Forgetting a semi-colon at the end of a statement or misspelling a certain command.E. the program isn't 100% working right away. For example.

6.J. lowercase or uppercase does not matter). The following are the four most common representations. We need to write the subscript 16 to indicate that the number is a hexadecimal number. We need to write the subscript 2 to indicate that the number is a binary number.1 Decimal We normally represent numbers in their decimal form. Here are examples of numbers written in hexadecimal form: 7E16 B16 Hexadecimal Decimal Equivalent 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 A B C D E F 1 9 10 11 12 13 14 5 Table 3: Hexadecimal Numbers and their Equivalence to decimal numbers Decimal 12610 1110 Binary 11111102 10112 Octal 1768 138 Hexadecimal 7E16 B16 Table 4: Summary of Examples Introduction to Programming I 20 . We need to write the subscript 8 to indicate that the number is an octal number. This means that the only digits that appear are 0-9. The representation depends on what is called the BASE. Here are examples of numbers written in decimal form: 12610 (normally written as just 126) 1110 (normally written as just 11) 1.D.6. Here are examples of numbers written in binary form: 11111102 10112 1.6 Number Systems and Conversions Numbers can be represented in a variety of ways. 1. This means that the only legal digits are 0-7.4 Hexadecimal Numbers in hexadecimal form are in base 16. Numbers in decimal form are in base 10.6. This means that the only legal digits are 09 and the letters A-F (or a-f. This means that the only legal digits are 0 and 1.6.E. Here are examples of numbers written in octal form: 1768 138 1.2 Binary Numbers in binary form are in base 2.3 Octal Numbers in octal form are in base 8.I 1.

6. and get that number as a digit of the binary form of the number. continuously divide the number by 2 and get the remainder (which is either 0 or 1). We then add all the products to get the resulting decimal number. we multiply the binary digit to "2 raised to the position of the binary number". and the result is the binary form of the number. we get the binary number 11111102 To convert a binary number to decimal.D.E. writing the remainders from the bottom up.I 1.J. Get the quotient and divide that number again by 2 and repeat the whole process until the quotient reaches 0 or 1. For Example: 12610 = ? 2 126 63 31 15 7 3 1 / / / / / / / 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = = = = = = = Quotient 63 31 15 7 3 1 Remainder 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 So.1 Decimal to Binary / Binary to Decimal To convert a decimal number to binary.5 Conversions 1.5. For Example: 11111102 = ? Position Write it this way 10 Binary Digits 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 x 20 = 0 1 x 21 = 2 1 x 22 = 4 1 x 23= 8 1 x 24= 16 1 x 25 = 32 1 x 26 = 64 TOTAL: 126 Introduction to Programming I 21 . We then get all the remainders starting from the last remainder. NOTE: For the last digit which is already less than the divisor (which is 2) just copy the value to the remainder portion.6.

we get the hexadecimal number 7E16 *** Converting octal or hexadecimal numbers is also the same as converting binary numbers to decimal. To do that.I 1.2 Decimal to Octal (or Hexadecimal)/Octal (or Hexadecimal) to Decimal Converting decimal numbers to Octal or hexadecimal is basically the same as converting decimal to binary.J. instead of having 2 as the divisor. However. we will just replace the base number 2 with 8 for Octal and 16 for hexadecimal. For Example (Octal): 12610 = ? 8 Quotient 126 / 8 = 15 / 8 = 1/8= 15 1 Remainder 6 7 1 Write it this way So.6. you replace it with 8(for octal) or 16 (for hexadecimal). we get the octal number 1768 For Example (Hexadecimal): 12610 = ? 16 Quotient 126 / 16 = 7 / 16 = 7 Remainder 14 (equal to hex digit E) 7 Write it this way So. writing the remainders from the bottom up. For Example (Octal): 1768 = ? 10 Position Octal Digits 2 1 1 7 0 6 6 x 80 = 6 7 x 81 = 56 1 x 82 = 64 TOTAL: 126 Introduction to Programming I 22 . writing the remainders from the bottom up.E.D.5.

3 Binary to Octal / Octal to Binary To convert from binary numbers to octal.5. The result is the binary representation. Introduction to Programming I 23 . The following is a table showing the binary representation of each octal digit.J.6.E.D.I For Example (Hexadecimal): 7E16 = ? 10 Position Hex Digits 1 7 0 E 14 x 160 = 14 7 x 161 = 112 TOTAL: 126 1. we partition the binary number into groups of 3 digits (from right to left). Simply convert each octal digit into its binary representation (given the table) and concatenate them. Octal Digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Binary Representation 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 Table 5: Octal Digits and their corresponding binary represenation For Example: 11111102 = ? 8 0 0 1 1 1 1 7 1 1 1 6 0 Equivalent octal number Converting octal numbers to binary is just the opposite of what is given above. We then convert each partition into its corresponding octal digit. and pad it with zeros if the number of digits is not divisible by 3.

J. Simply convert each hexadecimal digit into its binary representation (given the table) and concatenate them.5. The following is a table showing the binary representation of each hexadecimal digit. Hexadecimal Digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F Binary Representation 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Table 6: Hexadecimal Digits and their corresponding binary represenation For Example: 11111102 = ? 16 0 1 7 1 1 1 1 E 1 0 Equivalent Hexadecimal number Converting hexadecimal numbers to binary is just the opposite of what is given above. and pad it with zeros if the number of digits is not divisible by 4.D. We then convert each partition into its corresponding hexadecimal digit. The result is the binary representation.4 Binary to Hexadecimal / Hexadecimal to Binary To convert from binary numbers to hexadecimal.I 1.6. we partition the binary number into groups of 4 digits (from right to left).E. Introduction to Programming I 24 .

You may write your algorithms using pseudocodes or you can use flowcharts.7.7 Exercises 1. hexadecimal and octal 2. Baking Bread 2.1 Writing Algorithms Given the following set of tasks. 198010 to binary. 1. hexadecimal and octal 3.D.2 Number Conversions Convert the following numbers: 1. Getting the average of three numbers 1. 768 to binary.E. 10010011012 to decimal.I 1. Logging into your laboratory's computer 3. create an algorithm to accomplish the following tasks.7. 43F16 to binary. decimal and octal Introduction to Programming I 25 .J. hexadecimal and decimal 4.

2.2. garbage collection and code security Describe the different phases of a Java program 2. the World Wide Web and the Internet were gaining popularity. 2. The original motivation for Java was the need for platform independent language that could be embedded in various consumer electronic products like toasters and refrigerators. a class file packaging tool.2 What is Java Technology? 2.1 A programming language As a programming language. 2.2 A development environment As a development environment.E.2.D.1 Objectives In this section. We will also discuss the phases that a Java program undergoes. its name was changed to Java because there was already a language called Oak.2. One of the first projects developed using Java was a personal hand-held remote control named Star 7. realized that Java could be used for Internet programming.2. and so on.2. 2. At the end of the lesson. an interpreter.2. a documentation generator. At about the same time. we will be discussing a little bit of Java history and what is Java Technology.1 A little Bit of History Java was created in 1991 by James Gosling et al. Initially called Oak. of Sun Microsystems. Java can create all kinds of applications that you could create using any conventional programming language.3 An application environment Java technology applications are typically general-purpose programs that run on any machine where the Java runtime environment (JRE) is installed. al. in honor of the tree outside Gosling's window.2 Java Background 2.J.2. Java technology provides you with a large suite of tools: a compiler.I 2 Introduction to Java 2. Introduction to Programming I 26 . Gosling et. the student should be able to: • • Describe the features of Java technology such as the Java virtual machine.

GUI component classes. The JVM provides the hardware platform specifications to which you compile all Java technology code. and so on. This specification enables the Java software to be platform-independent because the compilation is done for a generic machine known as the JVM.2. 2. This can be difficult at times since there can be instances wherein the programmers forget to deallocate memory and therefor result to what we call memory leaks.2. This happens automatically during the lifetime of the Java program.J. the JRE supplied by the Java 2 Software Development Kit (SDK) contains the complete set of class files for all the Java technology packages. which includes basic language classes.4 A deployment environment There are two main deployment environments: First.3 Some Features of Java 2. The bytecode is independent of any particular computer hardware. C++ and other languages the programmer is responsible for this. 2.2. no matter what type of computer the program was compiled on.E. the programmer is freed from the burden of having to deallocate that memory themselves by having what we call the garbage collection thread. However. In Java. after using that allocated memory.D.3.2 Garbage Collection Many programming languages allows a programmer to allocate memory during runtime. there should be a way to deallocate that memory block in order for other programs to use it again.2. The garbage collection thread is responsible for freeing any memory that can be freed. Most commercial browsers supply a Java technology interpreter and runtime environment.3. Introduction to Programming I 27 . A bytecode is a special machine language that can be understood by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). so any computer with a Java interpreter can execute the compiled Java program.I 2.1 The Java Virtual Machine The Java Virtual Machine is an imaginary machine that is implemented by emulating software on a real machine. In C.2. The other main deployment environment is on your web browser.

Introduction to Programming I 28 . This limits any Trojan horse applications since local classes are always loaded first.2. the bytecode verifier then tests the format of the code fragments and checks the code fragments for illegal code that can violate access rights to objects. After all of these have been done. code verification (through the bytecode verifier) and finally code execution. It adds security by separating the namespaces for the classes of the local file system from those that are imported from network sources. The JRE runs code compiled for a JVM and performs class loading (through the class loader). After loading the class and layouting of memory.D. the memory layout of the executable is then determined.3 Code Security Code security is attained in Java through the implementation of its Java Runtime Environment (JRE).3.I 2. The Class Loader is responsible for loading all classes needed for the Java program. the code is then finally executed.E. After loading all the classes. This adds protection against unauthorized access to restricted areas of the code since the memory layout is determined during runtime.J.

class extension (Java bytecodes) Program Output Table 7: Summary of Phases of a Java Program Introduction to Programming I 29 .J. Examples of text editors you can use are notepad. vi. After creating and saving your Java program.1: Phases of a Java Program The first step in creating a Java program is by writing your programs in a text editor.4 Phases of a Java Program The following figure describes the process of compiling and executing a Java program.java extension File with .D. compile the program by using the Java Compiler.2. Task Write the program Compile the program Run the program Tool to use Any text editor Java Compiler Java Interpreter Output File with . class. emacs. The . The output of this process is a file of Java bytecodes with the file extension .class file is then interpreted by the Java interpreter that converts the bytecodes into the machine language of the particular computer you are using.I 2. Figure 2. This file is stored in a disk file with the extension . etc.E.java.

For the Windows XP version of this section.E.D. 3.1 Objectives In this section. let's first try to write this program in a file and try to run it.2 Introduction An IDE is a programming environment integrated into a software application that provides a GUI builder. For instructions on how to install Java and Netbeans. a text or code editor. Make sure that before you do this tutorial. please refer to Appendix A.I 3 Getting to know your Programming Environment 3.out. At the end of the lesson. the student should be able to: • • • Create a Java program using text editor and console in the Linux environment Differentiate between syntax-errors and runtime errors Create a Java program using Netbeans 3. you have installed Java and Netbeans in your system. let us first take a look at the first Java program you will be writing. The second one is by using Netbeans which is an Integrated Development Environment or IDE.println("Hello world!"). a compiler and/or interpreter and a debugger. There are two ways of doing this. Introduction to Programming I 30 .J. we will be discussing on how to write. compile and run Java programs. } } Before we try to explain what the program means. the first one is by using a console and a text editor. This tutorial uses RedHat Linux as the operating system.3 My First Java Program public class Hello { /** * My first java program */ public static void main(String[] args) { //prints the string "Hello world" on screen System. please refer to Appendix B. Before going into details.

D.I 3. we will be using a text editor to edit the Java source code.2: Text Editor Application in Linux Figure 3.E. You will also need to open the Terminal window to compile and execute your Java programs. click on Menu-> Accessories-> Text Editor.1: Opening the Text Editor Introduction to Programming I 31 . Step 1: Start the Text Editor To start the Text Editor in Linux.J. Figure 3.4 Using a Text Editor and Console For this example.

E. Figure 3.J.D. click on Menu-> System Tools-> Terminal.3: Opening the Terminal Introduction to Programming I 32 .I Step 2: Open Terminal To open Terminal in Linux.4: Terminal in Linux Figure 3.

E.5: Writing the Source Code with the Text Editor Introduction to Programming I 33 .D.I Step 3: Write your the source code of your Java program in the Text Editor Figure 3.J.

I Step 4: Save your Java Program We will save our program on a file named "Hello.J.java".6: Saving the Source Code Introduction to Programming I 34 . and we will be saving it inside a folder named MYJAVAPROGRAMS. click on the File menu found on the menubar and then click on Save.E. To open the Save dialog box. Figure 3.D.

J. Figure 3.D.I After doing the procedure described above.7: Save As Dialog Introduction to Programming I 35 .E. a dialog box will appear as shown in Figure below.

We shall name this folder MYJAVAPROGRAMS. Click on the button encircled in the figure below to create the folder.I Now. Figure 3. A dialog box named "New Folder" will then appear. Type on the "Folder Name" Textbox MYJAVAPROGRAMS.8: Creating New Folder Introduction to Programming I 36 . we'll create a new folder inside the root folder where we will save your programs.J.E.D. and click on the CREATE button.

J.D. double click on that folder to open it.9: Opening the Created Folder Introduction to Programming I 37 . Figure 3.E.I Now that we've created the folder where we will save all the files.

E.I You will see a similar figure as shown below after you clicked on MYJAVAPROGRAMS. The folder should be empty for now since it's a newly created folder and we haven't saved anything in it yet.D.J.10: View Inside The Created Folder Introduction to Programming I 38 . Figure 3.

J. in the Selection textbox. and then click on the OK button.11: Saving the Source Code Inside the Created Folder Introduction to Programming I 39 .E. which is "Hello.D.I Now.java". type in the filename of your program. Figure 3.

java . you can just edit it. Take note that if you want to make changes in your file.D. and then save it again by clicking on File -> Save.I Now that you've saved your file.J.12: New Window After Saving Introduction to Programming I 40 . notice how the title of the frame changes from "Untitled 1 (modified) – gedit" to "/root/MYJAVAPROGRAMS/Hello.gedit".E. Figure 3.

13: Lists of Files in the Home Folder Now. To see what is inside that home folder. the next step is to compile your program. you can see here that there is a folder named "MYJAVAPROGRAMS" which we have created a while ago.I Step 5: Compiling your program Now. Figure 3.D.E. What you will see is a list of files and folders inside your home folder. Introduction to Programming I 41 . and where we saved our Hello.java program. Typically. Now let's go inside that directory. type ls and then press ENTER. when you open the terminal window. it opens up and takes you directly to what is called your home folder.J. Go to the Terminal window we just opened a while ago.

change directory.E.J.I To go inside a directory. In this case.D. you type in: cd MYJAVAPROGRAMS Figure 3. The "cd" command stands for. you type in the command: cd [directory name].14: Changing the Directory Introduction to Programming I 42 . since the name of our directory is MYJAVAPROGRAMS.

let us now start compiling your Java program.D.E. you should make sure that the file is inside the folder where you are in. In order to do that.15: List of Files Inside the New Directory Introduction to Programming I 43 . Take note that. Figure 3.J.I Once inside the folder where your Java programs are. execute the "ls" command again to see if your file is inside that folder.

type in: javac Hello.java. Figure 3. Hello.class.16: Compiling Java File During compilation. or in this case. which is the actual bytecode.I To compile a Java program.class.J. javac adds a file to the disk called [filename]. So in this case.E. Introduction to Programming I 44 . we type in the command: javac [filename].D.

E. To run your Java program. Figure 3. we are now ready to run your program.17: Running Class File Introduction to Programming I 45 . type in: java Hello You can see on the screen that you have just run your first Java program that prints the message.D.J. assuming that there are no problems during compilation (we'll explore more of the problems encountered during compilation in the next section). "Hello world!". type in the command: java [filename without the extension].I Step 6: Running the Program Now. so in the case of our example.

As what we have discussed in the first part of this course. 3. and omission of correct punctuation.I 3. You may have misspelled a command in Java or forgot to write a semi-colon at the end of a statement. Figure 3.java program wherein we intentionally omit the semicolon at one statement and we try to type the incorrect spelling of a command. Other common mistakes are in capitalization. However.1 Errors What we've shown so far is a Java program wherein we didn't encounter any problems in compiling and running.J. The first one is a compile-time error or also called as syntax error.4. The second one is the runtime error. Let's take for example. However.4. this is not always the case.D. our Hello. we usually encounter errors along the way.E.1 Syntax Errors Syntax errors are usually typing errors. the problem may not be at the exact point. the use of incorrect special characters. As discussed before. there are two types of errors.1. spelling.18: Source Code With Errors Introduction to Programming I 46 . Java attempts to isolate the error by displaying the line of code and pointing to the first incorrect character in that line.

19: Compiling the Source Code with Errors As a rule of thumb. The first error message suggests that there is an error in line 6 of your program. and try to compile the program again.2 Run-time Errors Run-time errors are errors that will not display until you run or execute your program.I See the error messages generated after compiling the program. The second error message suggests that there is a missing semicolon after your statement. It pointed to the next word after the statict.J. try to correct the first mistake in a long list. Doing so may reduce the total number of errors dramatically. Introduction to Programming I 47 .4. Figure 3. if you encounter a lot of error messages.1. 3. which should be spelled as static. Even programs that compile successfully may display wrong answers if the programmer has not thought through the logical processes and structures of the program.E.D.

5 Using Netbeans Now that we've tried doing our programs the complicated way. One is through command-line using terminal.I 3. Step 1: Run Netbeans There are two ways to run Netbeans. which is an Integrated Development Environment or IDE. we will be using Netbeans.J. a text or code editor. let's now see how to do all the processes we've described in the previous sections by using just one application. To run Netbeans using command-line.D. An IDE is a programming environment integrated into a software application that provides a GUI builder. and type: netbeans Figure 3. or by jst clicking on the shortcut button found on the main menu. Open terminal (see steps on how to run terminal in the previous discussion).E. In this part of the lesson.20: Running Netbeans with the Command-Line Introduction to Programming I 48 . a compiler and/or interpreter and a debugger.

Figure 3. is by clicking on Menu-> Programming-> More Programming Tools-> Netbeans.D.21: Running Netbeans using the Menu Introduction to Programming I 49 .J.I The second way to run Netbeans.E.

Figure 3.J.I After you've open NetBeans IDE.D.E.22: Window After Openning Netbeans Introduction to Programming I 50 . you will see a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to what is shown below.

Click on File-> New Project. let's first make a project.J.E.D.I Step 2: Make a project Now. Figure 3.23: Starting New Project Introduction to Programming I 51 .

D.E.J.I After doing this. a New Project dialog will appear. Figure 3.24: Choosing Project Type Introduction to Programming I 52 .

Figure 3.J.I Now click on Java Application and click on the NEXT button.25: Choosing Java Application as Project Type Introduction to Programming I 53 .E.D.

J.26: Setting the Project Name Introduction to Programming I 54 .I Now. a New Application dialog will appear.D. Edit the Project Name part and type in "HelloApplication".E. Figure 3.

J.D. by clicking on the BROWSE button. Figure 3.27: Setting the Project Location Introduction to Programming I 55 .E.I Now try to change the Application Location.

E. Figure 3. Double-click on the root folder.28: Opening the Root Folder Introduction to Programming I 56 .D.I A Select Project Location dialog will then appear.J.

J.E.D.29: Choosing the Folder MYJAVAPROGRAMS as Project Location Introduction to Programming I 57 . MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder and click on the OPEN button.I The contents of the root folder is then displayed. Now double-click on the Figure 3.

D.I See now that the Project root/MYJAVAPROGRAMS.30: Window after Setting the Project Location to MYJAVAPROGRAMS Introduction to Programming I 58 .J.E. Location and Project Folder is changed to / Figure 3.

31: Setting the Main Class of the Project to Hello Introduction to Programming I 59 .I Finally.J. and then click on the FINISH button.D.E. type in Hello as the main class' name. Figure 3. on the Create Main Class textfield.

J.D. As shown below. NetBeans automatically creates the basic code for your Java program. You can just add your own statements to the generated code. you can see a list of folders and files that NetBeans generated after creating the project. where you set the Project location.32: View of the Created Project Introduction to Programming I 60 .E. Figure 3. let us first describe the main window after creating the project. On the left side of the window. This can all be found in your MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder.I Step 3: Type in your program Before typing in your program.

J.33: Inserting the Code Introduction to Programming I 61 . Figure 3. try to modify the code generated by Netbeans. Insert the code: System.I Now.D. //TODO code application logic here. Ignore the other parts of the program for now.out. as we will explain the details of the code later.println("Hello world!"). after the statement.E.

you could also use the shortcut button to compile your code.34: Compiling with Netbeans Using the Build Menu Or.I Step 4: Compile your program Now. to compile your program.E. Figure 3. just click on Build -> Build Main Project.J. Figure 3.35: Compiling with Netbeans Using the Shortcut Button Introduction to Programming I 62 .D.

D.J.I If there are no errors in your program. you will see a build successful message on the output window. Figure 3.E.36: View after a Successful Compilation Introduction to Programming I 63 .

D.38: Running with Netbeans using the Shortcut Button Introduction to Programming I 64 . click on Run-> Run Main Project.I Step 5: Run your program To run your program. Figure 3.E.37: Running with Netbeans using the Run Menu Or you could also use the shortcut button to run your program.J. Figure 3.

E.D.I The output of your program is displayed in the output window. Figure 3.39: View after a Successful Run Introduction to Programming I 65 .J.

J.I 3. a poem as lovely as a tree. Introduction to Programming I 66 .1 Hello World! Using Netbeans. A tree whose hungry mouth is pressed Against the Earth’s sweet flowing breast. create a class named: TheTree.6. create a class named: [YourName].6 Exercises 3.D.2 The Tree Using Netbeans. The program should output on the screen: Welcome to Java Programming [YourName]!!! 3.6.E. The program should output the following lines on the screen: I think that I shall never see.

we can also place this next to the first line of our code. } } The first line of the code. the class uses an access specifier public. variable types . we'll try to the dissect your first Java program: public class Hello { /** * My first java program */ public static void main(String[] args) { //prints the string "Hello world" on screen System. We do this by using the class keyword. public class Hello indicates the name of the class which is Hello. The next line which contains a curly brace { indicates the start of a block.I 4 Programming Fundamentals 4.1 Objectives In this section. So.2 Dissecting my first Java program Now. We will start by trying to explain the basic parts of the Hello. In Java.println("Hello world!").java program introduced in the previous section. we could actually write our code as: public class Hello { public class Hello { or Introduction to Programming I 67 . we will be discussing the basic parts of a Java program. In this code. the student should be able to: • • • Identify the basic parts of a Java program Differentiate among Java literals. we placed the curly brace at the next line after the class declaration. At the end of the lesson.D.identifiers and operators Develop a simple valid Java program using the concepts learned in this chapter 4. We will also be discussing some coding guidelines or code conventions along the way to help in effectively writing readable programs. We will be covering packages and access specifiers later. all code should be placed inside a class declaration. which indicates that our class in accessible to other classes from other packages (packages are a collection of classes).out.J. In addition. however.E. primitive data types.

you should save it in a file called Hello. prints the text enclosed by quotation on the screen. The command System. public static void main(String[] args) { indicates the name of one method in Hello which is the main method. System. Coding Guidelines: 1.out.E. Filenames should match the name of your public class. The first one is by placing the comment inside /* and */. if the name of your public class is Hello. It is good programming practice to add comments to your code.D. or what a certain method do.println().java extension. 3. So for example. Make sure to follow the exact signature.I The next three lines indicates a Java comment. All programs except Applets written in Java start with the main method. and the other one is by writing // at the start of the comment. Anything within these delimiters are ignored by the Java compiler. The last two lines which contains the two curly braces is used to close the main method and class respectively. The next line. but used for documentation purposes. A comment is something used to document a part of a code.java.out. /** * My first java program */ A comment is indicated by the delimiters “/*” and “*/”. The main method is the starting point of a Java program. It is not part of the program itself. 2. public static void main(String[] args) { or can also be written as. prints the text “Hello World!” on screen. You should write comments in your code explaining what a certain class does. we learned two ways of creating comments. //prints the string "Hello world" on screen Now.println("Hello world!").J. The next line is also a Java comment. The next line. and are treated as comments. Introduction to Programming I 68 . Your Java programs should always end with the .

It uses tags like: @author Florence Balagtas @version 1. You can create javadoc comments by starting the line with /** and ending it with */.J.2 C-Style Comments C-style comments or also called multiline comments starts with a /* and ends with a */. For example.2 */ Introduction to Programming I 69 .3 Java Comments Comments are notes written to a code for documentation purposes.3.3. // This is a C++ style or single line comments 4.D. /* this is an exmaple of a C style or multiline comments */ 4. It can also contain certain tags to add more information to your comments.3 Special Javadoc Comments Special Javadoc comments are used for generating an HTML documentation for your Java programs.E. Like C-style comments.3. All the text after // are treated as comments. it can span multiple lines. /** This is an example of special java doc comments used for \n generating an html documentation. For example. Unlike C++ style comments. it can also span lines. All text in between the two delimeters are treated as comments.1 C++-Style Comments C++ Style comments starts with //. Java supports three types of comments: C++-style single line comments. For example. 4. C-style multiline comments and special javadoc comments. Those text are not part of the program and does not affect the flow of the program.I 4.

Block statements can be nested indefinitely.out.D.println("Hello").println(“Hello world”). you can place the opening curly brace in line with the statement.println("world").println("world").out. } Coding Guidelines: 1.E.out. System. public static void main( String[] args ){ System. System. In creating blocks.4 Java Statements and blocks A statement is one or more lines of code terminated by a semicolon. An example of a block is.I 4.println("Hello"). public static void main( String[] args ){ System. like. An example of a single statement is. } Introduction to Programming I 70 . public static void main( String[] args ){ or you can place the curly brace on the next line. like for example. A block is one or more statements bounded by an opening and closing curly braces that groups the statements as one unit. Any amount of white space is allowed. System.for example. You should indent the next statements after the start of a block.J.out.out. public static void main( String[] args ) { 2.

For example. Identifiers cannot use Java keywords like class. methods. fileNumber. the first letter of the word should start with a small letter.I 4. 3. or a dollar sign “$”. Java identifiers are case-sensitive. classes.For example: ThisIsAnExampleOfClassName thisIsAnExampleOfMethodName 2. etc. System. out. Coding Guidelines: 1. etc. use capital letters to indicate the start of the word except the first word. capitalize the first letter of the class name.J. Subsequent characters may use numbers 0 to 9. Identifiers must begin with either a letter. charArray. ClassName. For names of classes. Examples of identifiers are: Hello. In case of multi-word identifiers. Avoid using underscores at the start of the identifier such as _read or _write.E. main. Letters may be lower or upper case. void. For names of methods and variables. Introduction to Programming I 71 .D. This means that the identifier: Hello is not the same as hello. public.5 Java Identifiers Identifiers are tokens that represent names of variables. We will discuss more about Java keywords later. an underscore “_”.

E. Figure 4.I 4. You cannot use keywords as names for your variables. Introduction to Programming I 72 . Here is a list of the Java Keywords.D. methods …etc.J. classes.1: Java Key Words We will try to discuss all the meanings of these keywords and how they are used in our Java programs as we go along the way.6 Java Keywords Keywords are predefined identifiers reserved by Java for a specific purpose.

For hexadecimal numbers. it should be preceeded by “0x” or “0X”. An example is 3.8345e2 is in scientific notation. consider the number 12. and in octal. we have to follow some special notations. It's decimal representation is 12.7. To use a smaller precision (32-bit) float.3 Boolean Literals Boolean literals have only two values. In using integer literals in our program. For example. true or false. we have no special notations. Floating-Point Literals. 4. while 5.J.7 Java Literals Literals are tokens that do not change or are constant. We just write a decimal number as it is. 4. For octals. it is equivalent to 014. An int is a signed 32-bit value. they are preceeded by “0”.7. In some cases. while in hexadecimal. hexadecimal (base 16). Floating point literals can be expressed in standard or scientific notations. For decimal numbers. it is 0xC. 4. We will cover more on data types later. For example. A long is a signed 64-bit value. and octal (base 8).E. The different types of literals in Java are: Integer Literals.45 is in standard notation.D.7. Character Literals and String Literals. Floating point literals default to the data type double which is a 64-bit value. Integer literals default to the data type int. you may wish to force integer literal to the data type long by appending the “l” or “L” character.1 Integer Literals Integer literals come in different formats: decimal (base 10).I 4. Boolean Literals. just append the “f” or “F” character. 583.1415. Introduction to Programming I 73 .2 Floating-Point Literals Floating point literals represent decimals with fractional parts.

the letter a. For example. For example. Unicode allows the inclusion of symbols and special characters from other languages. enclose the character in single quote delimiters.I 4. ‘\r’ for the carriage return. a backslash is used followed by the character code. is represented as ‘a’.D. “Hello World”. ‘\n’ for the newline character. To use special characters such as a newline character.5 String Literals String literals represent multiple characters and are enclosed by double quotes.7. ‘\b’ for backspace.E.7. An example of a string literal is. Introduction to Programming I 74 .J. A Unicode character is a 16-bit character set that replaces the 8-bit ASCII character set. To use a character literal. 4.4 Character Literals Character Literals represent single Unicode characters.

we will just introduce String in this section. '\'' '\"' //for single quotes //for double quotes Although. For example.8 Primitive data types The Java programming language defines eight primitive data types. It must have its literal enclosed in single quotes(’ ’). use the escape character \.J. 4. declares a variable named result as boolean type and assigns it a value of true. An example is.8. ‘a’ ‘\t’ //The letter a //A tab To represent special characters like ' (single quotes) or " (double quotes).8. The example shown above. For example. byte. boolean result = true. long (integral). boolean (for logical). 4. It is not a primitive data type. int.E.boolean A boolean data type represents two states: true and false.2 Textual – char A character data type (char).I 4. The following are. short. it is a class. double and float (floating point).D. char (for textual). For example. String message=“Hello world!” Introduction to Programming I 75 . A String represents a data type that contains multiple characters. It has it’s literal enclosed in double quotes(“”). represents a single Unicode character. String is not a primitive data type (it is a Class).1 Logical .

short. Examples decimal value 2 leading 0 indicates an octal value //The leading 0x indicates a hexadecimal value Integral types has int as default data type.I 4. a lowercase L is not recommended because it is hard to distinguish from the digit 1. 2 //The 077 //The 0xBACC uses three forms – decimal.3 Integral – byte. int & long Integral data types in Java are.8.E. Introduction to Programming I 76 . Integral data type have the following ranges: Integer Length 8 bits 16 bits 32 bits 64 bits Name or Type byte short int long -27 -215 -231 -263 Range to to to to 27-1 215-1 231-1 263-1 Table 8: Integral types and their ranges Coding Guidelines: In defining a long value. You can define its long value by appending the letter l or L. octal or hexadecimal.J.D.

14 //A simple floating-point value (a double) 6.E.D.02E23 //A large floating-point value 2. the 23 after the E in the second example is implicitly positive. 3.718F //A simple float size value 123.4 Floating Point – float and double Floating point types has double as default data type.8. Floating-point data types have the following ranges: Float Length 32 bits 64 bits Name or Type float double -231 -263 Range to to 231-1 263-1 Table 9: Floating point types and their ranges Introduction to Programming I 77 .I 4. Floating-point literal includes either a decimal point or one of the following. That example is equivalent to 6.02E+23.J.4E+306D //A large double value with redundant D In the example shown above. E or e //(add exponential value) F or f //(float) D or d //(double) Examples are.

double grade = 0. For example.1 Declaring and Initializing Variables To declare a variable is as follows. Declare one variable per line of code. the variable declarations.J. A variable has a data type and a name. } } Coding Guidelines: 1. grade and not just some random letters you choose. double data type and initialized //to 0. double quiz=10. option = 'C'. The data type indicates the type of value that the variable can hold. 3. <data type> <name> [=initial value]. //assign 'C' to option //declare a data type with variable name //grade. 4. It always good to initialize your variables as you declare them.I 4. 2. quiz=10.D. Use descriptive names for your variables. Like for example. double exam=0.0 double grade = 0. Introduction to Programming I 78 . while those values enclosed in [] are optional. double exam=0. Here is a sample program that declares and initializes some variables.9. grade=0.0. if you want to have a variable that contains a grade for a student. is preferred over the declaration. public class VariableSamples { public static void main( String[] args ){ //declare a data type with variable name // result and boolean data type boolean result.E. name it as. //declare a data type with variable name // option and char data type char option. Note: Values enclosed in <> are required values.9 Variables A variable is an item of data used to store state of objects. The variable name must follow rules for identifiers.

print() What is the difference between the commands System.println( value ).println() System. System. 10 The value of x=A 4.I 4.out.J.print("world!"). These statements will output the following on the screen. These statements will output the following on the screen. we can use the following commands. System. while the latter doesn't. System.out.println("world!").9.D.out. Hello world! Introduction to Programming I 79 .out. x = ‘A’.3 System.2 Outputting Variable Data In order to output the value of a certain variable.println( “The value of x=“ + x ).println() vs.out. System.E. public class OutputVariable { public static void main( String[] args ){ int value = 10.print("Hello "). } } The program will output the following text on screen. Consider the statements. System.out.print() Here's a sample program. Hello world! Now consider the following statements.print ()? The first one appends a newline at the end of the data to output.out.out.out. System.9. System.out.println("Hello ").out.println() and System. char x. System.out.

Reference variables are variables that stores the address in the memory location. the variable name and the data they hold. Introduction to Programming I 80 . These are reference variables and primitive variables. you are actually declaring a reference variable to the object with that certain class.9. For the reference variable name. Memory Address 1001 : 1563 : : 2000 name Variable Name num Data 10 : Address(2000) : : "Hello" As you can see. wherein you have the address of the memory cells. for the primitive variable num. When you declare a variable of a certain class. the data is on the actual location of where the variable is. the illustration shown below is the actual memory of your computer. int num = 10. String name = "Hello" Suppose. suppose we have two variables with data types int and String. They store data in the actual memory location of where the variable is.D. the variable just holds the address of where the actual data is. For example.J. Primitive variables are variables with primitive data types.E. It points to another memory location of where the actual data is.I 4.4 Reference Variables vs. Primitive Variables We will now differentiate the two types of variables that Java programs have.

1 Arithmetic operators Here are the basic arithmetic operators that can be used in creating your Java programs. These operators follow a certain kind of precedence so that the compiler will know which operator to evaluate first in case multiple operators are used in one statement.I 4. There are arithmetic operators.E.D. there are different types of operators.10 Operators In Java.10.op2 Description Adds op1 and op2 Multiplies op1 by op2 Divides op1 by op2 Computes the remainder of dividing op1 by op2 Subtracts op2 from op1 Table 10: Arithmetic operations and their functions Introduction to Programming I 81 .J. 4. Operator + * / % Use op1 + op2 op1 * op2 op1 / op2 op1 % op2 op1 . logical operators and conditional operators. relational operators.

println(" x = " + x). System. double x = 27. //computing the remainder resulting from dividing System.D."). //mixing types System.").E.println(" x % y = " + (x % y)). //adding numbers System.. int j = 42.out. System.println("Variable values.out. System.println(" x + y = " + (x + y)).println("Dividing.out. System. double y = 7.println(" i / j = " + (i System...475..out. System.println("Multiplying.out. System..out. } } Introduction to Programming I 82 . //subtracting numbers System..out.out.out.y)).println(" i .I Here's a sample program in the usage of these operators: public class ArithmeticDemo { public static void main(String[] args) { //a few numbers int i = 37.println("Mixing types.println(" i * j = " + (i System.out.out.println(" y = " + y).out. System.println(" i * x = " + (i * x)).out.out.out.").println(" i % j = " + (i % j)).println(" x . / j)). System.. //multiplying numbers System.22.println(" x / y = " + (x numbers * j)).out.").println(" j = " + j)...out.j = " + (i .out.println(" i + j = " + (i + j))..out. System.").y = " + (x ..out. System. System.println("Adding.println(" i = " + i)..j)). System. * y)).println(" x * y = " + (x //dividing numbers System.out.").println("Computing the remainder.println("Subtracting..out.println(" j + y = " + (j + y)).J."). System. / y)). System.out.. System.

.. i + j = 79 x + y = 34..815 Mixing types..J. i = 37 j = 42 x = 27. i .255 Multiplying.475 y = 7.D...37 Dividing... i * j = 1554 x * y = 198.y = 20.22 i * x = 1016. Variable values.22 Adding..8054 Computing the remainder.... Introduction to Programming I 83 .58 Note: When an integer and a floating-point number are used as operands to a single arithmetic operation. i % j = 37 x % y = 5. The integer is implicitly converted to a floating-point number before the operation takes place..E. j + y = 49. i / j = 0 x / y = 3..695 Subtracting.j = -5 x .I Here is the output of the program. the result is a floating point.

2 Increment and Decrement operators Aside from the basic arithmetic operators. count = count + 1. evaluates to the value of op before it was decremented Decrements op by 1. evaluates to the value of op after it was decremented //increment the value of count by 1 -- op-- -- --op Table 11: Increment and Decrement operators The increment and decrement operators can be placed before or after an operand.D.E. evaluates to the value of op before it was incremented Increments op by 1. k = ++j + i. When used before an operand. and then the new value is used in the expression in which it appears.J. it causes the variable to be incremented or decremented by 1. int j = 3. int k = 0. the expression.10. is equivalent to.I 4. int i = 10. Java also includes a unary increment operator (++) and unary decrement operator (--). Operator ++ ++ Use op++ ++op Description Increments op by 1. For example. Increment and decrement operators increase and decrease a value stored in a number variable by 1. //will result to k = 4+10 = 14 Introduction to Programming I 84 . evaluates to the value of op after it was incremented Decrements op by 1. For example. count++.

Introduction to Programming I 85 .J. the old value of the variable will be used in the expression where it appears.I When the increment and decrement operators are placed after the operand. int k = 0. int j = 3. k = j++ + i. For example. //will result to k = 3+10 = 13 Coding Guideline: Always keep expressions containing increment and decrement operators simple and easy to understand.E.D. int i = 10.

D.3 Relational operators Relational operators compare two values and determines the relationship between those values.E.10. Operator > >= < <= == != Use op1 > op2 op1 >= op2 op1 < op2 op1 <= op2 op1 == op2 op1 != op2 Description op1 is greater than op2 op1 is greater than or equal to op2 op1 is less than op2 op1 is less than or equal to op2 op1 and op2 are equal op1 and op2 are not equal Table 12: Relational Operators Introduction to Programming I 86 . The output of evaluation are the boolean values true or false.I 4.J.

" + (i >= j))..out.println(" i > System.out. int k = 42.println("Greater System.out..out."). //false or equal to. //true j = " + (k > j))..out.println(" i >= j = System.out. //false System..println(" i = " + i). //true //not equal to System. System.println(" k = " + k).println(" i < j = " + (i < j)). //false i = " + (j > i)).println(" k < j = " + (k < j)).out..out.out. System. public class RelationalDemo { public static void main(String[] args) { //a few numbers int i = 37.println("Equal to.out.I Here's a sample program that uses relational operators. //greater than System. System.. //false " + (j >= i)).out. //false //less than or equal to System.out.").out. System.E. //false } } Introduction to Programming I 87 .J.out. //true System. System.out.out.out.println(" k > than.out...out.out.").out.println(" k != j = " + (k != j)).out. j = " + (i > j)).println(" i != j = " + (i != j)).").println(" j >= i = System..println(" j <= i = " + (j <= i)). System.println("Greater than System.println(" k == j = " + (k == j)).println(" j = " + j).").out. //true " + (k >= j))..out. //false System..println("Less than or equal to.println("Not equal to.out.println("Variable values.println(" k >= j = //less than System. //true System. //false System.out. //true System..").println(" i == j = " + (i == j)). //true //equal to System.println(" i <= j = " + (i <= j)). //true //greater than or equal to System.println("Less than..."). int j = 42. System.println(" k <= j = " + (k <= j)).println(" j < i = " + (j < i)). System.println(" j > System.D.

J.. i = 37 j = 42 k = 42 Greater than... i > j = false j > i = true k > j = false Greater than or equal to. i <= j = true j <= i = false k <= j = true Equal to.... i >= j = false j >= i = true k >= j = true Less than...I Here's the output from this program: Variable values.. i < j = true j < i = false k < j = false Less than or equal to...D.. i != j = true k != j = false Introduction to Programming I 88 .E... i == j = false k == j = true Not equal to.

^ (boolean logical exclusive OR). ||. variables or constants. | (boolean logical inclusive OR). Introduction to Programming I 89 . and op is either &&.I 4. There are six logical operators: && (logical AND).D. x1 op x2 where x1. &. | or ^ operator.E. summarize the result of each operation for all possible combinations of x1 and x2. and ! (logical NOT). x2 can be boolean expressions.J. The basic expression for a logical operation is. & (boolean logical AND).10. || (logical OR). The truth tables that will be shown next.4 Logical operators Logical operators have one or two boolean operands that yield a boolean result.

} } Introduction to Programming I 90 .out. System. the & operator always evaluates both exp1 and exp2 before returning an answer.D. //demonstrate && test = (i > 10) && (j++ > 9).out. x1 TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE x2 TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE Result TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE Table 13: Truth table for & and && The basic difference between && and & operators is that && supports short-circuit evaluations (or partial evaluations). public class TestAND { public static void main( String[] args ){ int i = 0.println(test).out. //demonstrate & test = (i > 10) & (j++ > 9).out.10.I 4. while & doesn't.4.println(j). System.J. System. If exp1 is false. exp1 && exp2 && will evaluate the expression exp1. System. Here's a sample source code that uses logical and boolean AND.println(i). and immediately return a false value is exp1 is false.out.println(j). System.println(i). What does this mean? Given an expression. the operator never evaluates exp2 because the result of the operator will be false regardless of the value of exp2. System.out.E. In contrast. int j = 10.1 && (logical AND) and & (boolean logical AND) Here is the truth table for && and &.println(test). boolean test= false.

Introduction to Programming I 91 .I The output of the program is. that the j++ on the line containing the && operator is not evaluated since the first expression (i>10) is already equal to false.D. 0 10 false 0 11 false Note.J.E.

and immediately return a true value is exp1 is true. Here's a sample source code that uses logical and boolean OR. int j = 10.println(test). In contrast. If exp1 is true.println(j). the | operator always evaluates both exp1 and exp2 before returning an answer. public class TestOR { public static void main( String[] args ){ int i = 0.10. //demonstrate | test = (i < 10) | (j++ > 9). What does this mean? Given an expression.println(test).J. x1 TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE x2 TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE Result TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE Table 14: Truth table for | and || The basic difference between || and | operators is that || supports short-circuit evaluations (or partial evaluations). System. //demonstrate || test = (i < 10) || (j++ > 9). while | doesn't. System. System. boolean test= false. the operator never evaluates exp2 because the result of the operator will be true regardless of the value of exp2.out.I 4.println(i).out.println(i). System.out. System.out. exp1 || exp2 || will evaluate the expression exp1.2 || (logical OR) and | (boolean logical inclusive OR) Here is the truth table for || and |. } } Introduction to Programming I 92 .E.out.println(j).4.D.out. System.

I The output of the program is.D. 0 10 true 0 11 true Note.J.E. that the j++ on the line containing the || operator is not evaluated since the first expression (i<10) is already equal to true. Introduction to Programming I 93 .

out. Note that both operands must always be evaluated in order to calculate the result of an exclusive OR.D. System.out.4.println(val1 ^ val2).println(val1 ^ val2).E. val1 = false.10. boolean val2 = true. x1 TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE x2 TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE Table 15: Truth table for ^ Result FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE The result of an exclusive OR operation is TRUE. System. val1 = false.println(val1 ^ val2). val2 = false.J. System. public class TestXOR { public static void main( String[] args ){ boolean val1 = true.out. } } The output of the program is.3 ^ (boolean logical exclusive OR) Here is the truth table for ^. val2 = false. Here's a sample source code that uses the logical exclusive OR operator. false true false true Introduction to Programming I 94 . val2 = true. val1 = true. System.println(val1 ^ val2).I 4.out. if and only if one operand is true and the other is false.

I 4. variable or constant.println(!val1). public class TestNOT { public static void main( String[] args ){ boolean val1 = true. boolean val2 = false.J. } } The output of the program is.out.println(!val2).out.4 ! (logical NOT) The logical NOT takes in one argument. x1 TRUE FALSE Result FALSE TRUE Table 16: Truth table for ! Here's a sample source code that uses the logical NOT operator. wherein that argument can be an expression. System.D.10.4.E. Here is the truth table for !. false true Introduction to Programming I 95 . System.

If it is false. then exp3 is returned. exp2 is the value returned.out.J. Passed Introduction to Programming I 96 .println( status ). public class ConditionalOperator { public static void main( String[] args ){ String status = "". int grade = 80. //get status of the student status = (grade >= 60)?"Passed":"Fail".I 4. If exp1 is true. //print status System. This means that it takes in three arguments that together form a conditional expression.5 Conditional Operator (?:) The conditional operator ?: is a ternary operator.E. } } The output of this program will be. The structure of an expression using a conditional operator is. For example.D.10. exp1?exp2:exp3 wherein exp1 is a boolean expression whose result must either be true or false. given the code.

E. class ConditionalOperator { public static void main( String[] args ){ int char score = 0. Figure 4. Score = 10 Introduction to Programming I 97 .D.2: Flowchart using the ?: operator Here is another program that uses the ?: operator.J. answer = 'a'.out. System. The output of the program is.println("Score = " + score ). } } score = (answer == 'a') ? 10 : 0.I Here is the flowchart of how ?: works.

D.I 4.6 Operator Precedence Operator precedence defines the compiler’s order of evaluation of operators so as to come up with an unambiguous result. Coding Guidelines To avoid confusion in evaluating mathematical operations.E. Figure 4. Introduction to Programming I 98 . ((6%2)*5)+(4/2)+88-10.3: Operator Precedence Given a complicated expression. keep your expressions simple and use parenthesis. 6%2*5+4/2+88-10 we can re-write the expression and place some parenthesis base on operator precedence.J.10.

D.11.11 Exercises 4. number 1 = 10 number 2 = 23 number 3 = 5 The highest number is = 23 4.11.3 Output greatest value Given three numbers. 20 and 45. given the numbers 10. number 1 = number 2 = number 3 = Average is 10 20 45 = 25 4. Number = 10 letter = a result = true str = hello 4.I 4. 3 * 10 *2 / 15 – 2 + 4 ^ 2 ^ 2 3.1 Declaring and printing variables Given the table below.11. a / b ^ c ^ d – e + f – g * h + i 2. For example.2 Getting the average of three numbers Create a program that outputs the average of three numbers. Variable name number letter result str Data Type integer character boolean String Initial value 10 a true hello The following should be the expected screen output.J. Output to the screen the variable names together with the values. r ^ s * t / u – v + w ^ x – y++ Introduction to Programming I 99 . your program should output. 1. 10. declare the following variables with the corresponding data types and initialization values. write a program that outputs the number with the greatest value among the three.4 Operator precedence Given the following expressions. Let the values of the three numbers be. 23 and 5.E.11. The expected screen output is. re-write them by writing some parenthesis based on the sequence on how they will be evaluated. Use the conditional ?: operator that we have studied so far (HINT: You will need to use two sets of ?: to solve this).

} Introduction to Programming I 100 . You have to type it inside a try-catch block.E.D.println(“Error in getting input”). } catch( IOException e ){ System. At the end of the lesson. Declare a temporary String variable to get the input.I 5 Getting Input from the Keyboard 5.J. 2.io package in order to get input from the keyboard.out. Add this at the top of your code: import java. try{ String temp = dataIn. 3. Here are the steps to get input from the keyboard: 1. we will use the BufferedReader class found in the java. the first one is through the use of the BufferedReader class and the other one involves a graphical user interface by using JOptionPane.*. we'll be discussing two methods of getting input.2 Using BufferedReader to get input In this section. In this section. let's make our programs more interactive by getting some input from the user. Add this statement: BufferedReader dataIn = new BufferedReader( new InputStreamReader( System.in) ). the student should be able to: • • • Create an interactive Java program that gets input from the keyboard Use the BufferedReader class to get input from the keyboard using a console Use the JOptionPane class to get input from the keyboard using a graphical user interface 5.readLine().1 Objectives Now that we've studied some basic concepts in Java and we've written some simple programs. and invoke the readLine() method to get input from the keyboard.io.

try{ name = dataIn. import java.BufferedReader. import java.out.io. Just like in our example.println("Hello " + name +"!").InputStreamReader.I Here is the complete source code: import java. and then we can use those classes inside our program. System.io.readLine(). the java. import java. import java.io. Introduction to Programming I 101 .println("Error!"). which will load all the classes found in the package.io.io package contains classes that allow programs to input and output data.io package.D. import java. indicate that we want to use the classes BufferedReader. The statements can also be rewritten as.E.print("Please Enter Your Name:").out.in) ).BufferedReader. The Java Application Programming Interface (API) contains hundreds of predefined classes that you can use in your programs.out.IOException.J. public class GetInputFromKeyboard { public static void main( String[] args ){ BufferedReader dataIn = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader( System. These classes are organized into what we call packages. } } System. } Now let's try to explain each line of code: The statements.InputStreamReader. }catch( IOException e ){ System. InputStreamReader and IOException which is inside the java.*.io. String name = "". import java.io.io. Packages contain classes that have related purpose.IOException.

The next line just outputs a String on the screen asking for the user's name. Don't worry about what the syntax means for now. public class GetInputFromKeyboard { public static void main( String[] args ){ were already discussed in the previous lesson. try{ name = dataIn. Now. }catch( IOException e ){ System. will be catched. In the statement. BufferedReader dataIn = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader( System.readLine(). We will cover more about exception handling in the latter part of this course.println("Error!"). Now. It is always good to initialize your variables as you declare them. System.readLine(). we are declaring a variable named dataIn with the class type BufferedReader.out.D.out. This is where we will store the input of the user.J. String name = "".in) ). The variable name is initialized to an empty String "".E. but for now.print("Please Enter Your Name:"). Introduction to Programming I 102 . just take note that you need to add this code in order to use the readLine() method of BufferedReader to get input from the user. the following block defines a try-catch block. This means we declare a class named GetInputFromKeyboard and we declare the main method.I The next two statements. } This assures that the possible exceptions that could occur in the statement name = dataIn. we are declaring a String variable with the identifier name. We will cover more about this later in the course.

which we will use in our final statement to greet the user.D. dataIn.readLine(). Introduction to Programming I 103 . This value will then be saved to our name variable.J. the method call.println("Hello " + name + "!"). gets input from the user and will return a String value. name = dataIn.E.I Now going back to the statement. System.readLine().out.

Given the following code. msg). JOptionPane. JOptionPane makes it easy to pop up a standard dialog box that prompts users for a value or informs them of something.swing package.JOptionPane. import javax.2: Input florence on the JOptionPane Figure 5.swing.J. } Figure 5.3 Using JOptionPane to get input Another way to get input from the user is by using the JOptionPane class which is found in the javax.D.1: Getting Input Using JOptionPane Figure 5. } This will output.3: Showing Message Using JOptionPane Introduction to Programming I 104 . name = JoptionPane.showMessageDialog(null.I 5.E. public class GetInputFromKeyboard { public static void main( String[] args ){ String name = "".showInputDialog("Please enter your name"). String msg = "Hello " + name + "!".

swing.E. which will display a dialog with a message. Introduction to Programming I 105 .swing package.J.swing. name = JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null. We can also write this as. The next line displays a dialog which contains a message and an OK button. This returns a String which we will save in the name variable. which we will store in the msg variable.I The first statement. import javax. The statement. String msg = "Hello " + name + "!". creates a JOptionPane input dialog.*. Now we create the welcome message.JOptionPane.showInputDialog("Please enter your name"). import javax. JOptionPane.D. indicates that we want to import the class JOptionPane from the javax. msg). a textfield and an OK button as shown in the figure.

E.4: First Input Figure 5.6: Third Input Figure 5.1 Last 3 words (BufferedReader version) Using BufferedReader. ask for three words from the user and output those three words on the screen. Enter word1:Goodbye Enter word2:and Enter word3:Hello Goodbye and Hello 5.I 5. ask for three words from the user and output those three words on the screen.2 Last 3 words (JOptionPane version) Using JOptionPane.J.4 Exercises 5.D. Figure 5. For example.5: Second Input Figure 5.4. For example.4.7: Show Message Introduction to Programming I 106 .

we will be discussing control structures. continue. Introduction to Programming I 107 .1 Objectives In the previous sections. for) which allow executing specific sections of code a number of times Use branching statements (break. In this section.D.2. switch) which allows selection of specific sections of code to be executed Use repetition control structures (while. . } where. we have given examples of sequential programs. At the end of the lesson. . The if-statement has the form. do-while. boolean_expression is either a boolean expression or boolean variable. else.1 if statement The if-statement specifies that a statement (or block of code) will be executed if and only if a certain boolean statement is true. or if( boolean_expression ){ statement1.2 Decision Control Structures Decision control structures are Java statements that allows us to select and execute specific blocks of code while skipping other sections. . wherein statements are executed one after another in a fixed order. statement2.I 6 Control Structures 6. which allows us to change the ordering of how the statements in our programs are executed. if( boolean_expression ) statement.E.J. the student should be able to: • • • Use decision control structures (if. return) which allows redirection of program flow 6. 6.

System.out.E. given the code snippet. } Introduction to Programming I 108 . } Coding Guidelines: 1.1: Flowchart of If-Statement if( grade > 60 ) System.out. The boolean_expression part of a statement should evaluate to a boolean value.J.println("Congratulations!"). Figure 6.I For example. if( boolean_expression ){ //statement1. 2. or int grade = 68.D. //statement2. That means that the execution of the condition should either result to a value of true or a false. Indent the statements inside the if-block. int grade = 68.For example. if( grade > 60 ){ System.println("Congratulations!").println("You passed!").out.

out.out.out.println("Congratulations!"). The if-else statement has the form.println("You passed!"). .out.println("Sorry you failed").E. . } Introduction to Programming I 109 . } For example. System.D. . given the code snippet.println("Sorry you failed"). if( boolean_expression ) statement. } else{ statement1. and a different statement if the condition is false. if( grade > 60 ){ System. statement2. . int grade = 68.println("Congratulations!"). if( boolean_expression ){ statement1. else System. else statement. statement2.out. . if( grade > 60 ) System.2 if-else statement The if-else statement is used when we want to execute a certain statement if a condition is true.2. .J.I 6. } else{ System. or can also be written as. or int grade = 68.

. } Introduction to Programming I 110 . You can have nested if-else blocks. if( boolean_expression ){ if( boolean_expression ){ .E. } } else{ .I Figure 6. This means that you can have other if-else blocks inside another if-else block.2: Flowchart of If-Else Statement Coding Guidelines: 1.D.For example. To avoid confusion. . always place the statement or statements of an if or if-else block inside brackets {}. 2.J...

3 if-else-if statement The statement in the else-clause of an if-else block can be another if-else structures. In the example shown above.3: Flowchart of If-Else-If Statement Introduction to Programming I 111 . If boolean_expression2 is true. else if( boolean_expression2 ) statement2. if( boolean_expression1 ) statement1. Figure 6. then the program executes statement 2 and skips to the statements following statement3. This cascading of structures allows us to make more complex selections.E. if boolean_expression1 is true. then the program executes statement1 and skips the other statements.J.D. else statement3. The else-block is optional and can be omitted.I 6. Take note that you can have many else-if blocks after an if-statement.2. The if-else if statement has the form.

Using = instead of == for comparison.println("Sorry you failed"). //WRONG int number = 0.J.out. The condition inside the if-statement does not evaluate to a boolean value. if( number == 0 ){ //some statements here } 3.I For example. Writing elseif instead of else if. if( grade > 90 ){ System. } 6.D.println("Very good!").2. int grade = 68. For example.out. } else{ System.4 Common Errors when using the if-else statements: 1. //CORRECT int number = 0. Introduction to Programming I 112 . if( number = 0 ){ //some statements here } This should be written as. if( number ){ //some statements here } The variable number does not hold a Boolean value. given the code snippet. 2. //WRONG int number = 0. } else if( grade > 60 ){ System. For example.println("Very good!").E.out.

println( "Excellent!" ).out.out.out. } } } Introduction to Programming I 113 .D.out.").println("Sorry. if( grade >= 90 ){ System. } else if( (grade < 80) && (grade >= 60)){ System.J.I 6.2. you failed.println("Study harder!" ).println("Good job!" ).5 Example for if-else-else if public class Grade { public static void main( String[] args ) { double grade = 92.0. } else if( (grade < 90) && (grade >= 80)){ System.E. } else{ System.

Not only that. . that the default part is optional. // break. The switch statement has the form. Java first evaluates the switch_expression. switch( switch_expression ){ case case_selector1: statement1. . // statement2. //block 1 . the multiple statements are executed in the switch statement without needing the curly braces. } where. skipping then to the first statement after the end of the switch structure. // statement2. the statements associated with the succeeding cases are also executed. . we use a break statement as our last statement. . The switch construct allows branching on multiple outcomes.E. default: statement1. . and jumps to the case whose selector matches the value of the expression. The program executes the statements in order from that point on until a break statement is encountered. . case_selector1.6 switch statement Another way to indicate a branch is through the switch keyword.2. are unique integer or character constants. switch_expression is an integer or character expression and. Take note however.J. • To prevent the program from executing statements in the subsequent cases. . NOTES: • Unlike with the if statement. //block n . • When a case in a switch statement has been matched. . all the statements associated with that case are executed. A switch statement can have no default block. case case_selector2: statement1. // break. . case_selector2 and so on. the default block is executed. // break.I 6. If none of the cases are satisfied. Introduction to Programming I 114 .D. //block 2 . // statement2. When a switch is encountered.

whereas a switch statement can make decisions based only on a single integer or character value.D.I Coding Guidelines: 1. Figure 6. You can decide which to use. 2. Also.E. Deciding whether to use an if statement or a switch statement is a judgment call. based on readability and other factors. An if statement can be used to make decisions based on ranges of values or conditions. the value provided to each case statement must be unique.J.4: Flowchart of Switch Statements Introduction to Programming I 115 .

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6.2.7 Example for switch
public class Grade { public static void main( String[] args ) { int grade = 92; switch(grade){ case 100: System.out.println( "Excellent!" ); break; case 90: System.out.println("Good job!" ); break; case 80: System.out.println("Study harder!" ); break; default: System.out.println("Sorry, you failed."); }

}

}

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6.3 Repetition Control Structures
Repetition control structures are Java statements that allows us to execute specific blocks of code a number of times. There are three types of repetition control structures, the while, do-while and for loops.

6.3.1 while loop
The while loop is a statement or block of statements that is repeated as long as some condition is satisfied. The while statement has the form, while( boolean_expression ){ statement1; statement2; . . . } The statements inside the while loop are executed as long as the boolean_expression evaluates to true. For example, given the code snippet, int i = 4; while ( i > 0 ){ System.out.print(i); i--; } The sample code shown will print 4321 containing the statement i--; is removed, that does not terminate. Therefore, when control structures, make sure that you add terminate at some point. on the screen. Take note that if the line this will result to an infinite loop, or a loop using while loops or any kind of repetition some statements that will allow your loop to

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The following are other examples of while loops, Example 1: int x = 0; while (x<10) { System.out.println(x); x++; } Example 2: //infinite loop while(true) System.out.println(“hello”); Example 3: //no loops // statement is not even executed while (false) System.out.println(“hello”);

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6.3.2 do-while loop
The do-while loop is similar to the while-loop. The statements inside a do-while loop are executed several times as long as the condition is satisfied. The main difference between a while and do-while loop is that, the statements inside a do-while loop are executed at least once. The do-while statement has the form, do{ statement1; statement2; . . . }while( boolean_expression ); The statements inside the do-while loop are first executed, and then the condition in the boolean_expression part is evaluated. If this evaluates to true, the statements inside the do-while loop are executed again. Here are a few examples that uses the do-while loop: Example 1: int x = 0; do { System.out.println(x); x++; }while (x<10); This example will output 0123456789 on the screen. Example 2: //infinite loop do{ System.out.println(“hello”); } while (true); This example will result to an infinite loop, that prints hello on screen. Example 3: //one loop // statement is executed once do System.out.println(“hello”); while (false); This example will output hello on the screen.

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Coding Guidelines: 1. Common programming mistakes when using the do-while loop is forgetting to write the semi-colon after the while expression. do{ ... }while(boolean_expression) //WRONG->forgot semicolon ; 2. Just like in while loops, make sure that your do-while loops will terminate at some point.

6.3.3 for loop
The for loop, like the previous loops, allows execution of the same code a number of times. The for loop has the form, for (InitializationExpression; LoopCondition; StepExpression){ statement1; statement2; . . . } where, InitializationExpression -initializes the loop variable. LoopCondition - compares the loop variable to some limit value. StepExpression - updates the loop variable.

A simple example of the for loop is, int i; for( i = 0; i < 10; i++ ){ System.out.print(i); } In this example, the statement i=0, first initializes our variable. After that, the condition expression i<10 is evaluated. If this evaluates to true, then the statement inside the for loop is executed. Next, the expression i++ is executed, and then the condition expression is again evaluated. This goes on and on, until the condition expression evaluates to false. This example, is equivalent to the while loop shown below, int i = 0; while( i < 10 ){ System.out.print(i); i++; }

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6.4 Branching Statements
Branching statements allows us to redirect the flow of program execution. Java offers three branching statements: break, continue and return.

6.4.1 break statement
The break statement has two forms: unlabeled (we saw its unlabeled form in the switch statement) and labeled. 6.4.1.1 Unlabeled break statement The unlabeled break terminates the enclosing switch statement, and flow of control transfers to the statement immediately following the switch. You can also use the unlabeled form of the break statement to terminate a for, while, or do-while loop. For example, String names[] = {"Beah", "Bianca", "Lance", "Belle", "Nico", "Yza", "Gem", "Ethan"}; String boolean searchName = "Yza"; foundName = false;

for( int i=0; i< names.length; i++ ){ if( names[i].equals( searchName )){ foundName = true; break; } } if( foundName ){ System.out.println( searchName + " found!" ); } else{ System.out.println( searchName + " not found." ); } In this example, if the search string "Yza" is found, the for loop will stop and flow of control transfers to the statement following the for loop.

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6.4.1.2 Labeled break statement The labeled form of a break statement terminates an outer statement, which is identified by the label specified in the break statement. The following program searches for a value in a two-dimensional array. Two nested for loops traverse the array. When the value is found, a labeled break terminates the statement labeled search, which is the outer for loop. int[][] numbers = {{1, 2, 3}, {7, 8, 9}}; int searchNum = 5; boolean foundNum = false; searchLabel: for( int i=0; i<numbers.length; i++ ){ for( int j=0; j<numbers[i].length; j++ ){ if( searchNum == numbers[i][j] ){ foundNum = true; break searchLabel; } } } if( foundNum ){ System.out.println( searchNum + " found!" ); } else{ System.out.println( searchNum + " not found!" ); } The break statement terminates the labeled statement; it does not transfer the flow of control to the label. The flow of control transfers to the statement immediately following the labeled (terminated) statement. {4, 5, 6},

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J.E. System. int count = 0. message 2 never gets printed since we have the statement continue outerloop which skips the iteration. i++ ){ if( !names[i]. basically skipping the remainder of this iteration of the loop. } } System. 6. You can use the continue statement to skip the current iteration of a for.2 Labeled continue statement The labeled form of the continue statement skips the current iteration of an outer loop marked with the given label.2. //message1 if( j == 2 ) continue outerLoop. Introduction to Programming I 123 . i<names.I 6. i++ ){ for( int j=0. String names[] = {"Beah". "Beah"}. //message2 In this example. outerLoop: for( int i=0. 6.D.2. //skip next statement } } count++.4.println("Inside for(i) loop").1 Unlabeled continue statement The unlabeled form skips to the end of the innermost loop's body and evaluates the boolean expression that controls the loop. for( int i=0.println("There are " + count + " Beahs in the list"). i<5. j++ ){ System.2 continue statement The continue statement has two forms: unlabeled and labeled.println("Inside for(j) loop").out. while or do-while loop. The following example counts the number of "Beah"s in the array.equals("Beah") ){ continue.4.4.out.out. "Bianca". j<5.length. "Lance".

The return statement has two forms: one that returns a value and one that doesn't.J.D. or return ++count.3 return statement The return statement is used to exit from the current method. return. For example. When a method is declared void. For example. To return a value. We will cover more about return statements later when we discuss about methods. The flow of control returns to the statement that follows the original method call. The data type of the value returned by return must match the type of the method's declared return value. Introduction to Programming I 124 . simply put the value (or an expression that calculates the value) after the return keyword.E. return "Hello". use the form of return that doesn't return a value.4.I 6.

"Invalid number".1 Grades Get three exam grades from the user and compute the average of the grades. Together with the average. otherwise output :-(.5. 1. If the user inputs a number that is not in the range. Do three versions of this program using a while loop.5.5. Use a switch statement to solve this problem 6. and output the equivalent of the number in words. a do-while loop and a for-loop. Use BufferedReader to get input from the user. output. 2.4 Powers Compute the power of a number given the base and exponent. also include a smiley face in the output if the average is greater than or equal to 60.out to output the result. and System. Do three versions of this program using a while loop.5. 6. Introduction to Programming I 125 .3 Hundred Times Create a program that prints your name a hundred times.2 Number in words Get a number as input from the user.I 6. The number inputted should range from 1-10.D. Output the average of the three exams. Use an if-else statement to solve this problem 2. Use JOptionPane to get input from the user and to output the result.E.J. a do-while loop and a for-loop. 1. 6.5 Exercises 6.

in a contiguous block of memory. we will be discussing about Java Arrays.E.1: Example of an Integer Array An array stores multiple data items of the same datatype. This type of variable is called an array. int number1. number2 = 2.2 Introduction to arrays In the previous sections. Think of an array as a stretched variable – a location that still has one identifier name. int number2. the student should be able to: • • • • Declare and create arrays Access array elements Determine the number of elements in an array Declare and create multidimensional arrays 7. number1 = 1. For example. In Java and other programming languages.1 Objectives In this section. there is one capability wherein we can use one variable to store a list of data and manipulate them more efficiently. divided into a number of slots. we have discussed on how to declare different variables using the primitive data types. we call it by its identifier name.J.I 7 Java Arrays 7. we often use a unique identifier or name and a datatype. int number3. At the end of the lesson. As you can see. but can hold more than one value. Introduction to Programming I 126 . number3 = 3. In declaring variables. we are going to define what arrays are. First. In order to use the variable. we have here three variables of type int with different identifiers for each variable. and then we are going to discuss on how to declare and use them. it seems like a tedious task in order to just initialize and use the variables especially if they are used for the same purpose.D. Figure 7.

can also be written as. In the example. In order to instantiate an object. construct and assign values at once. you list the data type.3 Declaring Arrays Arrays must be declared like all variables. followed by a set of square brackets[]. When declaring an array. we must create the array and specify its length with a constructor statement. After declaring. For example. followed by the identifier name.D. you can also automatically declare. int ages[]. //declaration int ages[].I 7.2: Instantiating Arrays Introduction to Programming I 127 . Take note. //instantiate object ages = new int[100]. For example. Instead of using the new keyword to instantiate an array. //declare and instantiate object int ages[] = new int [100]. the declaration tells the Java Compiler that the identifier ages will be used as the name of an array containing integers. This process in Java is called instantiation (the Java word for creates). int []ages.E. For example. we need to use a constructor for this. or you can place the brackets after the identifier.J. Figure 7. or. and to create or instantiate a new array containing 100 elements. that the size of an array cannot be changed once you've initialized it. We will cover more about instantiating objects and constructors later.

false} boolean results[] ={ true. 90. 90. false. true. 75}. //creates an array of 4 double variables initialized //to the values {100. “Sun”}. false }. true.J. “Thu”. 75}. “Sat”. //creates an array of boolean variables with ientifier //results. “Wed”. 80. //creates an array of Strings with identifier days and //initialized.D. “Tue”. “Fri”. Introduction to Programming I 128 . double []grades = {100. This array contains 7 elements String days[] = { “Mon”. false. This array contains 4 elements that are //initialized to values {true. 80.I Examples are.E.

given the array we declared a while ago.I 7. Index numbers are always integers.print(ages[99]). The elements of an n-element array have indexes from 0 to n-1.print( ages[i] ). i++ ){ System.E. Introduction to Programming I 129 . You cannot resize an array. Note that there is no array element arr[n]! This will result in an array-index-out-of-bounds exception. It is usually better to initialize or instantiate the array right away after you declare it. is preferred over. or a part of the array. you use a number called an index or a subscript. An index number or subscript is assigned to each member of the array. //prints the last element in the array System.out. Take note that once an array is declared and constructed. The following is a sample code on how to print all the elements in the array. However. int []arr = new int[100]. They begin with zero and progress sequentially by whole numbers to the end of the array. For example.4 Accessing an array element To access an array element. int []arr. Take note that the elements inside your array is from 0 to (sizeOfArray-1). the declaration.out. 3. so our code is shorter. For example. allowing the program and the programmer to access individual values when necessary. arr = new int[100]. i<100. reference data types such as Strings are not initialized to blanks or an empty string “”. the stored value of each member of the array will be initialized to zero for number data. for( int i=0.D. Therefore.J. public class ArraySample{ public static void main( String[] args ){ int[] ages = new int[100]. This uses a for loop. you must populate the String arrays explicitly. we have //assigns 10 to the first element in the array ages[0] = 10. } } Coding Guidelines: } 1. 2.

i++ ){ System. you can use the length field of an array. we can re-write it as. When creating for loops to process the elements of an array. 2. It can be used by writing. This will allow the loop to adjust automatically for different-sized arrays.E.5 Array length In order to get the number of elements in an array. use the array object's length field in the condition statement of the for loop. Declare the sizes of arrays in a Java program using named constants to make them easy to change. i<ages. For example. public class ArraySample { public static void main( String[] args ){ int[] ages = new int[100]. int[] ages = new int[ARRAY_SIZE]. The length field of an array returns the size of the array. for( int i=0.J. //declare a constant ..length.I 7.length For example..D. final int ARRAY_SIZE = 1000. } } Coding Guidelines: } 1. Introduction to Programming I 130 .print( ages[i] ). arrayName.out. given the previous example.

E. // String array 4 rows x 2 columns String[][] dogs = {{ "terry".I 7.6 Multidimensional Arrays Multidimensional arrays are implemented as arrays of arrays. to access the first element in the first row of the array dogs. { "Kristin". { "toby". To access an element in a multidimensional array is just the same as accessing the elements in a one dimensional array. // character array 8 x 16 x 24 char[][][] threeD = new char[8][16][24]. This will print the String "terry" on the screen. { "fido".J.print( dogs[0][0] ).D.out. For example. "gray"}. we write. Introduction to Programming I 131 . "brown" }. Multidimensional arrays are declared by appending the appropriate number of bracket pairs after the array name. System. "black"} }. For example. // integer array 512 x 128 elements int[][] twoD = new int[512][128]. "white" }.

}. {"Becca". "983-3333".E.3 Addressbook Entries Given the following multidimensional array that contains addressbook entries: String entry = {{"Florence".J. # : 735-1234 Address : Manila Name : Joyce Tel. {"Joyce". Output on the screen the number with the greatest value. "456-3322". (do the same for do-while and forloop) 7.1 Days of the Week Create an array of Strings which are initialized to the 7 days of the week. Print the following entries on screen in the following format: Name : Florence Tel. String days[] = {“Monday”. Use an array to store the values of these 10 numbers. "Quezon City"}. "Manila"}}. For Example.7.D. "735-1234".I 7. 7. ask for 10 numbers from the user.7 Exercises 7. "Manila"}.7. # : 983-3333 Address : Quezon City Name : Becca Tel. # : 456-3322 Address : Manila Introduction to Programming I 132 .2 Greatest number Using BufferedReader or JOptionPane. print all the contents of the array.7. Using a while-loop. “Tuesday”….

called Sort.2 Command-line arguments A Java application can accept any number of arguments from the command-line.I 8 Command-line Arguments 8. we will study on how to process input from the command-line by using arguments pass onto a Java program. For example. you run it like this: Figure 8.1 Objectives In this section.1: Running with Command-Line Arguments Take note that the arguments are separated by spaces. The user enters command-line arguments when invoking the application and specifies them after the name of the class to run. the student should be able to: • • • Know and explain what a command-line argument is Get input from the user using command-line arguments Learn how to pass arguments to your programs in Netbeans 8. Command-line arguments allow the user to affect the operation of an application for one invocation. At the end of the lesson. Introduction to Programming I 133 . suppose you have a Java application.D. that sorts five numbers.E.J.

Coding Guidelines: Before using command-line arguments.length.E. Introduction to Programming I 134 . "3". If your program needs to support a numeric command-line argument.D. Remember the declaration for the main method. In the previous example.J. if (args. such as "34". int firstArg = 0.I In the Java language. always check if the number of arguments before accessing the array elements so that there will be no exception generated. int numberOfArgs = args. } parseInt throws a NumberFormatException (ERROR) if the format of args[0] isn't valid (not a number). the runtime system passes the command-line arguments to the application's main method via an array of Strings. Each String in the array contains one of the command-line arguments. when you invoke an application. Here's a code snippet that converts a command-line argument to an integer. it must convert a String argument that represents a number. public static void main( String[] args ) The arguments that are passed to your program are saved into an array of String with the args identifier. You can derive the number of command-line arguments with the array's length attribute. "2" and "1".length > 0){ firstArg = Integer. the command-line arguments passed to the Sort application is an array that contains five strings which are: "5". "4". For example.parseInt(args[0]). to a number.

public class CommandLineExample { public static void main( String[] args ){ System. run netbeans and create a new project and name this CommandLineExample. follow these steps to pass arguments to your program using Netbeans.println("First Argument="+ args[0]). Now.out.length). Figure 8.I 8.3 Command-line arguments in Netbeans To illustrate on how to pass some arguments to your programs in Netbeans. System.D.2: Opening Project File Introduction to Programming I 135 .println("Number of arguments=" + args.E.J. } } Now. let us create a Java program that will print the number of arguments and the first argument passed to it.out. Copy the code shown above and compile the code. Click on Projects (encircled below).

D.E.4: Properties Dialog Introduction to Programming I 136 . Figure 8.J.3: Opening Properties The Project Properties dialog will then appear.I Right-click on the CommandLineExample icon. Figure 8. and a popup menu will appear. Click on Properties.

5: Click On Running Project On the Arguments textbox.I Now. type the arguments you want to pass to your program.E. click on Run-> Running Project.D.J. Then. Figure 8. click on the OK button. Figure 8.6: Set the Command-Line Arguments Introduction to Programming I 137 . In this case we typed in the arguments 5 4 3 2 1.

Figure 8. Figure 8. the output to your program is the number of arguments which is 5. and the first argument which is 5.J.I Now try to RUN your program.E.8: Program Output Introduction to Programming I 138 .7: Running the Program in with the Shortcut Button As you can see here.D.

4.4 Exercises 8.E. java ArithmeticOperation 20 4 your program should print sum = 24 difference = 16 product = 80 quotient = 5 Introduction to Programming I 139 . For example. product and quotient of the two numbers. if the user entered. difference.2 Arithmetic Operations Get two numbers from the user using command-line arguments and print sum.4.D. if the user entered.I 8.1 Print arguments Get input from the user using command-line arguments and print all the arguments to the screen.J. java Hello world that is all your program should print Hello world that is all 8. For example.

For example. At the end of the lesson. These objects are characterized by their properties (or attributes) and behaviors. conversion and casting of objects will also be covered. and how to use these classes and their members. people and so on. we will discuss later on how to create your own classes. When we compare this to the physical world. we can find many objects around us.J. Please refer to the table below for the examples. we will discuss the concept of classes and objects.E. Similarly. we will introduce some basic concepts of object-oriented programming. a car object has the properties. Its behaviors are turning. Object Car Properties type of transmission manufacturer color Weight Color hungry or not hungry tamed or wild Table 17: Example of Real-life Objects Behavior turning braking accelerating roaring sleeping hunting Lion Introduction to Programming I 140 . Comparison. type of transmission. Later on. manufacturer and color. we can define different properties and behavior of a lion.D.2 Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming Object-Oriented programming or OOP revolves around the concept of objects as the basic elements of your programs. lion. braking and accelerating. the student should be able to: • • • • • • • Explain object-oriented programming and some of its concepts Differentiate between classes and objects Differentiate between instance variables/methods and class(static) variables/methods Explain what methods are and how to call and pass parameters to methods Identify the scope of a variable Cast primitive data types and objects Compare objects and determine the class of an objects 9. we will focus on using classes that are already defined in the Java class library. For now.1 Objectives In this section.I 9 Working with the Java Class Library 9. such as cars.

Thus. An object is an instance of the class. Turn and Brake. a prototype or a blueprint of an object. Fields specifiy the data types defined by the class. However. which will be discussed later. let us discuss an example. the objects in the physical world can easily be modeled as software objects using the properties as data and the behaviors as methods. each object gets a fresh set of state variables. Classes provide the benefit of reusability. 9. To differentiate between classes and objects. an object is a software component whose structure is similar to objects in the real world. In the table shown below. Software programmers can use a class over and over again to create many objects. color.3. while methods specify the operations.D. The Car has also some methods Accelerate. What we have here is a Car Class which can be used to define several Car Objects. Car A and Car B are objects of the Car class. The class is the fundamental structure in object-oriented programming. the method implementations are shared among objects of the same class. manufacturer. It can be thought of as a template.E. The class has fields plate number.1 Difference Between Classes and Objects In the software world. It consists of two types of members which are called fields (properties or attributes) and methods. These data and methods could even be used in programming games or interactive software to simulate the real-world objects! An example would be a car software object in a racing game or a lion software object in an educational interactive software zoo for kids. Introduction to Programming I Instance Methods 141 .J. and current speed which are filled-up with corresponding values in objects Car A and Car B. The variables and methods in a Java object are formally known as instance variables and instance methods to distinguish them from class variables and class methods. Each object is composed of a set of data (properties/attributes) which are variables describing the essential characteristics of the object.I With these descriptions. an object is a software bundle of variables and related methods.3 Classes and Objects 9. and it also consists of a set of methods (behavior) that describes how an object behaves. Car Class Instance Variables Plate Number Color Manufacturer Current Speed Blue Object Car A ABC 111 Mitsubishi 50 km/h Accelerate Method Turn Method Brake Method Table 18: Example of Car class and its objects Object Car B XYZ 123 Red Toyota 100 km/h When instantiated.

E.2 Encapsulation Encapsulation is the method of hiding certain elements of the implementation of a certain class. Suppose that our Car class has one class variable called Count. it is also possible to define class variables. This means that it has the same value for all the objects in the same class. They are also called static member variables. We will learn more about how Java implements encapsulation as we discuss more about classes. let's go back to our Car class example. We can prevent access to our object's data by declaring them declaring them in a certain way such that we can control access to them. Car Class Instance Variables Plate Number Color Manufacturer Current Speed Blue Mitsubishi 50 km/h Count = 2 Accelerate Method Turn Method Brake Method Table 19: Car class' methods and variables Object Car A ABC 111 Red Toyota Object Car B XYZ 123 100 km/h Introduction to Programming I Instance Methods Variable Class 142 .I 9.J. To clearly describe class variables. By placing a boundary around the properties and methods of our objects.D. 9. we can prevent our programs from having side effects wherein programs have their variables changed in unexpected ways.3. which are variables that belong to the whole class.3. all of the objects of the Car class will have the value 2 for their Count variable.3 Class Variables and Methods In addition to the instance variables. If we change the value of Count to 2.

When you create an object. Figure 9.4 Class Instantiation To create an object or an instance of a class.D. if you want to create an instance of the class String.3.1: Classs Instantiation The new operator allocates a memory for that object and returns a reference of that memory location to you. String or also equivalent to.E.J. we use the new operator. you actually invoke the class' constructor. we write the following code. String str2 = "Hello". str2 = new String(“Hello world!”). it has the same name as the class. For example. Introduction to Programming I 143 .I 9. The constructor is a method where you place all the initializations.

we only have one method.4 Methods 9. and that is the main() method. The following are characteristics of methods: • It can return one or no values • It may accept as many parameters it needs or no parameter at all.E. Introduction to Programming I 144 .D. we can define many methods which we can call from different methods.J. Parameters are also called function arguments.4. it goes back to the method that called it.I 9. We can do this in Java by creating methods to solve a specific part of the problem. Taking a problem and breaking it into small. why do we need to create methods? Why don't we just place all the code inside one big method? The heart of effective problem solving is in problem decomposition. A method is a separate piece of code that can be called by a main program or any other method to perform some specific function. Now. manageable pieces is critical to writing large programs.1 What are Methods and Why Use Methods? In the examples we discussed before. • After the method has finished execution. In Java.

as for array indexing. the next at index 1. and so on. public boolean equalsIgnoreCase Compares this String to another String. You can use the Java API documentation to see all the available methods in the String class.J. let's use the String class as an example. Table 20: Sample Methods of class String Using the methods. let us use what is available. Later on. To call an instance method. The first character of the sequence is at index 0. String char String str1 = "Hello".E. //will return the character H //and store it to variable x str2 = "hello". we will create our own methods.nameOfMethod( parameters ).4. An index ranges from 0 to length() . Introduction to Programming I 145 .1. but for now. ignoring (String anotherString) case considerations.equalsIgnoreCase( str1 ). //this will return a boolean value true boolean result = str1.I 9. nameOfObject. and corresponding characters in the two strings are equal ignoring case. x = str2.charAt(0).D. Let's take two sample methods found in the class String. to illustrate how to call methods.2 Calling Instance Methods and Passing Variables Now. we write the following. Method declaration public char charAt(int index) Definition Returns the character at the specified index. Two strings are considered equal ignoring case if they are of the same length.

all primitive data types when passed to a method are pass-by-value. Introduction to Programming I 146 . However. the first one is pass-by-value and then. i not changed System. pass-byreference. //print the value of i System.D. Since j is the variable changed in the test method. the method makes a copy of the value of the variable passed to the method.I 9.out.4.println( i ).3 Passing Variables in Methods In our examples.E. //call method test //and pass i to method test test( i ). Pass i as parameter which is copied to j } //print the value of i.3. The value of i is copied to the variable of the method j. we haven't differentiated between the different types of variable passing in Java. it will not affect the variable value if i in main since it is a different copy of the variable.1 Pass-by-value When a pass-by-value occurs. By default.println( i ). we already tried passing variables to methods. we called the method test and passed the value of i as parameter. The method cannot accidentally modify the original argument even if it modifies the parameters during calculations.out. 9. public class TestPassByValue { public static void main( String[] args ){ int i = 10. } public static void test( int j ){ //change value of parameter j j = 33. There are two types of passing data to methods. } In the given example.4.J. For example.

i<arr. the method makes a copy of the reference of the variable passed to the method. //print array values for( int i=0.length.println( ages[i] ). i++ ){ System.println( ages[i] ).E. the location of the data they are pointing to is the same. i<ages.4. } } public static void test( int[] arr ){ //change values of array for( int i=0.2 Pass-by-reference When a pass-by-reference occurs.length.3.I 9.out. the reference to an object is passed to the calling method.D. } //call test and pass reference to array test( ages ).J.length. 11. This means that. unlike in pass-by-value. Pass ages as parameter which is copied to variable arr } //print array values again for( int i=0. However. since. 12}. i<ages. class TestPassByReference { public static void main( String[] args ){ //create an array of integers int []ages = {10.out. } } Introduction to Programming I 147 . the method can modify the actual object that the reference is pointing to. although different references are used in the methods. For example. i++ ){ System. i++ ){ arr[i] = i + 50.

E. Take note that Java manipulates objects 'by reference. to an integer int i = Integer. just type.2: Pass-by-reference example Coding Guidelines: A common misconception about pass-by-reference in Java is when creating a swap method using Java references.' but it passes object references to methods 'by value.staticMethodName(params).J. you cannot write a standard swap method to swap objects.toHexString( 10 ).out. Introduction to Programming I 148 . To call a static method. //Returns a String representation of the integer argument as an //unsigned integer base 16 String hexEquivalent = Integer. 9.4 Calling Static Methods Static methods are methods that can be invoked without instantiating a class (means without invoking the new keyword). Classname. //converts the String 10.D.'" As a result. //prints data to screen System. we've used so far in our examples are. Examples of static methods. Static methods belongs to the class as a whole and not to a certain instance (or object) of a class.parseInt(“10”).println(“Hello world”).I Figure 9.4. Static methods are distinguished from instance methods in a class definition by the keyword static.

m and n. int j = 0.D and E. For example. //.I 9.4. However. usable) by the program lines inside the inner blocks.C.D.E.. and the inner curly braces is called inner blocks.. you cannot expect the outer block to see it. if you declare variables in the inner block. n is E.e. m = 0. The scope is determined by where the variable declaration is placed in the program. The scope also determines the lifetime of a variable or how long the variable can exist in memory. The outer curly braces is called the outer blocks. Given the variables i. The scope determines where in the program the variable is accessible. some code here B A { int int E } } The code we have here represents five scopes indicated by the lines and the letters representing the scope.j. int k = 0. To simplify things.. starting from the point where it is declared.k. If you declare variables in the outer block.J. D C Introduction to Programming I 149 . given the following code snippet. A variable's scope is inside the block where it is declared. we have the following scopes for each variable: The The The The The scope scope scope scope scope of of of of of variable variable variable variable variable i is A.}. j is B. n = 0.B. k is C. public class ScopeExample { public static void main( String[] args ){ int i = 0.5 Scope of a variable In addition to a variable's data type and name. m is D. they are visible (i.. and in the inner blocks. and the five scopes A. a variable has scope. just think of the scope as anything between the curly braces {.

arr[] i in E . i++ ){ System.J.E.out. } } D In the main method. i++ ){ arr[i] = i + 50.out.scope E Introduction to Programming I 150 . i<ages.D. i++ ){ System.println( ages[i] ). 12}.scope A i in B .length. i<ages.I Now.length. class TestPassByReference { public static void main( String[] args ){ //create an array of integers int []ages = {10. the scope ofthe variables are. ages[] .length.scope B i in C – scope C In the test method. //print array values for( int i=0. } //call test and pass reference to array test( ages ). //print array values again for( int i=0. the scope of the variables are. } B A C } E } public static void test( int[] arr ){ //change values of array for( int i=0. given the two methods main and test in our previous examples. 11.scope D .println( ages[i] ). i<arr.

out. //. Coding Guidelines: Avoid having variables of the same name declared inside one method to avoid confusion. However. For example.D. For the second System. your compiler will generate an error since you should have unique names for your variables in one block.print( test ). int test = 20.print is invoke.out. only one variable with a given identifier or name can be declared in a scope.out. System.J. { } int test = 10. System. you can have two variables of the same name. int test = 0. Introduction to Programming I 151 . if they are not declared in the same block. the value 20 is printed since it is the closest test variable seen at that scope.E.print. } When the first System.I When declaring variables.some code here { int test = 20. it prints the value of the first test variable since it is the variable seen at that scope.print( test ).out.. That means that if you have the following declaration.

This commonly occurs between numeric types. 9. There is one primitive data type that we cannot do casting though. //explicit cast: output 65 Introduction to Programming I 152 .1 Casting Primitive Types Casting between primitive types enables you to convert the value of one data from one type to another primitive type. the data is implicitly casted to data type double. we are going to learn how to do typecasting. The numeric code associated with a capital A is 65. and Java adopted this as part of its character support. If the variable i has the value 65. A character can be used as an int because each character has a corresponding numeric code that represents its position in the character set. double numDouble = numInt.E. char valChar = 'A'.out.I 9. Typecasting or casting is the process of converting a data of a certain data type to another data type. int valInt = valChar.5 Casting. System.J. int numInt = 10. An example of typecasting is when you want to store an integer data to a variable of data type double. Converting and Comparing Objects In this section. For example. Another example is when we want to typecast an int to a char value or vice versa. the cast (char)i produces the character value 'A'. For example. //implicit cast In this example. since the destination variable (double) holds a larger value than what we will place inside it. and that is the boolean data type.print( valInt ). according to the ASCII character set. And finally. We will also learn how to convert primitive data types to objects and vice versa. we are going to learn how to compare objects.D.5.

D. is an expression that results in the value of the source type. //convert valDouble to int type double x = 10. For example. dataType. int valInt = (int)valDouble. Explicit casts take the following form: (dataType)value where. we must use an explicit cast. int y = 2. double valDouble = 10.J.I When we convert a data that has a large type to a smaller type.12.E. int int result = (int)(x/y).2. is the name of the data type you're converting to value. //typecast result of operation to Introduction to Programming I 153 .

FileDialog. you must cast them explicitly. there's a loss in precision involved. using an object of class Number won't include many methods specified in Integer.E. To use superclass objects where subclass objects are expected. but you gain all the methods and variables that the subclass defines. consider a method that takes two arguments. There is a catch.J.3: Sample Class Hierarchy This is true in the reverse. you can use an instance of a subclass anywhere a superclass is expected. You can pass an instance of any class for the Object argument because all Java classes are subclasses of Object. This is true anywhere in a program.2 Casting Objects Instances of classes also can be cast into instances of other classes. For example. For example. You won't lose any information in the cast. if you have an operation that calls methods in objects of the class Integer. To cast an object to another class.D. one class must be a subclass of the other. Errors occur if you try to call methods that the destination object doesn't have. Figure 9. because a subclass contains all the same information as its superclass. Those superclass objects might not have all the behavior needed to act in place of a subclass object. however: Because subclasses contain more behavior than their superclasses. and you can use a superclass when a subclass is expected. is the name of the destination class object. If you had a variable defined as class Window. not just inside method calls. In particular. one of type Object and another of type Window. Introduction to Programming I 154 . you could assign objects of that class or any of its subclasses to that variable without casting. some objects might not need to be cast explicitly. such as Dialog. with one restriction: The source and destination classes must be related by inheritance. you can pass in its subclasses.5. classname. you use the same operation as for primitive types: To cast. (classname)object where. We'll cover more about inheritance later. is a reference to the source object. and Frame. For the Window argument. Analogous to converting a primitive value to a larger type.I 9.

// must cast explicitlyCasting Introduction to Programming I 155 . the old object continues to exist as it did before. Figure 9. emp = veep. Employee emp = new Employee(). VicePresident is a subclass of Employee with more information. which here defines that the VicePresident has executive washroom privileges.4: Class Hierarchy for superclass Employee The following example casts an instance of the class VicePresident to an instance of the class Employee.E. VicePresident veep = new VicePresident().D.J.I • Note: that casting creates a reference to the old object of the type classname. // no cast needed for upward use veep = (VicePresident)emp.

Double instead of double. int penn = Integer.lang package includes classes that correspond to each primitive data type: Float.I 9.intValue().J. which is used in method definitions to indicate that the method does not return a value. so there's no reason it would be used when translating between primitive values and objects. It's a placeholder for the void keyword. As an alternative. // A common translation you need in programs // is converting a String to a numeric type. you can create an object that holds the same value. • CAUTION: The Void class represents nothing in Java.3 Converting Primitive Types to Objects and Vice Versa One thing you can't do under any circumstance is cast from an object to a primitive data type.5. Also. such as an int // Object->primitive String pennsylvania = "65000". or vice versa. the java. two classes have names that differ from the corresponding data type: Character is used for char variables and Integer for int variables. except that the class names begin with a capital letter (Short instead of short. Using the classes that correspond to each primitive type. Boolean. (Called Wrapper Classes) Java treats the data types and their class versions very differently. and the like). and a program won't compile successfully if you use one when the other is expected. Byte. The result is an int with //value 7801 int newCount = dataCount.D. Primitive types and objects are very different things in Java. Introduction to Programming I 156 . //The following statement converts an Integer object to // its primitive data type int. Most of these classes have the same names as the data types. and you can't automatically cast between the two or use them interchangeably.parseInt(pennsylvania). and so on.E. Examples: //The following statement creates an instance of the Integer // class with the integer value 7801 (primitive -> Object) Integer dataCount = new Integer(7801).

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9.5.4 Comparing Objects
In our previous discussions, we learned about operators for comparing values—equal, not equal, less than, and so on. Most of these operators work only on primitive types, not on objects. If you try to use other values as operands, the Java compiler produces errors. The exceptions to this rule are the operators for equality: == (equal) and != (not equal). When applied to objects, these operators don't do what you might first expect. Instead of checking whether one object has the same value as the other object, they determine whether both sides of the operator refer to the same object. To compare instances of a class and have meaningful results, you must implement special methods in your class and call those methods. A good example of this is the String class. It is possible to have two different String objects that contain the same values. If you were to employ the == operator to compare these objects, however, they would be considered unequal. Although their contents match, they are not the same object. To see whether two String objects have matching values, a method of the class called equals() is used. The method tests each character in the string and returns true if the two strings have the same values. The following code illustrates this, class EqualsTest { public static void main(String[] arguments) { String str1, str2; str1 = "Free the bound periodicals."; str2 = str1; System.out.println("String1: " + str1); System.out.println("String2: " + str2); System.out.println("Same object? " + (str1 == str2)); str2 = new String(str1); System.out.println("String1: " + str1); System.out.println("String2: " + str2); System.out.println("Same object? " + (str1 == str2)); System.out.println("Same value? " + str1.equals(str2));

}

}

This program's output is as follows, OUTPUT: String1: Free the bound String2: Free the bound Same object? true String1: Free the bound String2: Free the bound Same object? false Same value? True periodicals. periodicals. periodicals. periodicals.

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Now let's discuss the code. String str1, str2; str1 = "Free the bound periodicals.";

Figure 9.5: Both references point to the same object

The first part of this program declares two variables (str1 and str2), assigns the literal "Free the bound periodicals." to str1, and then assigns that value to str2. As you learned earlier, str1 and str2 now point to the same object, and the equality test proves that. str2 = new String(str1); In the second part of this program, you create a new String object with the same value as str1 and assign str2 to that new String object. Now you have two different string objects in str1 and str2, both with the same value. Testing them to see whether they're the same object by using the == operator returns the expected answer: false—they are not the same object in memory. Testing them using the equals() method also returns the expected answer: true—they have the same values.

Figure 9.6: References now point to different objects

NOTE: Why can't you just use another literal when you change str2, rather than using new? String literals are optimized in Java; if you create a string using a literal and then use another literal with the same characters, Java knows enough to give you the first String object back. Both strings are the same objects; you have to go out of your way to create two separate objects.

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9.5.5 Determining the Class of an Object
Want to find out what an object's class is? Here's the way to do it for an object assigned to the variable key: 1. The getClass() method returns a Class object (where Class is itself a class) that has a method called getName(). In turn, getName() returns a string representing the name of the class. For Example, String name = key.getClass().getName(); 2. The instanceOf operator The instanceOf has two operands: a reference to an object on the left and a class name on the right. The expression returns true or false based on whether the object is an instance of the named class or any of that class's subclasses. For Example, boolean ex1 = "Texas" instanceof String; // true Object pt = new Point(10, 10); boolean ex2 = pt instanceof String; // false

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9.6 Exercises
9.6.1 Defining terms
In 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. your own words, define the following terms: Class Object Instantiate Instance Variable Instance Method Class Variables or static member variables Constructor

9.6.2 Java Scavenger Hunt
Pipoy is a newbie in the Java programming language. He just heard that there are already ready-to-use APIs in Java that one could use in their programs, and he's eager to try them out. The problem is, Pipoy does not have a copy of the Java Documentation, and he also doesn't have an internet access, so there's no way for him to view the Java APIs. Your task is to help Pipoy look for the APIs (Application Programming Interface). You should state the class where the method belongs, the method declaration and a sample usage of the said method. For example, if Pipoy wants to know the method that converts a String to integer, your answer should be: Class: Integer Method Declaration: public static int parseInt( String value ) Sample Usage: String strValue = "100"; int value = Integer.parseInt( strValue ); Make sure that the snippet of code you write in your sample usage compiles and outputs the correct answer, so as not to confuse Pipoy. (Hint: All methods are in the java.lang package). In cases where you can find more methods that can accomplish the task, give only one. Now let's start the search! 1. Look for a method that checks if a certain String ends with a certain suffix. For example, if the given string is "Hello", the method should return true the suffix given is "lo", and false if the given suffix is "alp". 2. Look for the method that determines the character representation for a specific digit in the specified radix. For example, if the input digit is 15, and the radix is 16, the method would return the character F, since F is the hexadecimal representation for the number 15 (base 10). 3. Look for the method that terminates the currently running Java Virtual Machine 4. Look for the method that gets the floor of a double value. For example, if I input a 3.13, the method should return the value 3. 5. Look for the method that determines if a certain character is a digit. For example, if I input '3', it returns the value true.

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10 Creating your own Classes
10.1 Objectives
Now that we've studied on how to use existing classes from the Java class library, we will now be studying on how to write our own classes. For this section, in order to easily understand how to create classes, we will make a sample class wherein we will add more data and functionality as we go along the way. We will create a class that contains information of a Student and operations needed for a certain student record. Things to take note of for the syntax defined in this section and for the other sections: * <description> [] - means that there may be 0 or more occurrences of the line whereit was applied to. - indicates that you have to substitute an actual value for this part instead of typing it as it is. - indicates that this part is optional

At the end of the lesson, the student should be able to: • • • • • • Create their own classes Declare attributes and methods for their classes Use the this reference to access instance data Create and call overloaded methods Import and create packages Use access modifiers to control access to class members

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10.2 Defining your own classes
Before writing your class, think first on where you will be using your class and how your class will be used. Think of an appropriate name for the class, and list all the information or properties that you want your class to contain. Also list down the methods that you will be using for your class. To define a class, we write, <modifier> class <name> { <attributeDeclaration>* <constructorDeclaration>* <methodDeclaration>* }

where <modifier> is an access modifier, which may be combined with other types of modifier. Coding Guidelines: Remember that for a top-level class, the only valid access modifiers are public and package (i.e., if no access modifier prefixes the class keyword). In this section, we will be creating a class that will contain a student record. Since we've already identified the purpose of our class, we can now name it. An appropriate name for our class would be StudentRecord. Now, to define our class we write, public class StudentRecord { //we'll add more code here later } where, public class StudentRecord Coding Guidelines: 1. Think of an appropriate name for your class. Don't just call your class XYZ or any random names you can think of. 2. Class names should start with a CAPITAL letter. 3. The filename of your class should have the SAME NAME as your class name. - means that our class is accessible to other classes outside the package - this is the keyword used to create a class in Java - a unique identifier that describes our class

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10.3 Declaring Attributes
To declare a certain attribute for our class, we write, <modifier> <type> <name> [= <default_value>]; Now, let us write down the list of attributes that a student record can contain. For each information, also list what data types would be appropriate to use. For example, you don't want to have a data type int for a student's name, or a String for a student's grade. The following are some sample information we want to add to the student record. name address age math grade english grade science grade average grade String String int double double double double

You can add more information if you want to, it's all really up to you. But for this example, we will be using these information.

10.3.1 Instance Variables
Now that we have a list of all the attributes we want to add to our class, let us now add them to our code. Since we want these attributes to be unique for each object (or for each student), we should declare them as instance variables. For example, public class StudentRecord { private String name; private String address; private int age; private double mathGrade; private double englishGrade; private double scienceGrade; private double average; //we'll add more code here later }

where, private here means that the variables are only accessible within the class. Other objects cannot access these variables directly. We will cover more about accessibility later. Coding Guidelines: 1. Declare all your instance variables on the top of the class declaration. 2. Declare one variable for each line. 3. Instance variables, like any other variables should start with a SMALL letter. 4. Use an appropriate data type for each variable you declare. 5. Declare instance variables as private so that only class methods can access them directly.

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private double scienceGrade. So far. we can also declare class variables or variables that belong to the class as a whole.I 10. <modifier> <returnType> <name>(<parameter>*) { <statement>* } where. <modifier> can carry a number of different modifiers <returnType> can be any data type (including void) <name> can be any valid identifier <parameter> ::= <parameter_type> <parameter_name>[. public class StudentRecord { private String name. Now suppose. } //we'll add more code here later 10.2 Class Variables or Static Variables Aside from instance variables. private int age. private double mathGrade. our whole code now looks like this.] Introduction to Programming I 164 . private double englishGrade. private double average.J. private static int studentCount.4 Declaring Methods Before we discuss what methods we want our class to have. } //we'll add more code here later we use the keyword static to indicate that a variable is a static variable. To declare methods we write. we want to know the total number of student records we have for the whole class. public class StudentRecord { //instance variables we have declared private static int studentCount. To declare a static variable. The value of these variables are the same for all the objects of the same class. let us first take a look at the general syntax for declaring methods. we can declare one static variable that will hold this value.3. private String address. Let us call this as studentCount.D.E.

english grade. address.1 Accessor methods In order to implement encapsulation. In order to do this. math grade and science grade of the student.4. in our program signifies that it will return the value of the instance variable name to the calling method. Accessor methods are used to read values from class variables (instance/static).String return age.this means that our method does not have any parameters where. An accessor method usually starts with a get<NameOfInstanceVariable>. ^ 1 error Introduction to Programming I 165 .the name of the method . we declare the fields or attributes of our classes as private.lang.E. However. For our example. } } .means that the method can be called from objects outside the class . we create accessor methods. we want an accessor method that can read the name. public String getName () The statement. This means that the method should return a value of type String .java:14: incompatible types found : int required: java.J. It also returns a value.is the return type of the method. we don't want any objects to just access our data anytime. return name. : : public String getName(){ return name. that is.I 10. Take note that the return type of the method should have the same data type as the data in the return statement. StudentRecord. there are times wherein we want other objects to access private data. Now let's take a look at one implementation of an accessor method. public class StudentRecord { private String name.D. You usually encounter the following error if the two does not have the same data type.

it contains some program argument or arguments that will be used inside the method. mutator methods. means that the method can be called from objects outside the class imeans that the method does not return any value the name of the method parameter that will be used inside our method Introduction to Programming I 166 . : : public void setName( String temp ){ name = temp. Take note that mutator methods don't return values. } return result. name = temp. A mutator method is usuallyu written as set<NameOfInstanceVariable>.2 Mutator Methods Now. We call these methods.4. public class StudentRecord { private String name.J. public void setName (String temp) The statement. 10. what if we want other objects to alter our data? What we do is we provide methods that can write or change values of our class variables (instance/static). : : public double getAverage(){ double result = 0.E. However. assigns the value of temp to name and thus changes the data inside the instance variable name. } } where. public class StudentRecord { private String name. Now let's take a look at one implementation of a mutator method.I Another example of an accessor method is the getAverage method. } The getAverage method computes the average of the 3 grades and returns the result. result = ( mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade )/3.D.

Method names should be verbs 3.the name of the method . Introduction to Programming I 167 . Coding Guidelines: 1. 2. For example. //return a constant } //return a variable return defaultNum.E.means that the method is static and should be called by typing. You can use javadocs style for this.means that the method can be called from objects outside the class .4 Static methods For the static variable studentCount. } } where. Always provide documentation before the declaration of the method. [ClassName]. This means that the method should return a value of type int . You can also use constants to return values instead of variables.J. Method names should start with a SMALL letter. 10. For example.4.I 10.this means that our method does not have any parameters For now. if( num == 1 return } else if( num return } ){ "one". We will try to change the value of studentCount later on when we discuss constructors. //return a constant == 2){ "two". in this case. Please see example.D.is the return type of the method. public class StudentRecord { private static int studentCount. public String getNumberInWords( int num ){ String defaultNum = "zero". we can create a static method to access its value. public static int getStudentCount () .3 Multiple Return statements You can have multiple return statements for a method as long as they are not on the same block.[methodName]. public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount. consider the method. getStudentCount will always return the value zero since we haven't done anything yet in our program in order to set its value. we call the method StudentRecord.getStudentCount() .4.

. englishGrade. /** * Computes the average of the english.. } return result.I 10.J..D. } // other code here . public class { private private private private private private private StudentRecord String String int double double double double name. } /** * returns the number of instances of StudentRecords */ public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount. /** * Returns the name of the student */ public String getName(){ return name. private static int studentCount. } Introduction to Programming I 168 . age.4. } /** * Changes the name of the student */ public void setName( String temp ){ name = temp. result = ( mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade )/3. address. math and science * grades */ public double getAverage(){ double result = 0. scienceGrade. mathGrade.E. average.5 Sample Source Code for StudentRecord class Here is the code for our StudentRecord class.

println("Count="+StudentRecord. //print number of students System.I Now.J. //print anna's name System.out. StudentRecord().D.getStudentCount } record StudentRecord().setName("Beah").setName("Cris").println( annaRecord. beahRecord.setName("Anna"). } The output of this program is. public class StudentRecordExample { public static void main( String[] args ){ //create three objects for Student StudentRecord annaRecord = new StudentRecord beahRecord = new StudentRecord crisRecord = new //set the name of the students annaRecord. StudentRecord(). Anna Student Count = 0 Introduction to Programming I 169 .E. here's a sample code of a class that uses our StudentRecord class. ()). crisRecord.out.getName() ).

To understand this better. So in the statement. //WRONG!!! } The parameter name in this declaration is age. Introduction to Programming I 170 .D. age = age. we are just assigning the value of the parameter age to itself! This is not what we want to happen in our code. we type.E. In order to correct this mistake.<nameOfTheInstanceVariable> So for example. public void setAge( int age ){ age = age. To use the this reference. NOTE: You can only use the this reference for instance variables and NOT static or class variables. Since the parameter age is the closest declaration to the method. the value of the parameter age will be used. we can now rewrite our code to.5 The this reference The this reference is used to access the instance variables shadowed by the parameters. let's take for example the setAge method. we use the this reference.I 10. } This method will then assign the value of the parameter age to the instance variable of the object StudentRecord.J. which has the same name as the instance variable age.age = age. Suppose we have the following declaration for setAge. public void setAge( int age ){ this. this.

public void print( String temp ){ System. we want the method to print the student's name and grades. in our StudentRecord class we want to have a method that prints information about the student.println("Name:" + name). System. Rather than invent new names all the time. System.E.out. double sGrade) System.out. For example.6 Overloading Methods In our classes. Method overloading allows a method with the same name but different parameters.out.J.println("Math Grade:" + mGrade). We have the following overloaded methods inside our StudentRecord class. } public void print(double eGrade.out. and it is called Method Overloading. System.println("Address:" + address). we want to sometimes create methods that has the same names but function differently depending on the parameters that are passed to them. However.println("Name:" + name). When we pass 3 double values. method overloading can be used when the same operation has different implementations. System.I 10. we want the print method to print out the name. when we pass a String. to have different implementations and return values of different types. address and age of the student. } Introduction to Programming I 171 .println("English Grade:" + eGrade). double mGrade. For example.D.out.out.out. This capability is possible in Java.println("Age:" + age). System. we want the print method to print things differently depending on the parameters we pass to it.println("Science Grade:" + sGrade).

public static void main( String[] args ) { StudentRecord annaRecord = new StudentRecord(). annaRecord.setName("Anna").setScienceGrade(100). annaRecord.getScienceGrade()). – the same name – different parameters – return types can be different or the same Introduction to Programming I 172 .J.0 Always remember that overloaded methods have the following properties. annaRecord.D.print( annaRecord.5 Science Grade:100.print( annaRecord. //overloaded methods annaRecord. annaRecord. annaRecord.setAddress("Philippines").getEnglishGrade(). Name:Anna Math Grade:80. annaRecord. Name:Anna Address:Philippines Age:15 we will have the output for the second call to print.setEnglishGrade(95.setAge(15).I When we try to call this in the following main method.E. annaRecord.getMathGrade().0 English Grade:95. annaRecord.5).setMathGrade(80).getName() ). annaRecord. } we will have the output for the first call to print.

scope or accessibility identifier (like public. the default constructor would look like this.). we write.J. If the class does not specify any constructors. constructor's name and parameters if it has any. we have here four overloaded constructors. To declare a constructor..name = name. constructors can also be overloaded.D. double sGrade){ mathGrade = mGrade.1 Default Constructor Every class has a default constructor. Constructors does not have any return value 4. however only the following information can be placed in the header of the constructor. For example. double eGrade. String address){ this. It is a method where all the initializations are placed. The default constructor is the constructor without any parameters.2 Overloading Constructors As we have mentioned.7 Declaring Constructors We have discussed before the concept of constructors.7.I 10. } public StudentRecord(double mGrade. in our StudentRecord class. } Introduction to Programming I 173 . Constructors have the same name as the class 2. for example.7. Constructors are important in instantiating an object. 3.E. You cannot call a constructor directly. scienceGrade = sGrade. A constructor is just like an ordinary method. public StudentRecord() { //some code here } 10.address = address. englishGrade = eGrade. public StudentRecord(){ //some initialization code here } public StudentRecord(String temp){ this. <modifier> <className> (<parameter>*) { <statement>* } 10.. it can only be called by using the new operator during class instantiation. The following are the properties of a constructor: 1. } public StudentRecord(String name.name = temp. this. then an implicit default constructor is created.

100).J. what we want to do here is.7. //add a student } Introduction to Programming I 174 .name = temp. we have the following code. everytime an object of class StudentRecord is instantiated. For example. scienceGrade = sGrade. //add a student } public StudentRecord(double mGrade. public static void main( String[] args ) { //create three objects for Student record StudentRecord annaRecord=new StudentRecord("Anna"). String address){ this. "Philippines").E. //add a student } public StudentRecord(String temp){ this. because it is always called everytime an object is instantiated.I 10. studentCount++. public StudentRecord(){ //some initialization code here studentCount++. double sGrade){ mathGrade = mGrade. studentCount++. double eGrade. before we move on.90. studentCount++. englishGrade = eGrade. StudentRecord StudentRecord (80.D.3 Using Constructors To use these constructors. The purpose of the studentCount is to count the number of objects that are instantiated with the class StudentRecord. this. crisRecord=new StudentRecord Now. //some code here } beahRecord=new StudentRecord("Beah".address = address. A good location to modify and increment the value of studentCount is in the constructors. So.name = name. //add a student } public StudentRecord(String name. we increment the value of studentCount. let us go back to the static variable studentCount we have declared a while ago.

you can call another constructor from inside another constructor. There are a few things to remember when using the this constructor call: 1. when the statement at line 13 is called.7. For example. it will call the default constructor line 1. 14: } Given the code above. When statement in line 2 is executed. given the following code. IT MUST OCCUR AS THE FIRST STATEMENT in a constructor 2. We use the this() call for this.name = temp.I 10.J. 1: public StudentRecord(){ 2: this("some string"). It can ONLY BE USED IN A CONSTRUCTOR DEFINITION. The this call can then be followed by any other relevant statements. 8: } 9: 10: public static void main( String[] args ) 11: { 12: 13: StudentRecord annaRecord = new StudentRecord().D. meaning.E. it will then call the constructor that has a String parameter (in line 6).4 The this() Constructor Call Constructor calls can be chained. Introduction to Programming I 175 . When using the this constructor call. 3: 4: } 5: 6: public StudentRecord(String temp){ 7: this.

awt package. For example. import java. Another way to import classes from other packages is through explicit package referencing. all your Java programs import the java. Suppose we want to create a package where we will place our StudentRecord class. For example. you have to type the following. We will call our package.D. import java.*. java. package <packageName>.E. The first statement imports the specific class Color while the other imports all of the classes in the java. we write. 10.lang. Introduction to Programming I 176 .8 Packages Packages are Java’s means of grouping related classes and interfaces together in a single unit (interfaces will be discussed later). 10.awt. By default. After copying. The first thing you have to do is create a folder named schoolClasses. private int age. together with other related classes.1 Importing Packages To be able to use classes outside of the package you are currently working in. Copy all the classes that you want to belong to this package inside this folder. : Packages can also be nested. import <nameOfPackage>. schoolClasses.* package.8. private String address.2 Creating your own packages To create our own package.awt. you need to import the package of those classes.I 10. The syntax for importing packages is as follows. that is why you can use classes like String and Integers inside the program eventhough you haven't imported any packages.Color. add the following code at the top of the class file. the Java interpreter expects the directory structure containing the executable classes to match the package hierarchy. if you want to use the class Color inside package awt. package schoolClasses. In this case.8.J.Color color.awt. This is done by using the package name to declare an object of a class. public class StudentRecord { private String name. This powerful feature provides for a convenient mechanism for managing a large group of classes and interfaces while avoiding potential naming conflicts.

findClass(Unknown Source) at java.AccessController. We also have to tell JVM where to look for our packages.Launcher$AppClassLoader.URLClassLoader. suppose we place the package schoolClasses under the C:\ directory. Before we discuss how to set the classpath.ClassLoader.lang.net.defineClass(Unknown Source) at java. we jave to tell Java about its full class name which is schoolClasses.loadClass(Unknown Source) at sun.ClassLoader.lang. C:\schoolClasses> java schoolClasses.ClassLoader. Suppose we compile and then run the StudentRecord class we wrote in the last section.E.lang.doPrivileged(Native Method) at java.loadClassInternal(Unknown Source) We encounter a NoClassDefFoundError which means that Java did not know where to look for your class.lang.defineClass(Unknown Source) at java.NoClassDefFoundError: StudentRecord (wrong name: schoolClasses/StudentRecord) at java. we can now run our program anywhere by typing.net.SecureClassLoader. To do this. let us take a look at an example on what will happen if we don't set the classpath.URLClassLoader.net.3 Setting the CLASSPATH Now.ClassLoader.8.security. We need to set the classpath to point to that directory so that when we try to run it.net.lang. we type this at the command prompt. C:\schoolClasses> set classpath=C:\ where C:\ is the directory in which we have placed the packages.URLClassLoader$1.lang.ClassLoader. we must set the classpath. we write.security.run(Unknown Source) at java.access$100(Unknown Source) at java. the JVM will be able to see where our classes are stored. The reason for this is that your class StudentRecord now belongs to a package named studentClasses.URLClassLoader.J. export classpath=/usr/local/myClasses Introduction to Programming I 177 . If we want to run our class.defineClass(Unknown Source) at java.loadClass(Unknown Source) at java.java C:\schoolClasses>java StudentRecord Exception in thread "main" java.I 10. which in this case is in location C:\. suppose we have our classes in the directory /usr/local/myClasses.loadClass(Unknown Source) at java.misc.D. To set the classpath in Windows.defineClass1(Native Method) at java.StudentRecord. C:\schoolClasses>javac StudentRecord.StudentRecord For Unix base systems. After setting the classpath.

D:\. we just have to separate them by . set classpath=C:\myClasses. export classpath=/usr/local/java:/usr/myClasses Introduction to Programming I 178 .D.E.E:\MyPrograms\Java and for Unix based systems.J.I Take note that you can set the classpath anywhere.(for windows) and : (for Unix based systems). For example. You can also set more than one classpath.

10. public class StudentRecord { //default access to instance variable public int name. There are no actual keyword for the default modifier. Introduction to Programming I 179 .I 10.J.9 Access Modifiers When creating our classes and defining the properties and methods in our class. The first three access modifiers are explicitly written in the code to indicate the access type. For example. } } In this example. as long as the object belongs to the same package where the class StudentRecord belongs to. no keyword is used. for the fourth one which is default.2 public access This specifies that class members are accessible to anyone. There are four different types of member access modifiers in Java: public. you may want to hide this from other objects using your class. //default access to method public String getName(){ return name.1 default access (also called package accessibility) This specifies that only classes in the same package can have access to the class' variables and methods. the instance variable name and the method getName() can be accessed from other objects. it is applied in the absence of an access modifier. private. 10.E. protected and default. In Java.D. For example. if you want a certain attribute to be changed only by the methods inside the class. both inside and outside the class. Any object that interacts with the class can have access to the public members of the class. the instance variable name and the method getName() can be accessed from other objects.9.9. For example. public class StudentRecord { //default access to instance variable int name. we want to implement some kind of restriction to access these data. //default access to method String getName(){ return name. we have what we call access modifiers in order to implement this. } } In this example.

E. Introduction to Programming I 180 .9.D. } } In this example.4 private access This specifies that the class members are only accessible by the class they are defined in. 10. the instance variable name and the method getName() can be accessed only from methods inside the class and from subclasses of StudentRecord. //default access to method private String getName(){ return name. For example. } } In this example. Coding Guidelines: The instance variables of a class should normally be declared private. For example. the instance variable name and the method getName() can be accessed only from methods inside the class.3 protected access This specifies that the class members are accessible only to methods in that class and the subclasses of the class. and the class will just provide accessor and mutator methods to these variables. We will discuss about subclasses on the next chapter.J.9. public class StudentRecord { //default access to instance variable protected int name.I 10. //default access to method protected String getName(){ return name. public class StudentRecord { //default access to instance variable private int name.

Provide the necessary accessor and mutator methods for all the attributes. You should provide the following methods for the address book.E. 4. 3.D. Attributes/Properties Name Address Telephone Number Email Address Description Name of the person in the addressbook Address of the person Telephone number of the person Person's Email address Table 21: Attributes and Attributes Descriptions For the methods.10 Exercises 10. 2. Constructors 10.2 AddressBook Create a class address book that can contain 100 entries of AddressBookEntry objects (use the class you created in the first exercise).10.J. 2.I 10. create the following: 1. The following table describes the information that an adressbook entry has. 1.1 Address Book Entry Your task is to create a class that contains an address book entry. Add entry Delete entry View all entries Update an entry Introduction to Programming I 181 .10.

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11 Inheritance, Polymorphism and Interfaces
11.1 Objectives
In this section, we will be discussing on how a class can inherit the properties of an existing class. A class that does this is called a subclass and its parent class is called the superclass. We will also be discussing a special property of Java wherein it can automatically apply the proper methods to each object regardless of what subclass the object came from. This property is known as polymorphism. Finally, we are going to discusss about interfaces that helps reduce programming effort. At the end of the lesson, the student should be able to: • • • Define super classes and subclasses Override methods of superclasses Create final methods and final classes

11.2 Inheritance
In Java, all classes, including the classes that make up the Java API, are subclassed from the Object superclass. A sample class hierarchy is shown below. Any class above a specific class in the class hierarchy is known as a superclass. While any class below a specific class in the class hierarchy is known as a subclass of that class.

Inheritance is a major advantage in object-oriented programming since once a behavior (method) is defined in a superclass, that behavior is automatically inherited by all subclasses. Thus, you can encode a method only once and they can be used by all subclasses. A subclass only need to implement the differences between itself and the parent.

Figure 11.1: Class Hierarchy

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11.2.1 Defining Superclasses and Subclasses
To derive a class, we use the extends keyword. In order to illustrate this, let's create a sample parent class. Suppose we have a parent class called Person. public class Person { protected String protected String

name; address;

/** * Default constructor */ public Person(){ System.out.println(“Inside Person:Constructor”); name = ""; address = ""; } /** * Constructor with 2 parameters */ public Person( String name, String address ){ this.name = name; this.address = address; } /** * Accessor methods */ public String getName(){ return name; } public String getAddress(){ return address; } public void setName( String name ){ this.name = name; } public void setAddress( String add ){ this.address = add; } } Notice that, the attributes name and address are declared as protected. The reason we did this is that, we want these attributes to be accessible by the subclasses of the superclass. If we declare this as private, the subclasses won't be able to use them. Take note that all the properties of a superclass that are declared as public, protected and default can be accessed by its subclasses.

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Now, we want to create another class named Student. Since a student is also a person, we decide to just extend the class Person, so that we can inherit all the properties and methods of the existing class Person. To do this, we write, public class Student extends Person { public Student(){ System.out.println(“Inside Student:Constructor”); //some code here } } // some code here

When a Student object is instantiated, the default constructor of its superclass is invoked implicitly to do the necessary initializations. After that, the statements inside the subclass are executed. To illustrate this, consider the following code, public static void main( String[] args ){ Student anna = new Student(); } In the code, we create an object of class Student. The output of the program is, Inside Person:Constructor Inside Student:Constructor The program flow is shown below.

Figure 11.2: Program Flow

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11.2.2 The super keyword
A subclass can also explicitly call a constructor of its immediate superclass. This is done by using the super constructor call. A super constructor call in the constructor of a subclass will result in the execution of relevant constructor from the superclass, based on the arguments passed. For example, given our previous example classes Person and Student, we show an example of a super constructor call. Given the following code for Student, public Student(){ super( "SomeName", "SomeAddress" ); System.out.println("Inside Student:Constructor"); } This code calls the second constructor of its immediate superclass (which is Person) and executes it. Another sample code shown below, public Student(){ super(); System.out.println("Inside Student:Constructor"); } This code calls the default constructor of its immediate superclass (which is Person) and executes it. There are a few things to remember when using the super constructor call: 1. The super() call MUST OCCUR THE FIRST STATEMENT IN A CONSTRUCTOR. 2. The super() call can only be used in a constructor definition. 3. This implies that the this() construct and the super() calls CANNOT BOTH OCCUR IN THE SAME CONSTRUCTOR. Another use of super is to refer to members of the superclass (just like the this reference ). For example, public Student() { super.name = “somename”; super.address = “some address”; }

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11.2.3 Overriding Methods
If for some reason a derived class needs to have a different implementation of a certain method from that of the superclass, overriding methods could prove to be very useful. A subclass can override a method defined in its superclass by providing a new implementation for that method. Suppose we have the following implementation for the getName method in the Person superclass, public class Person { : : public String getName(){ System.out.println("Parent: getName"); return name; } : } To override, the getName method in the subclass Student, we write, public class Student extends Person { : : public String getName(){ System.out.println("Student: getName"); return name; } : } So, when we invoke the getName method of an object of class Student, the overridden method would be called, and the output would be, Student: getName

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11.2.4 Final Methods and Final Classes
In Java, it is also possible to declare classes that can no longer be subclassed. These classes are called final classes. To declare a class to be final, we just add the final keyword in the class declaration. For example, if we want the class Person to be declared final, we write, public final class Person { //some code here } Many of the classes in the Java API are declared final to ensure that their behavior cannot be overridden. Examples of these classes are Integer, Double and String. It is also possible in Java to create methods that cannot be overridden. These methods are what we call final methods. To declare a method to be final, we just add the final keyword in the method declaration. For example, if we want the getName method in class Person to be declared final, we write, public final String getName(){ return name; } Static methods are automatically final. This means that you cannot override them.

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11.3 Polymorphism
Now, given the parent class Person and the subclass Student of our previous example, we add another subclass of Person which is Employee. Below is the class hierarchy for that, Person

Student

Employee

Figure 11.3: Hierarchy for Person class and it's classes

In Java, we can create a reference that is of type superclass to an object of its subclass. For example, public static main( String[] args ) { Person ref; Student Employee studentObject = new Student(); employeeObject = new Employee();

ref = studentObject; //Person ref points to a // Student object } //some code here

Now suppose we have a getName method in our superclass Person, and we override this method in both the subclasses Student and Employee, public class Person { public String getName(){ System.out.println(“Person Name:” + name); return name; } } public class Student extends Person { public String getName(){ System.out.println(“Student Name:” + name); return name; } } public class Employee extends Person { public String getName(){ System.out.println(“Employee Name:” + name); return name; } }

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Now. Another example that exhibits the property of polymorphism is when we try to pass a reference to methods. the getName method of the Student object will be called.out. public static printInformation( Person p ){ . //getName of Student //class is called System. .println( temp ).I Going back to our main method. . employeeObject = new Employee(). ref = studentObject. public static main( String[] args ) { Student studentObject = new Student(). Polymorphism allows multiple objects of different subclasses to be treated as objects of a single superclass. Employee employeeObject = new Employee(). Student Employee studentObject = new Student(). Suppose we have a static method printInformation that takes in a Person object as reference.println( temp ). ref = employeeObject.E.D. } Introduction to Programming I 189 .getName().J. we can actually pass a reference of type Employee and type Student to this method as long as it is a subclass of the class Person. while automatically selecting the proper methods to apply to a particular object based on the subclass it belongs to. } printInformation( employeeObject ). public static main( String[] args ) { Person ref. if we assign ref to an Employee object. the getName method of Employee will be called. //Person reference points to a // Student object String temp = ref. //Person reference points to an // Employee object String temp = ref. } This ability of our reference to change behavior according to what object it is holding is called polymorphism. when we try to call the getName method of the reference Person ref. printInformation( studentObject ). //getName of Employee //class is called System.out.getName(). .

E. For example. we want to create a superclass named LivingThing. Figure 11. For example. Those methods in the abstract classes that do not have implementation are called abstract methods. This kind of class is called an abstract class. sleep and walk. we can create a superclass that has some methods with implementations and others which do not. the walk method. It often appears at the top of an object-oriented programming class hierarchy. eat. An abstract class is a class that cannot be instantiated. Take for example. we humans walk on two legs.J. there are some methods in this superclass wherein we cannot generalize the behavior. Take the humans for instance.4: Abstract class In order to do this. defining the broad types of actions possible with objects of all subclasses of the class. that is why we want to create a general superclass for this.D. Introduction to Programming I 190 . This class has certain methods like breath. Not all living things walk the same way. just write the method declaration without the body and use the abstract keyword. there are many characteristics that living things have in common. However. To create an abstract method.I 11.4 Abstract Classes Now suppose we want to create a superclass wherein it has certain methods in it that contains some implementation. and some methods wherein we just want to be overridden by its subclasses. public abstract void someMethod(). However. while other living things like dogs walk on four legs.

java:1: Human is not abstract and does not override abstract method walk() in LivingThing public class Human extends LivingThing ^ 1 error Coding Guidelines: Use abstract classes to define broad types of behaviors at the top of an object-oriented programming class hierarchy. Introduction to Programming I 191 ..I Now.println("Human walks.out. public class Human extends LivingThing { public void walk(){ System. } When a class extends the LivingThing abstract class. let's create an example abstract class.D.").. and therefore cannot be instantiated.. } } If the class Human does not override the walk method. } public void eat(){ System.E. we would encounter the following error message.out."). or else...J. } /** * abstract method walk * We want this method to be overridden by subclasses of * LivingThing */ public abstract void walk(). it is required to override the abstract method walk().out. For example. that subclass will also become an abstract class. and use its subclasses to provide implementation details of the abstract class.println("Living Thing breathing.println("Living Thing eating.").. public abstract class LivingThing { public void breath(){ System. Human.

to implement common behaviors. but present in other object-oriented languages like C++. they are defined independently.I 11. Finally. both of the classes have some similar methods which compares them from other objects of the same type. public boolean isEqual( Object a. Multiple inheritance is not present in Java.5.E. we can actually use an interface as data type. As we can see here. Introduction to Programming I 192 . } Another reason for using an object's programming interface is to reveal an object's programming interface without revealing its class. In order to enforce a way to make sure that these two classes implement some methods with similar signatures. 11. let's say interface Relation which has some comparison method declarations. regardless of their location in the class hierarchy. Interfaces define the signatures of a set of methods without the body. 11. Object b). we can actually capture similarities among unrelated classes without artificially forcing a class relationship. Let's take as an example a class Line which contains methods that computes the length of the line and compares a Line object to objects of the same class. Classes.J. an interface can only define constants and an interface have no direct inherited relationship with any particular class. Object b). since program may call an interface method and the proper version of that method will be executed depending on the type of object passed to the interface method call.5 Interfaces An interface is a special kind of block containing method signatures (and possibly constants) only. Object b). Interfaces define a standard and public way of specifying the behavior of classes. Now. public boolean isLess( Object a.2 Interface vs.D. Abstract Class The following are the main differences between an interface and an abstract class: interface methods have no body. suppose we have another class MyInteger which contains methods that compares a MyInteger object to objects of the same class. Thru interfaces. but they are not related whatsoever. we can use an interface for this.5.1 Why do we use Interfaces? We need to use interfaces if we want unrelated classes to implement similar methods. public interface Relation { public boolean isGreater( Object a. Note that interfaces exhibit polymorphism as well. As we can see later on the section Interface vs. We can create an interface class. They allow classes. we need to use interfaces to model multiple inheritance which allows a class to have more than one superclass. Our interface Relation can be declared as.

5. an interface does not have an implementation code while the class have one. public interface [InterfaceName] { //some methods without the body } As an example. pc = new Person().3 Interface vs. Object b). private double y1. For example. private double y2. double y1. An example of this is: PersonInterface pi = new PersonInterface(). However. For example. let's create an interface that defines relationships between two objects according to the “natural order” of the objects. this. Object b).D.E. private double x2.y1 = y1. } Now.x2 = x2. 11. this. This means that an interface can be used in places where a class can be used. public boolean isEqual( Object a. double y2){ this. public interface Relation { public boolean isGreater( Object a. public boolean isLess( Object a. /** * This class defines a line segment */ public class Line implements Relation { private double x1. we write. you cannot create an instance from an interface.5. given a class Person and an interface PersonInterface. } public double getLength(){ Introduction to Programming I 193 . to use the interface.x1 = x1. Class One common characteristic of an interface and class is that they are both types.y2 = y2. Object b). we use the implements keyword. //COMPILE //ERROR!!! Another common characteristic is that both interface and class can define methods.J. public Line(double x1. However. this.I 11.4 Creating Interfaces To create an interface. double x2. the following declarations are valid: PersonInterface Person pi = new Person().

java:4: Line is not abstract and does not override abstract method isGreater(java.lang.E.getLength(). you would encounter this error.D. double bLen = ((Line)b). return (aLen == bLen).Object. Line.java.getLength(). } public boolean isEqual( Object a.getLength().Object) in Relation public class Line implements Relation ^ 1 error Coding Guidelines: Use interfaces to create the same standard method definitions in may different classes. Object b){ double aLen = ((Line)a). Object b){ double aLen = ((Line)a).getLength(). double bLen = ((Line)b). return length. return (aLen < bLen).getLength(). Introduction to Programming I 194 .I } double length = Math. Once a set of standard method definition is created.sqrt((x2-x1)*(x2-x1) + (y2-y1)* (y2-y1)). or else. public boolean isGreater( Object a. double bLen = ((Line)b). return (aLen > bLen). always make sure that you implement all the methods of that interface.lang. you can write a single method to manipulate all of the classes that implement the interface. } } When your class tries to implement an interface. } public boolean isLess( Object a.getLength().J. Object b){ double aLen = ((Line)a).

Another thing to note about the relationship of interfaces to classes is that. .5 Relationship of an Interface to a Class As we have seen in the previous section. it will inherit all of the method declarations in PersonInterface. a class can only EXTEND ONE super class.5. a class can implement an interface as long as it provides the implementation code for all the methods defined in the interface. but it can IMPLEMENT MANY interfaces. Unrelated classes can implement the same interface. However. WhateverInterface { } //some code here Another example of a class that extends one super class and implements an interface is. . If StudentInterface extends PersonInterface. LivingThing { } //some code here Take note that an interface is not part of the class inheritance hierarchy.J. public interface PersonInterface { . interfaces can have inheritance relationship among themselves. LivingThing. public class Person implements PersonInterface. } Introduction to Programming I 195 . For example. public class ComputerScienceStudent extends Student implements PersonInterface. .D.E. An example of a class that implements many interfaces is. suppose we have two interfaces StudentInterface and PersonInterface.6 Inheritance among Interfaces Interfaces are not part of the class hierarchy. } public interface StudentInterface extends PersonInterface { .5. 11. .I 11.

1 Extending StudentRecord In this exercise.J.E. we want to create a more specialized student record that contains additional information about a Computer Science student.2 The Shape abstract class Try to create an abstract class called Shape with abstract methods getArea() and getName(). Try to override some existing methods in the superclass StudentRecord. You can add additional methods to its subclasses if you want to. if you really need to. Introduction to Programming I 196 .I 11. Add some attributes and methods that you think are needed for a Computer Science student record.6. Your task is to extend the StudentRecord class that was implemented in the previous lessons.D. 11.6 Exercises 11.6. Write two of its subclasses Circle and Square.

we are going to study a technique used in Java to handle unusual conditions that interrupt the normal operation of the program.1 Objectives In this section. . 12.2 What are Exceptions? An exception is an event that interrupts the normal processing flow of a program.E. the student should be able to: • • Define exceptions Handle exceptions using a simple try-catch-finally block 12.3 Handling Exceptions To handle exceptions in Java.D. or maybe a NumberFormatException. At the end of the lesson. This technique is called exception handling. which occurs if we try to access a non-existent array element. This event is usually some error of some sort.I 12 Basic Exception Handling 12. catch( <exceptionTypen> <varNamen> ){ //write the action your program will do if an //exception of a certain type occurs } finally{ //add more cleanup code here } //write the action your program will do if an exception //of a certain type occurs Introduction to Programming I 197 . we use a try-catch-finally block. try{ //write the statements that can generate an exception //in this block } catch( <exceptionType1> <varName1> ){ } .parseInt method. What we do in our programs is that we place the statements that can possibly generate an exception inside this block. which occurs when we try to pass as a parameter a non-number in the Integer. . The general form of a try-catch-finally block is. Some examples of exceptions that you might have encountered in our previous exercises are: ArrayIndexOutOfBounds exceptions.J. This causes our program to terminate abnormally.

main(ExceptionExample.D. • Each catch block defines an exception handle.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException: 1 at ExceptionExample.1: Flow of events in a try-catch-finally block Let's take for example a code that prints the second argument when we try to run the code using command-line arguments.I Exceptions thrown during execution of the try block can be caught and handled in a catch block. • A try block must be followed by at least one catch block OR one finally block. but only one finally block.J. The header of the catch block takes exactly one argument. • The catch blocks and finally blocks must always appear in conjunction with the try block. there is no checking inside your code for the number of arguments and we just access the second argument args[1] right away. The exception must be of the Throwable class or one of its subclasses.java:5) Introduction to Programming I 198 . which is the exception its block is willing to handle. Figure 12. The following are the key aspects about the syntax of the try-catch-finally construct: • The block notation is mandatory. or both. Exception in thread "main" java. Suppose. there can be one or more catch blocks.lang.E. we'll get the following exception. The code in the finally block is always executed. and in the above order. • For each try block.

public class ExceptionExample { public static void main( String[] args ){ System.J.I To prevent this from happening.E. The finally block is just optional. the output would be.D.println("Exception caught!"). we won't use the finally block.println( args[1] ). }catch( ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException exp ){ System.out. } } try{ } So when we try to run the program again without arguments. Exception caught! Introduction to Programming I 199 .out. we can place the code inside a try-catch block. For this example.

main(1.out. they simply halted the execution of your code.2 Catching Exceptions 2 Chances are very good that some programs you've written before have encountered exceptions. The output should look like this: javac TestExceptions one two three args[0]=one args[1]=two args[2]=three Exception in thread "main" java.4... i++ ){ System.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException: 3 at TestExceptions.1 Catching Exceptions1 Given the following code: public class TestExceptions{ public static void main( String[] args ){ for( int i=0.lang.I 12.lang.println("args["+i+"]="+ args[i]).4.4 Exercises 12. Introduction to Programming I 200 . Go back to those programs and implement exception handling. 12. The output of the program after catching the exception should look like this: javac TestExceptions one two three args[0]=one args[1]=two args[2]=three Exception caught: java.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException: 3 Quiting.java:4) Modify the TestExceptions program to handle the exception. Since you didn't catch the exceptions.J. true.D.E. } } } Compile and run the TestExceptions program.

Introduction to Programming I 201 .0/download.E.0/Windows XP).0 installers by your instructor.jsp for Java and http://www. we will discuss on how to install Java and Netbeans in your system (Redhat Linux 9.5 and Netbeans 4.org/downloads/ for Netbeans). copy the installers in your hard disk first. For Linux: Create a folder under the /usr directory and name it java. Before starting with the installation.sun. and copy all the installers inside this folder.netbeans. You will now have a /usr/java directory.J.5. If you are not provided with the Java 1.com/j2se/1.I Appendix A : Java and Netbeans Installation In this section.D. you can download a copy of the installers from the Sun Microsystems website (http://java. For Windows: Just copy the installers in any temporary directory.

I Installing Java in Linux Step 1: Run Terminal To start Terminal.J.2: Start Terminal Introduction to Programming I 202 .E. click on Menu-> System Tools-> Terminal Figure 12.D.

E.D.I Step 2: Go to the folder where you copied the Java installer.J. type: cd /usr/java Figure 12.3: Change directory Introduction to Programming I 203 . To go to the folder.

D. type: ls The ls (list) command will list all the files inside your directory.4: List all files Make your installer file executable by using the chmod command. Figure 12. type: chmod u+x jdk-1_5_0_01-linux-i586.bin Figure 12.E. To do this.I To make sure that all installers you need are already in the folder.J.5: Make an installer an executable file Introduction to Programming I 204 .

D./jdk-1_5_0_01-linux-i586.I Step 3: Run the installer To run the installer. just type: .6: Run installer Introduction to Programming I 205 .E.bin Figure 12.J.

Just press enter. you will see the license agreement displayed on the console. until you see the question: Do you agree to the above license terms? [yes or no].7: License agreement Figure 12.J.9: License agreement Figure 12. Just type: yes. and press ENTER.E.8: License agreement Introduction to Programming I 206 . Figure 12.D.I After pressing ENTER.

I Just wait for the installer to finish unpacking all its contents and installing java.D.E.10: Finish installation Introduction to Programming I 207 . Figure 12.J.

go to the directory:/usr/local/bin. To do this.I Step 4: Creating symbolic links In order to run java commands anywhere. we need to create symbolic links for all the commands in JDK inside the /usr/local/bin directory.11: Change directory Introduction to Programming I 208 .E.D. Type: cd /usr/local/bin Figure 12.J.

type: ln -s /usr/java/jdk1.5.12: Create Symbolic links Introduction to Programming I 209 . Figure 12.E.0_01/bin/* .I To make the symbolic links to the commands.J.D.

I Installing Java in Windows Step 1: Using Windows Explorer.J.13: Folder containing installers Introduction to Programming I 210 .D. go to the folder where your Java installer is located Figure 12.E.

J. A J2SE installer dialog will then appear. just double-click on the installer icon.E.14: License agreement Introduction to Programming I 211 .D. Click on the radio button labeled "I accept the terms in the license agreement" and press NEXT.I Step 2: Run the installer To run the installer. Figure 12.

Figure 12.I Click on NEXT to continue installation.E.16: Finish installation Introduction to Programming I 212 .15: Custom setup Click on FINISH to complete installation. Figure 12.J.D.

17: Run Console Introduction to Programming I 213 .E.D.J.I Installing Netbeans in Linux Step 1: Run Terminal To start Terminal. click on Menu-> System Tools-> Terminal Figure 12.

type: cd /usr/java Figure 12. To go to the folder.I Step 2: Go to the folder where you copied the Netbeans installer.18: Change directory Introduction to Programming I 214 .E.J.D.

J.bin Figure 12.I To make sure that all installers you need are already in the folder.19: List all files Make your installer file executable by using the chmod command. To do this. Figure 12. type: chmod u+x netbeans-4_0-bin-linux.D.20: Make installer an executable Introduction to Programming I 215 .E. type: ls The ls (list) command will list all the files inside your directory.

type: . Click on NEXT.21: Run installer Figure Introduction to Programming I 12.0 Installer dialog will then appear.D.E./netbeans-4_0-bin-linux. Figure 12.I Step 3: Run Installer To run the netbeans installer.J.22: Netbeans installation wizard 216 .bin A netbeans 4.

0.J. And then click on NEXT.D.E.23: Netbeans license agreement Figure 12. change it to: /usr/java/netbeans-4.I Click on the radio button that says "I accept the terms in the license agreement". For the directory name. Figure 12.24: Choose directory on where to install netbeans Introduction to Programming I 217 . then click on NEXT.

25: Choose jdk version to use Figure 12.E.26: Installation summary Introduction to Programming I 218 . Figure 12. Just click again on NEXT. choose /usr/java/jdk1. The next dialog just shows information about Netbeans thatyou will install.5.J. and then click on NEXT.0_01.D.I For the JDK directory.

28: Installation successful Introduction to Programming I 219 .27: Netbeans installation Click on FINISH to complete the installation. just wait for netbeans to finish its installation. Figure 12.D. Figure 12.I Now.J.E.

30: Create symbolic links Introduction to Programming I 220 . To do this. we need to create symbolic link for it. Figure 12.0/bin/netbeans . go first to the directory:/usr/local/bin.J.D.E. Type: cd /usr/local/bin Make a symbolic link to the netbeans executable by typing: ln -s /usr/java/netbeans-4.29: Change directory Figure 12.I Step 4: Creating symbolic links In order to run netbeans anywhere.

31: Netbeans running Introduction to Programming I 221 .D.I Now. you can run netbeans in any directory by typing: netbeans & Figure 12.E.J.

go to the folder where your Netbeans installer is located Figure 12.I Installing Netbeans in Windows Step 1: Using Windows Explorer.J. just double-click on the installer icon.32: Netbeans installer files Step 2: Run the installer To run the installer. the Netbeans installation wizard will appear.33: Netbeans installation Introduction to Programming I 222 . Figure 12.E.D. After clicking on the netbeans4_0-bin-windows icon. Click on NEXT to enter installation process.

J. Figure 12.34: License agreement Figure 12. You can move on by clicking NEXT or you can click on BROWSE to choose a different directory. Then you will be given the choice on which directory to place the Netbeans.D. Choose to ACCEPT and click NEXT to continue.E.35: Choose directory where to install Netbeans Introduction to Programming I 223 .I The agreement page will the appear.

E. Click on NEXT to continue. Click on NEXT to finish installation. the jdk1.0_01 chould appear from your choices.36: Choose JDK to use Figure 12.I Next is choosing the Standard Edition JDKs from your machine. It will then inform you the location and size of Netbeans which will be installed to your machine.5. If you have finished installing Java.37: Installation summary Introduction to Programming I 224 . Figure 12.D.J.

Click on FINISH to complete installation.E.J.I You have installed Netbeans on your computer.38: Successful installation Introduction to Programming I 225 .D. Figure 12.

the first one is by using a console and a text editor.out. My First Java Program public class Hello { /** * My first java program */ public static void main(String[] args) { //prints the string "Hello world" on screen System. let us first take a look at the first Java program you will be writing. a text or code editor.E. compile and run Java programs. let's first try to write this program in a file and try to run it.J. a compiler and/or interpreter and a debugger.println("Hello world!").D. } } Before we try to explain what the program means. we will be discussing on how to write. There are two ways of doing this. Introduction to Programming I 226 .I Appendix B: Getting to know your Programming Environment (Windows XP version) In this section. The second one is by using Netbeans which is an Integrated Development Environment or IDE. An IDE is a programming environment integrated into a software application that provides a GUI builder. Before going into details.

You will also need to open the MS-DOS prompt window to compile and execute your Java programs.I Using a Text Editor and Console For this example.E. click on start-> All Programs-> Accessories-> Notepad.40: Notepad Application Figure 12.D. we will be using the text editor "Notepad"(for Windows) to edit the Java source code. You can use other text editors if you want to. Figure 12. Step 1: Start Notepad To start Notepad in Windows.39: Click on start-> All Programs-> Accessories -> Notepad Introduction to Programming I 227 .J.

Figure 12.D.J.42: MSDOS Command Prompt Introduction to Programming I 228 .41: start-> All programs-> Accessories -> Command Prompt Figure 12.E. click on start-> All programs-> Accessories-> Command Prompt.I Step 2: Open the Command Prompt window To open the MSDOS command prompt in Windows.

click on the File menu found on the menubar and then click on Save.java".I Step 3: Write your the source code of your Java program in Notepad Step 4: Save your Java Program We will save our program on a file named "Hello. and we will be saving it inside a folder named MYJAVAPROGRAMS.D. To open the Save dialog box. Introduction to Programming I 229 .J.E.

E.D. a dialog box will appear as shown in Figure below.43: This Dialog appears after clicking on File -> Save Click on the MY DOCUMENTS button to open the My Documents folder where we will be saving all your Java programs. Introduction to Programming I 230 . Figure 12.J.I After doing the procedure described above.

44: Click on the button encircled.E.J.I Now. Figure 12.D. Click on the button encircled in the figure below to create the folder. Introduction to Programming I 231 . This will open your "My Documents" folder Figure 12. we'll create a new folder inside the My Documents folder where we will save your programs.45: Clicking on the encircled button will create a New Folder. We shall name this folder MYJAVAPROGRAMS.

Introduction to Programming I 232 . type in MYJAVAPROGRAMS.D.E. In this case.I After the folder is created. and then press ENTER.J. you can type in the desired name for this folder.

You will see a similar figure as shown below.D. double click on that folder to open it.J. The folder should be empty for now since it's a newly created folder and we haven't saved anything in it yet.E.I Now that we've created the folder where we will save all the files. Introduction to Programming I 233 .

java".I Now click on the drop down list box "Save as type". and then click on the SAVE button. which is "Hello. so that we can choose what kind of file we want to save. in the Filename textbox. Introduction to Programming I 234 .E.J.D. type in the filename of your program. Click on the "All Files" option. Now.

notice how the title of the frame changes from UntitledNotepad to Hello.J.I Now that you've saved your file. and then save it again by clicking on File -> Save. Take note that if you want to make changes in your file.java-Notepad.E. Introduction to Programming I 235 . you can just edit it.D.

you can see here that there is a folder named "My Documents" where we created your MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder. To see what is inside that home folder. the next step is to compile your program.J. Figure 12.I Step 5: Compiling your program Now.E. Typically.46: List of files and folders shown after executing the command DIR. Now let's go inside that directory. type DIR or dir and then press ENTER. Go to the MSDOS command prompt window we just opened a while ago. it opens up and takes you directly to what is called your home folder.D. Introduction to Programming I 236 . What you will see is a list of files and folders inside your home folder. when you open the command prompt window. Now.

The "cd" command stands for. try typing in the "dir" command again. In this case.D. change directory. since the name of our directory is My Documents. you type in the command: cd [directory name].48: The contents of My Documents Now perform the same steps described before to go inside the MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder. and tell me what you see. Introduction to Programming I 237 .E.J. Figure 12.I To go inside a directory. Figure 12. you type in: cd My Documents.47: Inside the My Documents folder Now that you are inside the "My Documents" folder.

class. In order to do that. you should make sure that the file is inside the folder where you are in. let us now start compiling your Java program.49: Inside the MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder Figure 12.E.D.50: Compile program by usingthe javac command During compilation. Introduction to Programming I 238 .java. Hello. or in this case. execute the dir command again to see if your file is inside that folder. Take note that.J.class. Figure 12. we type in the command: javac [filename]. To compile a Java program. So in this case. which is the actual bytecode. type in: javac Hello. javac adds a file to the disk called [filename].I Once inside the folder where your Java programs are.

51: Output of the program Introduction to Programming I 239 . Figure 12. To run your Java program. so in the case of our example. type in the command: java [filename without the extension].I Step 6: Running the Program Now.J. assuming that there are no problems during compilation (we'll explore more of the problems encountered during compilation in the next section). we are now ready to run your program. "Hello world!".E.D. type in: java Hello You can see on the screen that you have just run your first Java program that prints the message.

2_04\bin.E.53: Setting the path and running java Introduction to Programming I 240 .J.52: System did not recognize the javac command If you are sure that you've already installed Java in your system. This will tell your system to look for the commands in the C:\j2sdk1.D. After doing this. or you have to configure the path on where the Java commands are installed so that your system will know where to find them. To do this.I Setting the Path Sometimes. operable program or batch file. when you try to invoke the javac or java command. type in the command: set PATH=C:\j2sdk1. you encounter the message: 'javac' is not recognized as an internal or external command. Figure 12.2_04\bin folder. which is usually the default location wherein your Java files are placed during installation.4. you can now use the Java commands. try setting the PATH variable to point to where the Java commands are installed. Figure 12.4. This means that either you haven't installed Java in your system yet.

let's now see how to do all the processes we've described in the previous sections by using just one application. click on start-> All Programs-> NetBeans 4.0 -> NetBeans IDE Introduction to Programming I 241 . a text or code editor. we will be using Netbeans. In this part of the lesson.I Using Netbeans Now that we've tried doing our programs the complicated way.D. a compiler and/or interpreter and a debugger. which is an Integrated Development Environment or IDE.J. Step 1: Run Netbeans To run Netbeans. An IDE is a programming environment integrated into a software application that provides a GUI builder.E.

D.J.E.I After you've open NetBeans IDE. Figure 12. you will see a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to what is shown below.54: NetBeans IDE Introduction to Programming I 242 .

Click on File-> New Project. Introduction to Programming I 243 . let's first make a project.J. After doing this. a New Project dialog will appear.D.E.I Step 2: Make a project Now.

Edit the Project Name part and type in "HelloApplication". Introduction to Programming I 244 . Now.I Now click on Java Application and click on the NEXT button.E.D. a New Application dialog will appear.J.

E. Finally.D. on the Create Main Class textfield. Introduction to Programming I 245 .55: Change Project Name Now try to change the Application Location. type in Hello as the main class' name. and then click on the FINISH button.I Figure 12.J. by clicking on the BROWSE button. Follow the steps described in the previous section to go to your MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder.

I Step 3: Type in your program Before typing in your program. This can all be found in your MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder. let us first describe the main window after creating the project. Introduction to Programming I 246 .D. where you set the Project location. NetBeans automatically creates the basic code for your Java program.E. you can see a list of folders and files that NetBeans generated after creating the project.J. As shown below. You can just add your own statements to the generated code. On the left side of the window.

E.D. try to modify the code generated by Netbeans.I Now.J. you could also use the shortcut button to compile your code. just click on Build -> Build Main Project. Step 4: Compile your program Now. Or.out. after the statement. Insert the code: System. to compile your program. as we will explain the details of the code later. Introduction to Programming I 247 .println("Hello world!"). //TODO code application logic here. Ignore the other parts of the program for now.

E.J.56: Shortcut button to compile code Introduction to Programming I 248 .I Figure 12.D.

Figure 12.D.I If there are no errors in your program.E. you will see a build successful message on the output window.J.57: Output window just below the window where you type your source code Introduction to Programming I 249 .

58: Shortcut button to run program The output of your program is displayed in the output window. click on Run-> Run Main Project.E. Figure 12. Or you could also use the shortcut button to run your program.I Step 5: Run your program To run your program.java Introduction to Programming I 250 . Figure 12.59: Output of Hello.D.J.

J.E.D. Baking Bread Pseudocode: prepare all ingredients pour all ingredients in mixing bowl while batter not smooth yet mix ingredients pour into bread pan place inside oven while bread not yet done wait Flowchart: remove from oven Introduction to Programming I 251 .I Appendix C : Answers to Exercises Chapter 1 Exercises 1.1 Writing Algorithms 1.

Logging into your laboratory's computer Pseudocode: Let power = computer's power button Let in = status of user (initially false) if power == off Press power button Enter "boot" process while in== false enter user name enter password if password and user name correct in = true end while Flowchart: Introduction to Programming I 252 .E.D.J.I 2.

E.D.I 3.J. Getting the average of three numbers Pseudocode: Let count = 0 Let sum = 0 Let average = 0 While count < 3 Get number sum = sum + number count++ average = sum/3 Flowchart: Display average Introduction to Programming I 253 .

E. B 1100. 3 Octal = 3674 110.D. 198010 to binary.I 1. C 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 011.2 Number Conversions 1. 6 111.J. hexadecimal and octal To Binary: 1980/2 = 990 990/2 = 495 495/2 = 247 247/2 = 123 123/2 = 61 61/2 = 30 30/2 = 15 15/2 = 7 7/2 = 3 3/2 = 1 1/2 = 0 Binary = 11110111100 To Hexadecimal: 0111. 7 100 4 Introduction to Programming I 254 . 7 Hexadecimal = 7BC To Octal: 1011.

E. 1 101 5 Introduction to Programming I 255 .D. 4 1101 D 001. 2 Hexadecimal = 24D To Octal: 0100.I 2. 1 001.J. hexadecimal and octal To Decimal: 1*1 = 1 0*2 = 0 1*4 = 4 1*8 = 8 0 * 16 = 0 0 * 32 = 0 1 * 64 = 64 0 * 128 = 0 0 * 256 = 0 1 * 512 = 512 TOTAL= 589 Decimal = 589 To Hexadecimal: 0010. 1 Octal = 1115 001. 10010011012 to decimal.

E Introduction to Programming I 256 . 3 Hexadecimal = 3E To Decimal: 6*1= 6 7 * 8 = 56 TOTAL = 62 Decimal = 62 1110.I 3. hexadecimal and decimal To Binary: 111. 768 to binary. 7 Binary = 111110 To Hexadecimal: 110. 6 0011.E.J.D.

D.I 4. 2 Octal = 02077 000 . 0 111 . F 1111 010. 7 111 7 Chapter 2 (No exercises) Introduction to Programming I 257 .E. decimal and octal To Binary: 4 0100. Binary = 010000111111 To Decimal: F * 1 = 15 3 * 16 = 48 4 * 256 = 1024 TOTAL= 1087 Decimal = 1087 To Octal: 3 0011. 43F16 to binary.J.

println("Against the Earth's flowing breast.2 The Tree /** * A program that prints four lines on screen */ public class TheTree { public static void main(String[] args){ System.out.println("a poem as lovely as a tree.").out.").println("A tree whose hungry mouth is pressed"). } } Introduction to Programming I 258 .").J.E.out. System.println("Welcome to Java Programming [YourName]!!!"). System. */ public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String[] args){ System.out.D. } } 3.out.1 Hello World! /** * This class prints the line "Welcome to Java Programming [YourName]!!!" * on screen.I Chapter 3 Exercises 3. System.println("I think I shall never see.

out.20.out.println("Average is = "+ave).println("result = "+result).out. //declares boolean result with true as initial value boolean result = true. System. 45.println("Number = "+number). System. } } Introduction to Programming I 259 .println("str = "+str).println("letter = "+letter).2 Getting the average of three numbers /** * A program that solves for the average * of the three numbers: 10.D.out. //get the average of the three numbers // and saves it inside the ave variable int ave = (num1+num2+num3)/3. 20.println("number 1 = "+num1). //prints the values of the variables on screen System.println("number 3 = "+num3). System.out.E.1 Declaring and printing variables /** * A program that declares different variables * then outputs the values of the variables */ public class VariableSample { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares integer number with 10 as initial value int number = 10.println("number 2 = "+num2). //prints the output on the screen System. System.out. System.I Chapter 4 Exercises 4. System. and 45 * then outputs the result on the screen */ public class AverageNumber { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares int num1 = int num2 = int num3 = the three numbers 10. } } 4.J.out. //declares character letter with 'a' as initial value char letter = 'a'.out. //declares String str with "hello" as initial value String str = "hello".

out.out.out. ((((((3*10)*2)/15)-2+4)^2)^2) 3. //determines the highest number max = (num1>num2)?num1:num2. System.println("The highest number is = "+max).3 Output greatest value /** * A program that outputs the number with * the greatest value given thre numbers */ public class GreatestValue { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares the numbers int num1 = 10.4 Operator precedence 1. System.out. max = (max>num3)?max:num3. int num3 = 5. System.I 4. (((a/b)^c)^((d-e+f-(g*h))+i)) 2.E. } } 4.D.println("number 2 = "+num2). int num2 = 23. ((r^((((s*t)/u)-v)+w))^(x-(y++))) Introduction to Programming I 260 .println("number 3 = "+num3). int max = 0.println("number 1 = "+num1). //prints the output on the screen System.J.

readLine().//gets the 3rd word }catch( IOException e){ System.io.out.print("Enter word2: ").//gets the 2nd word System. } } Introduction to Programming I 261 .I Chapter 5 Exercises 5. try{ System. String thirdWord = "".J. } //prints the phrase System.println(firstWord + " " + secondWord + " " + thirdWord).println("Error in getting input").readLine(). /** * A program that asks three words from the user * and then prints it on the screen as a phrase */ public class LastThreeWords { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares the variable reader as the BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader( new InputStreamReader( System.out.//gets the 1st word System. secondWord = reader. firstWord = reader.E.readLine().in)).*.print("Enter word1: ").out.out.1 Last 3 words (BufferedReader version) import java.D.out. //declares the String variables for the three words String firstWord = "".print("Enter word3: "). thirdWord = reader. String secondWord = "".

/** * A program that asks three words from the user using the JOptionPane * and then displays these three words as a phrase on the screen */ public class LastThreeWords { public static void main(String[] args){ //gets the first word from the user String firstWord = JoptionPane.JOptionPane.J. } } Introduction to Programming I 262 .E.showInputDialog ("Enter word2").firstWord+ " "+secondWord+ " "+thirdWord).2 Last 3 words (JOptionPane version) import javax.showInputDialog ("Enter word3").showInputDialog ("Enter word1"). //gets the third word from the user String thirdWord = JoptionPane.showMessageDialog(null. //displays the message JoptionPane.swing.I 5. //gets the second word from the user String secondWord = JoptionPane.D.

1 Grades Using BufferedReader: import java.out.parseInt (reader. thirdGrade = Integer.parseInt (reader.-)").D.parseInt (reader. /** * Gets three number inputs from the user * then displays the average on the screen */ public class Grades { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares the variable reader as the BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader ( new InputStreamReader( System.print("Average: "+average).out. double average = 0. int secondGrade = 0.print("Second grade: ").*. System. System.exit(0).println("Input is invalid"). }catch( Exception e){ System.print(" . } //solves for the average average = (firstGrade+secondGrade+thirdGrade)/3.out. else System.out.readLine()).readLine()).print("Third grade: ").E. //prints the average of the three exams System.J. firstGrade = Integer. } } Introduction to Programming I 263 . try{ System.-(").io.out. secondGrade = Integer. int thirdGrade = 0.in)).out. int firstGrade = 0.print("First grade: ").readLine()).print(" . System.out. if(average>=60) System.I Chapter 6 Exercises 6.

showMessageDialog(null.showInputDialog ("First grade")). /** * Gets three number inputs from the user * then displays the average on the screen */ public class Grades { public static void main(String[] args){ double double double double try{ firstGrade = 0. System.parseDouble (JoptionPane.J.showInputDialog ("Third grade")). thirdGrade = Double. secondGrade = 0. } //solves for the average average = (firstGrade+secondGrade+thirdGrade)/3.parseDouble (JOptionPane. "Input is invalid"). if(average>=60){ JoptionPane.showMessageDialog (null.-)").showInputDialog ("Second grade")).parseDouble (JoptionPane."Average : "+average+" . secondGrade = Double.showMessageDialog (null. thirdGrade = 0. average = 0. } } } Introduction to Programming I 264 .I Using JOptionPane: import javax. firstGrade = Double."Average : "+average+" .exit(0).E. }catch( Exception e){ JoptionPane.-(").swing.JOptionPane. } else{ JoptionPane.D.

//sets msg to the string equivalent of input if(input == 1) msg = "one".parseInt(JOptionPane. //gets the input string input = Integer. else if(input == 5) msg = "five".swing. } } Introduction to Programming I 265 .JOptionPane. else if(input == 10) msg = "ten".msg). /** * Transforms a number input from 1-10 to words * using if-else */ public class NumWords { public static void main(String[] args){ String msg = "".J. else if(input == 7) msg = "seven". else if(input == 3) msg = "three".2 Number in words Using if-else statement: import javax. else if(input == 9) msg = "nine". else if(input == 4) msg = "four". else msg = "Invalid number".E. else if(input == 2) msg = "two". else if(input == 6) msg = "six". int input = 0. else if(input == 8) msg = "eight".I 6.showMessageDialog(null.D. //displays the number in words if with in range JOptionPane.showInputDialog ("Enter number")).

D. */ public class NumWords { public static void main(String[] args){ String msg = "". /** * Transforms a number input from 1-10 to words * using switch.showMessageDialog(null. case 5: msg = "five". case 3: msg = "three". //gets the input string input = Integer.msg).parseInt (JOptionPane.I Using switch statement: import javax. break. } //displays the number in words if with in range JOptionPane. break.J. case 8: msg = "eight". break.E. break. //sets msg to the string equivalent of input switch(input){ case 1: msg = "one". case 10: msg = "ten".JOptionPane.showInputDialog ("Enter number")). break. break. case 2: msg = "two". break. case 4: msg = "four". case 9: msg = "nine". case 7: msg = "seven". } } Introduction to Programming I 266 . break. break. case 6: msg = "six". int input = 0. break. default: msg = "Invalid number". break.swing.

out. /** * A program that prints a given name one hundred times * using while loop */ public class HundredNames{ public static void main(String[] args){ BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader ( System. System.I 6.3 Hundred Times Using while-loop: import java.readLine(). name = reader.J. //gets the users' name try{ System. } //while loop that prints the name one hundred times while(counter < 100){ System.io.println(name).in)).out. counter++.println("Invalid input").E.out. String name = "". int counter = 0.D.exit(0).print("Enter name: "). } } } Introduction to Programming I 267 . }catch(Exception e){ System.*.

}catch(Exception e){ System. name = reader.println(name).out.D. } times //do-while loop that prints the name one hundred do{ System. } } Introduction to Programming I 268 . //gets the users' name try{ System. System.exit(0).println("Invalid input").io.out.*.print("Enter name: ").I Using do-while loop: import java.in)). }while(counter < 100). counter++. int counter = 0.readLine().E.J. /** * A program that prints a given name one hundred times * using do-while loop */ public class HundredNames { public static void main(String[] args){ BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader ( System.out. String name = "".

String name = "". } //for loop that prints the name one hundred times for(int counter = 0.*. System.J.readLine(). //gets the users' name try{ System.io.I Using for loop: import java.exit(0). counter < 100. counter++){ System. name = reader.print("Enter name: "). /** * A program that prints a given name one hundred times * using do-while loop */ public class HundredNames { public static void main(String[] args){ BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader ( System.println(name).out. }catch(Exception e){ System.println("Invalid input").E.in)).out.D.out. } } } Introduction to Programming I 269 .

I 6. counter++. /** * Computes the power of a number given the base and the * exponent.swing. exp = 0.showMessageDialog (null. exp = Integer.exit(0). power = 1. counter = 0.base+" to the "+exp+ " is "+power).showInputDialog("Base")). System.parseInt (JOptionPane.D."Positive numbers only please"). } //displays the result JoptionPane. */ public class Powers { public static void main(String[] args){ int int int int base = 0.showInputDialog("Exponent")). } //while loop that solves for the power while(counter < exp){ power = power*base.E. The exponent is limited to positive numbers only. //limits the exp to positive numbers only if(exp < 0 ){ JoptionPane.JOptionPane.showMessageDialog (null.J.parseInt (JOptionPane.4 Powers Using while-loop: import javax. } } Introduction to Programming I 270 . //gets the user input for base and power using // JOptionPane base = Integer.

parseInt(JOptionPane. //displays the result JoptionPane.showMessageDialog (null. counter = 0. power = 1. System.showInputDialog ("Exponent")).J.swing.E. } } Introduction to Programming I 271 . } //do-while loop that solves the power given the base // and exponent do{ if(exp != 0) power = power*base. //limits the exp to positive numbers only if(exp < 0 ){ JoptionPane.I Using do-while loop: import javax. exp = Integer."Positive numbers only please"). //gets the user input for base and power //using JOptionPane base = Integer. counter++.JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null.D. */ public class Powers { public static void main(String[] args){ int int int int base = 0.showInputDialog ("Base")). exp = 0. /** * Computes the power of a number given the base and the * exponent.parseInt(JOptionPane. The exponent is limited to positive numbers only.base + " to the "+exp + " is "+power).exit(0). }while(counter < exp).

showMessageDialog(null. counter = 0. power = 1.showInputDialog ("Base")). exp = 0.showInputDialog ("Exponent")).base + " to the "+exp + " is "+power).exit(0). exp = Integer. The exponent is limited to positive numbers only. } } Introduction to Programming I 272 .parseInt(JOptionPane. /** * Computes the power of a number given the base and the * exponent. //gets the user input for base and power using // JOptionPane base = Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane. */ public class Powers { public static void main(String[] args){ int int int int base = 0. counter < exp. System.I Using for loop: import javax."Positive numbers only please"). counter++){ power = power*base. //limits the exp to positive numbers only if(exp < 0 ){ JoptionPane.showMessageDialog(null.JOptionPane.J.E.D. } //displays the result JoptionPane. } //for loop for computing the power for(counter = 0.swing.

int counter = 0."Tuesday"."Monday"."Friday".D."Thursday"."Tuesday".out. }while(counter < days. "Saturday"}. */ public class DaysOfTheWeek { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares the String array of the days of the week String[] days = {"Sunday". counter++. } } Introduction to Programming I 273 .J. //while loop that prints the days of the week while(counter < days.length){ System."Monday".1 Days of the Week Using while loop: /** * Uses an array string to save the days of the wee * then prints it on the screen.length).println(days[counter]). "Saturday"}. counter++."Friday".I Chapter 7 Exercises 7. //do-while loop that prints the days of the // week do{ System. "Wednesday".E. int counter = 0. } } } Using do-while loop: /** * Uses an array string to save the days of the wee * then prints it on the screen with a do-while loop.out."Thursday".println(days[counter]). */ public class DaysOfTheWeek { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares the String array of the days of // the week String[] days ={"Sunday". "Wednesday".

"The number with the greatest value is "+max).println(days[counter]).swing.showInputDialog( "Enter number "+(counter+1))). "Saturday"}. counter++){ num[counter] = Integer. /** * A program that uses JOptionPane to get ten numbers * from the user then outputs the largest number.showMessageDialog(null.JOptionPane."Friday". "Wednesday". System. int counter. int max = 0. Introduction to Programming I 274 .I Using for loop: /** * Uses an array string to save the days of the wee * then prints it on the screen with a for loop.E."Monday". */ public class DaysOfTheWeek { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares the String array of the days of // the week String[] days ={"Sunday". counter++) } } 7. } } } //displays the number with the greatest number JoptionPane."Tuesday".D. counter < days."Thursday".parseInt (JoptionPane.out.2 Greatest number import javax.J. counter < 10.length. //gets the maximum number if((counter == 0)||(num[counter] > max)) max = num[counter]. //for loop that gets the 10 numbers from the user for(counter = 0. */ public class GreatestNumber { public static void main(String[] args){ int[] num = new int[10]. //for loop that prints the days of the week for(int counter = 0.

out.I Chapter 8 Exercises 8. */ public class CommandLineSample { public static void main(String[] args){ //checks if a command line argument exists if(args. } } } Introduction to Programming I 275 .counter<args.D.length == 0) System.println(args[counter]).E.J.1 Print Arguments /** * A program that prints the string from the command line if any.length.exit(0). //for loop that prints the arguments from the //command line for(int counter=0. counter++){ System.

Class: String Method: public boolean endsWith( String suffix ) 2. //5. //3. Sample Usage: public class Homework1 { public static void main(String []args){ //1.println( str.D. System. isDigit System.exit(1).println( Character.forDigit(13.out. 16) ). endsWith String str = "Hello".isDigit('A')). Class: Character Method: public static char forDigit( int digit.floor(3. Class: Math Method: public static double floor( double a ) 5. floor System.14)).println( "A=" +Character. //4.out.1 Defining terms See definitions in book. //2.out.isDigit('0')).endsWith( "slo" ) ). Check the Java API for more answers. Class: System Method: public static void exit( int status ) 4.I Chapter 9 Exercises 9.E. 9. exit was not called"). System.out.println("if this is executed.2 Java Scavenger Hunt To the teacher: These are just some sample methods in the Java API that you can use. System.println( "0=" + Character.println( Math. System. int radix ) 3. } } Class and Method declaration: 1.out. forDIgit System. Class: Character Method: public static boolean isDigit( char ch ) Introduction to Programming I 276 .out.J.

I Chapter 10 Exercises 10. telephone number and email adress */ public AddressBookEntry(String name.add = add.name = name.1 Address Book Entry /** * An address book class that record a persons * name. tel = 0. this. email = "". and email address */ public class AddressBookEntry { private private private private String name. int tel. telephone number. String email){ this. String email. int tel. String add. /** * default constructor */ public AddressBookEntry(){ name = "".tel = tel. } /** * returns the variable name */ public String getName(){ return name.D.E. this. } Introduction to Programming I 277 .J.email = email. String add.name = name. } /** * returns the variable add */ public String getAddress(){ return add. } /** * changes the variable name */ public void changeName(String name){ this. add = "". address. this. address. } /** * Creates an AddressBookEntry object with the given * name.

} /** * changes the variable tel */ public void changeTelNumber(int tel){ this.I /** * changes the variable add */ public void changeAddress(String add){ this.E.add = add. } /** * returns the variable tel */ public int getTelNumber(){ return tel.D.email = email.tel = tel.J. } } Introduction to Programming I 278 . } /** * returns the variable email */ public String getEmailAdd(){ return email. } /** * changes the variable email */ public void changeEmailAdd(String email){ this.

System.println("[Q] Quit"). /** * Creates an addresbook that contains 100 AddressBookEntries */ public class AddressBook { //index of the last entry private int top = 0.out.readLine().E.println("\n[A] Add entry").2 AddressBook import java.*. }catch(Exception e){ System.out. System. System. /** * The main method */ public static void main(String[] args){ BufferedReader keyIn = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader (System. while(true){ //displays the optons System.io. try{ //gets the choice act = keyIn. AddressBook addBook = new AddressBook().println("[U] Update entry"). //constant number that indicates the maximum //number of entries in the address book private static final int MAXENTRIES = 100.out.D. //array of Address Book Entries private AddressBookEntry[] list.I 10.print("Enter desired action: ").J.out. System. String act = "".out.in)).println("[V] View all entries"). System.println("Error").out. } Introduction to Programming I 279 .out.println("[D] Delete entry").

Introduction to Programming I 280 . else System.equals("U")||act.updateEntry(). else if(act.exit(0).I } } //checks for the appropriate action for // his choice if(act.addEntry().viewEntries().equals("A")||act. else if(act.delEntry().equals("v")) addBook.out.equals("Q")||act.equals("V")||act. else if(act.D.equals("u")) addBook.equals("a")) addBook.equals("D")||act.E.println ("Unknown command").equals("d")) addBook.J. else if(act.equals("q")) System.

out. top++. list[top] = entry.print("Name: "). return.in)).E.out. System.out.println(e).print("Telephone number: "). int tel = 0. if(top == MAXENTRIES){ System. add = keyIn.J. } //asks the user for the data of the address book try{ System. System. String name = "". String email = "". email).readLine().print("Address: "). email = keyIn.print("Email Adress: ").exit(0). } Introduction to Programming I 281 .out. }catch(Exception e){ System.readLine().readLine().I /** * creates the AddressBook */ public AddressBook(){ list = new AddressBookEntry[MAXENTRIES].D. } /** * method for adding an AddressBookEntry to the Adressbook */ public void addEntry(){ BufferedReader keyIn = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader (System. add. String add = "". tel.println("Address Book is full").out. System.parseInt(keyIn.readLine()). System. } AddressBookEntry entry = new AddressBookEntry (name.out. tel = Integer. name = keyIn.

out. index < top. } list[top] = null. return.println("Address Book is empty").out.println("Index Out Of Bounds"). System.parseInt(keyIn.out.println("Email Address:"+ list[index]. }catch(Exception e){} //checks if the index is with in bounds if(index < 0 || index >= top){ System.D.out. System. } } /** * method that prints all the entries in the AddressBook */ public void viewEntries(){ for(int index = 0. index = Integer. return.getAddress()).out. i++ ){ list[i] = list[i+1].getTelNumber()).in)). }else{ for( int i=index.E.I /** * method that deletes an AddressBookEntry from the * Adressbook with the index */ public void delEntry(){ BufferedReader keyIn = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader(System.out.J. System. } } Introduction to Programming I 282 .readLine())-1. //checks if the address book is empty if(top == 0){ System. } //asks for the entry which is to be deleted try{ //shows the current entries on the record book viewEntries(). int index = 0.print("\nEnter entry number: "). index++){ System.getEmailAdd()). System. top--.println("Telephone Number:"+ list[index]. i<top.println("Address:"+ list[index].getName()).println((index+1)+" Name:"+ list[index].out.

readLine())-1.exit(0).E. }catch(Exception e){ System.parseInt(keyIn.print("Address: "). email).out.readLine().println(e). String email = "". int tel = 0.out.print("Name: ").I /** * method that updates an entry */ public void updateEntry(){ BufferedReader keyIn = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader (System.readLine()).out.readLine(). String add = "". System. add. //asks for the entries data try{ System. index =Integer. String name = "". email = keyIn. add = keyIn.parseInt(keyIn.print("Email Adress: ").print("Entry number: ").readLine().in)). int index = 0.J. } } Introduction to Programming I 283 . name = keyIn. list[index] = entry. System. tel = Integer. tel.D.out.out. System. System.out. System.print("Telephone number: "). } //updates the entry AddressBookEntry entry = new AddressBookEntry (name.

/** * Returns the name of the student */ public String getName(){ return name.D. } /** * Changes the address of the student */ public void setAddress(String temp){ address = temp. } /** * Returns the address of the student */ public String getAddress(){ return address. protected String address.I Chapter 11 Exercises 11. protected double mathGrade. } Introduction to Programming I 284 .1 Extending StudentRecord /** * An object that holds the data for a student */ public class StudentRecord { protected String name. protected int age. protected double average. protected double englishGrade. protected double scienceGrade.J. } /** * Changes the name of the student */ public void setName(String temp){ name = temp. } /** * Changes the age of the student */ public void setAge(int temp){ age = temp. protected static int studentCount. } /** * Returns the age of the student */ public int getAge(){ return age.E.

} /** * Returns the number of instances of the * StudentRecords */ public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount. } /** * Returns the scienceGrade of the student */ public double getScienceGrade(){ return scienceGrade. } /** * Changes the scienceGrade of the student */ public void setScienceGrade(double temp){ scienceGrade = temp. } /** * Returns the mathGrade of the student */ public double getMathGrade(){ return mathGrade.D.J. math and * science grades */ public double getAverage(){ return (mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade)/3.E.I /** * Returns the englishGrade of the student */ public double getEnglishGrade(){ return englishGrade. } /** * Computes the average of the english. } /** * Changes the mathGrade of the student */ public void setMathGrade(double temp){ mathGrade = temp. } /** * Changes the englishGrade of the student */ public void setEnglishGrade(double temp){ englishGrade = temp. } } Introduction to Programming I 285 .

J.E.D. comSciGrade. } /** * Changes the studentNumber of the student */ public void setStudentNumber(String temp){ studentNumber = temp. } /** * Returns the comSciGrade of the student */ public double getComSciGrade(){ return comSciGrade. /** * Returns the studentNumber of the student */ public String getStudentNumber(){ return studentNumber.I /** * A student record for a Computer Science student */ public class ComputerScienceStudentRecord extends StudentRecord { private String private double studentNumber. } /** * Changes the comSciGrade of the student */ public void setComSciGrade(double temp){ comSciGrade = temp. } } Introduction to Programming I 286 .

/** * Constructor */ public Circle(double r){ setRadius( r ). } /** * returns area */ public double getArea(){ return pi*radius*radius.I 11.1416. /** * returns the name of the shape */ public abstract String getName(). } /** * returns radius */ public double getRadius(){ return radius. private double radius = 0.D.E. } /** * set radius */ public void setRadius(double r){ radius = r. } /** * Class definition for object circle */ public class Circle extends Shape { private static final double pi = 3. } /** * returns shape name */ public String getName(){ return "circle".2 Abstract Classes /** * Definition of shape abstract class */ public abstract class Shape { /** * returns the area of a certain shape */ public abstract double getArea(). } } Introduction to Programming I 287 .J.

} /** * returns area */ public double getArea(){ return side*side.J. /** * Constructor */ public Square(double s){ setSide( s ). } /** * returns shape name */ public String getName(){ return "square". } /** * set length of side */ public void setSide(double s){ side = s.E. } } Introduction to Programming I 288 .I /** * Class definition for object square */ public class Square extends Shape { private double side = 0. } /** * returns length of one side */ public double getSide(){ return side.D.

System.J..parseInt (JoptionPane. */ public class GreatestNumber { public static void main(String[] args){ int[] num = new int[10].out.println(" "+e). } }catch( ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e ){ System.println("Quiting. counter < 10. } //gets the maximum number if((counter == 0)||(num[counter] > max)) max = num[counter]. import javax."Error "+e). wherein we included some exception handling. } } } 12.out. true. i++ ){ System.E.out.println("Exception caught:"). Introduction to Programming I 289 .swing.JOptionPane. //for loop that gets the 10 numbers from the user for(counter = 0.out. }catch(NumberFormatException e){ JoptionPane.D. System.I Chapter 12 Exercises 12.").showMessageDialog (null.1 Catching Exceptions 1 public class TestExceptions{ public static void main( String[] args ){ try{ for( int i=0.. } } } //displays the number with the greatest number JoptionPane.2 Catching Exceptions 2 Here are three sample programs that we did before. int max = 0.showMessageDialog (null."The number with the greatest value is "+max). int counter.println("args["+i+"]="+args[i]). /** * A program that uses JOptionPane to get ten numbers * from the user then outputs the largest number. counter++){ try{ num[counter] = Integer.showInputDialog ("Enter number "+(counter+1))).

J. break. break.D. break. System.msg).JOptionPane. break. Introduction to Programming I 290 try{ . case 5: msg = "five". case 2: msg = "two".E.I import javax. case 3: msg = "three".exit(0). default: msg = "Invalid number". */ public class NumWords { public static void main(String[] args){ String msg = "". break.showMessageDialog(null. break. //gets the input string input = Integer. case 8: msg = "eight". break.showMessageDialog(null."Invalid input"). }catch(Exception e){ JOptionPane.parseInt (JoptionPane. /** * Transforms a number input from 1-10 to words using switch. int input = 0. } //sets msg to the string equivalent of input switch(input){ case 1: msg = "one". break. case 10: msg = "ten". break.swing. case 6: msg = "six". case 7: msg = "seven". } //displays the number in words if with in range JOptionPane. break. case 4: msg = "four".showInputDialog ("Enter number")). case 9: msg = "nine". break.

J.E.D.I

} } import javax.swing.JOptionPane; /** * Computes the power of a number given the base and the exponent. * The exponent is limited to positive numbers only. */ public class Powers { public static void main(String[] args){ int int int int base = 0; exp = 0; power = 1; counter = 0;

//gets the user input for base and power using JOptionPane try{ base = Integer.parseInt (JoptionPane.showInputDialog ("Base")); exp = Integer.parseInt (JoptionPane.showInputDialog ("Exponent")); }catch(NumberFormatException e){ JoptionPane.showMessageDialog (null,"Input Error"); System.exit(0); } //limits the exp to positive numbers only if(exp < 0 ){ JoptionPane.showMessageDialog (null,"Positive numbers only please"); System.exit(0); } //for loop for computing the power for(;counter < exp;counter++){ power = power*base; } //displays the result JoptionPane.showMessageDialog (null,base+" to the "+exp +" is "+power);

}

}

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Appendix D : Machine Problems Machine Problem 1: Phone Book
Write a program that will create an phonebook, wherein you can add entries in the phonebook, delete entries, view all entries and search for entries. In viewing all entries, the user should have a choice, whether to view the entries in alphabetical order or in increasing order of telephone numbers. In searching for entries, the user should also have an option to search entries by name or by telephone numbers. In searching by name, the user should also have an option if he/she wants to search by first name or last name. MAIN MENU 1 - Add phonebook entry 2 - Delete phonebook entry 3 - View all entries a - alphabetical order b - increasing order of telephone numbers 4 - Search entries a - by name b - by telephone number 5 – Quit The following will appear when one of the choices in the main menu is chosen. Add phonebook entry Enter Name: Enter Telephone number: (* if entry already exists, warn user about this) View all entries Displays all entries in alphabetical order Displays all entries in increasing order of telephone #s Search entries Search phonebook entry by name Search phonebook entry by telephone number Quit close phonebook

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Machine Problem 2: Minesweeper
This is a one player game of a simplified version of the popular computer game minesweeper. First, the user is asked if he or she wants to play on a 5x5 grid or 10x10 grid. You have two 2-dimensional arrays that contains information about your grid. An entry in the array should either contain a 0 or 1. A 1 signifies that there is a bomb in that location, and a 0 if none. For example, given the array: int bombList5by5[][]={{0, 0, 1, 0, 0}, {0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, {0, 1, 0, 0, 0}, {0, 0, 0, 1, 1}, {0, 1, 1, 0, 0}}; Given the bomb list, we have 6 bombs on our list. The bombs are located in (row,col) cells, (0,2), (2,1), (3,3), (3,4), (4,1) and (4,2). If the user chooses a cell that contains a bomb, the game ends and all the bombs are displayed. If the user chooses a cell that does not contain a bomb, a number appears at that location indicating the number of neighbors that contain bombs. The game should end when all the cells that do not contain bombs have been marked (player wins) or when the user steps on a bomb(player loses). Here's a sample output of the game, given the bombList5by5. Welcome to Minesweeper! Choose size of grid (Press 1 for 5x5, Press 2 for 10x10): 1 [][][][][] [][][][][] [][][][][] [][][][][] [][][][][] Enter row and column of the cell you want to open[row col]: 1 1 [][][][][] [ ] [2] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [] [ ] [ ] [][][][][] [][][][][] Enter row and column of the cell you want to open[row col]: 3 2 [][][][][] [ ] [2 ] [ ] [] [ ] [][][][][] [ ] [ ] [4 ] [ ] [ ] [][][][][] Enter row and column of the cell you want to open[row col]: 0 2 [] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [2] [ ] [] [ ] [ ] [X ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [4] [ ] [ ] [][][][][] Ooppps! You stepped on a bomb. Sorry, game over!

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Machine Problem 3: Number Conversion
Create your own scientific calculator that will convert the inputted numbers to the four number representations ( Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal ). Your program should output the following menu on screen. MAIN MENU: Please type the number of your choice: 1 – Binary to Decimal 2 – Decimal to Octal 3 – Octal to Hexadecimal 4 – Hexadecimal to Binary 5 – Quit The following will appear when one of the choices in the main menu is chosen. Choice 1: Enter a binary number: 11000 11000 base 2 = 24 base 10 (goes back to main menu) Choice 2: Enter a Decimal number: 24 24 base 10 = 30 base 8 (goes back to main menu) Choice 3: Enter an Octal number: 30 30 base 8 = 18 base 16 (goes back to main menu) Choice 4: Enter a Hexadecimal number: 18 18 base 16 = 11000 base 2 Choice 1: Enter a binary number: 110A Invalid binary number! Enter a binary number: 1 1 base 2 = 1 base 10 (goes back to main menu) (user chooses 5) Goodbye! You can be more creative with your user interface if you want to, as long as the program outputs the correct conversion of numbers.

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Appendix E : Hands-on Laboratory Note to the Teacher
This part of the manual is not included in the student's manual. You can give a copy of this to your students if you wish for them to do the exercises on their own. Some of the answers for "Creating your own" exercises are found in the last part of this section.

Chapter 1 Hands-on
None

Chapter 2 Hands-on
None

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Chapter 3 Hands-on
3.1 Things to check before you start the lab
Once you installed J2SE SDK, please make sure you do the following: 1. Make sure the installation has set %JAVA_HOME% (Windows) or $JAVA_HOME (Solaris/Linux) environment variable to the installation directory of J2SE 1.4.2_06 (or later version) 2. Type "echo %JAVA_HOME%" (Windows) or "echo $JAVA_HOME" (Solaris/Linux) in a terminal window. You should see the following: c:\j2sdk1.4.2_06 (Windows) /usr/jdk/jdk1.4.2_06 (Solaris/Linux) 3. Make sure the installation has placed %JAVA_HOME%\bin (Windows) or $JAVA_HOME/bin (Solaris/Linux) in the "path" environment variable. Type "java -version" in a terminal window. You should see something like following: java version "1.4.2_06" Java(TM) 2 Runtime Environment, Standard Edition (build 1.4.2_06-b03) Java HotSpot(TM) Client VM (build 1.4.2_06-b03, mixed mode)

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3.2 Write, Compile, and Run Hello Java Program
1. mkdir c:\lab 2. cd \lab 3. Create Hello.java using your editor of choice public class Hello { /** * My first Java program */ public static void main( String[] args ){ //prints the string "Hello world" on screen System.out.println("Hello world"); } }

4. Compile Hello.java javac Hello.java 5. Make sure Hello.class file has been created dir 6. Run the Hello program java Hello 7. Verify that the result is as following C:\lab>java Hello Hello world 8. Modify, compile, and run the Hello.java so that it prints the following "This is my first Java program" (instead of "Hello world")

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Under Name and Location pane. change it to hello. Modify the Hello class • Replace the code of Hello class of IDE generated Hello.E. Under Choose Project.Main) • Click Finish (from Figure 12. Run Hello class • • Right click Hello. Start the NetBeans IDE 4. Create a new NetBeans project and Hello main class • • • • Select File from the menu bar and select New Project.java node under Hello->Source Packages->hello and select Run File (Shift+F6) Note that the Output window displays the result Introduction to Programming I 298 . select General and Java Application Click Next. 4.java code gets displayed in the source editor.60 :Create new Java application • Note that the IDE generated Hello.D.1 > NetBeans IDE or click NetBeans IDE 4.1 desktop icon Solaris/Linux: <NETBEANS41_HOME>/bin/netbeans 2.J.I 3.1 • • Windows: Start > All Programs > NetBeans 4. and Run Hello Java Program using NetBeans 1. 3.3 Write.java code in the source editor with the one in Chapter 2 while leaving the package statement on the top. fill it with Hello • For Create Main Class field. Compile. (Figure-10 below) • For Project Name field.Hello hello.

println( value ). Initializing. Introduction to Programming I 299 . Printing Variables 1.java using your editor of choice public class OutputVariable { public static void main( String[] args ){ int value = 10. x = 'A'.J. char x. Compile and run the code javac OutputVariable.D. } } 2.out. Verify that the result is as following C:\lab>java OutputVariable 10 The value of x=A 4. Modify OutputVariable. Create OutputVariable.out.E.out. System.java as following and compile and run the code • • Define another primitive type as following double grade = 11.println( "The value of grade =" + grade ).1 Declaring. Print out the value of grade variable as following System. System.println( "The value of x=" + x ).java java OutputVariable 3.I Chapter 4 Hands-on 4.

println( status ).J.2 Conditional Operator 1.I 4.java using your editor of choice public class ConditionalOperator { public static void main( String[] args ){ String status = "".out. } } 2. Introduction to Programming I 300 . Modify ConditionalOperator. Compile and run the code javac ConditionalOperator. Print "rich" if the salary is over 50000. //get status of the student status = (grade >= 60)?"Passed":"Fail". Print "poor" otherwise.java java ConditionalOperator 3. compile and run the code int salary = 100000. //print status System.D. Create ConditionalOperator. int grade = 80.E.java as following. Verify that the result is as following C:\lab>java ConditionalOperator Passed 4.

out.out. System.E. String name = "".readLine(). } System.in) ). Compile and run the code javac GetInputFromKeyboard. compile and run the code • • Make the program to ask the following question Please enter your age Display the entered age as following • If the age is over 100.java java GetInputFromKeyboard 3.out.J. import java.io.java using your editor of choice import java. } } 2. Create GetInputFromKeyboard. Modify GetInputFromKeyboard.println("Error!").io.io.print("Please Enter Your Name:"). public class GetInputFromKeyboard { public static void main( String[] args ){ BufferedReader dataIn = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader( System.println("Hello " + name +"!"). display Hello <name> You are old! • Otherwise Hello <name> You are young! Introduction to Programming I 301 .java as following.InputStreamReader. try{ name = dataIn.1 Getting Input From Keyboard via BufferedReader 1. }catch( IOException e ){ System.BufferedReader. import java.D.I Chapter 5 Hands-on 5.IOException.

display Hello <name> You are old! • Otherwise Hello <name> You are young! Introduction to Programming I 302 .java as following. Create GetInputFromKeyboardJOptionPane.D. name=JOptionPane. JOptionPane.JOptionPane. public class GetInputFromKeyboardJOptionPane { public static void main( String[] args ){ String name = "". compile and run the code • • Make the program to ask the following question Please enter your age Display the entered age as following • If the age is over 100. msg).swing.J.showMessageDialog(null.I 5.showInputDialog("Please enter your name").java using your editor of choice import javax. Compile and run the code javac GetInputFromKeyboardJOptionPane.2 Getting Input From Keyboard via JOptionPane 1. } } 2.E. Modify GetInputFromKeyboardJOptionPane.java java GetInputFromKeyboardJOptionPane Enter your name CTRL/C to close the application 3. String msg = "Hello " + name + "!".

out.i<names.java using your editor of choice public class ForLoop { public static void main( String[] args ){ String names []= {"Beah"."Nico".java as following. boolean foundName =false. else System. compile and run the code • Change the code to use while loop Introduction to Programming I 303 .I Chapter 6 Hands-on 6.D.println(searchName +" is found!")."Bianca"."Yza".out. } } 2. Modify ForLoop."Lance".1 For Loop 1. } } if (foundName ) System. Compile and run the code javac ForLoop.i++){ if (names [i ]."Ethan"}.").J. String searchName ="Yza".equals(searchName )){ foundName =true. for (int i=0."Gem".println(searchName +" is not found. Create ForLoop.E. break."Belle".java java ForLoop 3.length. Verify that the result is as following C:\lab>java ForLoop Yza is found! 4.

ages[0]. create another for loop in which a value of 100 is assigned to the first entry of the array.java using your editor of choice public class ArraySample { public static void main( String[] args ){ int[] ages = new int[100].print( ages[i] ).java as following.J. compile and run the code • Just before the for loop that prints out the value of each entry of the ages[] array.out. i++ ){ System.length. Create ArraySample. } } } 2. and so on Introduction to Programming I 304 . 101 to the next entry of the array. Modify ArraySample. i<ages. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java ArraySample 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000 00000000000000000000 4. Compile and run the code javac Arraysample.I Chapter 7 Hands-on 7.D.java java ArraySample 3.1 Arrays 1. ages[1].E. for( int i=0.

Create . i not changed System. // print the value of i.E.J.println(i). //Call method test //and pass i to method test test( i ). //print the value of i System.I Chapter 8 Hands-on None Chapter 9 Hands-on 9. } public static void test(int j){ // change value of parameter i j = 33.println(i). Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java TestPassByValue 10 10 Introduction to Programming I 305 .D.out.java java TestPassByValue 3.1 Pass-by-Value 1.out.java using your editor of choice public class TestPassByValue { public static void main(String[] args){ int i = 10. } } 2. Compile and run the code javac TestPassByValue.

out.length.J.java java TestPassByReference 3. i<ages.println(ages[i]).I 9. } } public static void test(int[] arr){ // change values of array for (int i=0.E. 12}. } //call test and pass references to array test(ages). i<ages. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java TestPassByReference 10 11 12 50 51 52 Introduction to Programming I 306 . Create . //print array values for (int i=0. i<arr.D. i++ ){ System. 11. //print array values again for (int i=0. i++ ){ arr[i] = i + 50.java using your editor of choice public class TestPassByReference { public static void main(String[] args){ //create an array of integers int [] ages = {10. Compile and run the code javac TestPassByReference.length.println(ages[i]).2 Pass-by-Reference 1.out.length. i++ ){ System. } } } 2.

D. System.java using your editor of choice class EqualsTest { public static void main(String[] arguments) { String str1.".java class EqualsTestInteger { public static void main(String[] arguments) { Integer integer1.println("Same object? " + (str1 == str2)).println("Integer2: " + integer2).out. System. Create EqualsTestInteger.out.java java EqualsTestInteger Introduction to Programming I 307 periodicals. .out.3 Comparing Objects 1. Compile and run the code javac EqualsTestInteger. str2. C:\lab>java EqualsTest String1: Free the bound String2: Free the bound Same object? true String1: Free the bound String2: Free the bound Same object? false Same value? true 4.println("String2: " + str2). Create EqualsTest. integer2.println("Same object? " + (integer1 == integer2)). System.println("Integer1: " + integer1). System.println("Same object? " + (str1 == str2)). str2 = new String(str1).java java EqualsTest 3.out.out.out. } } 5.println("Same object? " + (integer1 == integer2)).out. System.equals(str2)). System. System.println("String1: " + str1). } } 2.println("Integer1: " + integer1). periodicals.out.println("String1: " + str1). integer2 = new Integer(5).I 9.println("Same value? " + str1.equals (integer2)). periodicals. str1 = "Free the bound periodicals.out.E. System.J.println("String2: " + str2). System.out. System.println("Same value? " + integer1. System. periodicals. str2 = str1. System. Verify the result is as following. System.out. integer1 = new Integer(5).out. System.out.out. integer1 = integer2. Compile and run the code javac EqualsTest.println("Integer2: " + integer2).

private double average. } /** *Changes the name of the student */ public void setName(String temp ){ name =temp. private double englishGrade. // static variables private static int studentCount = 0. return result.java using your editor of choice public class StudentRecord { // instance variables private String name. } /** *Computes the average of the english.D.math and science *grades */ public double getAverage(){ double result =0. } /** *returns the number of instances of StudentRecords */ public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount. } } 2. private double scienceGrade. Create StudentRecord.E.1 Create your own class Using Text Editor: 1. /** *Returns the name of the student */ public String getName(){ return name. Introduction to Programming I 308 .J. result =(mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade )/3.I Chapter 10 Hands-on 10. private double mathGrade.java using your editor of choice public class StudentRecordExample{ public static void main(String [] args ){ //create three objects for Student record StudentRecord annaRecord =new StudentRecord(). Create StudentRecordExample.

java (or javac StudentRecord. //print anna's name System.setName("Cris"). } } 3. //set the name of the students annaRecord.setName("Anna").out.java) java StudentRecordExample 4. beahRecord. Verify the result C:\lab1>java StudentRecordExample Anna Count=0 Introduction to Programming I 309 .out.println ("Count="+StudentRecord.J. crisRecord. StudentRecord crisRecord =new StudentRecord().setName("Beah").D. //print number of students System.java StudentRecordExample.println(annaRecord.getStudentCount()). Compile and run the code javac *.E.I StudentRecord beahRecord =new StudentRecord().getName()).

1 (if you have not done so yet) • • Windows: Start > All Programs > NetBeans 4. fill it with StudentRecordExample For Create Main Class field.J. Modify the NetBeans generated code • Replace the NetBeans generated StudentRecordExample.java Introduction to Programming I 310 .E. 4.1 > NetBeans IDE or click NetBeans IDE 4. Under Choose Project.I Using Netbeans: 1. select General and Java Application Click Next. Start the NetBeans IDE 4. Under Name and Location pane. Write StudentRecord.Main) Click Finish 3.D. Create a new NetBeans project and StudentRecordExample main class • • • • • • • Select File from the menu bar and select New Project. (Figure-10 below) For Project Name field.1 desktop icon Solaris/Linux: <NETBEANS41_HOME>/bin/netbeans 2. change it to studentrecordexample.StudentRecordExample (from studentrecordexample.java code in the source editor with the one you have written before.

java node under Hello->Source Packages>studentrecordexample and select Run File (Shift+F6) Note that the Output window displays the result Introduction to Programming I 311 . Under Name and Location pane.J.E. for Class Name field. 6. The New Java Class window appears. Run StudentRecordExample application • • Right click StudentRecordExample.D.java code in the source editor with the one you have written before.I • • • Right click StudentRecordExample project node and select New->Java Class. type StudentRecord for Package field. Modify the NetBeans generated code • Replace the NetBeans generated StudentRecord. choose studentrecordexample from the drop-down menu (or you can type studentrecordexample) Click Finish 5.

.I Creating your own: 1.java as following • • • • Add setMathGrade(double grade) method Add setEnglishGrade(double grade) method Add setScienceGrade(double grade) method Add static method called increaseStudentCount().J.java as following • • • • • • • Create another StudentRecord object.D. Modify StudentRecordExample. Modify StudentRecord. call it myOwnRecord Call setName() method of the myOwnRecord object passing "myOwn" as the value to set Display the name of the myOwnRecord object Set Math grade of myOwnRecord object Set English grade of myOwnRecord object Set Science grade of myOwnRecord object Display the average grade of myOwnRecord 3. this method increase the static variable studentCount by 1 2. Run StudentRecordExample application Introduction to Programming I 312 .E.

out.) methods. annaRecord. } public void print(String name. double averageGrade){ System.java as follows public class StudentRecordExample2{ public static void main(String [] args) { StudentRecord annaRecord =new StudentRecord(). annaRecord.D.. annaRecord. annaRecord.setEnglishGrade(95.java StudentRecordExample2. Compile and run the code. } } 2.println("Name:"+name).setName("Anna").println("Average Grade:"+averageGrade).I 10.setScienceGrade(100).print(annaRecord. Verify the result Name:Anna Name:Anna Average Grade:65.16666666666667 Introduction to Programming I 313 .getName(). public class StudentRecord { .java as following.print("Name:"+name+" "). The code fragement that needs to be added is highlighted with bold. annaRecord. fix the compile errors.getName()).5). javac *.java) java StudentRecordExample2 4.2 Overloading Using Text Editor: 1.E.out. Add two overloaded print(.Create StudentRecordExample2. System. Modify StudentRecord.out. public void print(String name ){ System..print(annaRecord. If you experience compile errors. } } 3. //overloaded methods annaRecord.getAverage()).J.java (or javac StudentRecord..

Create StudentRecordExample2. Modify the NetBeans generated StudentRecordExample2.J. Right click studentrecordexample package node (Not StudentRecordExample project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 5. Right click StudentRecordExamle2 and select Run File Introduction to Programming I 314 .1. type StudentRecordExamle2 Click Finish 3. for Class Name field.D.I Using Netbeans: It is assumed you are using the same NetBeans project you created in 10.java 2.java • • • • Right studentrecordexample package node (Not StudentRecordExample project node) and select New->Java Class Under Name and Location pane. Modify the StudentRecord.E.java with the one of above while leaving the package statement at the top 4. 1.java • Replace the code of the NetBeans generated StudentRecordExample2.

Modify StudentRecord.java as following • Invoke the newly added print() method Introduction to Programming I 315 .J. Modify StudentRecordExmaple2.java as following • Add another print() method which takes the following three parameters • name • grade average • student count 2.I Creating your own: 1.E.D.

private double scienceGrade. /** *Returns the name of the student */ public String getName(){ return name. } } Introduction to Programming I 316 .math and science *grades */ public double getAverage(){ double result =0. private double average. please create StudentRecord. } /** *Computes the average of the english.E. // static variables private static int studentCount = 0.3 Packaging Please do this exercise at the command line instead of using NetBeans.I 10.java as following public class StudentRecord { // instance variables private String name.D. This is to learn the packaging structure without the help of NetBeans. private double mathGrade.java and StudenRecordExample. } /** *Changes the name of the student */ public void setName(String temp ){ name =temp.J. } /** *returns the number of instances of StudentRecords */ public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount. private double englishGrade. result =(mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade )/3. If have used NetBeans to do the exercise 13 above. 0. return result.

lang. } } 1. crisRecord. beahRecord.println(annaRecord. You will experience an NoClassDefFoundError exception.J. } 3.defineClass0(Native 317 Introduction to Programming I .getName()).getStudentCount()).java as following to add a package statement.java 4.. } 2. It is because the java runtime is trying to find StudentRecordExample.setName("Beah"). It is because the StudentRecordExample.. Run the code.java StudentRecordExample. StudentRecord crisRecord =new StudentRecord().println ("Count="+StudentRecord.ClassLoader. Modify StudentRecordExample.D.I public class StudentRecordExample{ public static void main(String [] args ){ //create three objects for Student record StudentRecord annaRecord =new StudentRecord(). Compile code.out.java now has a package statement which says the Java class file resides under studentpackage directory..setName("Cris"). The code fragement that needs to be added is is in bold characters. public class StudentRecordExample{ . • C:\lab>java StudentRecordExample Exception in thread "main" java.out.. //print anna's name System.setName("Anna").lang. Think about why you are getting this exception for a moment. Modify StudentRecord.class under studentpackage directory. //set the name of the students annaRecord. public class StudentRecord { .java as following to add a package statement.E. package studentpackage. javac StudentRecord. StudentRecord beahRecord =new StudentRecord(). The code fragment that needs to be added is in bold characters.NoClassDefFoundError: StudentRecordExample (wrong name: studentpackage/StudentRecordExample) at java. package studentpackage. //print number of students System.

java:55) at java.java:302) 5.java under it.misc.loadClassInternal (ClassLoader. del StudentRecord. Create a new directory called studentpackage and then move StudentRecord.net.URLClassLoader.java studentpackage\StudentRecordExample.java \lab\studentpackage\StudentRecord. Compile code.java:274) at java.lang.SecureClassLoader.java StudentRecordExample.AccessController.java:187) at java.URLClassLoader$1.java \lab\studentpackage\StudentRecordExample.class 1.java move \lab\StudentRecord.425 StudentRecord.java:123) at java. .loadClass (Launcher.java 6. Note that the class files are now created under studentpackage directory not in the current directory javac studentpackage\StudentRecord. 1.java C:\lab>dir studentpackage Volume in drive C is S3A1256D004 Volume Serial Number is 447E-6EBC Directory of C:\lab\studentpackage 07/06/2005 07/06/2005 07/06/2005 07/06/2005 07/06/2005 Introduction to Programming I 12:39 12:39 12:40 12:16 12:40 PM PM PM PM PM <DIR> <DIR> .run (URLClassLoader.defineClass (SecureClassLoader.net.java:289) at sun.security. mkdir \lab\studentpackage move \lab\StudentRecordExample.ClassLoader.java error: cannot read: StudentRecord.defineClass (URLClassLoader.class del StudentRecordExample.access$100 (URLClassLoader.lang.Launcher$AppClassLoader.net.findClass (URLClassLoader.499 StudentRecord.loadClass (ClassLoader.java 1 error 7.J.ClassLoader. You will experience compile errors as following.java:194) at java.java:539) at java.ClassLoader.ClassLoader.D..security. You get this compile error because you are trying to compile the two Java files that are not present in the current directory anymore.I Method) at java.lang.URLClassLoader.java:251) at java.E.loadClass (ClassLoader.defineClass (ClassLoader.java:235) at java.lang. Compile the code using a directory structure.net.java and StudentRecordExample.URLClassLoader.class C:\lab>javac StudentRecord.doPrivileged (Native Method) at java. The compilation should succeed.java 880 318 .

loadClassInternal (ClassLoader.java:55) at java.access$100 (URLClassLoader.SecureClassLoader.java:302) Introduction to Programming I 319 .lang.E.java 4 File(s) 4.run (URLClassLoader. C:\lab>cd studentpackage C:\lab\studentpackage>java StudentRecordExample Exception in thread "main" java.ClassLoader. It should work this time.NoClassDefFoundError: StudentRecordExample 9.defineClass0(Native Method) at java.856.loadClass (ClassLoader.doPrivileged(Native Method) at java.net.415. C:\lab>java StudentRecordExample Exception in thread "main" java.findClass (URLClassLoader.I StudentRecordExample.defineClass (URLClassLoader. Now you thught you should be able to run the application under the studentpackage directory itself so you go into the directory and run the code.URLClassLoader. You will experience NoClassDefFoundError because it is trying to find the class in the current directory instead of in the studentpackage directory.ClassLoader.lang.494 bytes 2 Dir(s) 1.AccessController. Run the code with propert package structure. Run the code as follows.lang.URLClassLoader.java:235) at java. C:\lab>java studentpackage.StudentRecordExample Anna Count=0 10. And the following is what you will experience.D.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: StudentRecordExample (wrong name: studentpackage/StudentRecordExample) at java.java:539) at java.java:251) at java.URLClassLoader$1.net.lang.defineClass (ClassLoader.security.ClassLoader.128 bytes free 8.misc.java:289) at sun.defineClass (SecureClassLoader.loadClass (ClassLoader.ClassLoader.java:194) at java. It is because it is still looking for studentpackage/StudentRecordExample.Launcher$AppClassLoader.lang.java:123) at java.J.lang.URLClassLoader.class in the currently directory and it could not find it.loadClass (Launcher.net.java:274) at java.class 07/06/2005 12:17 PM 690 StudentRecordExample.ClassLoader.security.net.java:187) at java.

Create a class called Food under foodpackage.fruitpackage Add a couple of methods of your own 2. Create a class called FoodMain under foodpackage.NoClassDefFoundError: StudentRecordExample C:\lab\studentpackage>java -classpath \lab studentpackage.D.I 11.fruitpackage package • • FoodMain class creates an Food object FoodMain class then calls a method of Food object 3.java should have the following package statement at the top • package foodpackage.StudentRecordExample Anna Count=0 Creating your own: 1. Compile and run the code Introduction to Programming I 320 .E. Now there is a way you can specify the classpath using -classpath command line option as following: C:\lab\studentpackage>java -classpath \lab StudentRecordExample Exception in thread "main" java.J.fruitpackage pacakge • • Food.lang.

out. this.name = name.E.out. " + address). Write Person. } public void setName(String s){ name = s.out.println("Inside Person:Constructor").println("Person: getName()").java package personpackage. public Person(){ System.D. return name.1 Inheritance – Constructor 1.println("Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: " + name + ".I Chapter 11 Hands-on 11. } public String getAddress(){ return address. private String address.J. } } Introduction to Programming I 321 . } public Person (String name. public class Person { private String name. } public String getName(){ System.address = address. this. } public void setAddress(String s){ address = s. String address){ System.

java java personpackage. Compile and run the code using a directory structure. } } } 3. public class Main { public static void main(String [] args ){ Student student1 =new Student(). } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s. public class Student extends Person { private String hobby.java package personpackage.Main Inside Person:Constructor Inside Student:Constructor Introduction to Programming I 322 . } } 4.println("Inside Student:Constructor"). public String getHobby(){ return hobby.java package personpackage. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java personpackage. Write Main. public Student(){ System.Main 5. cd \lab javac personpackage\*.E. Write Student.J.I 2.D.out.

E. package personpackage.Main 8. "1 Dreamland"). System. public class Student extends Person { private String hobby. 1 Dreamland Inside Student:Constructor Introduction to Programming I 323 . The code fragment that needs to be added is in bold characters. Compile and run the code using a directory structure.J.println("Inside Student:Constructor"). Modify the Student. } } } 7. public String getHobby(){ return hobby.I 6. cd \lab javac personpackage\*. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java personpackage.out.D. public Student(){ super("Sang".java java personpackage.java as following.Main Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Sang. } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s.

Start the NetBeans IDE 4. Replace the code in the NetBeans generated Main. Create Student.E. (Figure-10 below) • For Project Name field. 11. • for Class Name field.java.java main class • • • • Select File from the menu bar and select New Project.Modify the Student. Right click personpackage pacakge node (not PersonPackage project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 12. Create Person. Right click Main select Run File Introduction to Programming I 324 . • for Class Name field.java 8. Replaced the code in the NetBeans generated Person.I Using Netbeans: 1.1 desktop icon Solaris/Linux: <NETBEANS41_HOME>/bin/netbeans 2.java 4.D. Under Choose Project.J. select General and Java Application Click Next. fill it with PersonPackage • Click Finish 3.1 > NetBeans IDE or click NetBeans IDE 4.java • • Right personpackage package node (not PersonPackage project node) and select New->Java Class Under Name and Location pane. type Student • Click Finish 7. Right click Main select Run File 10. Right click personpackage package node (not PersonPackage project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 9. Replaced the code in the NetBeans generated Student.java • Right personpackage node (not PersonPackage project node) and select New>Java Class • Under Name and Location pane.1 (if you have not done so yet) • • Windows: Start > All Programs > NetBeans 4. Create a new NetBeans project and Main.java 6. Under Name and Location pane. type Person • Click Finish 5.

println("Inside TuftsStudent:Constructor").out. Write TuftsStudent. Modify the Main. Student student3 =new TuftsStudent().D.J.java to create an instance of TuftsStudent class as following TuftsStudent student2 =new TuftsStudent().I Creating your own: 1.java as following • • TuftsStudent class extends Student class Write a constructor of the TuftsStudent class as following public TuftsStudent(){ System. 3. Compile and run the code.E. } 2. You should see the following: Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Person:Constructor Student:Constructor Person:Constructor Student:Constructor TuftsStudent:Constructor Person:Constructor Student:Constructor TuftsStudent:Constructor Introduction to Programming I 325 .

D. Compile and run the code using a directory structure.Overriding 1. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java personpackage.Main Inside Person:Constructor Inside Student:Constructor Person: getName() Calling getName() method: name is Sang Introduction to Programming I 326 .E.J. The code fragment that needs to be added is in bold characters.println("Calling getName() method: name is " + student1.setName("Sang").getName()).2 Inheritance . package personpackage.Main 3. System.java java personpackage.I 11. // Calling methods defined in Person class. public class Main { public static void main(String [] args ){ Student student1 =new Student(). Modify Main. which is a parent class of Student class student1.java as following. cd \lab javac personpackage\*. } } 2.out.

Compile and run the code using a directory structure.println("Student: getName()").out. public String getHobby(){ return hobby. } // Override getName() method of the parent class public String getName(){ System. package personpackage.out. cd \lab javac personpackage\*.Main 7.I 5. The code fragment that needs to be added is in bold characters.Main Inside Person:Constructor Inside Student:Constructor Student: getName() Person: getName() Calling getName() method: name is PassionateSang Introduction to Programming I 327 .java java personpackage. } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s.J. } } } 6.E.getName().java as following. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java personpackage.D.println("Inside Student:Constructor"). Modify the Student. return "Passionate" + super. public class Student extends Person { private String hobby. public Student(){ System.

out. System.setHobby("dancing").setHobby("swimming").println("Inside TuftsStudent:getHobby() method").I Using NetBeans: It is assumed you are using the same NetBeans project you are using the same NetBeans project you created in Chapter 10. return "My hobby is " + super. override getHobby() and setHobby() methods of the Student class as follows public String getHobby(){ System. Right click personpackage pacakge node (not PersonPackage project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 6. 3.java to invoke setHobby() and getHobby() methods of the newly created TuftsStudent object instances as follows.println("Hobby of student2 " + hobby2).D. System.out.getHobby().setHobby(s).out. Right click personpackage package node (not PersonPackage project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 3.getHobby(). Modify the Student. } public void setHobby(String s){ System.J.java. Right click Main select Run File 4.getHobby(). In your TuftsStudent class. // get hobbies of student2 and student3 String hobby2 = student2.println("Inside TuftsStudent:setHobby() method"). super. // set hobbies of student2 and student3 student2. You should see the following result. Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Person:Constructor Student:Constructor Person:Constructor Student:Constructor TuftsStudent:Constructor Person:Constructor 328 Introduction to Programming I . 2. } 2.E.println("Hobby of student3 " + hobby3). student3. Change Main. 1.java 5. Right click Main select Run File Creating your own: 1. String hobby3 = student3. Compile and run the code.out. Modify the Main.

J.I Inside Student:Constructor Inside TuftsStudent:Constructor Inside TuftsStudent:setHobby() method Inside TuftsStudent:setHobby() method Inside TuftsStudent:getHobby() method Hobby of student2 My hobby is swimming Inside TuftsStudent:getHobby() method Hobby of student3 My hobby is dancing Introduction to Programming I 329 .D.E.

public Person(){ System.out. } public String getAddress(){ return address.out. } public Person (String name. this.address = address.println("Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: " + name + ". } public String getName(){ System.java.I 11. } public void setAddress(String s){ address = s. package polypackage. private String address. } public void setName(String s){ name = s. this.println("Person: getName()").J.3 Polymorphism 1. " + address).D.out. Person class is a parent class of both Student and Employee classes. return name. which you will write in the subsequent steps. Write Person. This is the same Person. public class Person { private String name.println("Inside Person:Constructor"). String address){ System.java as in the previous exercise except the package name.name = name.E. } } Introduction to Programming I 330 .

public Student(){ System. package polypackage.I 2. String address){ super(name.println("Inside Student:Constructor"). } public Student (String name.E. Write Student. return "Passionate Student " + super. } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s. address).D.out. public class Student extends Person { private String hobby.out. } // Override getName() method of the parent class public String getName(){ System. Student class is a subclass of a Person class. } public String getHobby(){ return hobby.println("Inside Student:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: " + name + ".println("Student: getName()").out.getName().J. } } Introduction to Programming I 331 . " + address). System.java.

println("Employee: getName()"). package polypackage. public Employee(){ System.J. } // Override getName() method of the parent class public String getName(){ System.getName } ().I 3. } public Employee(String name. address). " + address). Employee class is subclass of Person class. } public String getHobby(){ return hobby. } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s.out. return "Not so Passionate Employee " + super.out. } Introduction to Programming I 332 .out. String address){ super(name.E.D. public class Employee extends Person { private String hobby.java. System.println("Inside Employee:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: " + name + ".println("Inside Employee:Constructor"). Write Employee.

getName(). public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Person ref. //Person ref. Verify the result is as following. //Person ref. Write Main. 1 Dreamland Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Young. System.getName().E. Employee employeeObject = new Employee("Young". System. points to a Student //getName of Student class is called String temp1=ref. object ref = studentObject.java package polypackage.java java polypackage.println("\n").out.println( "temp2 -" + temp2 + "\n" ). 1 Dreamland Inside Student:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Sang. ref = employeeObject.Main Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Sang.I 4. points to an Employee object //getName of Employee class is called String temp2 = ref. Compile and run the code using a directory structure.println( "temp1 -" + temp1 + "\n" ). System. "2 Dreamland").out. "1 Dreamland").java C:\lab>java polypackage. } } 5.D.Main 6. proper method gets invoked. Employee type or Student type. cd \lab javac polypackage\*. Note that depending on what object type the ref variable refers to. 2 Dreamland Student: getName() Person: getName() temp1 -Passionate Student Sang Employee: getName() Person: getName() temp2 -Not so Passionate Employee Young Introduction to Programming I 333 .J. 2 Dreamland Inside Employee:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Young. C:\lab>javac polypackage\*.out. Student studentObject = new Student("Sang".

I Introduction to Programming I 334 .E.D.J.

1 desktop icon Solaris/Linux: <NETBEANS41_HOME>/bin/netbeans 2.1 (if you have not done so yet) • • Windows: Start > All Programs > NetBeans 4.E. fill it with PolyPackage • Click Finish 3. • for Class Name field.java 8. Replaced the code in the NetBeans generated Person. type Student • Click Finish 7.D. • for Class Name field.java • • Right polypackage node (not PolyPackage project node) and select New->Java Class Under Name and Location pane. Replaced the code in the NetBeans generated Student. (Figure-10 below) • For Project Name field.java • • Right polypackage node (not PolyPackage project node) and select New->Java Class Under Name and Location pane. Create Student. Create Employee. type Employee • Click Finish Introduction to Programming I 335 .java • • Right polypackage package node (not PolyPackage project node) and select New->Java Class Under Name and Location pane. Under Name and Location pane.1 > NetBeans IDE or click NetBeans IDE 4. select General and Java Application Click Next. Start the NetBeans IDE 4. • for Class Name field. Under Choose Project. Create Person.I Using NetBeans: 1. type Person • Click Finish 5.java main class • • • • Select File from the menu bar and select New Project.java 4.J.java 6. Create a new NetBeans project and Main. Replace the code in the NetBeans generated Main.

getName().out.I 9.java 10. You should see the following result. return "Maybe Passionate Teacher" + super.J. Right click Main select Run File 12. 2 Dreamland Inside Employee:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Young. Right click polypackage package node (not PolyPackage project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 11. } 2.Modify the Student.Main Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Sang. 21 New York Inside Teacher:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Wende. Right click polypackage pacakge node (not PolyPackage project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 14. 1 Dreamland Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Young. 2 Dreamland Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Wende. Create another class called Teacher.D. getName() method of the Teacher object gets called 3. 21 New York Student: getName() Person: getName() Passionate Student Sang temp1 -Passionate Student Sang Employee: getName() Person: getName() Not so Passionate Employee Young temp2 -Not so Passionate Employee Young Teacher: getName() Person: getName() temp3 -Maybe Passionate Teacher Wende Introduction to Programming I 336 .E. Compile and run the code.java in which. C:\lab>java polypackage. 1 Dreamland Inside Student:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Sang.java 13. Right click Main select Run File Creating your own: 1. Modify the Main.java as following • • Teacher class extends Person class Teacher clsss also has the following method // Override getName() method of the parent class public String getName(){ System. Replaced the code in the NetBeans generated Employee.println("Teacher: getName()").

Note that you will experience a compile error since you cannot create an object instance from an abstract class. Write abstract class called LivingThing. cd \lab javac abstractexercise\LivingThing.java and Main. package abstractexercise. C:\lab>javac abstractexercise\LivingThing.. Write Main.out. Compile Livingthing.println("Living Thing eating..LivingThing is abstract. } /** * abstract method walk * We want this method to be overridden by subclasses of * LivingThing */ public abstract void walk(). public abstract class LivingThing { public void breath(){ System. ^ 1 error Introduction to Programming I 337 .I 11.java 4.D. cannot be instantiated LivingThing x = new LivingThing().").4 Abstract Classes 1.java abstractexercise\Main.java package abstractexercise..E. public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { LivingThing x = new LivingThing().out.java:5: abstractexercise..println("Living Thing breathing.java. } 2.java.java abstractexercise\Main.").java abstractexercise\Main. } } 3.J. } public void eat(){ System.

} } 7. Creating your own: 1.java so that it calls dance(ds) method Introduction to Programming I 338 . } 3.D. Rewrite Main. package abstractexercise.J. Write a concrete class called Human. LivingThing y = new Human().I 5. Verify the result is as following.java that implements the dance() abstract method.walk()...println("Human dances.out. public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Human x = new Human(). public class Human extends LivingThing { public void walk(){ System.println("Human walks. Define another abstract method in the LivingThing." + ds).."). } } 6. public void dance(String ds){ System. y... C:\lab>java abstractexercise. Compile and run the code using a directory structure.java.E. x. 2..java as following public abstract void dance(String dancingStyle).java java abstractexercise. Modify the Main.out.. cd \lab javac abstractexercise\*. Human walks..walk(). Implement a concrete method in the Human.java that extends the abstract LivingThing class package abstractexercise.Main 8.Main Human walks.

Main Human walks.. Human dances in Saturday Night Live Introduction to Programming I 339 .I 4. Human dances in Swing Human walks.J.. You should see the following result... C:\lab>java abstractexercise. Compile and run the code.E.D.

Write Relation. package interfaceexercise.D. public boolean isEqual( Object a. cd \lab javac interfaceexercise\Relation. package interfaceexercise. Write Main.E.java 4. Object b).java. } } 3.java:5: interfaceexercise. cannot be instantiated Relation x = new Relation(). Note that you will experience a compile error since you cannot create an object instance from an Interface. Compile Relation. public interface Relation { public boolean isGreater( Object a.java and Main. public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Relation x = new Relation().java interfaceexercise\Main.I 11. } 2.java.java interfaceexercise\Main. C:\lab>javac interfaceexercise\Relation.5 Interfaces 1 1. Object b). ^ 1 error Introduction to Programming I 340 .java interfaceexercise\Main. public boolean isLess( Object a. Object b).J.Relation is abstract.java which is an Interface.

} public boolean isEqual( Object a. this.getLength().getLength().E. return (aLen == bLen).double y2){ this. Object b){ double aLen = ((Line)a). } public boolean isLess( Object a. this.double x2.sqrt( (x2-x1)*(x2-x1) + (y2-y1)* (y2-y1) ). double bLen = ((Line)b). return (aLen < bLen). this.I 5.double y1. } public boolean isGreater( Object a. Object b){ double aLen = ((Line)a). public class Line implements Relation { private double x1. private double x2.y1 = y1.getLength(). return (aLen > bLen). Object b){ double aLen = ((Line)a). Write a concrete class that implements Relation.x1 = x1. double bLen = ((Line)b). package interfaceexercise.y2 = y2.x2 = x2.D. return length. } } Introduction to Programming I 341 .J.getLength(). } public double getLength(){ double length = Math. private double y1.getLength(). private double y2. public Line(double x1.getLength(). double bLen = ((Line)b).

0).0.out.0. 5.java. System.0. public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Line line1 Line line2 = new Line(1. System.println("line1 is equal with line2: " + Line line3 = new Line(1. b1). System. 2.0). boolean b3 = line3.656854249492381 Introduction to Programming I 342 .isEqual(line1. line2). = new Line(2. System. Verify the result as following: C:\lab>java interfaceexercise.Main 8.println("line1 is equal with line3: " + b3). 1. Compile and run the code using a directory structure.println("Length of line3 is " + line3.0.out. } } 7. 5.getLength()). System. Rewrite Main. System.out.E.println("line1 is greater than line2: " + boolean b2 = line1.J.out.0).java java interfaceexercise.I 6. cd \lab javac interfaceexercise\*. line2).D.println("Length of line1 is " + line1.println("Length of line2 is " + line2.out. package interfaceexercise.Main line1 is greater than line2: false line1 is equal with line2: true line1 is equal with line3: false Length of line1 is 1.getLength()).0.isGreater(line1.out.4142135623730951 Length of line2 is 1.0.isEqual(line1.0. line3). boolean b1 = line1. 2. 2.0. b2). 1. 3.4142135623730951 Length of line3 is 5. 3.getLength()).0.

Main line1 is greater than line2: false line1 is equal with line2: true line1 is equal with line3: false Length of line1 is 1. Create another implementation class called NumberComparison that implements Relation interface.J. You should see the following result • • C:\lab>java interfaceexercise.656854249492381 1 is greater than 5 false 1 is equal with 5 false 1 is less than 5 true Introduction to Programming I 343 . Modify Main class that compares two int type numbers.E.4142135623730951 Length of line2 is 1.4142135623730951 Length of line3 is 5.I Creating your own: 1.D. 2. 3.

6 Interfaces 2 1.println("Inside PersonImpl:Constructor"). String getAddress(). Write PersonInterface.println("Inside PersonImpl:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: " + name + ".address = address. } public String getAddress(){ return address. private String address.J. package interfaceexercise2.name = name. } public String getName(){ System. } 2. public class PersonImpl implements PersonInterface { private String name. this. return name.java. } public PersonImpl (String name.out.println("PersonImpl: getName()"). this.out. } public void setAddress(String s){ address = s. String address){ System. " + address). void setAddress(String s).java which is an Interface. Write PersonImpl. package interfaceexercise2. PersonImpl class implements PersonInterface Interface.D. public interface PersonInterface { public public public public String getName(). public PersonImpl(){ System.I 11.E. void setName(String s).out. } public void setName(String s){ name = s. } } Introduction to Programming I 344 .

Compile PersonInterface.java 4.J. public StudentImpl(){ System.out.java.java interfaceexercise2\PersonImpl.D. public void setHobby(String s). Write StudentInteface. cd \lab javac interfaceexercise2\PersonInterface. Write StudentImpl. } } Introduction to Programming I 345 . return hobby.java.println("Inside StudentImpl:Constructor").E.out.java. } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s. The StudentInteface interface extends PersonInterface interface.println("StudentImpl: getHobby()"). } 5.java and PersonImpl. public class StudentImpl implements StudentInterface { private String hobby. } public String getHobby(){ System. public interface StudentInterface extends PersonInterface { public String getHobby(). package interfaceexercise2.I 3. package interfaceexercise2.

} public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s.PersonInterface public class StudentImpl implements StudentInterface{ ^ 1 error 7. C:\lab>javac interfaceexercise2\StudentInterface. Compile Studentnterface.java. } } 8. javac interfaceexercise2\StudentInterface.D. package interfaceexercise2. Modify StudentImpl.I 6.out.StudentImpl is not abstract and does not override abstract method setAddress(java. You will experience the compile error.java. This is because StudentImpl. Compile Studentnterface. Compilation should succeed.java interfaceexercise2\StudentImpl.java and StudentImpl.println("Inside StudentImpl:Constructor").String) in interfaceexercise2. return hobby.java.java and StudentImpl.java interfaceexercise2\StudentImpl.E.println("StudentImpl: getHobby()").lang. The code fragment that needs to be added is highlighted in bold font.J.java interfaceexercise2\StudentImpl. public class StudentImpl extends PersonImpl implements StudentInterface { private String hobby. } public String getHobby(){ System.out.java:3: interfaceexercise2.java Introduction to Programming I 346 . public StudentImpl(){ System.java did not implement all the abstract methods defined in both StudentInterface and PersonInteface interfaces.

student1. javac interfaceexercise2\*.I 9.Main Inside PersonImpl:Constructor Inside StudentImpl:Constructor PersonImpl: getName() student1's name is Ann StudentImpl: getHobby() student1's hobby is Dancing Introduction to Programming I 347 .out. student1. package interfaceexercise2.println("student1's hobby is " + s2). System.java.setName("Ann").java java interfaceexercise2.Main 11.E. public class Main { public static void main(String [] args ){ StudentInterface student1 = new StudentImpl().getName(). String s1 = student1. Write Main.out. String s2 = student1.setHobby("Dancing").println("student1's name is " + s1). System. } } 10. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java interfaceexercise2.J.D. Compile all the source code and run it.getHobby().

public double multiply(double p. It should also "extend" StudentImpl class. public int add(int x. It should "extend" StudentInterface inteface. You should see the result something like following: C:\lab>java interfaceexercise2. that it calls add and multiply methods of the 4.Main Inside PersonImpl:Constructor Inside StudentImpl:Constructor PersonImpl: getName() student1's name is Ann StudentImpl: getHobby() student1's hobby is Dancing Inside PersonImpl:Constructor Inside StudentImpl:Constructor PersonImpl: getName() tuftsstudent1's name is Mario StudentImpl: getHobby() tuftsstudent1's hobby is Tennis StudentImpl: add() tuftsstudent1's addition is 11 StudentImpl: multiply() tuftsstudent1's multiplication is 311.2 Introduction to Programming I 348 . Define the following new methods inside the TuftsStudentInterface interface. 3. double q). Write TuftsStudentInterface inteface.D. int y).E. Modify the Main. Write TuftsStudentImpl class. It "implements" TuftsStudentInterface.I Creating your own: 1. 2.J.java so TuftsStudentInterface interface.

println("Exception caught!"). Write ExceptionExample.I Chapter 12 Hands-on 12. Compile and run the code using a directory structure.java package exceptionexercise.println( args[1] ). } } } 2.E. cd \lab javac exceptionexercise\*.ExceptionExample Exception caught! Introduction to Programming I 349 .out. Verify the result C:\lab>java exceptionexercise.D.J. public class ExceptionExample { public static void main( String[] args ){ try{ System.1 Exception Handling 1.java java exceptionexercise.out.ExceptionExample 3. } catch( ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException exp ){ System.

java public class StudentRecordExample{ public static void main(String [] args ){ //create three objects for Student record StudentRecord annaRecord =new StudentRecord().setScienceGrade(70. StudentRecord. //set grades myOwnRecord. StudentRecord beahRecord =new StudentRecord().increaseStudentCount().2). System.increaseStudentCount().increaseStudentCount().increaseStudentCount().getName()). myOwnRecord.println(myOwnRecord. System.E.setName("Anna"). //set the name of the students annaRecord.setName("Cris").setMathGrade(60. crisRecord.D. } } Introduction to Programming I 350 .println("Average of my Own="+myOwnRecord.setEnglishGrade(90.getStudentCount()).println(annaRecord.out.println ("Count="+StudentRecord. StudentRecord myOwnRecord =new StudentRecord(). myOwnRecord. beahRecord. //print anna's name System. StudentRecord. StudentRecord.getName()). StudentRecord crisRecord =new StudentRecord().out.setName("myOwn").I Answers to Hands-on Exercises 10.2).2).1 Create your own class StudentRecoredExample.out. StudentRecord.J.setName("Beah").out. //print number of students System. myOwnRecord.getAverage()).

result =(mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade )/3.math and science *grades */ public double getAverage(){ double result =0. } public void setMathGrade(double grade){ mathGrade = grade. } /** *returns the number of instances of StudentRecords */ public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount. return result. } public static void increaseStudentCount(){ studentCount++. private double scienceGrade. private double mathGrade.J. } /** *Computes the average of the english. private double average. } /** *Changes the name of the student */ public void setName(String temp ){ name =temp.E. private double englishGrade. } public void setScienceGrade(double grade){ scienceGrade = grade. } } Introduction to Programming I 351 . // static variables private static int studentCount = 0.I StudentRecord.java public class StudentRecord { // instance variables private String name. } public void setEnglishGrade(double grade){ englishGrade = grade. /** *Returns the name of the student */ public String getName(){ return name.D.

} public void setScienceGrade(double grade){ scienceGrade = grade.D. return result. private double average.2 Overloading StudentRecord.J. } Introduction to Programming I 352 . private double englishGrade. } /** *returns the number of instances of StudentRecords */ public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount. } public void setEnglishGrade(double grade){ englishGrade = grade. } public static void increaseStudentCount(){ studentCount++. } /** *Changes the name of the student */ public void setName(String temp ){ name =temp.java public class StudentRecord { // instance variables private String name. private double mathGrade. result =(mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade )/3. // static variables private static int studentCount = 0. } /** *Computes the average of the english. /** *Returns the name of the student */ public String getName(){ return name.math and science *grades */ public double getAverage(){ double result =0. } public void setMathGrade(double grade){ mathGrade = grade.E.I 10. private double scienceGrade.

//overloaded methods annaRecord.getAverage().getStudentCount()). annaRecord.E.println("Name:"+name).out.println("Average Grade:"+averageGrade).out. annaRecord.print("Name:"+name+" ").setScienceGrade(100).print(annaRecord. System. } public void print(String name. } public void print(String name.out. annaRecord. double averageGrade){ System.java public class StudentRecordExample2{ public static void main(String [] args) { StudentRecord annaRecord =new StudentRecord().out.setName("Anna"). annaRecord.getName().out. annaRecord. int studentCount){ System. } } StudentExample2.out.print("Name:"+name+" ").J.getName()).print(annaRecord. } } Introduction to Programming I 353 . System.5). System.getAverage()).print(annaRecord. double averageGrade.println("Student count:"+studentCount).I public void print(String name ){ System.getName(). annaRecord.setEnglishGrade(95.println("Average Grade:"+averageGrade).D. annaRecord. annaRecord.

fruitpackage.java under a proper directory structure cd \lab mkdir foodpackage mkdir foodpackage\fruitpackage jedit foodpackage\fruitpackage\Food.3 Packaging 1. public class FoodMain{ public static void main(String [] args ){ Food food1 =new Food().java package foodpackage. } } 2.fruitpackage.fruitpackage. public String getColor(){ return color.FoodMain Color of the food =white Introduction to Programming I 354 . Verify the result C:\lab>java foodpackage.java Food.fruitpackage.D.java under a proper directory structure FoodMain. Compile and run the code cd \lab javac foodpackage\fruitpackage\*. public class Food { //instance variables private String color = "white".out. System. Create FoodMain.FoodMain 4.getColor } ()).E.java package foodpackage. } 3.J. Create Food.java java foodpackage.println("Color of the food ="+food1.I 10.

println("Inside TuftsStudent:Constructor"). return "My hobby is " + super.java public class Main { public static void main(String [] args ){ Student student1 =new Student().Overriding TuftsStudent. super. /** * * @author sang */ public class TuftsStudent extends Student{ /** Creates a new instance of TuftsStudent */ public TuftsStudent() { System.2 Inheritance .setHobby(s).I 11. TuftsStudent student2 =new TuftsStudent().out.1 Inheritance – Constructor TuftsStudent. } public void setHobby(String s){ System.println("Inside TuftsStudent:getHobby() method"). } } 11.java package personpackage. } public String getHobby(){ System. } } Introduction to Programming I 355 .E. } } Main.java public class TuftsStudent extends Student{ /** Creates a new instance of TuftsStudent */ public TuftsStudent() { System.D.println("Inside TuftsStudent:setHobby() method").out.J.getHobby(). Student student3 =new TuftsStudent().out.out.println("Inside TuftsStudent:Constructor").

Student student3 =new TuftsStudent().getHobby(). // get hobbies of student2 and student3 String hobby2 = student2.java package personpackage.setHobby("swimming"). System.out. student3.J.println("Hobby of student3 " + hobby3). TuftsStudent student2 =new TuftsStudent(). String hobby3 = student3.out. System.D.I Main.getHobby().println("Hobby of student2 " + hobby2). // set hobbies of student2 and student3 student2. public class Main { public static void main(String [] args ){ Student student1 =new Student().E. } } Introduction to Programming I 356 .setHobby("dancing").

J.println("Inside Teacher:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: " + name + ". //Person ref. } // Override getName() method of the parent class public String getName(){ System. System. ref = employeeObject.getName().D.getName(). public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Person ref. Student studentObject = new Student("Sang".println( "temp1 -" + temp1 + "\n" ). } public String getHobby(){ return hobby. ref = studentObject.out.out. points to an // Employee object Introduction to Programming I 357 . address). System.I 11. String address){ super(name. return "Maybe Passionate Teacher " + super.out. } } Main. System. } public Teacher(String name. public class Teacher extends Person { private String hobby.println("\n"). //Person ref.println( temp1 ). "21 New York"). } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s. Teacher teacherObject = new Teacher("Wende".java package polypackage.out.println("Inside Teacher:Constructor"). " + address). Employee employeeObject = new Employee("Young".println("Teacher: getName()"). public Teacher(){ System. "2 Dreamland"). System. "1 Dreamland").java package polypackage.out. points to a // Student object //getName of Student class is called String temp1=ref.out.3 Polymorphism Teacher.E.

} } 11.out. public abstract class LivingThing { public void breath(){ System.D..println("Living Thing eating. System.java package abstractexercise. System..getName().I //getName of Employee class is called String temp2 = ref.println( "temp2 -" + temp2 + "\n" ).J..out. } /** * abstract method walk * We want this method to be overridden by subclasses of * LivingThing */ public abstract void walk().out. /** * abstract method dance * We want this method to be overridden by subclasses of * LivingThing */ public abstract void dance(String dancingStyle). //Person ref. } public void eat(){ System.4 Abstract Classes LivingThing. ref = teacherObject.out. System.").println("Living Thing breathing.").println( "temp3 -" + temp3 + "\n" ).println( temp2 ). } Introduction to Programming I 358 . points to an // Teacher object //getName of Employee class is called String temp3 = ref.getName()..out.E.

J.out.").E.. } } Introduction to Programming I 359 .walk(). y.dance("Swing").java package abstractexercise. } } Main. public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Human x = new Human().walk()..D.println("Human walks.println("Human dances in " + ds).dance("Saturday Night Live").out. y. LivingThing y = new Human().I Human. public class Human extends LivingThing { public void walk(){ System.java package abstractexercise. x. x. } public void dance(String ds){ System.

b1).0). line2).D.0. public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Line line1 Line line2 = new Line(1.out. Integer y = new Integer(5).J.0. } } Main. 5.isEqual(line1.getLength()).java package interfaceexercise. line2).E. System. Relation r1 = new NumberComparison(). boolean b1 = line1. 1.0. System.intValue() > bi.out.0.intValue() == bi.0). Introduction to Programming I 360 . 2.0). System. System.intValue()). 3.java package interfaceexercise. Object b){ Integer ai = (Integer)a. public class NumberComparison implements Relation { public boolean isGreater(Object a. Integer bi = (Integer)b.println("line1 is greater than line2: " + boolean b2 = line1. System.getLength()).out.println(""). 5.out. line3).I 11.0. } public boolean isEqual(Object a.println("Length of line1 is " + line1.0.0.out. } public boolean isLess(Object a.0. 1.5 Interfaces 1 NumberComparion.isEqual(line1.intValue()). Integer bi = (Integer)b. 2.0. = new Line(2.println("line1 is equal with line2: " + b2). Object b){ Integer ai = (Integer)a. Integer x = new Integer(1).out. System. return (ai.intValue() < bi.out.println("line1 is equal with line3: " + b3). System. 3.intValue()). Integer bi = (Integer)b. return (ai.isGreater(line1.getLength()). boolean b3 = line3. 2.println("Length of line3 is " + line3. Line line3 = new Line(1. return (ai.println("Length of line2 is " + line2. Object b){ Integer ai = (Integer)a.

isLess(x. y).I b4).println(x + " is greater than " + y boolean b5 = r1.J. System.isGreater(x.println(x + " is less than " + y + " " + b5). System.out. y).out. boolean b4 = r1. } + " " + } Introduction to Programming I 361 . System. + " " + b6).E.D.println(x + " is equal with " + y boolean b6 = r1.out.isEqual(x. y).

String s1 = student1. System.out.println(""). tuftsstudent1.I 11. public class Main { public static void main(String [] args ){ StudentInterface student1 = new StudentImpl().println("StudentImpl: add()"). String s3 = tuftsstudent1. tuftsstudent1. student1.setName("Ann"). double q).setHobby("Dancing").getHobby(). public interface TuftsStudentInterface extends StudentInterface { public int add(int x.out.out. int y).setName("Mario").println("student1's name is " + s1). } public double multiply(double p.J.6 Interfaces 2 TuftsStudentInterface.java package interfaceexercise2. return x+y. System.println("StudentImpl: multiply()").out.getName().println("tuftsstudent1's name is " + s3).out.setHobby("Tennis"). System.D. } TuftsStudentImpl. String s2 = student1. TuftsStudentInterface tuftsstudent1 = new TuftsStudentImpl().E.getName(). student1.java package interfaceexercise2. int y){ System.java package interfaceexercise2. Introduction to Programming I 362 .out. return p*q.println("student1's hobby is " + s2). double q){ System. } } Main. System. public double multiply(double p. public class TuftsStudentImpl extends StudentImpl implements TuftsStudentInterface { public int add(int x.

+ d1).I String s4 = tuftsstudent1.println("tuftsstudent1's multiplication is " i1). System.println("tuftsstudent1's hobby is " + s4).J. 6).out. System.D.12).multiply(10.out. int i1 = tuftsstudent1.out.E.getHobby().println("tuftsstudent1's addition is " + double d1 = tuftsstudent1. } } Introduction to Programming I 363 .0. 31. System.add(5.

sun.ca/~ve3ll/jatutor4.javaworld. 23. High-Level Programming Language.developer.html 8. Java Programming Complete Concepts and Techniques.com/topic/programming-language 4.com/javaworld/javaqa/2000-05/03-qa-0526-pass. Introduction to Programming I 364 .Does Java pass by reference or pass by value? Why can't you swap in Java? Available at http://www.com/TERM/p/programming_language. Available at http://java.webopedia.com/tech/article.Inheritance and Polymorphism.Sun Java Programming Student Guide SL-275. 26. Thomas J. Defining an Interface. Available at http://www.The Essence of OOP using Java.html 7.ca/~ve3ll/jatutor7.D. 28.pattonpatton. From Wikipedia at http://en. Available at http://www.htm 21.cogeco.Stephen J.Gary B. Integrated Development Environment. Defining Flowchart Symbols. 2001.html. Java How to Program 5th Edition.sun. Pearson Prentice Hall. Cashman. Available at http://www. Variables and Expressions. From Answers.com at http://www. Available at http://java. Course Technology Thomson Learning. Available at http://home. Java for Engineers and Scientists 2nd Edition. Chapman. Programming Language.wikipedia.J.wikipedia.html 9. Sun Microsystems.org/wiki/High-level_programming_language 5. 2004 24.Deitel & Deitel.com/docs/books/tutorial/java/javaOO/abstract.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/java/nutsandbolts/branch.com/TERM/I/integrated_development_environment.html 27.E. Shelly.Encapsulation.htm 6.I References 1. Available at http://home. Joy L. Available at http://java. Starks. From Webopedia at http://www. Programming Language. Writing Abstract Classes and Methods. Runtime Polymorphism through Inheritance.html 20.com/SiliconValley/Park/3230/java/javl1002.geocities. From Webopedia at http://www. February 2001. From Wikipedia at http://en.htm.php/983081 22.answers.webopedia.Java Branching Statements.com/docs/books/tutorial/java/interpack/interfaceDef. 25.com/basic_flow_chart_symbols.html 3.org/wiki/Programming_language 2. Programming Language.cogeco.

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