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Introduction to Programming I

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Author Florence Tiu Balagtas Team Joyce Avestro Florence Balagtas Rommel Feria Reginald Hutcherson Rebecca Ong John Paul Petines Sang Shin Raghavan Srinivas Matthew Thompson

Requirements For the Laboratory Exercises
Minimum Hardware Configuration • Microsoft Windows operating systems:

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Processor: 500 MHz Intel Pentium III workstation or equivalent Memory: 384 megabytes Disk space: 125 megabytes of free disk space Processor: 450 MHz UltraTM 10 workstation or equivalent Memory: 384 megabytes Disk space: 125 megabytes of free disk space Processor: 500 MHz Intel Pentium III workstation or equivalent Memory: 384 megabytes

SolarisTM operating system:

Linux operating system:

Disk space: 125 megabytes of free disk space Recommended Hardware Configuration • Microsoft Windows operating systems: Processor: 780 MHz Intel Pentium III workstation or equivalent Memory: 512 megabytes Disk space: 125 megabytes of free disk space Processor: 500 MHz UltraTM 60 workstation or equivalent Memory: 512 megabytes Disk space: 125 megabytes of free disk space Processor: 800 MHz Intel Pentium III workstation or equivalent Memory: 512 megabytes

SolarisTM operating system:

Linux operating system:

Disk space: 125 megabytes of free disk space Operating System NetBeans IDE runs on operating systems that support the JavaTM VM. Below is a list of platforms that NetBeans IDE has been tested on. • Microsoft Windows XP Professional SP1

• • • • • • • • •

Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional SP3 Solaris operating system (SPARC® Platform Edition), versions 8, 9, and 10 Solaris operating system (x86 Platform Edition), versions 8, 9, and 10 Red Hat Linux 9.0 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3

Sun Java Desktop System NetBeans IDE is also known to run on the following platforms: • Various other Linux distributions Mac OS X 10.1.1 or later Open VMS 7.2-1 or later

Other UNIX ® platforms, such as HP-UX Software NetBeans IDE runs on the J2SE JDK 5.0 (JavaTM 2 JDK, Standard Edition), which consists of the Java Runtime Environment plus developers tools for compiling, debugging, and running applications written in the JavaTM language. NetBeans IDE 4.0 has also been tested on J2SE SDK version 1.4.2. For more information, please visit: http://www.netbeans.org/community/releases/40/relnotes.html

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Revision History
For Version 1.1 August 2005 Section Version Number Revision History Appendix E: Hands-on Lab Exercises

Details Change from 1.0 to 1.1 Added Added (c/o Sang)

Chapter 10: Creating Your own classes Added subsection on How to set classpath at packages section Chapter 11: Inheritance, Interfaces Polymorphism section and Polymorphism • Added example that uses another class whose method can receive a reference variable Interface • Added sections • Why do we use Interfaces? • Interface vs. Abstract Class • Interface vs. Class • Relationship of an Interface to a Class • Inheritance among Interfaces

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Table of Contents
1 Introduction to Computer Programming.............................................................. 11 1.1 Objectives............................................................................................... 11 1.2 Introduction............................................................................................. 11 1.3 Basic Components of a Computer................................................................ 12 1.3.1 Hardware.......................................................................................... 12 1.3.1.1 The Central Processing Unit.......................................................... 12 1.3.1.2 Memory .................................................................................... 12 1.3.1.3 Input and Output Devices............................................................. 13 1.3.2 Software........................................................................................... 13 1.4 Overview of Computer Programming Languages........................................... 14 1.4.1 What is a Programming Language?....................................................... 14 1.4.2 Categories of Programming Languages.................................................. 14 1.5 The Program Development Life Cycle........................................................... 15 1.5.1 Problem Definition............................................................................. 16 1.5.2 Problem Analysis............................................................................... 16 1.5.3 Algorithm design and representation.................................................... 17 1.5.3.1 Flowcharting Symbols and their meanings...................................... 18 1.5.4 Coding and Debugging....................................................................... 19 1.6 Number Systems and Conversions.............................................................. 20 1.6.1 Decimal............................................................................................ 20 1.6.2 Binary.............................................................................................. 20 1.6.3 Octal................................................................................................ 20 1.6.4 Hexadecimal..................................................................................... 20 1.6.5 Conversions...................................................................................... 21 1.6.5.1 Decimal to Binary / Binary to Decimal............................................ 21 1.6.5.2 Decimal to Octal (or Hexadecimal)/Octal (or Hexadecimal) to Decimal.... 22 1.6.5.3 Binary to Octal / Octal to Binary.................................................... 23 1.6.5.4 Binary to Hexadecimal / Hexadecimal to Binary............................... 24 1.7 Exercises................................................................................................. 25 1.7.1 Writing Algorithms............................................................................. 25 1.7.2 Number Conversions.......................................................................... 25 2 Introduction to Java........................................................................................ 26 2.1 Objectives............................................................................................... 26 2.2 Java Background...................................................................................... 26 2.2.1 A little Bit of History .......................................................................... 26 2.2.2 What is Java Technology?................................................................... 26 2.2.2.1 A programming language............................................................. 26 2.2.2.2 A development environment......................................................... 26 2.2.2.3 An application environment.......................................................... 26 2.2.2.4 A deployment environment........................................................... 27 2.2.3 Some Features of Java........................................................................ 27 2.2.3.1 The Java Virtual Machine.............................................................. 27 2.2.3.2 Garbage Collection...................................................................... 27 2.2.3.3 Code Security............................................................................. 28 2.2.4 Phases of a Java Program.................................................................... 29 3 Getting to know your Programming Environment................................................. 30 3.1 Objectives............................................................................................... 30 3.2 Introduction............................................................................................. 30

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3.3 My First Java Program............................................................................... 30 3.4 Using a Text Editor and Console................................................................. 31 3.4.1 Errors .............................................................................................. 46 3.4.1.1 Syntax Errors............................................................................. 46 3.4.1.2 Run-time Errors.......................................................................... 47 3.5 Using Netbeans........................................................................................ 48 3.6 Exercises................................................................................................. 66 3.6.1 Hello World!...................................................................................... 66 3.6.2 The Tree........................................................................................... 66 4 Programming Fundamentals............................................................................. 67 4.1 Objectives............................................................................................... 67 4.2 Dissecting my first Java program................................................................ 67 4.3 Java Comments........................................................................................ 69 4.3.1 C++-Style Comments......................................................................... 69 4.3.2 C-Style Comments............................................................................. 69 4.3.3 Special Javadoc Comments................................................................. 69 4.4 Java Statements and blocks....................................................................... 70 4.5 Java Identifiers........................................................................................ 71 4.6 Java Keywords......................................................................................... 72 4.7 Java Literals............................................................................................ 73 4.7.1 Integer Literals ................................................................................. 73 4.7.2 Floating-Point Literals ........................................................................ 73 4.7.3 Boolean Literals ................................................................................ 73 4.7.4 Character Literals .............................................................................. 74 4.7.5 String Literals ................................................................................... 74 4.8 Primitive data types.................................................................................. 75 4.8.1 Logical - boolean............................................................................... 75 4.8.2 Textual – char................................................................................... 75 4.8.3 Integral – byte, short, int & long.......................................................... 76 4.8.4 Floating Point – float and double.......................................................... 77 4.9 Variables................................................................................................. 78 4.9.1 Declaring and Initializing Variables....................................................... 78 4.9.2 Outputting Variable Data.................................................................... 79 4.9.3 System.out.println() vs. System.out.print() ......................................... 79 4.9.4 Reference Variables vs. Primitive Variables............................................ 80 4.10 Operators.............................................................................................. 81 4.10.1 Arithmetic operators......................................................................... 81 4.10.2 Increment and Decrement operators................................................... 84 4.10.3 Relational operators......................................................................... 86 4.10.4 Logical operators.............................................................................. 89 4.10.4.1 && (logical AND) and & (boolean logical AND)............................... 90 4.10.4.2 || (logical OR) and | (boolean logical inclusive OR)......................... 92 4.10.4.3 ^ (boolean logical exclusive OR).................................................. 94 4.10.4.4 ! (logical NOT).......................................................................... 95 4.10.5 Conditional Operator (?:).................................................................. 96 4.10.6 Operator Precedence........................................................................ 98 4.11 Exercises............................................................................................... 99 4.11.1 Declaring and printing variables......................................................... 99 4.11.2 Getting the average of three numbers................................................. 99 4.11.3 Output greatest value....................................................................... 99 4.11.4 Operator precedence........................................................................ 99 5 Getting Input from the Keyboard..................................................................... 100 5.1 Objectives............................................................................................. 100

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5.2 Using BufferedReader to get input............................................................. 100 5.3 Using JOptionPane to get input................................................................. 104 5.4 Exercises............................................................................................... 106 5.4.1 Last 3 words (BufferedReader version)................................................ 106 5.4.2 Last 3 words (JOptionPane version).................................................... 106 Control Structures......................................................................................... 107 6.1 Objectives............................................................................................. 107 6.2 Decision Control Structures...................................................................... 107 6.2.1 if statement.................................................................................... 107 6.2.2 if-else statement.............................................................................. 109 6.2.3 if-else-if statement........................................................................... 111 6.2.4 Common Errors when using the if-else statements:............................... 112 6.2.5 Example for if-else-else if.................................................................. 113 6.2.6 switch statement............................................................................. 114 6.2.7 Example for switch........................................................................... 116 6.3 Repetition Control Structures.................................................................... 117 6.3.1 while loop....................................................................................... 117 6.3.2 do-while loop................................................................................... 119 6.3.3 for loop........................................................................................... 120 6.4 Branching Statements............................................................................. 121 6.4.1 break statement.............................................................................. 121 6.4.1.1 Unlabeled break statement......................................................... 121 6.4.1.2 Labeled break statement............................................................ 122 6.4.2 continue statement.......................................................................... 123 6.4.2.1 Unlabeled continue statement..................................................... 123 6.4.2.2 Labeled continue statement........................................................ 123 6.4.3 return statement.............................................................................. 124 6.5 Exercises............................................................................................... 125 6.5.1 Grades........................................................................................... 125 6.5.2 Number in words.............................................................................. 125 6.5.3 Hundred Times................................................................................ 125 6.5.4 Powers........................................................................................... 125 Java Arrays.................................................................................................. 126 7.1 Objectives............................................................................................. 126 7.2 Introduction to arrays.............................................................................. 126 7.3 Declaring Arrays..................................................................................... 127 7.4 Accessing an array element...................................................................... 129 7.5 Array length........................................................................................... 130 7.6 Multidimensional Arrays........................................................................... 131 7.7 Exercises............................................................................................... 132 7.7.1 Days of the Week............................................................................. 132 7.7.2 Greatest number.............................................................................. 132 7.7.3 Addressbook Entries......................................................................... 132 Command-line Arguments.............................................................................. 133 8.1 Objectives............................................................................................. 133 8.2 Command-line arguments........................................................................ 133 8.3 Command-line arguments in Netbeans...................................................... 135 8.4 Exercises............................................................................................... 139 8.4.1 Print arguments............................................................................... 139 8.4.2 Arithmetic Operations....................................................................... 139 Working with the Java Class Library................................................................. 140 9.1 Objectives............................................................................................. 140 9.2 Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming............................................. 140

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9.3 Classes and Objects................................................................................ 141 9.3.1 Difference Between Classes and Objects.............................................. 141 9.3.2 Encapsulation.................................................................................. 142 9.3.3 Class Variables and Methods.............................................................. 142 9.3.4 Class Instantiation........................................................................... 143 9.4 Methods................................................................................................ 144 9.4.1 What are Methods and Why Use Methods?........................................... 144 9.4.2 Calling Instance Methods and Passing Variables....................................145 9.4.3 Passing Variables in Methods............................................................. 146 9.4.3.1 Pass-by-value........................................................................... 146 9.4.3.2 Pass-by-reference...................................................................... 147 9.4.4 Calling Static Methods...................................................................... 148 9.4.5 Scope of a variable........................................................................... 149 9.5 Casting, Converting and Comparing Objects............................................... 152 9.5.1 Casting Primitive Types..................................................................... 152 9.5.2 Casting Objects............................................................................... 154 9.5.3 Converting Primitive Types to Objects and Vice Versa............................ 156 9.5.4 Comparing Objects........................................................................... 157 9.5.5 Determining the Class of an Object..................................................... 159 9.6 Exercises............................................................................................... 160 9.6.1 Defining terms................................................................................. 160 9.6.2 Java Scavenger Hunt........................................................................ 160 10 Creating your own Classes............................................................................ 161 10.1 Objectives............................................................................................ 161 10.2 Defining your own classes...................................................................... 162 10.3 Declaring Attributes.............................................................................. 163 10.3.1 Instance Variables.......................................................................... 163 10.3.2 Class Variables or Static Variables.................................................... 164 10.4 Declaring Methods................................................................................ 164 10.4.1 Accessor methods........................................................................... 165 10.4.2 Mutator Methods............................................................................ 166 10.4.3 Multiple Return statements.............................................................. 167 10.4.4 Static methods............................................................................... 167 10.4.5 Sample Source Code for StudentRecord class..................................... 168 10.5 The this reference................................................................................. 170 10.6 Overloading Methods............................................................................. 171 10.7 Declaring Constructors........................................................................... 173 10.7.1 Default Constructor........................................................................ 173 10.7.2 Overloading Constructors................................................................ 173 10.7.3 Using Constructors......................................................................... 174 10.7.4 The this() Constructor Call............................................................... 175 10.8 Packages............................................................................................. 176 10.8.1 Importing Packages........................................................................ 176 10.8.2 Creating your own packages............................................................ 176 10.8.3 Setting the CLASSPATH.................................................................. 177 10.9 Access Modifiers................................................................................... 179 10.9.1 default access (also called package accessibility)................................ 179 10.9.2 public access................................................................................. 179 10.9.3 protected access............................................................................ 180 10.9.4 private access................................................................................ 180 10.10 Exercises........................................................................................... 181 10.10.1 Address Book Entry....................................................................... 181 10.10.2 AddressBook................................................................................ 181

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.......................................................... 259 4...........4 Operator precedence.............................2 Inheritance.............................2 Getting the average of three numbers........................................... 259 4... 200 12.................................................................................................. 213 Installing Netbeans in Windows............................................................................. 227 Setting the Path..................... 258 3.................................................................................................. 226 My First Java Program................................................................. 257 Chapter 3 Exercises......3 Output greatest value......................... 195 11.. 259 4.6 Inheritance among Interfaces........................................................................................5..................................................................2 The Shape abstract class.4.......................E................1 Extending StudentRecord.................. 192 11..................... 183 11........................... Abstract Class............................. 251 Chapter 1 Exercises............1 Last 3 words (BufferedReader version).................................................D.... 182 11..........................1 Writing Algorithms...............................................................6......J.....1 Objectives...........2 Interface vs................................................................................... 258 Chapter 4 Exercises............................................................................................................... 196 11..................................2 The super keyword................................................................... 251 1........ 241 Appendix C : Answers to Exercises.........................................................1 Why do we use Interfaces?. 192 11...1 Hello World!.......... 226 Using a Text Editor and Console............................. Polymorphism and Interfaces....................... 187 11........................................... 258 3.......................... 196 11............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 254 Chapter 2 (No exercises)..1 Objectives................. Class............ 182 11.......................................................................................................................................1 Catching Exceptions1............................................................................................................................ 197 12.........................5.......................................................................................... 196 12 Basic Exception Handling..............................1 Defining Superclasses and Subclasses..............................................2........................................................................... 262 Chapter 6 Exercises............2 Number Conversions....................................................................... 260 Chapter 5 Exercises................................................................................................................................... 200 Appendix A : Java and Netbeans Installation................ 195 11...............2........................................ 185 11...................................................2 Last 3 words (JOptionPane version)......................................................................................... 182 11...................... 186 11............. 210 Installing Netbeans in Linux.I 11 Inheritance.4............................................. 251 1..3 Polymorphism.........................3 Interface vs.2.........4 Abstract Classes...................................................................... 202 Installing Java in Windows..................... 201 Installing Java in Linux................................3 Overriding Methods......2 Catching Exceptions 2...................................................................1 Declaring and printing variables........................4 Creating Interfaces..............5...............................2 What are Exceptions?..................................................................... 260 4................................... 197 12...................4 Exercises..................... 222 Appendix B: Getting to know your Programming Environment (Windows XP version)... 261 5....... 240 Using Netbeans...........................................................................................5 Relationship of an Interface to a Class........ 193 11.......................... 190 11.......... 193 11...........2..........5......... 192 11......................................................................................................... 188 11.. 197 12.............................................3 Handling Exceptions... 263 Introduction to Programming I 8 ................5 Interfaces...6 Exercises.....6.......................................................................................................... 200 12......................................5................................ 261 5..4 Final Methods and Final Classes.....................................................................5........................2 The Tree.... 197 12................................................

..........1 Days of the Week................................1 Defining terms.... 307 Chapter 10 Hands-on...............4 Powers.................. 276 Chapter 10 Exercises.................. 295 Note to the Teacher................................................................1 For Loop........................3 Hundred Times................1 Getting Input From Keyboard via BufferedReader......................................................................................................................... 274 Chapter 8 Exercises........................... 295 Chapter 2 Hands-on........................1 Print Arguments......................................... 293 Machine Problem 3: Number Conversion.............................................................................2 Number in words......................................................................... Printing Variables....2 AddressBook........................................ 277 10.. 301 5............................. 300 Chapter 5 Hands-on...................................................................2 Java Scavenger Hunt................................................................................................................1 Grades ...3 Write.................................................2 Write....... 294 Appendix E : Hands-on Laboratory........... 304 Chapter 8 Hands-on................................. 305 Chapter 9 Hands-on........ 306 9.......................................................................2 Abstract Classes.................................................................... 316 Chapter 11 Hands-on.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................J...................................................... 292 Machine Problem 2: Minesweeper......1 Things to check before you start the lab ...........................................................................I 6...........................................................................................................................................................................1 Address Book Entry.......................1 Arrays. 273 7. 295 Chapter 3 Hands-on........ 284 11........................................................1 Pass-by-Value..................2 Greatest number..........3 Comparing Objects..................................................2 Overloading................ 263 6..................................................................1 Catching Exceptions 1.................................................................... 304 7.... 298 Chapter 4 Hands-on......... 305 9........... 275 8............ 273 7....................... 305 9................................................................2 Pass-by-Reference............................................................................................................... 299 4.................................................................................................................................................. 308 10..... 296 3............................................................................................................... 289 Appendix D : Machine Problems................................................... 297 3...............................................D....................................... 308 10........................................... 267 6............... 303 Chapter 7 Hands-on.. 303 6........................ and Run Hello Java Program..........................................................................................................E.............................................................................. 289 12............................................................... 292 Machine Problem 1: Phone Book......................................2 Catching Exceptions 2............. 301 5........................ 287 Chapter 12 Exercises.... Initializing...................1 Create your own class.............................. 284 11..................................................................................................................................................... Compile................ 265 6............................................................1 Declaring.......................................................................................................................... Compile..............................................3 Packaging............. 276 9................................... 279 Chapter 11 Exercises.......................................... 299 4.... and Run Hello Java Program using NetBeans.... 295 Chapter 1 Hands-on....................................1 Extending StudentRecord..................................................................................................................2 Getting Input From Keyboard via JOptionPane............. 270 Chapter 7 Exercises...................................................... 289 12.................................................. 302 Chapter 6 Hands-on................................ 313 10........ 296 3...................................................... 321 Introduction to Programming I 9 .......................... 276 9.............................................................................................................................2 Conditional Operator...... 275 Chapter 9 Exercises............................................. 277 10....

...........3 Packaging............1 Exception Handling...................3 Polymorphism.............5 Interfaces 1.....................3 Polymorphism..............................I 11...................................................................... 340 11................................................ 350 10........................... 352 10.......................................Overriding.2 Inheritance ...............................................................................................................................6 Interfaces 2.............. 362 Introduction to Programming I 10 ..................................................................... 344 Chapter 12 Hands-on.. 330 11....................................1 Create your own class...................................................................Overriding.........................................................................5 Interfaces 1.................4 Abstract Classes...........E.................................... 337 11.4 Abstract Classes.............................................D...............................................................1 Inheritance – Constructor........................................................................................ 357 11........................... 349 12.......... 349 Answers to Hands-on Exercises.........................1 Inheritance – Constructor.2 Overloading.......... 326 11.......... 350 10........................................ 354 11..................................................................................................... 321 11.....................................................................................2 Inheritance ... 358 11...............................................J..... 355 11...................... 355 11...........6 Interfaces 2................................................... 360 11...................................................................

2 Introduction A computer is a machine that performs a variety of tasks according to specific instructions. The computer has two major components.J. We will also be giving a brief overview of programming languages and the program development life cycle. the student should be able to: • • • • Identify the different components of a computer Know about programming languages and their categories Understand the program development life cycle and apply it in problem solving Learn the different number systems and their conversions 1. At the end of the lesson. It consists of data and the computer programs.D. both hardware and software.E. Finally.I 1 Introduction to Computer Programming 1. It is a data processing machine which accepts data via an input device and its processor manipulates the data according to a program. It is composed of electronic and mechanical parts. different number systems and conversions from one type to another will be discussed. The first one is the Hardware which is the tangible part of the computer. Introduction to Programming I 11 .1 Objectives In this section. The second major component is the software which is the intangible part of a computer. we will be discussing the basic components of a computer.

2. The Secondary Memory The secondary memory is connected to main memory. It is not used for long-term storage. It is used to hold programs and data. It does the fundamental computing within the system. It is used to hold programs and data for long term use. 1.1 The Central Processing Unit The processor is the “brain” of the computer. It contains millions of extremely tiny electrical parts.1. all information residing in the main memory is erased.1 Hardware 1. Examples of processors are Pentium.1. It is sometimes called the RAM (Random Access Memory).2 Memory The memory is where data and instructions needed by the CPU to do its appointed tasks can be found.D. This means that once the computer is turned off. 1. It is divided into several storage locations which have corresponding addresses. Examples of secondary memory are hard disks and cd-rom. The computer's main memory is considered as volatile storage.3.J. that the processor is actively working with.I 1. This means that information residing in secondary memory is not erased after the computer is turned off.3 Basic Components of a Computer 1. Secondary memory is considered as non-volatile storage. Main Memory Fast Expensive Low Yes Secondary Memory Slow Cheap High No Property Speed Price Capacity Volatile Table 1: Comparison between main memory and secondary memory Introduction to Programming I 12 .E.3. The CPU accesses the memory with the use of these addresses. Athlon and SPARC. Main Memory The main memory is very closely connected to the processor.3.

Solaris. there exists compilers. The data that the computer uses can be anything that a program needs.J. Introduction to Programming I 13 . Unix. Windows.3. Programs acts like instructions for the processor. Application Programs • • Programs that people use to get their work done Examples: • Word Processor • Game programs • Spreadsheets 3. Compilers • The computer understands only one language: machine language.D.I 1. Machine language is in the form of ones and zeros. for this purpose. 1. but it itself is intangible.E. Since it is highly impractical for people to create programs out of zeros and ones.3. Examples of input devices are keyboards. It is kept on some hardware device like a hard disk. there must be a way of translating or converting a language which we understand into machine language. Some Types of Computer Programs: 1.3 Input and Output Devices Input and output devices allows a computer system to interact with the outside world by moving data into and out of the system.1. Systems Programs • • Programs that are needed to keep all the hardware and software systems running together smoothly Examples: • Operating Systems like Linux.2 Software A software is the program that a computer uses in order to function. printers and speakers. mice and microphones. Examples of output devices are monitors. MacOS 2.

and abstract from low-level computer processor operations such as memory accesses. assembly language was considered low-level and COBOL. Examples are Java.D. A programming statement may be translated into one or several machine instructions by a compiler. Basic. Low-level Assembly Language • Assembly languages are similar to machine languages. There are different types of programming languages that can be used to create programs. Like human languages.4. Programming languages enable a programmer to precisely specify what data a computer will act upon. to some extent platform-independent. etc.2 Categories of Programming Languages 1. C++. and precisely what actions to take under various circumstances. and each assembly instruction is translated into one machine instruction by an assembler program. C.E. High-level Programming Languages • A high-level programming language is a programming language that is more userfriendly. Many programmers today might refer to these latter languages as low-level. Note: The terms "high-level" and "low-level" are inherently relative. Introduction to Programming I 14 . each language has its own syntax and grammar. these instructions are translated into machine language that can be understood by computers. Assembly languages are available for each CPU family.1 What is a Programming Language? A programming language is a standardized communication technique for expressing instructions to a computer. how these data will be stored/transmitted. 1. Originally.4. C.I 1.J. were considered high-level. but they are much easier to program in because they allow a programmer to substitute names for numbers. Fortran • 2. but regardless of what language you use.4 Overview of Computer Programming Languages 1.

they follow an organized plan or methodology. Here are the basic steps in trying to solve a problem on the computer: 1.J. let us define a single problem that we will solve step-by-step as we discuss the problem solving methodologies in detail. The problem we will solve will be defined in the next section.I 1. 2. Introduction to Programming I 15 .E.D. Instead. Problem Definition Problem Analysis Algorithm design and representation (Pseudocode or flowchart) Coding and debugging In order to understand the basic steps in solving a problem on a computer. 3.5 The Program Development Life Cycle Programmers do not sit down and start writing code right away when trying to make a computer program. 4. that breaks the process into a series of tasks.

2 Problem Analysis After the problem has been adequately defined.5.D.5.E. Example Problem: Determine the number of times a name occurs in a list Input to the program: list of names.J.” 1. A clearly defined problem is already half the solution. the problem must be well and clearly defined first in terms of its input and output requirements.I 1.1 Problem Definition A programmer is usually given a task in the form of a problem. the simplest and yet the most efficient and effective approach to solve the problem must be formulated. name to look for Output of the program: the number of times the name occurs in a list Introduction to Programming I 16 . Usually. Computer programming requires us to define the problem first before we even try to create a solution. this step involves breaking up the problem into smaller and simpler subproblems. Let us now define our example problem: “Create a program that will determine the number of times a name occurs in a list. Before a program can be designed to solve a particular problem.

let's call this the keyname 3. add 1 to the count 5. If the keyname is the same with a name in the list. Get the list of names 2.E.J. it is normally required to express our solution in a step-by-step manner.I 1. In computer programming. we can now set to finding a solution. It may be expressed in either Human language (English. through a graphical representation like a flowchart or through a pseudocode.3 Algorithm design and representation Once our problem is clearly defined.5. how do we express our general solution in such a way that it is simple yet understandable? Expressing our solution through Human language: 1. which is a cross between human language and a programming language.D. output the result Expressing our solution through a flowchart: YES Figure 1. Compare the keyname to each of the names in the list 4.1: Example of a flow chart Introduction to Programming I 17 . Get the name to look for. Tagalog). If all the names have been compared. Now given the problem defined in the previous sections. An Algorithm is a clear and unambiguous specification of the steps needed to solve a problem.

and the arrowheads are mandatory only for right-to-left and bottom-totop flow.1 Flowcharting Symbols and their meanings A flowchart is a design tool used to graphically represent the logic in a solution. or location of information. Annotation Symbol Represents a decision that determines which of a number of alternative paths is to be followed. Represents the addition of descriptive information.5. or explanatory notes as clarification. comments. which makes data available for processing (input) or displaying (output)of processed information. or on the right. Decision Symbol Terminal Symbol Represents the beginning. form. Represents an I/O function. Also functions as the default symbol when no other symbol is available.D.J.2: Example of a pseudocode 1. Here are some guidelines for commonly used symbols in creating flowcharts. Introduction to Programming I 18 . Rather.I Expressing our solution through pseudocode: Let nameList = List of Names Let keyName = the name to be sought Let Count = 0 For each name in NameList do the following if name == keyName Count = Count + 1 Display Count Figure 1.E. You can use any symbols in creating your flowcharts.3. or a point of interruption or delay in a program. Input/Output (I/O) Symbol Represents the sequence of available information and executable operations. as long as you are consistent in using them. as shown. The vertical line and the broken line may be placed on the left. Symbol Name Meaning Represents the process of executing a defined operation or groups of operations that results in a Process Symbol change in value. Flowcharts typically do not display programming language commands. they state the concept in English or mathematical notation. the end.The lines connect Flowline Symbol other symbols.

another part of the flowchart. and therefore. is a compile-time error. compilers aren't really smart enough to catch all of these types of errors at compile-time. Table 2: Flowchart Symbols 1. the actual syntax of the code looks okay. But when you follow the code's logic. This is especially true for logic errors such as infinite loops. the source code can now be written using the chosen programming language. etc. the program isn't 100% working right away. the same piece of code keeps executing over and over again infinitely so that it loops. For example.D. and the other is runtime error. Introduction to Programming I 19 . There are two types of errors that a programmer will encounter along the way. it is now possible to create the source code.E. However.J. At this point. Most of the time. the program (or even their whole computer) freezes up due to an infinite loop. after the programmer has written the program. the programmer is unable to form an executable that a user can run until the error is fixed. Other types of run-time errors are when an incorrect value is computed. for example. when the end-user runs the program. Also serves as an off-page connector.I Symbol Name Connector Symbol Meaning Represents any entry from. Using the algorithm as basis.5. Compilers aren't perfect and so can't catch all errors at compile time. or exit to. This type of error is called runtime error. the program compiles fine into an executable file. Compile-Time Errors occur if there is a syntax error in the code. The compiler will detect the error and the program won't even compile. Forgetting a semi-colon at the end of a statement or misspelling a certain command. It's something the compiler can detect as an error. The first one is compile-time error. The programmer has to add some fixes to the program in case of errors (also called bugs) that occurs in the program. the wrong thing happens. and unfortunately. Predefined Process Symbol Represents a named process consisting of one or more operations or program steps that are specified elsewhere. This process of is called debugging. In such a case.4 Coding and Debugging After constructing the algorithm.

6. This means that the only legal digits are 0-7.3 Octal Numbers in octal form are in base 8. Numbers in decimal form are in base 10.1 Decimal We normally represent numbers in their decimal form. We need to write the subscript 16 to indicate that the number is a hexadecimal number.I 1.D. Here are examples of numbers written in hexadecimal form: 7E16 B16 Hexadecimal Decimal Equivalent 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 A B C D E F 1 9 10 11 12 13 14 5 Table 3: Hexadecimal Numbers and their Equivalence to decimal numbers Decimal 12610 1110 Binary 11111102 10112 Octal 1768 138 Hexadecimal 7E16 B16 Table 4: Summary of Examples Introduction to Programming I 20 .J. lowercase or uppercase does not matter). This means that the only legal digits are 0 and 1. 1. We need to write the subscript 8 to indicate that the number is an octal number.6.4 Hexadecimal Numbers in hexadecimal form are in base 16.6. This means that the only digits that appear are 0-9. This means that the only legal digits are 09 and the letters A-F (or a-f. The following are the four most common representations.6 Number Systems and Conversions Numbers can be represented in a variety of ways.E. Here are examples of numbers written in octal form: 1768 138 1.6.2 Binary Numbers in binary form are in base 2. Here are examples of numbers written in binary form: 11111102 10112 1. Here are examples of numbers written in decimal form: 12610 (normally written as just 126) 1110 (normally written as just 11) 1. We need to write the subscript 2 to indicate that the number is a binary number. The representation depends on what is called the BASE.

NOTE: For the last digit which is already less than the divisor (which is 2) just copy the value to the remainder portion. For Example: 11111102 = ? Position Write it this way 10 Binary Digits 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 x 20 = 0 1 x 21 = 2 1 x 22 = 4 1 x 23= 8 1 x 24= 16 1 x 25 = 32 1 x 26 = 64 TOTAL: 126 Introduction to Programming I 21 . continuously divide the number by 2 and get the remainder (which is either 0 or 1). We then get all the remainders starting from the last remainder. Get the quotient and divide that number again by 2 and repeat the whole process until the quotient reaches 0 or 1.5 Conversions 1.I 1. and get that number as a digit of the binary form of the number. writing the remainders from the bottom up. and the result is the binary form of the number. For Example: 12610 = ? 2 126 63 31 15 7 3 1 / / / / / / / 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = = = = = = = Quotient 63 31 15 7 3 1 Remainder 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 So.6.E. we multiply the binary digit to "2 raised to the position of the binary number".5.J.6. We then add all the products to get the resulting decimal number.1 Decimal to Binary / Binary to Decimal To convert a decimal number to binary. we get the binary number 11111102 To convert a binary number to decimal.D.

writing the remainders from the bottom up. However. we get the hexadecimal number 7E16 *** Converting octal or hexadecimal numbers is also the same as converting binary numbers to decimal. instead of having 2 as the divisor.2 Decimal to Octal (or Hexadecimal)/Octal (or Hexadecimal) to Decimal Converting decimal numbers to Octal or hexadecimal is basically the same as converting decimal to binary. To do that. writing the remainders from the bottom up. For Example (Octal): 1768 = ? 10 Position Octal Digits 2 1 1 7 0 6 6 x 80 = 6 7 x 81 = 56 1 x 82 = 64 TOTAL: 126 Introduction to Programming I 22 .D.I 1.J.6.E. you replace it with 8(for octal) or 16 (for hexadecimal).5. we get the octal number 1768 For Example (Hexadecimal): 12610 = ? 16 Quotient 126 / 16 = 7 / 16 = 7 Remainder 14 (equal to hex digit E) 7 Write it this way So. we will just replace the base number 2 with 8 for Octal and 16 for hexadecimal. For Example (Octal): 12610 = ? 8 Quotient 126 / 8 = 15 / 8 = 1/8= 15 1 Remainder 6 7 1 Write it this way So.

6. We then convert each partition into its corresponding octal digit.D.3 Binary to Octal / Octal to Binary To convert from binary numbers to octal. Introduction to Programming I 23 .J. and pad it with zeros if the number of digits is not divisible by 3. The following is a table showing the binary representation of each octal digit. Octal Digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Binary Representation 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 Table 5: Octal Digits and their corresponding binary represenation For Example: 11111102 = ? 8 0 0 1 1 1 1 7 1 1 1 6 0 Equivalent octal number Converting octal numbers to binary is just the opposite of what is given above.E.I For Example (Hexadecimal): 7E16 = ? 10 Position Hex Digits 1 7 0 E 14 x 160 = 14 7 x 161 = 112 TOTAL: 126 1.5. The result is the binary representation. we partition the binary number into groups of 3 digits (from right to left). Simply convert each octal digit into its binary representation (given the table) and concatenate them.

We then convert each partition into its corresponding hexadecimal digit.J. Simply convert each hexadecimal digit into its binary representation (given the table) and concatenate them.5.6.I 1.E. we partition the binary number into groups of 4 digits (from right to left). The result is the binary representation. Introduction to Programming I 24 .4 Binary to Hexadecimal / Hexadecimal to Binary To convert from binary numbers to hexadecimal. Hexadecimal Digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F Binary Representation 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Table 6: Hexadecimal Digits and their corresponding binary represenation For Example: 11111102 = ? 16 0 1 7 1 1 1 1 E 1 0 Equivalent Hexadecimal number Converting hexadecimal numbers to binary is just the opposite of what is given above. and pad it with zeros if the number of digits is not divisible by 4. The following is a table showing the binary representation of each hexadecimal digit.D.

decimal and octal Introduction to Programming I 25 . Baking Bread 2. hexadecimal and octal 2.1 Writing Algorithms Given the following set of tasks. Logging into your laboratory's computer 3.7.I 1.D.7. create an algorithm to accomplish the following tasks.2 Number Conversions Convert the following numbers: 1.E.7 Exercises 1. Getting the average of three numbers 1. 768 to binary. 198010 to binary. You may write your algorithms using pseudocodes or you can use flowcharts. hexadecimal and decimal 4. 43F16 to binary. 1.J. 10010011012 to decimal. hexadecimal and octal 3.

a class file packaging tool. The original motivation for Java was the need for platform independent language that could be embedded in various consumer electronic products like toasters and refrigerators. realized that Java could be used for Internet programming.3 An application environment Java technology applications are typically general-purpose programs that run on any machine where the Java runtime environment (JRE) is installed. we will be discussing a little bit of Java history and what is Java Technology. Initially called Oak. the student should be able to: • • Describe the features of Java technology such as the Java virtual machine. and so on. At about the same time.2. Introduction to Programming I 26 .D.2. 2.2. an interpreter.1 Objectives In this section.2 What is Java Technology? 2. in honor of the tree outside Gosling's window. 2.I 2 Introduction to Java 2. Java technology provides you with a large suite of tools: a compiler. Gosling et.1 A little Bit of History Java was created in 1991 by James Gosling et al. We will also discuss the phases that a Java program undergoes. One of the first projects developed using Java was a personal hand-held remote control named Star 7. its name was changed to Java because there was already a language called Oak.2. garbage collection and code security Describe the different phases of a Java program 2. of Sun Microsystems.2 A development environment As a development environment. 2. al.2.E. a documentation generator. At the end of the lesson.2.2. Java can create all kinds of applications that you could create using any conventional programming language. the World Wide Web and the Internet were gaining popularity.J.2.2 Java Background 2.1 A programming language As a programming language.

3. so any computer with a Java interpreter can execute the compiled Java program.3. A bytecode is a special machine language that can be understood by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM).E. no matter what type of computer the program was compiled on. Most commercial browsers supply a Java technology interpreter and runtime environment. The garbage collection thread is responsible for freeing any memory that can be freed. 2.3 Some Features of Java 2. This specification enables the Java software to be platform-independent because the compilation is done for a generic machine known as the JVM.2. C++ and other languages the programmer is responsible for this. In Java. The other main deployment environment is on your web browser. The bytecode is independent of any particular computer hardware. after using that allocated memory. the programmer is freed from the burden of having to deallocate that memory themselves by having what we call the garbage collection thread.4 A deployment environment There are two main deployment environments: First. the JRE supplied by the Java 2 Software Development Kit (SDK) contains the complete set of class files for all the Java technology packages. The JVM provides the hardware platform specifications to which you compile all Java technology code. Introduction to Programming I 27 . GUI component classes. This can be difficult at times since there can be instances wherein the programmers forget to deallocate memory and therefor result to what we call memory leaks.1 The Java Virtual Machine The Java Virtual Machine is an imaginary machine that is implemented by emulating software on a real machine.2.2. However.2 Garbage Collection Many programming languages allows a programmer to allocate memory during runtime.J.I 2. there should be a way to deallocate that memory block in order for other programs to use it again.D.2. 2. which includes basic language classes. and so on. This happens automatically during the lifetime of the Java program.2. In C.

the memory layout of the executable is then determined. After loading the class and layouting of memory.3 Code Security Code security is attained in Java through the implementation of its Java Runtime Environment (JRE).2. the bytecode verifier then tests the format of the code fragments and checks the code fragments for illegal code that can violate access rights to objects. code verification (through the bytecode verifier) and finally code execution. This adds protection against unauthorized access to restricted areas of the code since the memory layout is determined during runtime.D. After loading all the classes. It adds security by separating the namespaces for the classes of the local file system from those that are imported from network sources.3. This limits any Trojan horse applications since local classes are always loaded first. Introduction to Programming I 28 .E. After all of these have been done.J. The Class Loader is responsible for loading all classes needed for the Java program. The JRE runs code compiled for a JVM and performs class loading (through the class loader). the code is then finally executed.I 2.

After creating and saving your Java program. This file is stored in a disk file with the extension .J. Figure 2. vi.2. Examples of text editors you can use are notepad. The .D. The output of this process is a file of Java bytecodes with the file extension . Task Write the program Compile the program Run the program Tool to use Any text editor Java Compiler Java Interpreter Output File with .I 2.java.java extension File with . class. compile the program by using the Java Compiler.4 Phases of a Java Program The following figure describes the process of compiling and executing a Java program. etc.1: Phases of a Java Program The first step in creating a Java program is by writing your programs in a text editor.class file is then interpreted by the Java interpreter that converts the bytecodes into the machine language of the particular computer you are using.E.class extension (Java bytecodes) Program Output Table 7: Summary of Phases of a Java Program Introduction to Programming I 29 . emacs.

you have installed Java and Netbeans in your system.println("Hello world!").2 Introduction An IDE is a programming environment integrated into a software application that provides a GUI builder. let us first take a look at the first Java program you will be writing. let's first try to write this program in a file and try to run it. At the end of the lesson. For the Windows XP version of this section. 3. a compiler and/or interpreter and a debugger. please refer to Appendix B. Before going into details. a text or code editor. Make sure that before you do this tutorial. compile and run Java programs.1 Objectives In this section. } } Before we try to explain what the program means. The second one is by using Netbeans which is an Integrated Development Environment or IDE. the first one is by using a console and a text editor.D. For instructions on how to install Java and Netbeans. There are two ways of doing this.I 3 Getting to know your Programming Environment 3. Introduction to Programming I 30 .out. the student should be able to: • • • Create a Java program using text editor and console in the Linux environment Differentiate between syntax-errors and runtime errors Create a Java program using Netbeans 3. we will be discussing on how to write.J. please refer to Appendix A. This tutorial uses RedHat Linux as the operating system.3 My First Java Program public class Hello { /** * My first java program */ public static void main(String[] args) { //prints the string "Hello world" on screen System.E.

2: Text Editor Application in Linux Figure 3.4 Using a Text Editor and Console For this example. we will be using a text editor to edit the Java source code. click on Menu-> Accessories-> Text Editor.D.J. Step 1: Start the Text Editor To start the Text Editor in Linux.E.1: Opening the Text Editor Introduction to Programming I 31 . You will also need to open the Terminal window to compile and execute your Java programs. Figure 3.I 3.

click on Menu-> System Tools-> Terminal. Figure 3.E.3: Opening the Terminal Introduction to Programming I 32 .D.I Step 2: Open Terminal To open Terminal in Linux.J.4: Terminal in Linux Figure 3.

J.E.D.I Step 3: Write your the source code of your Java program in the Text Editor Figure 3.5: Writing the Source Code with the Text Editor Introduction to Programming I 33 .

Figure 3.java". To open the Save dialog box. and we will be saving it inside a folder named MYJAVAPROGRAMS.J.6: Saving the Source Code Introduction to Programming I 34 .I Step 4: Save your Java Program We will save our program on a file named "Hello.E. click on the File menu found on the menubar and then click on Save.D.

J.7: Save As Dialog Introduction to Programming I 35 .D. Figure 3. a dialog box will appear as shown in Figure below.I After doing the procedure described above.E.

J. we'll create a new folder inside the root folder where we will save your programs.E. Figure 3.8: Creating New Folder Introduction to Programming I 36 . We shall name this folder MYJAVAPROGRAMS.D.I Now. Click on the button encircled in the figure below to create the folder. Type on the "Folder Name" Textbox MYJAVAPROGRAMS. A dialog box named "New Folder" will then appear. and click on the CREATE button.

I Now that we've created the folder where we will save all the files.J.9: Opening the Created Folder Introduction to Programming I 37 . double click on that folder to open it.D.E. Figure 3.

E.10: View Inside The Created Folder Introduction to Programming I 38 . Figure 3.I You will see a similar figure as shown below after you clicked on MYJAVAPROGRAMS. The folder should be empty for now since it's a newly created folder and we haven't saved anything in it yet.D.J.

and then click on the OK button.E.11: Saving the Source Code Inside the Created Folder Introduction to Programming I 39 . Figure 3.D.java".I Now. in the Selection textbox. type in the filename of your program. which is "Hello.J.

notice how the title of the frame changes from "Untitled 1 (modified) – gedit" to "/root/MYJAVAPROGRAMS/Hello. and then save it again by clicking on File -> Save. Take note that if you want to make changes in your file.D. you can just edit it.12: New Window After Saving Introduction to Programming I 40 .E.J.I Now that you've saved your file. Figure 3.gedit".java .

and where we saved our Hello.D. when you open the terminal window.java program. Typically.E. Figure 3. What you will see is a list of files and folders inside your home folder. To see what is inside that home folder. the next step is to compile your program. you can see here that there is a folder named "MYJAVAPROGRAMS" which we have created a while ago. type ls and then press ENTER.I Step 5: Compiling your program Now.J.13: Lists of Files in the Home Folder Now. Now let's go inside that directory. Go to the Terminal window we just opened a while ago. it opens up and takes you directly to what is called your home folder. Introduction to Programming I 41 .

In this case. you type in: cd MYJAVAPROGRAMS Figure 3.14: Changing the Directory Introduction to Programming I 42 .I To go inside a directory.E.J. The "cd" command stands for. change directory. since the name of our directory is MYJAVAPROGRAMS. you type in the command: cd [directory name].D.

In order to do that.I Once inside the folder where your Java programs are. Take note that.J. execute the "ls" command again to see if your file is inside that folder.D. Figure 3. you should make sure that the file is inside the folder where you are in.E. let us now start compiling your Java program.15: List of Files Inside the New Directory Introduction to Programming I 43 .

Figure 3.class. Hello.I To compile a Java program.D.E.16: Compiling Java File During compilation. javac adds a file to the disk called [filename].java. we type in the command: javac [filename]. Introduction to Programming I 44 . or in this case.J. which is the actual bytecode.class. So in this case. type in: javac Hello.

D. Figure 3. assuming that there are no problems during compilation (we'll explore more of the problems encountered during compilation in the next section).17: Running Class File Introduction to Programming I 45 . To run your Java program. so in the case of our example.J. "Hello world!". type in: java Hello You can see on the screen that you have just run your first Java program that prints the message.E. we are now ready to run your program. type in the command: java [filename without the extension].I Step 6: Running the Program Now.

1 Syntax Errors Syntax errors are usually typing errors. Java attempts to isolate the error by displaying the line of code and pointing to the first incorrect character in that line. this is not always the case.D.1. 3.18: Source Code With Errors Introduction to Programming I 46 . the problem may not be at the exact point. However. the use of incorrect special characters. our Hello. The second one is the runtime error. However. As discussed before. The first one is a compile-time error or also called as syntax error. we usually encounter errors along the way. spelling. there are two types of errors. Other common mistakes are in capitalization. Let's take for example. As what we have discussed in the first part of this course. You may have misspelled a command in Java or forgot to write a semi-colon at the end of a statement. and omission of correct punctuation.1 Errors What we've shown so far is a Java program wherein we didn't encounter any problems in compiling and running.4.E.I 3.J.4.java program wherein we intentionally omit the semicolon at one statement and we try to type the incorrect spelling of a command. Figure 3.

E. Doing so may reduce the total number of errors dramatically. if you encounter a lot of error messages.D. It pointed to the next word after the statict. and try to compile the program again. Introduction to Programming I 47 . Even programs that compile successfully may display wrong answers if the programmer has not thought through the logical processes and structures of the program.2 Run-time Errors Run-time errors are errors that will not display until you run or execute your program.J. try to correct the first mistake in a long list. Figure 3. The second error message suggests that there is a missing semicolon after your statement.4. which should be spelled as static.19: Compiling the Source Code with Errors As a rule of thumb. The first error message suggests that there is an error in line 6 of your program. 3.1.I See the error messages generated after compiling the program.

5 Using Netbeans Now that we've tried doing our programs the complicated way.I 3. let's now see how to do all the processes we've described in the previous sections by using just one application. One is through command-line using terminal. Step 1: Run Netbeans There are two ways to run Netbeans. a compiler and/or interpreter and a debugger. In this part of the lesson. we will be using Netbeans. which is an Integrated Development Environment or IDE. a text or code editor.E.20: Running Netbeans with the Command-Line Introduction to Programming I 48 .J.D. and type: netbeans Figure 3. An IDE is a programming environment integrated into a software application that provides a GUI builder. To run Netbeans using command-line. or by jst clicking on the shortcut button found on the main menu. Open terminal (see steps on how to run terminal in the previous discussion).

D. Figure 3.21: Running Netbeans using the Menu Introduction to Programming I 49 . is by clicking on Menu-> Programming-> More Programming Tools-> Netbeans.E.I The second way to run Netbeans.J.

J.I After you've open NetBeans IDE. you will see a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to what is shown below.D.E. Figure 3.22: Window After Openning Netbeans Introduction to Programming I 50 .

I Step 2: Make a project Now. Figure 3. let's first make a project. Click on File-> New Project.D.E.J.23: Starting New Project Introduction to Programming I 51 .

Figure 3.E.24: Choosing Project Type Introduction to Programming I 52 .I After doing this.J. a New Project dialog will appear.D.

Figure 3.E.J.D.I Now click on Java Application and click on the NEXT button.25: Choosing Java Application as Project Type Introduction to Programming I 53 .

I Now. a New Application dialog will appear.E.J. Edit the Project Name part and type in "HelloApplication". Figure 3.D.26: Setting the Project Name Introduction to Programming I 54 .

J.E.27: Setting the Project Location Introduction to Programming I 55 .I Now try to change the Application Location.D. Figure 3. by clicking on the BROWSE button.

E. Double-click on the root folder.J. Figure 3.I A Select Project Location dialog will then appear.28: Opening the Root Folder Introduction to Programming I 56 .D.

J. MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder and click on the OPEN button.29: Choosing the Folder MYJAVAPROGRAMS as Project Location Introduction to Programming I 57 .E. Now double-click on the Figure 3.I The contents of the root folder is then displayed.D.

D.E. Location and Project Folder is changed to / Figure 3.J.I See now that the Project root/MYJAVAPROGRAMS.30: Window after Setting the Project Location to MYJAVAPROGRAMS Introduction to Programming I 58 .

J. on the Create Main Class textfield. Figure 3. type in Hello as the main class' name. and then click on the FINISH button.D.I Finally.E.31: Setting the Main Class of the Project to Hello Introduction to Programming I 59 .

let us first describe the main window after creating the project. This can all be found in your MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder.32: View of the Created Project Introduction to Programming I 60 . you can see a list of folders and files that NetBeans generated after creating the project. You can just add your own statements to the generated code.E.J.D. As shown below.I Step 3: Type in your program Before typing in your program. On the left side of the window. where you set the Project location. Figure 3. NetBeans automatically creates the basic code for your Java program.

I Now.E.D.J. //TODO code application logic here. after the statement. Ignore the other parts of the program for now.println("Hello world!"). Figure 3.33: Inserting the Code Introduction to Programming I 61 . try to modify the code generated by Netbeans.out. as we will explain the details of the code later. Insert the code: System.

Figure 3.35: Compiling with Netbeans Using the Shortcut Button Introduction to Programming I 62 .D. just click on Build -> Build Main Project.E.34: Compiling with Netbeans Using the Build Menu Or. you could also use the shortcut button to compile your code. to compile your program.I Step 4: Compile your program Now. Figure 3.J.

36: View after a Successful Compilation Introduction to Programming I 63 .J.I If there are no errors in your program. Figure 3. you will see a build successful message on the output window.D.E.

38: Running with Netbeans using the Shortcut Button Introduction to Programming I 64 . Figure 3. Figure 3.J.I Step 5: Run your program To run your program.37: Running with Netbeans using the Run Menu Or you could also use the shortcut button to run your program. click on Run-> Run Main Project.D.E.

E.J. Figure 3.I The output of your program is displayed in the output window.39: View after a Successful Run Introduction to Programming I 65 .D.

The program should output the following lines on the screen: I think that I shall never see.E. Introduction to Programming I 66 . a poem as lovely as a tree.1 Hello World! Using Netbeans. create a class named: [YourName]. create a class named: TheTree.6.2 The Tree Using Netbeans. A tree whose hungry mouth is pressed Against the Earth’s sweet flowing breast. The program should output on the screen: Welcome to Java Programming [YourName]!!! 3.J.I 3.6.6 Exercises 3.D.

identifiers and operators Develop a simple valid Java program using the concepts learned in this chapter 4. In addition. we can also place this next to the first line of our code. We do this by using the class keyword. We will also be discussing some coding guidelines or code conventions along the way to help in effectively writing readable programs. we'll try to the dissect your first Java program: public class Hello { /** * My first java program */ public static void main(String[] args) { //prints the string "Hello world" on screen System. The next line which contains a curly brace { indicates the start of a block. the student should be able to: • • • Identify the basic parts of a Java program Differentiate among Java literals. So. } } The first line of the code. We will start by trying to explain the basic parts of the Hello. we will be discussing the basic parts of a Java program.I 4 Programming Fundamentals 4. which indicates that our class in accessible to other classes from other packages (packages are a collection of classes). We will be covering packages and access specifiers later.1 Objectives In this section. In Java. the class uses an access specifier public.out.java program introduced in the previous section. all code should be placed inside a class declaration. At the end of the lesson.E. we placed the curly brace at the next line after the class declaration. variable types . public class Hello indicates the name of the class which is Hello. In this code.println("Hello world!").D. primitive data types.J. however.2 Dissecting my first Java program Now. we could actually write our code as: public class Hello { public class Hello { or Introduction to Programming I 67 .

if the name of your public class is Hello. prints the text “Hello World!” on screen. or what a certain method do. A comment is something used to document a part of a code. The command System. prints the text enclosed by quotation on the screen. and are treated as comments.I The next three lines indicates a Java comment. but used for documentation purposes. and the other one is by writing // at the start of the comment.println("Hello world!").out. System. /** * My first java program */ A comment is indicated by the delimiters “/*” and “*/”.java extension. The next line.println(). It is good programming practice to add comments to your code. you should save it in a file called Hello. Filenames should match the name of your public class. Your Java programs should always end with the . The first one is by placing the comment inside /* and */.E. //prints the string "Hello world" on screen Now. It is not part of the program itself.D. You should write comments in your code explaining what a certain class does. 2.java. All programs except Applets written in Java start with the main method. Introduction to Programming I 68 . we learned two ways of creating comments. Coding Guidelines: 1. Anything within these delimiters are ignored by the Java compiler. 3. public static void main(String[] args) { indicates the name of one method in Hello which is the main method. Make sure to follow the exact signature. The last two lines which contains the two curly braces is used to close the main method and class respectively. The next line. The main method is the starting point of a Java program.J.out. The next line is also a Java comment. public static void main(String[] args) { or can also be written as. So for example.

2 C-Style Comments C-style comments or also called multiline comments starts with a /* and ends with a */. Java supports three types of comments: C++-style single line comments.3.3. All text in between the two delimeters are treated as comments. C-style multiline comments and special javadoc comments. /** This is an example of special java doc comments used for \n generating an html documentation.2 */ Introduction to Programming I 69 . You can create javadoc comments by starting the line with /** and ending it with */.D. Unlike C++ style comments. It uses tags like: @author Florence Balagtas @version 1. 4. It can also contain certain tags to add more information to your comments. // This is a C++ style or single line comments 4.3 Special Javadoc Comments Special Javadoc comments are used for generating an HTML documentation for your Java programs.E.3. /* this is an exmaple of a C style or multiline comments */ 4. Like C-style comments. For example.J. it can also span lines. For example.I 4. For example.1 C++-Style Comments C++ Style comments starts with //.3 Java Comments Comments are notes written to a code for documentation purposes. Those text are not part of the program and does not affect the flow of the program. it can span multiple lines. All the text after // are treated as comments.

D. } Introduction to Programming I 70 . System. like. System.4 Java Statements and blocks A statement is one or more lines of code terminated by a semicolon. public static void main( String[] args ){ or you can place the curly brace on the next line.E.out.for example. public static void main( String[] args ){ System.println("Hello").println("world").out. System. public static void main( String[] args ){ System. } Coding Guidelines: 1. In creating blocks. Block statements can be nested indefinitely. An example of a block is.I 4.println(“Hello world”). You should indent the next statements after the start of a block. An example of a single statement is. public static void main( String[] args ) { 2.out. you can place the opening curly brace in line with the statement. A block is one or more statements bounded by an opening and closing curly braces that groups the statements as one unit.J.println("Hello"). like for example.println("world").out. Any amount of white space is allowed.out.

etc. Coding Guidelines: 1. public. For names of classes. charArray. out. Identifiers must begin with either a letter. This means that the identifier: Hello is not the same as hello. the first letter of the word should start with a small letter.For example: ThisIsAnExampleOfClassName thisIsAnExampleOfMethodName 2.E. classes. void. 3. System. methods. or a dollar sign “$”.D. fileNumber. Java identifiers are case-sensitive. main.J. Avoid using underscores at the start of the identifier such as _read or _write. Letters may be lower or upper case. etc. use capital letters to indicate the start of the word except the first word. We will discuss more about Java keywords later. Introduction to Programming I 71 . Subsequent characters may use numbers 0 to 9.I 4. ClassName. capitalize the first letter of the class name. In case of multi-word identifiers. For example. an underscore “_”. Identifiers cannot use Java keywords like class.5 Java Identifiers Identifiers are tokens that represent names of variables. Examples of identifiers are: Hello. For names of methods and variables.

Introduction to Programming I 72 . Here is a list of the Java Keywords. You cannot use keywords as names for your variables.D.1: Java Key Words We will try to discuss all the meanings of these keywords and how they are used in our Java programs as we go along the way. methods …etc. classes.J.E.6 Java Keywords Keywords are predefined identifiers reserved by Java for a specific purpose. Figure 4.I 4.

true or false. For octals.7 Java Literals Literals are tokens that do not change or are constant. and octal (base 8). To use a smaller precision (32-bit) float. For decimal numbers.3 Boolean Literals Boolean literals have only two values.J.7. Integer literals default to the data type int. while in hexadecimal. The different types of literals in Java are: Integer Literals. Boolean Literals. just append the “f” or “F” character. 4. Floating-Point Literals.7.1 Integer Literals Integer literals come in different formats: decimal (base 10). it should be preceeded by “0x” or “0X”. 4. you may wish to force integer literal to the data type long by appending the “l” or “L” character. we have to follow some special notations. We will cover more on data types later. it is 0xC. 4.7. An int is a signed 32-bit value. Introduction to Programming I 73 .I 4. A long is a signed 64-bit value. For hexadecimal numbers. it is equivalent to 014. Character Literals and String Literals. consider the number 12. For example. Floating point literals default to the data type double which is a 64-bit value. we have no special notations.45 is in standard notation.2 Floating-Point Literals Floating point literals represent decimals with fractional parts. hexadecimal (base 16). they are preceeded by “0”. In using integer literals in our program.8345e2 is in scientific notation. For example. We just write a decimal number as it is. In some cases. and in octal. 583. An example is 3.1415. It's decimal representation is 12.E. Floating point literals can be expressed in standard or scientific notations. while 5.D.

For example. 4.7.D.5 String Literals String literals represent multiple characters and are enclosed by double quotes. ‘\r’ for the carriage return. ‘\b’ for backspace. To use special characters such as a newline character. ‘\n’ for the newline character.I 4. A Unicode character is a 16-bit character set that replaces the 8-bit ASCII character set. An example of a string literal is.7. the letter a. Introduction to Programming I 74 . For example. To use a character literal. enclose the character in single quote delimiters.E. Unicode allows the inclusion of symbols and special characters from other languages.J. is represented as ‘a’. “Hello World”. a backslash is used followed by the character code.4 Character Literals Character Literals represent single Unicode characters.

It is not a primitive data type.boolean A boolean data type represents two states: true and false. String is not a primitive data type (it is a Class). we will just introduce String in this section.E.8. The following are. it is a class. It has it’s literal enclosed in double quotes(“”). use the escape character \.8 Primitive data types The Java programming language defines eight primitive data types. char (for textual). boolean result = true. For example. long (integral). short.J. represents a single Unicode character. String message=“Hello world!” Introduction to Programming I 75 . 4. declares a variable named result as boolean type and assigns it a value of true. A String represents a data type that contains multiple characters. byte. 4.1 Logical . The example shown above.D. For example. boolean (for logical). ‘a’ ‘\t’ //The letter a //A tab To represent special characters like ' (single quotes) or " (double quotes). '\'' '\"' //for single quotes //for double quotes Although. double and float (floating point). It must have its literal enclosed in single quotes(’ ’). For example. An example is.2 Textual – char A character data type (char).I 4. int.8.

short. You can define its long value by appending the letter l or L. Introduction to Programming I 76 . octal or hexadecimal.J.I 4. Integral data type have the following ranges: Integer Length 8 bits 16 bits 32 bits 64 bits Name or Type byte short int long -27 -215 -231 -263 Range to to to to 27-1 215-1 231-1 263-1 Table 8: Integral types and their ranges Coding Guidelines: In defining a long value. int & long Integral data types in Java are. Examples decimal value 2 leading 0 indicates an octal value //The leading 0x indicates a hexadecimal value Integral types has int as default data type.E.D.8.3 Integral – byte. 2 //The 077 //The 0xBACC uses three forms – decimal. a lowercase L is not recommended because it is hard to distinguish from the digit 1.

8. E or e //(add exponential value) F or f //(float) D or d //(double) Examples are.4E+306D //A large double value with redundant D In the example shown above. Floating-point literal includes either a decimal point or one of the following. That example is equivalent to 6.4 Floating Point – float and double Floating point types has double as default data type.14 //A simple floating-point value (a double) 6.02E23 //A large floating-point value 2. Floating-point data types have the following ranges: Float Length 32 bits 64 bits Name or Type float double -231 -263 Range to to 231-1 263-1 Table 9: Floating point types and their ranges Introduction to Programming I 77 .02E+23.E.718F //A simple float size value 123. the 23 after the E in the second example is implicitly positive. 3.D.J.I 4.

Declare one variable per line of code. Use descriptive names for your variables.J. For example. Note: Values enclosed in <> are required values. Here is a sample program that declares and initializes some variables. 2. double quiz=10. <data type> <name> [=initial value]. name it as. quiz=10.1 Declaring and Initializing Variables To declare a variable is as follows. A variable has a data type and a name. if you want to have a variable that contains a grade for a student. Like for example. 4.9. //declare a data type with variable name // option and char data type char option.0. the variable declarations. 3. double grade = 0. } } Coding Guidelines: 1. grade=0. double data type and initialized //to 0. It always good to initialize your variables as you declare them.9 Variables A variable is an item of data used to store state of objects.0 double grade = 0. while those values enclosed in [] are optional. The variable name must follow rules for identifiers. grade and not just some random letters you choose. public class VariableSamples { public static void main( String[] args ){ //declare a data type with variable name // result and boolean data type boolean result. Introduction to Programming I 78 . option = 'C'. The data type indicates the type of value that the variable can hold.D. double exam=0. double exam=0. //assign 'C' to option //declare a data type with variable name //grade.E. is preferred over the declaration.I 4.

out. These statements will output the following on the screen. System.out. } } The program will output the following text on screen.out. Hello world! Now consider the following statements.println("Hello "). System. System.out.println( “The value of x=“ + x ).out. x = ‘A’.J.println() and System.println("world!").9.E.print() What is the difference between the commands System. we can use the following commands.print("world!").9. System. System. Consider the statements.println() vs.print ()? The first one appends a newline at the end of the data to output.out.out.out.out.out. System. while the latter doesn't.println( value ).3 System.I 4.2 Outputting Variable Data In order to output the value of a certain variable. System.out. These statements will output the following on the screen.out. char x. Hello world! Introduction to Programming I 79 .D.print() Here's a sample program.print("Hello ").println() System. public class OutputVariable { public static void main( String[] args ){ int value = 10. 10 The value of x=A 4. System.

the variable just holds the address of where the actual data is. Reference variables are variables that stores the address in the memory location. you are actually declaring a reference variable to the object with that certain class. the data is on the actual location of where the variable is. They store data in the actual memory location of where the variable is. Primitive Variables We will now differentiate the two types of variables that Java programs have. These are reference variables and primitive variables. When you declare a variable of a certain class. the variable name and the data they hold.4 Reference Variables vs. suppose we have two variables with data types int and String.D. for the primitive variable num. int num = 10. It points to another memory location of where the actual data is. Primitive variables are variables with primitive data types. the illustration shown below is the actual memory of your computer. For the reference variable name.J. wherein you have the address of the memory cells.E. For example.I 4. String name = "Hello" Suppose. Memory Address 1001 : 1563 : : 2000 name Variable Name num Data 10 : Address(2000) : : "Hello" As you can see.9. Introduction to Programming I 80 .

1 Arithmetic operators Here are the basic arithmetic operators that can be used in creating your Java programs.op2 Description Adds op1 and op2 Multiplies op1 by op2 Divides op1 by op2 Computes the remainder of dividing op1 by op2 Subtracts op2 from op1 Table 10: Arithmetic operations and their functions Introduction to Programming I 81 . logical operators and conditional operators. There are arithmetic operators.10. relational operators.D. Operator + * / % Use op1 + op2 op1 * op2 op1 / op2 op1 % op2 op1 . there are different types of operators.I 4. These operators follow a certain kind of precedence so that the compiler will know which operator to evaluate first in case multiple operators are used in one statement.E.J.10 Operators In Java. 4.

").out.println("Mixing types.println(" i + j = " + (i + j)).println(" x / y = " + (x numbers * j)).println(" x + y = " + (x + y)). System.out. System.println(" i % j = " + (i % j)).out.println(" y = " + y).y)).out.out.println(" j + y = " + (j + y)).out..println("Subtracting.D.E.println(" i * j = " + (i System. double y = 7.println(" x = " + x).out..out.")."). //subtracting numbers System... System. / j)).out.println(" i .out. } } Introduction to Programming I 82 ..out. System..J. //multiplying numbers System. / y)).. * y)).println(" x . System.out. System..")..out.out.out.println(" x * y = " + (x //dividing numbers System.println(" j = " + j). //adding numbers System. double x = 27. //computing the remainder resulting from dividing System.println(" i / j = " + (i System.println(" i * x = " + (i * x)).out. int j = 42.j)). System.println("Variable values.out.out."). System.println(" x % y = " + (x % y)).475.out.println("Adding. //mixing types System. System."). System.println("Multiplying.I Here's a sample program in the usage of these operators: public class ArithmeticDemo { public static void main(String[] args) { //a few numbers int i = 37. System..").out. System. System.out.j = " + (i .println(" i = " + i).22.println("Computing the remainder.out...out. System...y = " + (x .println("Dividing. System.

.22 Adding.8054 Computing the remainder.E.y = 20. i + j = 79 x + y = 34. Introduction to Programming I 83 ...22 i * x = 1016.. i = 37 j = 42 x = 27..255 Multiplying. Variable values.. i * j = 1554 x * y = 198.j = -5 x .. the result is a floating point....I Here is the output of the program.. i .475 y = 7. j + y = 49. i % j = 37 x % y = 5.815 Mixing types...J. The integer is implicitly converted to a floating-point number before the operation takes place.37 Dividing..58 Note: When an integer and a floating-point number are used as operands to a single arithmetic operation.695 Subtracting. i / j = 0 x / y = 3.D.

For example. count = count + 1. int k = 0. //will result to k = 4+10 = 14 Introduction to Programming I 84 . count++. Java also includes a unary increment operator (++) and unary decrement operator (--). the expression. evaluates to the value of op after it was decremented //increment the value of count by 1 -- op-- -- --op Table 11: Increment and Decrement operators The increment and decrement operators can be placed before or after an operand. int i = 10.2 Increment and Decrement operators Aside from the basic arithmetic operators. and then the new value is used in the expression in which it appears.E. k = ++j + i. evaluates to the value of op after it was incremented Decrements op by 1. it causes the variable to be incremented or decremented by 1.I 4. int j = 3. For example. When used before an operand.D.J.10. Operator ++ ++ Use op++ ++op Description Increments op by 1. evaluates to the value of op before it was decremented Decrements op by 1. evaluates to the value of op before it was incremented Increments op by 1. Increment and decrement operators increase and decrease a value stored in a number variable by 1. is equivalent to.

int i = 10.J.I When the increment and decrement operators are placed after the operand. int k = 0. int j = 3.E. Introduction to Programming I 85 . k = j++ + i.D. the old value of the variable will be used in the expression where it appears. For example. //will result to k = 3+10 = 13 Coding Guideline: Always keep expressions containing increment and decrement operators simple and easy to understand.

Operator > >= < <= == != Use op1 > op2 op1 >= op2 op1 < op2 op1 <= op2 op1 == op2 op1 != op2 Description op1 is greater than op2 op1 is greater than or equal to op2 op1 is less than op2 op1 is less than or equal to op2 op1 and op2 are equal op1 and op2 are not equal Table 12: Relational Operators Introduction to Programming I 86 .J.D.I 4.E. The output of evaluation are the boolean values true or false.3 Relational operators Relational operators compare two values and determines the relationship between those values.10.

println(" k > than."). System. //false System. //false System.println("Equal to.").out.out. //true System. //false //less than or equal to System.out. System.println(" k = " + k). int j = 42. //true //not equal to System. //false " + (j >= i)).J. //true System.out. //true " + (k >= j)).out..out.println(" j > System.println(" i >= j = System.println("Variable values.println(" i <= j = " + (i <= j))."). //true j = " + (k > j)). //true //greater than or equal to System."). //false i = " + (j > i)). //true System.out..out.println("Greater than System.out.println("Less than. public class RelationalDemo { public static void main(String[] args) { //a few numbers int i = 37.").println(" k >= j = //less than System... System.println(" i == j = " + (i == j)). System.out.println(" i != j = " + (i != j)). int k = 42.out.println(" i > System.out..D.println(" i < j = " + (i < j)).out. //false or equal to.out.println(" j = " + j). System.println(" k == j = " + (k == j)). //greater than System.....println("Greater System. " + (i >= j)).. //true //equal to System.out.out.println(" k < j = " + (k < j)).out. j = " + (i > j)).out.out.. System.out. System.").println(" j < i = " + (j < i)).E.out. //false } } Introduction to Programming I 87 .println(" j <= i = " + (j <= i)).out.out.println(" k <= j = " + (k <= j)).I Here's a sample program that uses relational operators.println("Less than or equal to. System..println("Not equal to.out.").println(" i = " + i).out.println(" k != j = " + (k != j))..println(" j >= i = System. //false System.out..

. i == j = false k == j = true Not equal to... i <= j = true j <= i = false k <= j = true Equal to.. i >= j = false j >= i = true k >= j = true Less than...... i = 37 j = 42 k = 42 Greater than. i > j = false j > i = true k > j = false Greater than or equal to.E.D. i < j = true j < i = false k < j = false Less than or equal to.J... i != j = true k != j = false Introduction to Programming I 88 ..I Here's the output from this program: Variable values...

||.I 4. summarize the result of each operation for all possible combinations of x1 and x2. | (boolean logical inclusive OR). ^ (boolean logical exclusive OR).J. x1 op x2 where x1. The basic expression for a logical operation is. variables or constants. || (logical OR).D.E.4 Logical operators Logical operators have one or two boolean operands that yield a boolean result.10. and op is either &&. Introduction to Programming I 89 . and ! (logical NOT). &. | or ^ operator. x2 can be boolean expressions. The truth tables that will be shown next. There are six logical operators: && (logical AND). & (boolean logical AND).

the operator never evaluates exp2 because the result of the operator will be false regardless of the value of exp2. x1 TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE x2 TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE Result TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE Table 13: Truth table for & and && The basic difference between && and & operators is that && supports short-circuit evaluations (or partial evaluations).4.out. System. Here's a sample source code that uses logical and boolean AND.I 4.J.D. System.1 && (logical AND) and & (boolean logical AND) Here is the truth table for && and &. What does this mean? Given an expression.println(test). int j = 10. System.println(test).10.out. //demonstrate && test = (i > 10) && (j++ > 9). System.println(j). exp1 && exp2 && will evaluate the expression exp1.out. //demonstrate & test = (i > 10) & (j++ > 9). } } Introduction to Programming I 90 .out.println(i).println(i). and immediately return a false value is exp1 is false. boolean test= false.out. public class TestAND { public static void main( String[] args ){ int i = 0. If exp1 is false. while & doesn't. System.out.E. System. the & operator always evaluates both exp1 and exp2 before returning an answer. In contrast.println(j).

E. 0 10 false 0 11 false Note.I The output of the program is.D. that the j++ on the line containing the && operator is not evaluated since the first expression (i>10) is already equal to false. Introduction to Programming I 91 .J.

2 || (logical OR) and | (boolean logical inclusive OR) Here is the truth table for || and |.out.I 4.out.D.out.out. boolean test= false. int j = 10. public class TestOR { public static void main( String[] args ){ int i = 0. the operator never evaluates exp2 because the result of the operator will be true regardless of the value of exp2.println(j).4.println(i). If exp1 is true.println(test).out. Here's a sample source code that uses logical and boolean OR. System. System. while | doesn't. System.out. In contrast. //demonstrate | test = (i < 10) | (j++ > 9). the | operator always evaluates both exp1 and exp2 before returning an answer. System. exp1 || exp2 || will evaluate the expression exp1.E. //demonstrate || test = (i < 10) || (j++ > 9).println(test).J. x1 TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE x2 TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE Result TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE Table 14: Truth table for | and || The basic difference between || and | operators is that || supports short-circuit evaluations (or partial evaluations). System. System. and immediately return a true value is exp1 is true.println(i).println(j).10. } } Introduction to Programming I 92 . What does this mean? Given an expression.

E. that the j++ on the line containing the || operator is not evaluated since the first expression (i<10) is already equal to true. 0 10 true 0 11 true Note.D. Introduction to Programming I 93 .I The output of the program is.J.

val1 = false.3 ^ (boolean logical exclusive OR) Here is the truth table for ^.10. x1 TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE x2 TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE Table 15: Truth table for ^ Result FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE The result of an exclusive OR operation is TRUE. false true false true Introduction to Programming I 94 .out. System.I 4.J. System.println(val1 ^ val2). } } The output of the program is. Note that both operands must always be evaluated in order to calculate the result of an exclusive OR. val1 = true. val2 = false. boolean val2 = true. public class TestXOR { public static void main( String[] args ){ boolean val1 = true. val1 = false.println(val1 ^ val2).4. val2 = false. if and only if one operand is true and the other is false. Here's a sample source code that uses the logical exclusive OR operator.out.out. System.println(val1 ^ val2). val2 = true.println(val1 ^ val2).E.D.out. System.

E.10.out.I 4. false true Introduction to Programming I 95 . x1 TRUE FALSE Result FALSE TRUE Table 16: Truth table for ! Here's a sample source code that uses the logical NOT operator.out. Here is the truth table for !.D. variable or constant. boolean val2 = false.4. System. public class TestNOT { public static void main( String[] args ){ boolean val1 = true.J. wherein that argument can be an expression.println(!val1). System. } } The output of the program is.println(!val2).4 ! (logical NOT) The logical NOT takes in one argument.

5 Conditional Operator (?:) The conditional operator ?: is a ternary operator.out. exp1?exp2:exp3 wherein exp1 is a boolean expression whose result must either be true or false. then exp3 is returned. int grade = 80. given the code. //print status System.println( status ). exp2 is the value returned. Passed Introduction to Programming I 96 . //get status of the student status = (grade >= 60)?"Passed":"Fail".E. } } The output of this program will be.J.10.D. public class ConditionalOperator { public static void main( String[] args ){ String status = "".I 4. The structure of an expression using a conditional operator is. If exp1 is true. For example. This means that it takes in three arguments that together form a conditional expression. If it is false.

I Here is the flowchart of how ?: works. answer = 'a'.D. Figure 4.println("Score = " + score ). System.2: Flowchart using the ?: operator Here is another program that uses the ?: operator. } } score = (answer == 'a') ? 10 : 0. class ConditionalOperator { public static void main( String[] args ){ int char score = 0. Score = 10 Introduction to Programming I 97 . The output of the program is.E.J.out.

10.I 4. ((6%2)*5)+(4/2)+88-10.D.E. Introduction to Programming I 98 .3: Operator Precedence Given a complicated expression. Figure 4.6 Operator Precedence Operator precedence defines the compiler’s order of evaluation of operators so as to come up with an unambiguous result. Coding Guidelines To avoid confusion in evaluating mathematical operations. 6%2*5+4/2+88-10 we can re-write the expression and place some parenthesis base on operator precedence.J. keep your expressions simple and use parenthesis.

3 * 10 *2 / 15 – 2 + 4 ^ 2 ^ 2 3.11 Exercises 4. Let the values of the three numbers be. For example.2 Getting the average of three numbers Create a program that outputs the average of three numbers. re-write them by writing some parenthesis based on the sequence on how they will be evaluated.11. r ^ s * t / u – v + w ^ x – y++ Introduction to Programming I 99 .11.3 Output greatest value Given three numbers. The expected screen output is. a / b ^ c ^ d – e + f – g * h + i 2. number 1 = 10 number 2 = 23 number 3 = 5 The highest number is = 23 4. Output to the screen the variable names together with the values. Use the conditional ?: operator that we have studied so far (HINT: You will need to use two sets of ?: to solve this).D.J.I 4. declare the following variables with the corresponding data types and initialization values. 20 and 45.11.11. 1. number 1 = number 2 = number 3 = Average is 10 20 45 = 25 4.E. 10.4 Operator precedence Given the following expressions. 23 and 5. write a program that outputs the number with the greatest value among the three. Variable name number letter result str Data Type integer character boolean String Initial value 10 a true hello The following should be the expected screen output. Number = 10 letter = a result = true str = hello 4. given the numbers 10.1 Declaring and printing variables Given the table below. your program should output.

D.io.J.I 5 Getting Input from the Keyboard 5. } catch( IOException e ){ System. Declare a temporary String variable to get the input.*. and invoke the readLine() method to get input from the keyboard.1 Objectives Now that we've studied some basic concepts in Java and we've written some simple programs. we will use the BufferedReader class found in the java. we'll be discussing two methods of getting input.readLine(). 3. let's make our programs more interactive by getting some input from the user.io package in order to get input from the keyboard. 2. the first one is through the use of the BufferedReader class and the other one involves a graphical user interface by using JOptionPane. } Introduction to Programming I 100 .println(“Error in getting input”). Add this statement: BufferedReader dataIn = new BufferedReader( new InputStreamReader( System. You have to type it inside a try-catch block.E. the student should be able to: • • • Create an interactive Java program that gets input from the keyboard Use the BufferedReader class to get input from the keyboard using a console Use the JOptionPane class to get input from the keyboard using a graphical user interface 5. At the end of the lesson.2 Using BufferedReader to get input In this section. Here are the steps to get input from the keyboard: 1.out. try{ String temp = dataIn. Add this at the top of your code: import java.in) ). In this section.

String name = "". System.io.BufferedReader.println("Hello " + name +"!").in) ). which will load all the classes found in the package. The statements can also be rewritten as. import java. import java.J. and then we can use those classes inside our program. try{ name = dataIn.InputStreamReader.io package contains classes that allow programs to input and output data.println("Error!"). import java.IOException.out.io.out.print("Please Enter Your Name:").I Here is the complete source code: import java.IOException.E. These classes are organized into what we call packages. import java.io. Packages contain classes that have related purpose.io. import java. import java.io.io. }catch( IOException e ){ System.D. } Now let's try to explain each line of code: The statements.out. the java. public class GetInputFromKeyboard { public static void main( String[] args ){ BufferedReader dataIn = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader( System.io package. The Java Application Programming Interface (API) contains hundreds of predefined classes that you can use in your programs. } } System.BufferedReader. indicate that we want to use the classes BufferedReader.readLine(). Introduction to Programming I 101 .io.*. InputStreamReader and IOException which is inside the java. Just like in our example.InputStreamReader.

readLine(). }catch( IOException e ){ System. It is always good to initialize your variables as you declare them. Now.I The next two statements. just take note that you need to add this code in order to use the readLine() method of BufferedReader to get input from the user. public class GetInputFromKeyboard { public static void main( String[] args ){ were already discussed in the previous lesson. Introduction to Programming I 102 . This is where we will store the input of the user.D.E. BufferedReader dataIn = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader( System. we are declaring a String variable with the identifier name. try{ name = dataIn.out. Now. We will cover more about exception handling in the latter part of this course. System.out.in) ). the following block defines a try-catch block. In the statement. The variable name is initialized to an empty String "".J. but for now. String name = "".print("Please Enter Your Name:"). Don't worry about what the syntax means for now. } This assures that the possible exceptions that could occur in the statement name = dataIn. The next line just outputs a String on the screen asking for the user's name.readLine().println("Error!"). will be catched. we are declaring a variable named dataIn with the class type BufferedReader. We will cover more about this later in the course. This means we declare a class named GetInputFromKeyboard and we declare the main method.

gets input from the user and will return a String value.readLine().J. the method call. name = dataIn.readLine().I Now going back to the statement. This value will then be saved to our name variable.E. Introduction to Programming I 103 .D. which we will use in our final statement to greet the user. System. dataIn.out.println("Hello " + name + "!").

swing package. name = JoptionPane.showInputDialog("Please enter your name").1: Getting Input Using JOptionPane Figure 5. JOptionPane makes it easy to pop up a standard dialog box that prompts users for a value or informs them of something.2: Input florence on the JOptionPane Figure 5.I 5. import javax.E.3: Showing Message Using JOptionPane Introduction to Programming I 104 .swing. msg).J.3 Using JOptionPane to get input Another way to get input from the user is by using the JOptionPane class which is found in the javax. JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null. Given the following code.D. } This will output.JOptionPane. public class GetInputFromKeyboard { public static void main( String[] args ){ String name = "". String msg = "Hello " + name + "!". } Figure 5.

showMessageDialog(null.swing package.swing.E. The statement. which we will store in the msg variable.D.I The first statement.*.showInputDialog("Please enter your name"). indicates that we want to import the class JOptionPane from the javax. name = JOptionPane. import javax. Introduction to Programming I 105 . The next line displays a dialog which contains a message and an OK button. creates a JOptionPane input dialog.swing. import javax. which will display a dialog with a message. String msg = "Hello " + name + "!". JOptionPane. Now we create the welcome message. We can also write this as. This returns a String which we will save in the name variable. a textfield and an OK button as shown in the figure.JOptionPane. msg).J.

2 Last 3 words (JOptionPane version) Using JOptionPane. For example. For example.E. ask for three words from the user and output those three words on the screen.4.I 5.5: Second Input Figure 5. Enter word1:Goodbye Enter word2:and Enter word3:Hello Goodbye and Hello 5.J.4.4: First Input Figure 5. Figure 5.6: Third Input Figure 5.1 Last 3 words (BufferedReader version) Using BufferedReader.D. ask for three words from the user and output those three words on the screen.7: Show Message Introduction to Programming I 106 .4 Exercises 5.

. wherein statements are executed one after another in a fixed order.1 if statement The if-statement specifies that a statement (or block of code) will be executed if and only if a certain boolean statement is true. switch) which allows selection of specific sections of code to be executed Use repetition control structures (while.J.E. we have given examples of sequential programs. the student should be able to: • • • Use decision control structures (if. continue. } where. Introduction to Programming I 107 .D.2. we will be discussing control structures. 6. .I 6 Control Structures 6. The if-statement has the form. boolean_expression is either a boolean expression or boolean variable.1 Objectives In the previous sections. At the end of the lesson. statement2. if( boolean_expression ) statement. return) which allows redirection of program flow 6. which allows us to change the ordering of how the statements in our programs are executed. else. . for) which allow executing specific sections of code a number of times Use branching statements (break. do-while. In this section. or if( boolean_expression ){ statement1.2 Decision Control Structures Decision control structures are Java statements that allows us to select and execute specific blocks of code while skipping other sections.

System. int grade = 68. if( grade > 60 ){ System.println("Congratulations!"). or int grade = 68.println("Congratulations!"). given the code snippet. The boolean_expression part of a statement should evaluate to a boolean value.out. Indent the statements inside the if-block.out.out. Figure 6.D. } Coding Guidelines: 1.For example. //statement2. That means that the execution of the condition should either result to a value of true or a false. if( boolean_expression ){ //statement1.1: Flowchart of If-Statement if( grade > 60 ) System.println("You passed!").J. } Introduction to Programming I 108 .I For example.E. 2.

out. } else{ statement1. or int grade = 68. or can also be written as. given the code snippet.out. else System. int grade = 68.println("You passed!"). if( boolean_expression ) statement. .out. System.J.2. . else statement.println("Congratulations!"). } else{ System.println("Sorry you failed"). and a different statement if the condition is false.I 6. .println("Sorry you failed"). if( boolean_expression ){ statement1. . statement2.out.E.out. if( grade > 60 ) System. The if-else statement has the form. . statement2. if( grade > 60 ){ System. } For example.D. } Introduction to Programming I 109 .println("Congratulations!").2 if-else statement The if-else statement is used when we want to execute a certain statement if a condition is true. .

You can have nested if-else blocks. always place the statement or statements of an if or if-else block inside brackets {}.I Figure 6.For example. } Introduction to Programming I 110 . } } else{ .2: Flowchart of If-Else Statement Coding Guidelines: 1. 2. if( boolean_expression ){ if( boolean_expression ){ . . .E.D. This means that you can have other if-else blocks inside another if-else block.. To avoid confusion.J..

then the program executes statement 2 and skips to the statements following statement3. if boolean_expression1 is true. The else-block is optional and can be omitted.E. In the example shown above. else statement3.D.3: Flowchart of If-Else-If Statement Introduction to Programming I 111 .J. if( boolean_expression1 ) statement1. else if( boolean_expression2 ) statement2. The if-else if statement has the form. Take note that you can have many else-if blocks after an if-statement. then the program executes statement1 and skips the other statements.I 6. Figure 6.3 if-else-if statement The statement in the else-clause of an if-else block can be another if-else structures.2. If boolean_expression2 is true. This cascading of structures allows us to make more complex selections.

2. } else if( grade > 60 ){ System.E. Writing elseif instead of else if. For example.out. Using = instead of == for comparison.J. } else{ System. given the code snippet. int grade = 68.out.println("Very good!"). if( number ){ //some statements here } The variable number does not hold a Boolean value.4 Common Errors when using the if-else statements: 1. For example. if( number == 0 ){ //some statements here } 3. The condition inside the if-statement does not evaluate to a boolean value.println("Sorry you failed"). } 6. //WRONG int number = 0. //WRONG int number = 0.out.D. //CORRECT int number = 0. 2. if( grade > 90 ){ System.I For example. if( number = 0 ){ //some statements here } This should be written as.println("Very good!"). Introduction to Programming I 112 .

E.out.J.out.println("Study harder!" ).I 6.").out. } else if( (grade < 90) && (grade >= 80)){ System.println( "Excellent!" ). } else{ System.D. } } } Introduction to Programming I 113 .println("Good job!" ).5 Example for if-else-else if public class Grade { public static void main( String[] args ) { double grade = 92.0.out.2. } else if( (grade < 80) && (grade >= 60)){ System. you failed.println("Sorry. if( grade >= 90 ){ System.

6 switch statement Another way to indicate a branch is through the switch keyword. the default block is executed. // statement2. // break.D. A switch statement can have no default block. If none of the cases are satisfied. .2. When a switch is encountered. Introduction to Programming I 114 .E. //block 2 . we use a break statement as our last statement. case_selector2 and so on. that the default part is optional. . the statements associated with the succeeding cases are also executed. . . Take note however. Java first evaluates the switch_expression. . . • To prevent the program from executing statements in the subsequent cases. are unique integer or character constants. and jumps to the case whose selector matches the value of the expression. //block 1 . NOTES: • Unlike with the if statement. The switch construct allows branching on multiple outcomes. switch( switch_expression ){ case case_selector1: statement1. the multiple statements are executed in the switch statement without needing the curly braces. The program executes the statements in order from that point on until a break statement is encountered. // statement2. // statement2. The switch statement has the form. skipping then to the first statement after the end of the switch structure. . // break. . . default: statement1.J. switch_expression is an integer or character expression and. case_selector1. Not only that.I 6. • When a case in a switch statement has been matched. //block n . // break. } where. all the statements associated with that case are executed. case case_selector2: statement1.

You can decide which to use.E.D. whereas a switch statement can make decisions based only on a single integer or character value.4: Flowchart of Switch Statements Introduction to Programming I 115 .J. 2. Also. Figure 6.I Coding Guidelines: 1. based on readability and other factors. Deciding whether to use an if statement or a switch statement is a judgment call. An if statement can be used to make decisions based on ranges of values or conditions. the value provided to each case statement must be unique.

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6.2.7 Example for switch
public class Grade { public static void main( String[] args ) { int grade = 92; switch(grade){ case 100: System.out.println( "Excellent!" ); break; case 90: System.out.println("Good job!" ); break; case 80: System.out.println("Study harder!" ); break; default: System.out.println("Sorry, you failed."); }

}

}

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6.3 Repetition Control Structures
Repetition control structures are Java statements that allows us to execute specific blocks of code a number of times. There are three types of repetition control structures, the while, do-while and for loops.

6.3.1 while loop
The while loop is a statement or block of statements that is repeated as long as some condition is satisfied. The while statement has the form, while( boolean_expression ){ statement1; statement2; . . . } The statements inside the while loop are executed as long as the boolean_expression evaluates to true. For example, given the code snippet, int i = 4; while ( i > 0 ){ System.out.print(i); i--; } The sample code shown will print 4321 containing the statement i--; is removed, that does not terminate. Therefore, when control structures, make sure that you add terminate at some point. on the screen. Take note that if the line this will result to an infinite loop, or a loop using while loops or any kind of repetition some statements that will allow your loop to

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The following are other examples of while loops, Example 1: int x = 0; while (x<10) { System.out.println(x); x++; } Example 2: //infinite loop while(true) System.out.println(“hello”); Example 3: //no loops // statement is not even executed while (false) System.out.println(“hello”);

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6.3.2 do-while loop
The do-while loop is similar to the while-loop. The statements inside a do-while loop are executed several times as long as the condition is satisfied. The main difference between a while and do-while loop is that, the statements inside a do-while loop are executed at least once. The do-while statement has the form, do{ statement1; statement2; . . . }while( boolean_expression ); The statements inside the do-while loop are first executed, and then the condition in the boolean_expression part is evaluated. If this evaluates to true, the statements inside the do-while loop are executed again. Here are a few examples that uses the do-while loop: Example 1: int x = 0; do { System.out.println(x); x++; }while (x<10); This example will output 0123456789 on the screen. Example 2: //infinite loop do{ System.out.println(“hello”); } while (true); This example will result to an infinite loop, that prints hello on screen. Example 3: //one loop // statement is executed once do System.out.println(“hello”); while (false); This example will output hello on the screen.

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Coding Guidelines: 1. Common programming mistakes when using the do-while loop is forgetting to write the semi-colon after the while expression. do{ ... }while(boolean_expression) //WRONG->forgot semicolon ; 2. Just like in while loops, make sure that your do-while loops will terminate at some point.

6.3.3 for loop
The for loop, like the previous loops, allows execution of the same code a number of times. The for loop has the form, for (InitializationExpression; LoopCondition; StepExpression){ statement1; statement2; . . . } where, InitializationExpression -initializes the loop variable. LoopCondition - compares the loop variable to some limit value. StepExpression - updates the loop variable.

A simple example of the for loop is, int i; for( i = 0; i < 10; i++ ){ System.out.print(i); } In this example, the statement i=0, first initializes our variable. After that, the condition expression i<10 is evaluated. If this evaluates to true, then the statement inside the for loop is executed. Next, the expression i++ is executed, and then the condition expression is again evaluated. This goes on and on, until the condition expression evaluates to false. This example, is equivalent to the while loop shown below, int i = 0; while( i < 10 ){ System.out.print(i); i++; }

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6.4 Branching Statements
Branching statements allows us to redirect the flow of program execution. Java offers three branching statements: break, continue and return.

6.4.1 break statement
The break statement has two forms: unlabeled (we saw its unlabeled form in the switch statement) and labeled. 6.4.1.1 Unlabeled break statement The unlabeled break terminates the enclosing switch statement, and flow of control transfers to the statement immediately following the switch. You can also use the unlabeled form of the break statement to terminate a for, while, or do-while loop. For example, String names[] = {"Beah", "Bianca", "Lance", "Belle", "Nico", "Yza", "Gem", "Ethan"}; String boolean searchName = "Yza"; foundName = false;

for( int i=0; i< names.length; i++ ){ if( names[i].equals( searchName )){ foundName = true; break; } } if( foundName ){ System.out.println( searchName + " found!" ); } else{ System.out.println( searchName + " not found." ); } In this example, if the search string "Yza" is found, the for loop will stop and flow of control transfers to the statement following the for loop.

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6.4.1.2 Labeled break statement The labeled form of a break statement terminates an outer statement, which is identified by the label specified in the break statement. The following program searches for a value in a two-dimensional array. Two nested for loops traverse the array. When the value is found, a labeled break terminates the statement labeled search, which is the outer for loop. int[][] numbers = {{1, 2, 3}, {7, 8, 9}}; int searchNum = 5; boolean foundNum = false; searchLabel: for( int i=0; i<numbers.length; i++ ){ for( int j=0; j<numbers[i].length; j++ ){ if( searchNum == numbers[i][j] ){ foundNum = true; break searchLabel; } } } if( foundNum ){ System.out.println( searchNum + " found!" ); } else{ System.out.println( searchNum + " not found!" ); } The break statement terminates the labeled statement; it does not transfer the flow of control to the label. The flow of control transfers to the statement immediately following the labeled (terminated) statement. {4, 5, 6},

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System. "Bianca". //message2 In this example. message 2 never gets printed since we have the statement continue outerloop which skips the iteration. The following example counts the number of "Beah"s in the array. int count = 0. //message1 if( j == 2 ) continue outerLoop. Introduction to Programming I 123 .println("Inside for(j) loop"). 6.I 6. //skip next statement } } count++.println("Inside for(i) loop"). j++ ){ System.2 continue statement The continue statement has two forms: unlabeled and labeled. String names[] = {"Beah". outerLoop: for( int i=0. "Lance".E.out. 6.J. "Beah"}. You can use the continue statement to skip the current iteration of a for.D. i<names. } } System.2 Labeled continue statement The labeled form of the continue statement skips the current iteration of an outer loop marked with the given label. while or do-while loop. i++ ){ for( int j=0.length.4. i++ ){ if( !names[i].4.2.4. basically skipping the remainder of this iteration of the loop.println("There are " + count + " Beahs in the list"). i<5.out. j<5.1 Unlabeled continue statement The unlabeled form skips to the end of the innermost loop's body and evaluates the boolean expression that controls the loop. for( int i=0.equals("Beah") ){ continue.2.out.

D.E.I 6.4. Introduction to Programming I 124 . return. simply put the value (or an expression that calculates the value) after the return keyword.3 return statement The return statement is used to exit from the current method. To return a value. We will cover more about return statements later when we discuss about methods. When a method is declared void. For example. use the form of return that doesn't return a value. or return ++count. The return statement has two forms: one that returns a value and one that doesn't. The flow of control returns to the statement that follows the original method call. return "Hello". The data type of the value returned by return must match the type of the method's declared return value.J. For example.

The number inputted should range from 1-10.4 Powers Compute the power of a number given the base and exponent.5. a do-while loop and a for-loop. Use an if-else statement to solve this problem 2. a do-while loop and a for-loop. Output the average of the three exams.D.out to output the result.5.E.5 Exercises 6.I 6. 1. Use a switch statement to solve this problem 6. "Invalid number".3 Hundred Times Create a program that prints your name a hundred times. also include a smiley face in the output if the average is greater than or equal to 60.5.1 Grades Get three exam grades from the user and compute the average of the grades. output. Together with the average. otherwise output :-(. Do three versions of this program using a while loop. Introduction to Programming I 125 . and System.5. Use JOptionPane to get input from the user and to output the result. If the user inputs a number that is not in the range.J. and output the equivalent of the number in words. 1. Use BufferedReader to get input from the user. 6. 6.2 Number in words Get a number as input from the user. 2. Do three versions of this program using a while loop.

This type of variable is called an array. we are going to define what arrays are. int number2. number3 = 3. we call it by its identifier name. but can hold more than one value.E. it seems like a tedious task in order to just initialize and use the variables especially if they are used for the same purpose. number1 = 1.J. In Java and other programming languages.2 Introduction to arrays In the previous sections. In order to use the variable. we will be discussing about Java Arrays. we have discussed on how to declare different variables using the primitive data types. there is one capability wherein we can use one variable to store a list of data and manipulate them more efficiently. and then we are going to discuss on how to declare and use them. divided into a number of slots. At the end of the lesson. we often use a unique identifier or name and a datatype.I 7 Java Arrays 7. In declaring variables. number2 = 2. For example. Think of an array as a stretched variable – a location that still has one identifier name. Figure 7. int number3. the student should be able to: • • • • Declare and create arrays Access array elements Determine the number of elements in an array Declare and create multidimensional arrays 7. First. As you can see. in a contiguous block of memory.1 Objectives In this section.D. int number1.1: Example of an Integer Array An array stores multiple data items of the same datatype. we have here three variables of type int with different identifiers for each variable. Introduction to Programming I 126 .

For example. or you can place the brackets after the identifier. For example. construct and assign values at once. In the example.3 Declaring Arrays Arrays must be declared like all variables. //declare and instantiate object int ages[] = new int [100]. you can also automatically declare. We will cover more about instantiating objects and constructors later. and to create or instantiate a new array containing 100 elements. //declaration int ages[]. Instead of using the new keyword to instantiate an array. In order to instantiate an object. This process in Java is called instantiation (the Java word for creates). int ages[]. //instantiate object ages = new int[100]. When declaring an array. Figure 7.I 7. followed by the identifier name.J. For example. we must create the array and specify its length with a constructor statement. After declaring. the declaration tells the Java Compiler that the identifier ages will be used as the name of an array containing integers.D. that the size of an array cannot be changed once you've initialized it. Take note. can also be written as. int []ages.2: Instantiating Arrays Introduction to Programming I 127 . you list the data type. or. followed by a set of square brackets[].E. we need to use a constructor for this.

false }. “Fri”. double []grades = {100. 90. 90. false} boolean results[] ={ true. //creates an array of boolean variables with ientifier //results. 75}. //creates an array of 4 double variables initialized //to the values {100. 80. 80. true.J. “Thu”. Introduction to Programming I 128 .D. false. 75}. //creates an array of Strings with identifier days and //initialized. “Sat”. This array contains 7 elements String days[] = { “Mon”. This array contains 4 elements that are //initialized to values {true. “Sun”}.I Examples are. “Wed”.E. false. true. “Tue”.

print( ages[i] ). arr = new int[100]. An index number or subscript is assigned to each member of the array.print(ages[99]). is preferred over. reference data types such as Strings are not initialized to blanks or an empty string “”. the stored value of each member of the array will be initialized to zero for number data. //prints the last element in the array System. allowing the program and the programmer to access individual values when necessary.E.out. 2. The elements of an n-element array have indexes from 0 to n-1. for( int i=0. The following is a sample code on how to print all the elements in the array. This uses a for loop. the declaration. int []arr. They begin with zero and progress sequentially by whole numbers to the end of the array.out. int []arr = new int[100].4 Accessing an array element To access an array element. or a part of the array. 3. } } Coding Guidelines: } 1. Take note that once an array is declared and constructed.D. It is usually better to initialize or instantiate the array right away after you declare it. For example. For example. i++ ){ System. given the array we declared a while ago. Introduction to Programming I 129 .J. You cannot resize an array. Index numbers are always integers. Note that there is no array element arr[n]! This will result in an array-index-out-of-bounds exception. Therefore. i<100. Take note that the elements inside your array is from 0 to (sizeOfArray-1). you use a number called an index or a subscript. you must populate the String arrays explicitly. we have //assigns 10 to the first element in the array ages[0] = 10. so our code is shorter. public class ArraySample{ public static void main( String[] args ){ int[] ages = new int[100]. However.I 7.

i<ages. for( int i=0. public class ArraySample { public static void main( String[] args ){ int[] ages = new int[100]. 2.. use the array object's length field in the condition statement of the for loop. For example.J.5 Array length In order to get the number of elements in an array.. The length field of an array returns the size of the array.I 7. int[] ages = new int[ARRAY_SIZE].length For example. It can be used by writing.out. Declare the sizes of arrays in a Java program using named constants to make them easy to change.length. } } Coding Guidelines: } 1. When creating for loops to process the elements of an array. final int ARRAY_SIZE = 1000. i++ ){ System. given the previous example. Introduction to Programming I 130 .E. //declare a constant . This will allow the loop to adjust automatically for different-sized arrays. you can use the length field of an array. arrayName. we can re-write it as.print( ages[i] ).D.

// integer array 512 x 128 elements int[][] twoD = new int[512][128]. For example.J. System. For example. This will print the String "terry" on the screen. { "toby". Introduction to Programming I 131 . Multidimensional arrays are declared by appending the appropriate number of bracket pairs after the array name.6 Multidimensional Arrays Multidimensional arrays are implemented as arrays of arrays.E. { "fido". "white" }. // String array 4 rows x 2 columns String[][] dogs = {{ "terry".I 7.out. "black"} }.print( dogs[0][0] ). "brown" }. { "Kristin". to access the first element in the first row of the array dogs. we write. // character array 8 x 16 x 24 char[][][] threeD = new char[8][16][24]. "gray"}. To access an element in a multidimensional array is just the same as accessing the elements in a one dimensional array.D.

Using a while-loop. 7. Print the following entries on screen in the following format: Name : Florence Tel.I 7. # : 456-3322 Address : Manila Introduction to Programming I 132 . "456-3322".3 Addressbook Entries Given the following multidimensional array that contains addressbook entries: String entry = {{"Florence". "Quezon City"}. "Manila"}}. Output on the screen the number with the greatest value. "Manila"}.E. # : 983-3333 Address : Quezon City Name : Becca Tel. For Example.}.7 Exercises 7. "735-1234". print all the contents of the array. "983-3333". String days[] = {“Monday”.D. {"Joyce". (do the same for do-while and forloop) 7.7. “Tuesday”….1 Days of the Week Create an array of Strings which are initialized to the 7 days of the week. {"Becca". Use an array to store the values of these 10 numbers.2 Greatest number Using BufferedReader or JOptionPane.7.7.J. ask for 10 numbers from the user. # : 735-1234 Address : Manila Name : Joyce Tel.

At the end of the lesson.E.I 8 Command-line Arguments 8. Command-line arguments allow the user to affect the operation of an application for one invocation. suppose you have a Java application. we will study on how to process input from the command-line by using arguments pass onto a Java program. The user enters command-line arguments when invoking the application and specifies them after the name of the class to run.1 Objectives In this section.1: Running with Command-Line Arguments Take note that the arguments are separated by spaces. For example. that sorts five numbers. you run it like this: Figure 8. called Sort.D.2 Command-line arguments A Java application can accept any number of arguments from the command-line.J. Introduction to Programming I 133 . the student should be able to: • • • Know and explain what a command-line argument is Get input from the user using command-line arguments Learn how to pass arguments to your programs in Netbeans 8.

In the previous example. If your program needs to support a numeric command-line argument.length. Each String in the array contains one of the command-line arguments. For example. such as "34". int numberOfArgs = args.parseInt(args[0]). public static void main( String[] args ) The arguments that are passed to your program are saved into an array of String with the args identifier. Remember the declaration for the main method.length > 0){ firstArg = Integer. to a number.D. "4". if (args. Coding Guidelines: Before using command-line arguments. "2" and "1".I In the Java language. always check if the number of arguments before accessing the array elements so that there will be no exception generated.E. when you invoke an application. int firstArg = 0. } parseInt throws a NumberFormatException (ERROR) if the format of args[0] isn't valid (not a number). "3". Introduction to Programming I 134 .J. the command-line arguments passed to the Sort application is an array that contains five strings which are: "5". You can derive the number of command-line arguments with the array's length attribute. it must convert a String argument that represents a number. Here's a code snippet that converts a command-line argument to an integer. the runtime system passes the command-line arguments to the application's main method via an array of Strings.

let us create a Java program that will print the number of arguments and the first argument passed to it. run netbeans and create a new project and name this CommandLineExample.D.length). Copy the code shown above and compile the code.2: Opening Project File Introduction to Programming I 135 .out. Now.println("Number of arguments=" + args. follow these steps to pass arguments to your program using Netbeans.J. Figure 8. Click on Projects (encircled below).I 8. System.E. public class CommandLineExample { public static void main( String[] args ){ System. } } Now.println("First Argument="+ args[0]).out.3 Command-line arguments in Netbeans To illustrate on how to pass some arguments to your programs in Netbeans.

and a popup menu will appear.D.4: Properties Dialog Introduction to Programming I 136 .E. Figure 8. Click on Properties.I Right-click on the CommandLineExample icon.3: Opening Properties The Project Properties dialog will then appear.J. Figure 8.

E. click on Run-> Running Project.6: Set the Command-Line Arguments Introduction to Programming I 137 .5: Click On Running Project On the Arguments textbox. type the arguments you want to pass to your program. Figure 8.D. Then. Figure 8.I Now. click on the OK button.J. In this case we typed in the arguments 5 4 3 2 1.

Figure 8.I Now try to RUN your program. Figure 8.7: Running the Program in with the Shortcut Button As you can see here.J.8: Program Output Introduction to Programming I 138 .E. the output to your program is the number of arguments which is 5.D. and the first argument which is 5.

For example.I 8. difference. java ArithmeticOperation 20 4 your program should print sum = 24 difference = 16 product = 80 quotient = 5 Introduction to Programming I 139 . if the user entered. java Hello world that is all your program should print Hello world that is all 8.1 Print arguments Get input from the user using command-line arguments and print all the arguments to the screen. if the user entered. For example.2 Arithmetic Operations Get two numbers from the user using command-line arguments and print sum.4.D.J.E.4. product and quotient of the two numbers.4 Exercises 8.

Its behaviors are turning.J. Object Car Properties type of transmission manufacturer color Weight Color hungry or not hungry tamed or wild Table 17: Example of Real-life Objects Behavior turning braking accelerating roaring sleeping hunting Lion Introduction to Programming I 140 . such as cars.I 9 Working with the Java Class Library 9. At the end of the lesson. we will discuss the concept of classes and objects.2 Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming Object-Oriented programming or OOP revolves around the concept of objects as the basic elements of your programs. braking and accelerating. lion. the student should be able to: • • • • • • • Explain object-oriented programming and some of its concepts Differentiate between classes and objects Differentiate between instance variables/methods and class(static) variables/methods Explain what methods are and how to call and pass parameters to methods Identify the scope of a variable Cast primitive data types and objects Compare objects and determine the class of an objects 9. conversion and casting of objects will also be covered. When we compare this to the physical world. For example. we will focus on using classes that are already defined in the Java class library. Later on. we will introduce some basic concepts of object-oriented programming. we can find many objects around us.1 Objectives In this section.D. we can define different properties and behavior of a lion. Please refer to the table below for the examples. and how to use these classes and their members. For now. we will discuss later on how to create your own classes. a car object has the properties. These objects are characterized by their properties (or attributes) and behaviors. Similarly. people and so on. type of transmission. manufacturer and color.E. Comparison.

An object is an instance of the class.E. However. 9. Car A and Car B are objects of the Car class. an object is a software bundle of variables and related methods. a prototype or a blueprint of an object. and current speed which are filled-up with corresponding values in objects Car A and Car B. and it also consists of a set of methods (behavior) that describes how an object behaves. color. manufacturer. What we have here is a Car Class which can be used to define several Car Objects. each object gets a fresh set of state variables. the method implementations are shared among objects of the same class.J. Classes provide the benefit of reusability. The Car has also some methods Accelerate. Thus. These data and methods could even be used in programming games or interactive software to simulate the real-world objects! An example would be a car software object in a racing game or a lion software object in an educational interactive software zoo for kids. which will be discussed later. the objects in the physical world can easily be modeled as software objects using the properties as data and the behaviors as methods. It can be thought of as a template. while methods specify the operations. Introduction to Programming I Instance Methods 141 .3. let us discuss an example. The class is the fundamental structure in object-oriented programming. Fields specifiy the data types defined by the class.1 Difference Between Classes and Objects In the software world. Turn and Brake. an object is a software component whose structure is similar to objects in the real world. To differentiate between classes and objects. In the table shown below.3 Classes and Objects 9. Car Class Instance Variables Plate Number Color Manufacturer Current Speed Blue Object Car A ABC 111 Mitsubishi 50 km/h Accelerate Method Turn Method Brake Method Table 18: Example of Car class and its objects Object Car B XYZ 123 Red Toyota 100 km/h When instantiated.D. It consists of two types of members which are called fields (properties or attributes) and methods. Software programmers can use a class over and over again to create many objects. The variables and methods in a Java object are formally known as instance variables and instance methods to distinguish them from class variables and class methods. The class has fields plate number.I With these descriptions. Each object is composed of a set of data (properties/attributes) which are variables describing the essential characteristics of the object.

let's go back to our Car class example. We can prevent access to our object's data by declaring them declaring them in a certain way such that we can control access to them. which are variables that belong to the whole class.J. This means that it has the same value for all the objects in the same class. If we change the value of Count to 2. Car Class Instance Variables Plate Number Color Manufacturer Current Speed Blue Mitsubishi 50 km/h Count = 2 Accelerate Method Turn Method Brake Method Table 19: Car class' methods and variables Object Car A ABC 111 Red Toyota Object Car B XYZ 123 100 km/h Introduction to Programming I Instance Methods Variable Class 142 . Suppose that our Car class has one class variable called Count.I 9. We will learn more about how Java implements encapsulation as we discuss more about classes. To clearly describe class variables. we can prevent our programs from having side effects wherein programs have their variables changed in unexpected ways. They are also called static member variables.3. all of the objects of the Car class will have the value 2 for their Count variable.E. 9.3 Class Variables and Methods In addition to the instance variables.2 Encapsulation Encapsulation is the method of hiding certain elements of the implementation of a certain class. it is also possible to define class variables.3.D. By placing a boundary around the properties and methods of our objects.

D.J. String str2 = "Hello". The constructor is a method where you place all the initializations.3. str2 = new String(“Hello world!”). we write the following code. if you want to create an instance of the class String.4 Class Instantiation To create an object or an instance of a class. you actually invoke the class' constructor. String or also equivalent to. it has the same name as the class. Figure 9.1: Classs Instantiation The new operator allocates a memory for that object and returns a reference of that memory location to you.E. When you create an object.I 9. For example. Introduction to Programming I 143 . we use the new operator.

A method is a separate piece of code that can be called by a main program or any other method to perform some specific function.D.1 What are Methods and Why Use Methods? In the examples we discussed before.E. and that is the main() method. Taking a problem and breaking it into small. Parameters are also called function arguments. we only have one method.I 9. The following are characteristics of methods: • It can return one or no values • It may accept as many parameters it needs or no parameter at all. We can do this in Java by creating methods to solve a specific part of the problem. why do we need to create methods? Why don't we just place all the code inside one big method? The heart of effective problem solving is in problem decomposition.J.4. manageable pieces is critical to writing large programs. Now. we can define many methods which we can call from different methods.4 Methods 9. In Java. Introduction to Programming I 144 . it goes back to the method that called it. • After the method has finished execution.

Let's take two sample methods found in the class String. but for now. x = str2. nameOfObject.D. public boolean equalsIgnoreCase Compares this String to another String.equalsIgnoreCase( str1 ). An index ranges from 0 to length() . The first character of the sequence is at index 0. we write the following.I 9. the next at index 1. You can use the Java API documentation to see all the available methods in the String class. and so on.1. Introduction to Programming I 145 . ignoring (String anotherString) case considerations. String char String str1 = "Hello".E.charAt(0). let us use what is available. and corresponding characters in the two strings are equal ignoring case. let's use the String class as an example. as for array indexing.J.4.2 Calling Instance Methods and Passing Variables Now. Method declaration public char charAt(int index) Definition Returns the character at the specified index. we will create our own methods. Table 20: Sample Methods of class String Using the methods. //this will return a boolean value true boolean result = str1. to illustrate how to call methods. Two strings are considered equal ignoring case if they are of the same length. //will return the character H //and store it to variable x str2 = "hello". To call an instance method. Later on.nameOfMethod( parameters ).

3 Passing Variables in Methods In our examples.1 Pass-by-value When a pass-by-value occurs.4. Introduction to Programming I 146 . we called the method test and passed the value of i as parameter.D. we already tried passing variables to methods.3. The method cannot accidentally modify the original argument even if it modifies the parameters during calculations. //print the value of i System.println( i ). the method makes a copy of the value of the variable passed to the method. } public static void test( int j ){ //change value of parameter j j = 33. it will not affect the variable value if i in main since it is a different copy of the variable. pass-byreference. the first one is pass-by-value and then. we haven't differentiated between the different types of variable passing in Java.E. By default. //call method test //and pass i to method test test( i ). 9. } In the given example. For example.out. Pass i as parameter which is copied to j } //print the value of i.println( i ). However.out. i not changed System. public class TestPassByValue { public static void main( String[] args ){ int i = 10. all primitive data types when passed to a method are pass-by-value. Since j is the variable changed in the test method. The value of i is copied to the variable of the method j.I 9.J.4. There are two types of passing data to methods.

//print array values for( int i=0. } } Introduction to Programming I 147 .J. class TestPassByReference { public static void main( String[] args ){ //create an array of integers int []ages = {10. i<ages. i++ ){ System. i++ ){ arr[i] = i + 50. However.length. } } public static void test( int[] arr ){ //change values of array for( int i=0. the method makes a copy of the reference of the variable passed to the method. the method can modify the actual object that the reference is pointing to.I 9. 11.length.out. For example. This means that. 12}.length. since.out.2 Pass-by-reference When a pass-by-reference occurs. i<arr. although different references are used in the methods.D. } //call test and pass reference to array test( ages ).println( ages[i] ).3.E.println( ages[i] ). Pass ages as parameter which is copied to variable arr } //print array values again for( int i=0.4. the location of the data they are pointing to is the same. the reference to an object is passed to the calling method. i++ ){ System. i<ages. unlike in pass-by-value.

parseInt(“10”). //prints data to screen System.'" As a result.println(“Hello world”).I Figure 9.2: Pass-by-reference example Coding Guidelines: A common misconception about pass-by-reference in Java is when creating a swap method using Java references. //Returns a String representation of the integer argument as an //unsigned integer base 16 String hexEquivalent = Integer.4. you cannot write a standard swap method to swap objects.' but it passes object references to methods 'by value.toHexString( 10 ). //converts the String 10.4 Calling Static Methods Static methods are methods that can be invoked without instantiating a class (means without invoking the new keyword). Introduction to Programming I 148 . Examples of static methods.D. To call a static method.J.out.staticMethodName(params).E. we've used so far in our examples are. Classname. to an integer int i = Integer. 9. Take note that Java manipulates objects 'by reference. just type. Static methods are distinguished from instance methods in a class definition by the keyword static. Static methods belongs to the class as a whole and not to a certain instance (or object) of a class.

. we have the following scopes for each variable: The The The The The scope scope scope scope scope of of of of of variable variable variable variable variable i is A. The scope determines where in the program the variable is accessible. j is B. k is C.k. The outer curly braces is called the outer blocks. given the following code snippet. and the five scopes A. D C Introduction to Programming I 149 . To simplify things. If you declare variables in the outer block. usable) by the program lines inside the inner blocks.C.4. you cannot expect the outer block to see it. int k = 0.. a variable has scope.. The scope is determined by where the variable declaration is placed in the program.B. A variable's scope is inside the block where it is declared.D.J.j. Given the variables i.E.e. However.m and n. n = 0. they are visible (i. int j = 0. and in the inner blocks. starting from the point where it is declared.}. //. m = 0..I 9. just think of the scope as anything between the curly braces {. if you declare variables in the inner block.D and E. m is D. public class ScopeExample { public static void main( String[] args ){ int i = 0. For example. n is E. The scope also determines the lifetime of a variable or how long the variable can exist in memory. some code here B A { int int E } } The code we have here represents five scopes indicated by the lines and the letters representing the scope.5 Scope of a variable In addition to a variable's data type and name. and the inner curly braces is called inner blocks.

i<ages.println( ages[i] ). the scope of the variables are.length. given the two methods main and test in our previous examples.scope D .J. arr[] i in E . 12}. i++ ){ System.scope E Introduction to Programming I 150 . ages[] . } B A C } E } public static void test( int[] arr ){ //change values of array for( int i=0.scope A i in B .E. } } D In the main method.length. //print array values again for( int i=0.out. //print array values for( int i=0. i++ ){ System.println( ages[i] ). i++ ){ arr[i] = i + 50.out.D.I Now. 11. class TestPassByReference { public static void main( String[] args ){ //create an array of integers int []ages = {10. i<arr. } //call test and pass reference to array test( ages ).scope B i in C – scope C In the test method. the scope ofthe variables are. i<ages.length.

print( test ).out. { } int test = 10. it prints the value of the first test variable since it is the variable seen at that scope. That means that if you have the following declaration. System. int test = 0. Introduction to Programming I 151 . int test = 20.out. For example. Coding Guidelines: Avoid having variables of the same name declared inside one method to avoid confusion.print.I When declaring variables.E. only one variable with a given identifier or name can be declared in a scope.out. the value 20 is printed since it is the closest test variable seen at that scope. you can have two variables of the same name. if they are not declared in the same block. your compiler will generate an error since you should have unique names for your variables in one block.. For the second System. System. However. //.some code here { int test = 20.J. } When the first System.out.print is invoke.print( test ).D.

For example.out. we are going to learn how to compare objects. since the destination variable (double) holds a larger value than what we will place inside it. and Java adopted this as part of its character support. Converting and Comparing Objects In this section. We will also learn how to convert primitive data types to objects and vice versa. Typecasting or casting is the process of converting a data of a certain data type to another data type. //explicit cast: output 65 Introduction to Programming I 152 . System. char valChar = 'A'.1 Casting Primitive Types Casting between primitive types enables you to convert the value of one data from one type to another primitive type. Another example is when we want to typecast an int to a char value or vice versa. If the variable i has the value 65.J. the cast (char)i produces the character value 'A'.print( valInt ). int numInt = 10. int valInt = valChar.E.D. An example of typecasting is when you want to store an integer data to a variable of data type double. And finally. 9. The numeric code associated with a capital A is 65.5. //implicit cast In this example. we are going to learn how to do typecasting.I 9. and that is the boolean data type. the data is implicitly casted to data type double.5 Casting. A character can be used as an int because each character has a corresponding numeric code that represents its position in the character set. There is one primitive data type that we cannot do casting though. double numDouble = numInt. This commonly occurs between numeric types. according to the ASCII character set. For example.

double valDouble = 10. int y = 2.12. dataType.2. int valInt = (int)valDouble.J. For example. is the name of the data type you're converting to value. Explicit casts take the following form: (dataType)value where. //typecast result of operation to Introduction to Programming I 153 .I When we convert a data that has a large type to a smaller type. we must use an explicit cast. //convert valDouble to int type double x = 10. is an expression that results in the value of the source type.D.E. int int result = (int)(x/y).

D. To use superclass objects where subclass objects are expected. using an object of class Number won't include many methods specified in Integer. there's a loss in precision involved. consider a method that takes two arguments. but you gain all the methods and variables that the subclass defines. If you had a variable defined as class Window. You won't lose any information in the cast. This is true anywhere in a program. We'll cover more about inheritance later. you can pass in its subclasses. is a reference to the source object. In particular. (classname)object where.E. such as Dialog. you use the same operation as for primitive types: To cast. Introduction to Programming I 154 . with one restriction: The source and destination classes must be related by inheritance. not just inside method calls.3: Sample Class Hierarchy This is true in the reverse. Errors occur if you try to call methods that the destination object doesn't have. one of type Object and another of type Window. and Frame. is the name of the destination class object. if you have an operation that calls methods in objects of the class Integer. Analogous to converting a primitive value to a larger type. and you can use a superclass when a subclass is expected. one class must be a subclass of the other. You can pass an instance of any class for the Object argument because all Java classes are subclasses of Object. however: Because subclasses contain more behavior than their superclasses. you can use an instance of a subclass anywhere a superclass is expected. There is a catch. For example. For the Window argument. classname.I 9.2 Casting Objects Instances of classes also can be cast into instances of other classes. To cast an object to another class. Those superclass objects might not have all the behavior needed to act in place of a subclass object. you must cast them explicitly. FileDialog. For example. you could assign objects of that class or any of its subclasses to that variable without casting. Figure 9.5. some objects might not need to be cast explicitly. because a subclass contains all the same information as its superclass.J.

// no cast needed for upward use veep = (VicePresident)emp.D. emp = veep. // must cast explicitlyCasting Introduction to Programming I 155 . which here defines that the VicePresident has executive washroom privileges.J. Figure 9.E.I • Note: that casting creates a reference to the old object of the type classname. VicePresident veep = new VicePresident(). VicePresident is a subclass of Employee with more information.4: Class Hierarchy for superclass Employee The following example casts an instance of the class VicePresident to an instance of the class Employee. Employee emp = new Employee(). the old object continues to exist as it did before.

you can create an object that holds the same value. Also. //The following statement converts an Integer object to // its primitive data type int. and a program won't compile successfully if you use one when the other is expected. (Called Wrapper Classes) Java treats the data types and their class versions very differently. Byte.E. two classes have names that differ from the corresponding data type: Character is used for char variables and Integer for int variables. • CAUTION: The Void class represents nothing in Java. As an alternative. Double instead of double. so there's no reason it would be used when translating between primitive values and objects. such as an int // Object->primitive String pennsylvania = "65000".lang package includes classes that correspond to each primitive data type: Float. Introduction to Programming I 156 . It's a placeholder for the void keyword. The result is an int with //value 7801 int newCount = dataCount.5. Primitive types and objects are very different things in Java. and so on.I 9. and the like). Examples: //The following statement creates an instance of the Integer // class with the integer value 7801 (primitive -> Object) Integer dataCount = new Integer(7801).J. and you can't automatically cast between the two or use them interchangeably. Using the classes that correspond to each primitive type.parseInt(pennsylvania). int penn = Integer. or vice versa.3 Converting Primitive Types to Objects and Vice Versa One thing you can't do under any circumstance is cast from an object to a primitive data type.intValue().D. which is used in method definitions to indicate that the method does not return a value. the java. Boolean. except that the class names begin with a capital letter (Short instead of short. // A common translation you need in programs // is converting a String to a numeric type. Most of these classes have the same names as the data types.

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9.5.4 Comparing Objects
In our previous discussions, we learned about operators for comparing values—equal, not equal, less than, and so on. Most of these operators work only on primitive types, not on objects. If you try to use other values as operands, the Java compiler produces errors. The exceptions to this rule are the operators for equality: == (equal) and != (not equal). When applied to objects, these operators don't do what you might first expect. Instead of checking whether one object has the same value as the other object, they determine whether both sides of the operator refer to the same object. To compare instances of a class and have meaningful results, you must implement special methods in your class and call those methods. A good example of this is the String class. It is possible to have two different String objects that contain the same values. If you were to employ the == operator to compare these objects, however, they would be considered unequal. Although their contents match, they are not the same object. To see whether two String objects have matching values, a method of the class called equals() is used. The method tests each character in the string and returns true if the two strings have the same values. The following code illustrates this, class EqualsTest { public static void main(String[] arguments) { String str1, str2; str1 = "Free the bound periodicals."; str2 = str1; System.out.println("String1: " + str1); System.out.println("String2: " + str2); System.out.println("Same object? " + (str1 == str2)); str2 = new String(str1); System.out.println("String1: " + str1); System.out.println("String2: " + str2); System.out.println("Same object? " + (str1 == str2)); System.out.println("Same value? " + str1.equals(str2));

}

}

This program's output is as follows, OUTPUT: String1: Free the bound String2: Free the bound Same object? true String1: Free the bound String2: Free the bound Same object? false Same value? True periodicals. periodicals. periodicals. periodicals.

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Now let's discuss the code. String str1, str2; str1 = "Free the bound periodicals.";

Figure 9.5: Both references point to the same object

The first part of this program declares two variables (str1 and str2), assigns the literal "Free the bound periodicals." to str1, and then assigns that value to str2. As you learned earlier, str1 and str2 now point to the same object, and the equality test proves that. str2 = new String(str1); In the second part of this program, you create a new String object with the same value as str1 and assign str2 to that new String object. Now you have two different string objects in str1 and str2, both with the same value. Testing them to see whether they're the same object by using the == operator returns the expected answer: false—they are not the same object in memory. Testing them using the equals() method also returns the expected answer: true—they have the same values.

Figure 9.6: References now point to different objects

NOTE: Why can't you just use another literal when you change str2, rather than using new? String literals are optimized in Java; if you create a string using a literal and then use another literal with the same characters, Java knows enough to give you the first String object back. Both strings are the same objects; you have to go out of your way to create two separate objects.

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9.5.5 Determining the Class of an Object
Want to find out what an object's class is? Here's the way to do it for an object assigned to the variable key: 1. The getClass() method returns a Class object (where Class is itself a class) that has a method called getName(). In turn, getName() returns a string representing the name of the class. For Example, String name = key.getClass().getName(); 2. The instanceOf operator The instanceOf has two operands: a reference to an object on the left and a class name on the right. The expression returns true or false based on whether the object is an instance of the named class or any of that class's subclasses. For Example, boolean ex1 = "Texas" instanceof String; // true Object pt = new Point(10, 10); boolean ex2 = pt instanceof String; // false

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9.6 Exercises
9.6.1 Defining terms
In 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. your own words, define the following terms: Class Object Instantiate Instance Variable Instance Method Class Variables or static member variables Constructor

9.6.2 Java Scavenger Hunt
Pipoy is a newbie in the Java programming language. He just heard that there are already ready-to-use APIs in Java that one could use in their programs, and he's eager to try them out. The problem is, Pipoy does not have a copy of the Java Documentation, and he also doesn't have an internet access, so there's no way for him to view the Java APIs. Your task is to help Pipoy look for the APIs (Application Programming Interface). You should state the class where the method belongs, the method declaration and a sample usage of the said method. For example, if Pipoy wants to know the method that converts a String to integer, your answer should be: Class: Integer Method Declaration: public static int parseInt( String value ) Sample Usage: String strValue = "100"; int value = Integer.parseInt( strValue ); Make sure that the snippet of code you write in your sample usage compiles and outputs the correct answer, so as not to confuse Pipoy. (Hint: All methods are in the java.lang package). In cases where you can find more methods that can accomplish the task, give only one. Now let's start the search! 1. Look for a method that checks if a certain String ends with a certain suffix. For example, if the given string is "Hello", the method should return true the suffix given is "lo", and false if the given suffix is "alp". 2. Look for the method that determines the character representation for a specific digit in the specified radix. For example, if the input digit is 15, and the radix is 16, the method would return the character F, since F is the hexadecimal representation for the number 15 (base 10). 3. Look for the method that terminates the currently running Java Virtual Machine 4. Look for the method that gets the floor of a double value. For example, if I input a 3.13, the method should return the value 3. 5. Look for the method that determines if a certain character is a digit. For example, if I input '3', it returns the value true.

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10 Creating your own Classes
10.1 Objectives
Now that we've studied on how to use existing classes from the Java class library, we will now be studying on how to write our own classes. For this section, in order to easily understand how to create classes, we will make a sample class wherein we will add more data and functionality as we go along the way. We will create a class that contains information of a Student and operations needed for a certain student record. Things to take note of for the syntax defined in this section and for the other sections: * <description> [] - means that there may be 0 or more occurrences of the line whereit was applied to. - indicates that you have to substitute an actual value for this part instead of typing it as it is. - indicates that this part is optional

At the end of the lesson, the student should be able to: • • • • • • Create their own classes Declare attributes and methods for their classes Use the this reference to access instance data Create and call overloaded methods Import and create packages Use access modifiers to control access to class members

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10.2 Defining your own classes
Before writing your class, think first on where you will be using your class and how your class will be used. Think of an appropriate name for the class, and list all the information or properties that you want your class to contain. Also list down the methods that you will be using for your class. To define a class, we write, <modifier> class <name> { <attributeDeclaration>* <constructorDeclaration>* <methodDeclaration>* }

where <modifier> is an access modifier, which may be combined with other types of modifier. Coding Guidelines: Remember that for a top-level class, the only valid access modifiers are public and package (i.e., if no access modifier prefixes the class keyword). In this section, we will be creating a class that will contain a student record. Since we've already identified the purpose of our class, we can now name it. An appropriate name for our class would be StudentRecord. Now, to define our class we write, public class StudentRecord { //we'll add more code here later } where, public class StudentRecord Coding Guidelines: 1. Think of an appropriate name for your class. Don't just call your class XYZ or any random names you can think of. 2. Class names should start with a CAPITAL letter. 3. The filename of your class should have the SAME NAME as your class name. - means that our class is accessible to other classes outside the package - this is the keyword used to create a class in Java - a unique identifier that describes our class

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10.3 Declaring Attributes
To declare a certain attribute for our class, we write, <modifier> <type> <name> [= <default_value>]; Now, let us write down the list of attributes that a student record can contain. For each information, also list what data types would be appropriate to use. For example, you don't want to have a data type int for a student's name, or a String for a student's grade. The following are some sample information we want to add to the student record. name address age math grade english grade science grade average grade String String int double double double double

You can add more information if you want to, it's all really up to you. But for this example, we will be using these information.

10.3.1 Instance Variables
Now that we have a list of all the attributes we want to add to our class, let us now add them to our code. Since we want these attributes to be unique for each object (or for each student), we should declare them as instance variables. For example, public class StudentRecord { private String name; private String address; private int age; private double mathGrade; private double englishGrade; private double scienceGrade; private double average; //we'll add more code here later }

where, private here means that the variables are only accessible within the class. Other objects cannot access these variables directly. We will cover more about accessibility later. Coding Guidelines: 1. Declare all your instance variables on the top of the class declaration. 2. Declare one variable for each line. 3. Instance variables, like any other variables should start with a SMALL letter. 4. Use an appropriate data type for each variable you declare. 5. Declare instance variables as private so that only class methods can access them directly.

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J.E. <modifier> <returnType> <name>(<parameter>*) { <statement>* } where.2 Class Variables or Static Variables Aside from instance variables. To declare a static variable. public class StudentRecord { private String name. The value of these variables are the same for all the objects of the same class. we can also declare class variables or variables that belong to the class as a whole.D. private double mathGrade.3. To declare methods we write. private static int studentCount. Let us call this as studentCount. our whole code now looks like this.I 10. let us first take a look at the general syntax for declaring methods. private String address. private double scienceGrade. private double englishGrade. private double average.4 Declaring Methods Before we discuss what methods we want our class to have. } //we'll add more code here later 10. private int age. we want to know the total number of student records we have for the whole class. So far. we can declare one static variable that will hold this value. } //we'll add more code here later we use the keyword static to indicate that a variable is a static variable. <modifier> can carry a number of different modifiers <returnType> can be any data type (including void) <name> can be any valid identifier <parameter> ::= <parameter_type> <parameter_name>[.] Introduction to Programming I 164 . Now suppose. public class StudentRecord { //instance variables we have declared private static int studentCount.

we declare the fields or attributes of our classes as private.4. In order to do this.D.this means that our method does not have any parameters where.String return age.java:14: incompatible types found : int required: java.E.means that the method can be called from objects outside the class . For our example.1 Accessor methods In order to implement encapsulation. StudentRecord.is the return type of the method. Take note that the return type of the method should have the same data type as the data in the return statement. we create accessor methods. This means that the method should return a value of type String . public class StudentRecord { private String name. ^ 1 error Introduction to Programming I 165 . Now let's take a look at one implementation of an accessor method.J. return name. : : public String getName(){ return name. we don't want any objects to just access our data anytime.lang. Accessor methods are used to read values from class variables (instance/static). math grade and science grade of the student. we want an accessor method that can read the name. there are times wherein we want other objects to access private data. However. that is. in our program signifies that it will return the value of the instance variable name to the calling method. It also returns a value. english grade. } } . address. You usually encounter the following error if the two does not have the same data type. An accessor method usually starts with a get<NameOfInstanceVariable>. public String getName () The statement.I 10.the name of the method .

: : public void setName( String temp ){ name = temp. mutator methods.4. result = ( mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade )/3. what if we want other objects to alter our data? What we do is we provide methods that can write or change values of our class variables (instance/static). } return result. name = temp. } } where. } The getAverage method computes the average of the 3 grades and returns the result.2 Mutator Methods Now. public void setName (String temp) The statement.I Another example of an accessor method is the getAverage method.D. 10. it contains some program argument or arguments that will be used inside the method. However. assigns the value of temp to name and thus changes the data inside the instance variable name. A mutator method is usuallyu written as set<NameOfInstanceVariable>. Now let's take a look at one implementation of a mutator method. public class StudentRecord { private String name.E. We call these methods. means that the method can be called from objects outside the class imeans that the method does not return any value the name of the method parameter that will be used inside our method Introduction to Programming I 166 .J. : : public double getAverage(){ double result = 0. public class StudentRecord { private String name. Take note that mutator methods don't return values.

getStudentCount will always return the value zero since we haven't done anything yet in our program in order to set its value.is the return type of the method.4. For example.J. Method names should be verbs 3. public class StudentRecord { private static int studentCount. Coding Guidelines: 1. Introduction to Programming I 167 .this means that our method does not have any parameters For now. public static int getStudentCount () . } } where. we can create a static method to access its value. consider the method. if( num == 1 return } else if( num return } ){ "one".4 Static methods For the static variable studentCount.getStudentCount() .means that the method can be called from objects outside the class .[methodName]. Always provide documentation before the declaration of the method. //return a constant } //return a variable return defaultNum. You can also use constants to return values instead of variables.D. For example. in this case. public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount.the name of the method . This means that the method should return a value of type int . Please see example. We will try to change the value of studentCount later on when we discuss constructors. //return a constant == 2){ "two". Method names should start with a SMALL letter. public String getNumberInWords( int num ){ String defaultNum = "zero". we call the method StudentRecord.E.4. [ClassName]. You can use javadocs style for this. 2.means that the method is static and should be called by typing.I 10. 10.3 Multiple Return statements You can have multiple return statements for a method as long as they are not on the same block.

} // other code here . private static int studentCount. /** * Returns the name of the student */ public String getName(){ return name.I 10.. } return result. } /** * Changes the name of the student */ public void setName( String temp ){ name = temp.4.D. mathGrade. } /** * returns the number of instances of StudentRecords */ public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount.5 Sample Source Code for StudentRecord class Here is the code for our StudentRecord class. englishGrade. scienceGrade. } Introduction to Programming I 168 . public class { private private private private private private private StudentRecord String String int double double double double name. /** * Computes the average of the english. address. result = ( mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade )/3.E..J. average. math and science * grades */ public double getAverage(){ double result = 0.. age.

crisRecord. } The output of this program is.setName("Anna").setName("Cris").out. //print anna's name System. here's a sample code of a class that uses our StudentRecord class.getName() ).println("Count="+StudentRecord.E. StudentRecord(). Anna Student Count = 0 Introduction to Programming I 169 .I Now.D.getStudentCount } record StudentRecord(). beahRecord.println( annaRecord. //print number of students System.out. ()). StudentRecord().setName("Beah").J. public class StudentRecordExample { public static void main( String[] args ){ //create three objects for Student StudentRecord annaRecord = new StudentRecord beahRecord = new StudentRecord crisRecord = new //set the name of the students annaRecord.

we use the this reference. public void setAge( int age ){ this. Introduction to Programming I 170 . In order to correct this mistake. which has the same name as the instance variable age. Since the parameter age is the closest declaration to the method.<nameOfTheInstanceVariable> So for example. we can now rewrite our code to.5 The this reference The this reference is used to access the instance variables shadowed by the parameters. we are just assigning the value of the parameter age to itself! This is not what we want to happen in our code. To use the this reference. To understand this better.age = age. public void setAge( int age ){ age = age.I 10. the value of the parameter age will be used. NOTE: You can only use the this reference for instance variables and NOT static or class variables. this.E. let's take for example the setAge method. So in the statement. //WRONG!!! } The parameter name in this declaration is age.D. } This method will then assign the value of the parameter age to the instance variable of the object StudentRecord.J. we type. age = age. Suppose we have the following declaration for setAge.

println("Age:" + age). we want the print method to print out the name.out. However. we want the method to print the student's name and grades.println("Address:" + address).out.E. System. } public void print(double eGrade. we want the print method to print things differently depending on the parameters we pass to it. This capability is possible in Java. When we pass 3 double values. public void print( String temp ){ System. double mGrade.println("Name:" + name). when we pass a String. System. For example. } Introduction to Programming I 171 . method overloading can be used when the same operation has different implementations.println("Science Grade:" + sGrade).println("Name:" + name). in our StudentRecord class we want to have a method that prints information about the student. Rather than invent new names all the time.println("Math Grade:" + mGrade). Method overloading allows a method with the same name but different parameters. System. and it is called Method Overloading.out. to have different implementations and return values of different types. address and age of the student.out.I 10.out.6 Overloading Methods In our classes. System. double sGrade) System.J. System. We have the following overloaded methods inside our StudentRecord class.println("English Grade:" + eGrade). For example.D.out.out. we want to sometimes create methods that has the same names but function differently depending on the parameters that are passed to them.

setName("Anna").0 Always remember that overloaded methods have the following properties. } we will have the output for the first call to print. //overloaded methods annaRecord.setEnglishGrade(95.I When we try to call this in the following main method. annaRecord.0 English Grade:95.getName() ).setScienceGrade(100). annaRecord. annaRecord.D. annaRecord.setAge(15). Name:Anna Address:Philippines Age:15 we will have the output for the second call to print. annaRecord. public static void main( String[] args ) { StudentRecord annaRecord = new StudentRecord().print( annaRecord.J. annaRecord.setAddress("Philippines").setMathGrade(80).5).getScienceGrade()). annaRecord.getEnglishGrade().5 Science Grade:100. Name:Anna Math Grade:80. annaRecord.getMathGrade(). – the same name – different parameters – return types can be different or the same Introduction to Programming I 172 . annaRecord.E.print( annaRecord.

englishGrade = eGrade.. it can only be called by using the new operator during class instantiation. Constructors are important in instantiating an object. The following are the properties of a constructor: 1. scope or accessibility identifier (like public. You cannot call a constructor directly. constructors can also be overloaded. for example. For example.E.name = name.). constructor's name and parameters if it has any.7. } public StudentRecord(String name. 3. we have here four overloaded constructors..7 Declaring Constructors We have discussed before the concept of constructors. A constructor is just like an ordinary method.7. then an implicit default constructor is created.2 Overloading Constructors As we have mentioned. double eGrade. however only the following information can be placed in the header of the constructor. the default constructor would look like this.address = address.1 Default Constructor Every class has a default constructor. public StudentRecord(){ //some initialization code here } public StudentRecord(String temp){ this. To declare a constructor. String address){ this. in our StudentRecord class.I 10. Constructors have the same name as the class 2.name = temp. } public StudentRecord(double mGrade. Constructors does not have any return value 4. double sGrade){ mathGrade = mGrade. we write. If the class does not specify any constructors. } Introduction to Programming I 173 . It is a method where all the initializations are placed. scienceGrade = sGrade.J. <modifier> <className> (<parameter>*) { <statement>* } 10.D. public StudentRecord() { //some code here } 10. The default constructor is the constructor without any parameters. this.

scienceGrade = sGrade. double sGrade){ mathGrade = mGrade.address = address. //add a student } Introduction to Programming I 174 . double eGrade.name = temp.3 Using Constructors To use these constructors. studentCount++.7. String address){ this.name = name. StudentRecord StudentRecord (80. public StudentRecord(){ //some initialization code here studentCount++.100). //some code here } beahRecord=new StudentRecord("Beah". everytime an object of class StudentRecord is instantiated. A good location to modify and increment the value of studentCount is in the constructors.J. this. For example.E.I 10. public static void main( String[] args ) { //create three objects for Student record StudentRecord annaRecord=new StudentRecord("Anna"). So. englishGrade = eGrade. studentCount++. crisRecord=new StudentRecord Now. "Philippines"). we increment the value of studentCount.D. what we want to do here is. let us go back to the static variable studentCount we have declared a while ago. we have the following code.90. //add a student } public StudentRecord(String name. The purpose of the studentCount is to count the number of objects that are instantiated with the class StudentRecord. studentCount++. because it is always called everytime an object is instantiated. before we move on. //add a student } public StudentRecord(double mGrade. //add a student } public StudentRecord(String temp){ this.

D. 1: public StudentRecord(){ 2: this("some string"). For example. given the following code. IT MUST OCCUR AS THE FIRST STATEMENT in a constructor 2.name = temp. it will call the default constructor line 1. When using the this constructor call.7. 3: 4: } 5: 6: public StudentRecord(String temp){ 7: this. When statement in line 2 is executed.I 10. you can call another constructor from inside another constructor. when the statement at line 13 is called.4 The this() Constructor Call Constructor calls can be chained. meaning. Introduction to Programming I 175 . We use the this() call for this. The this call can then be followed by any other relevant statements. It can ONLY BE USED IN A CONSTRUCTOR DEFINITION.E. 14: } Given the code above. 8: } 9: 10: public static void main( String[] args ) 11: { 12: 13: StudentRecord annaRecord = new StudentRecord().J. it will then call the constructor that has a String parameter (in line 6). There are a few things to remember when using the this constructor call: 1.

Color.J. 10. The first thing you have to do is create a folder named schoolClasses.2 Creating your own packages To create our own package.awt. We will call our package. private int age. For example. The first statement imports the specific class Color while the other imports all of the classes in the java. java.awt.lang. import java.* package. package schoolClasses.E. schoolClasses. This is done by using the package name to declare an object of a class. import java. you need to import the package of those classes. if you want to use the class Color inside package awt.awt package.I 10.awt. all your Java programs import the java. we write. : Packages can also be nested. The syntax for importing packages is as follows. package <packageName>. By default.D.*. the Java interpreter expects the directory structure containing the executable classes to match the package hierarchy. Another way to import classes from other packages is through explicit package referencing. private String address. you have to type the following. For example. This powerful feature provides for a convenient mechanism for managing a large group of classes and interfaces while avoiding potential naming conflicts.8 Packages Packages are Java’s means of grouping related classes and interfaces together in a single unit (interfaces will be discussed later). In this case.1 Importing Packages To be able to use classes outside of the package you are currently working in. add the following code at the top of the class file.8.Color color. Copy all the classes that you want to belong to this package inside this folder. Introduction to Programming I 176 . 10. public class StudentRecord { private String name. import <nameOfPackage>. After copying. together with other related classes. that is why you can use classes like String and Integers inside the program eventhough you haven't imported any packages.8. Suppose we want to create a package where we will place our StudentRecord class.

SecureClassLoader.ClassLoader.security.lang. which in this case is in location C:\.URLClassLoader.URLClassLoader.defineClass(Unknown Source) at java.AccessController. the JVM will be able to see where our classes are stored.URLClassLoader.net.loadClassInternal(Unknown Source) We encounter a NoClassDefFoundError which means that Java did not know where to look for your class.NoClassDefFoundError: StudentRecord (wrong name: schoolClasses/StudentRecord) at java. we can now run our program anywhere by typing.D.java C:\schoolClasses>java StudentRecord Exception in thread "main" java.StudentRecord For Unix base systems. C:\schoolClasses>javac StudentRecord.defineClass(Unknown Source) at java.ClassLoader. We need to set the classpath to point to that directory so that when we try to run it.net.J. we must set the classpath.lang.loadClass(Unknown Source) at java. To do this.doPrivileged(Native Method) at java.E.lang.lang.I 10. Before we discuss how to set the classpath.lang.Launcher$AppClassLoader. C:\schoolClasses> java schoolClasses.run(Unknown Source) at java. C:\schoolClasses> set classpath=C:\ where C:\ is the directory in which we have placed the packages.findClass(Unknown Source) at java.net.StudentRecord.net. We also have to tell JVM where to look for our packages. export classpath=/usr/local/myClasses Introduction to Programming I 177 . Suppose we compile and then run the StudentRecord class we wrote in the last section. To set the classpath in Windows.loadClass(Unknown Source) at java. suppose we place the package schoolClasses under the C:\ directory.security.misc.ClassLoader.lang.defineClass1(Native Method) at java.access$100(Unknown Source) at java. we type this at the command prompt.defineClass(Unknown Source) at java.3 Setting the CLASSPATH Now. suppose we have our classes in the directory /usr/local/myClasses. let us take a look at an example on what will happen if we don't set the classpath. we jave to tell Java about its full class name which is schoolClasses. The reason for this is that your class StudentRecord now belongs to a package named studentClasses. After setting the classpath.ClassLoader. If we want to run our class.loadClass(Unknown Source) at sun.8.URLClassLoader$1.ClassLoader. we write.

we just have to separate them by .(for windows) and : (for Unix based systems). set classpath=C:\myClasses.E. For example.D:\.J.I Take note that you can set the classpath anywhere.D.E:\MyPrograms\Java and for Unix based systems. You can also set more than one classpath. export classpath=/usr/local/java:/usr/myClasses Introduction to Programming I 178 .

D.2 public access This specifies that class members are accessible to anyone. no keyword is used. the instance variable name and the method getName() can be accessed from other objects. The first three access modifiers are explicitly written in the code to indicate the access type. as long as the object belongs to the same package where the class StudentRecord belongs to.E. For example. 10. private. we want to implement some kind of restriction to access these data. Introduction to Programming I 179 . the instance variable name and the method getName() can be accessed from other objects.9 Access Modifiers When creating our classes and defining the properties and methods in our class. you may want to hide this from other objects using your class. we have what we call access modifiers in order to implement this. public class StudentRecord { //default access to instance variable int name. In Java. } } In this example. } } In this example. if you want a certain attribute to be changed only by the methods inside the class. 10.9. Any object that interacts with the class can have access to the public members of the class. There are no actual keyword for the default modifier.J. both inside and outside the class.I 10.9. For example. public class StudentRecord { //default access to instance variable public int name.1 default access (also called package accessibility) This specifies that only classes in the same package can have access to the class' variables and methods. There are four different types of member access modifiers in Java: public. it is applied in the absence of an access modifier. //default access to method public String getName(){ return name. //default access to method String getName(){ return name. for the fourth one which is default. protected and default. For example.

For example. Introduction to Programming I 180 . //default access to method protected String getName(){ return name. } } In this example.E. For example. public class StudentRecord { //default access to instance variable private int name. public class StudentRecord { //default access to instance variable protected int name.9. Coding Guidelines: The instance variables of a class should normally be declared private.3 protected access This specifies that the class members are accessible only to methods in that class and the subclasses of the class.J. the instance variable name and the method getName() can be accessed only from methods inside the class and from subclasses of StudentRecord.4 private access This specifies that the class members are only accessible by the class they are defined in.9. the instance variable name and the method getName() can be accessed only from methods inside the class. } } In this example. We will discuss about subclasses on the next chapter. 10.D. and the class will just provide accessor and mutator methods to these variables. //default access to method private String getName(){ return name.I 10.

1 Address Book Entry Your task is to create a class that contains an address book entry.J.D.I 10. 1. You should provide the following methods for the address book. create the following: 1. 2.10 Exercises 10.2 AddressBook Create a class address book that can contain 100 entries of AddressBookEntry objects (use the class you created in the first exercise). 3.E. Provide the necessary accessor and mutator methods for all the attributes. Attributes/Properties Name Address Telephone Number Email Address Description Name of the person in the addressbook Address of the person Telephone number of the person Person's Email address Table 21: Attributes and Attributes Descriptions For the methods. Constructors 10. 4. Add entry Delete entry View all entries Update an entry Introduction to Programming I 181 .10. 2. The following table describes the information that an adressbook entry has.10.

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11 Inheritance, Polymorphism and Interfaces
11.1 Objectives
In this section, we will be discussing on how a class can inherit the properties of an existing class. A class that does this is called a subclass and its parent class is called the superclass. We will also be discussing a special property of Java wherein it can automatically apply the proper methods to each object regardless of what subclass the object came from. This property is known as polymorphism. Finally, we are going to discusss about interfaces that helps reduce programming effort. At the end of the lesson, the student should be able to: • • • Define super classes and subclasses Override methods of superclasses Create final methods and final classes

11.2 Inheritance
In Java, all classes, including the classes that make up the Java API, are subclassed from the Object superclass. A sample class hierarchy is shown below. Any class above a specific class in the class hierarchy is known as a superclass. While any class below a specific class in the class hierarchy is known as a subclass of that class.

Inheritance is a major advantage in object-oriented programming since once a behavior (method) is defined in a superclass, that behavior is automatically inherited by all subclasses. Thus, you can encode a method only once and they can be used by all subclasses. A subclass only need to implement the differences between itself and the parent.

Figure 11.1: Class Hierarchy

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11.2.1 Defining Superclasses and Subclasses
To derive a class, we use the extends keyword. In order to illustrate this, let's create a sample parent class. Suppose we have a parent class called Person. public class Person { protected String protected String

name; address;

/** * Default constructor */ public Person(){ System.out.println(“Inside Person:Constructor”); name = ""; address = ""; } /** * Constructor with 2 parameters */ public Person( String name, String address ){ this.name = name; this.address = address; } /** * Accessor methods */ public String getName(){ return name; } public String getAddress(){ return address; } public void setName( String name ){ this.name = name; } public void setAddress( String add ){ this.address = add; } } Notice that, the attributes name and address are declared as protected. The reason we did this is that, we want these attributes to be accessible by the subclasses of the superclass. If we declare this as private, the subclasses won't be able to use them. Take note that all the properties of a superclass that are declared as public, protected and default can be accessed by its subclasses.

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Now, we want to create another class named Student. Since a student is also a person, we decide to just extend the class Person, so that we can inherit all the properties and methods of the existing class Person. To do this, we write, public class Student extends Person { public Student(){ System.out.println(“Inside Student:Constructor”); //some code here } } // some code here

When a Student object is instantiated, the default constructor of its superclass is invoked implicitly to do the necessary initializations. After that, the statements inside the subclass are executed. To illustrate this, consider the following code, public static void main( String[] args ){ Student anna = new Student(); } In the code, we create an object of class Student. The output of the program is, Inside Person:Constructor Inside Student:Constructor The program flow is shown below.

Figure 11.2: Program Flow

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11.2.2 The super keyword
A subclass can also explicitly call a constructor of its immediate superclass. This is done by using the super constructor call. A super constructor call in the constructor of a subclass will result in the execution of relevant constructor from the superclass, based on the arguments passed. For example, given our previous example classes Person and Student, we show an example of a super constructor call. Given the following code for Student, public Student(){ super( "SomeName", "SomeAddress" ); System.out.println("Inside Student:Constructor"); } This code calls the second constructor of its immediate superclass (which is Person) and executes it. Another sample code shown below, public Student(){ super(); System.out.println("Inside Student:Constructor"); } This code calls the default constructor of its immediate superclass (which is Person) and executes it. There are a few things to remember when using the super constructor call: 1. The super() call MUST OCCUR THE FIRST STATEMENT IN A CONSTRUCTOR. 2. The super() call can only be used in a constructor definition. 3. This implies that the this() construct and the super() calls CANNOT BOTH OCCUR IN THE SAME CONSTRUCTOR. Another use of super is to refer to members of the superclass (just like the this reference ). For example, public Student() { super.name = “somename”; super.address = “some address”; }

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11.2.3 Overriding Methods
If for some reason a derived class needs to have a different implementation of a certain method from that of the superclass, overriding methods could prove to be very useful. A subclass can override a method defined in its superclass by providing a new implementation for that method. Suppose we have the following implementation for the getName method in the Person superclass, public class Person { : : public String getName(){ System.out.println("Parent: getName"); return name; } : } To override, the getName method in the subclass Student, we write, public class Student extends Person { : : public String getName(){ System.out.println("Student: getName"); return name; } : } So, when we invoke the getName method of an object of class Student, the overridden method would be called, and the output would be, Student: getName

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11.2.4 Final Methods and Final Classes
In Java, it is also possible to declare classes that can no longer be subclassed. These classes are called final classes. To declare a class to be final, we just add the final keyword in the class declaration. For example, if we want the class Person to be declared final, we write, public final class Person { //some code here } Many of the classes in the Java API are declared final to ensure that their behavior cannot be overridden. Examples of these classes are Integer, Double and String. It is also possible in Java to create methods that cannot be overridden. These methods are what we call final methods. To declare a method to be final, we just add the final keyword in the method declaration. For example, if we want the getName method in class Person to be declared final, we write, public final String getName(){ return name; } Static methods are automatically final. This means that you cannot override them.

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11.3 Polymorphism
Now, given the parent class Person and the subclass Student of our previous example, we add another subclass of Person which is Employee. Below is the class hierarchy for that, Person

Student

Employee

Figure 11.3: Hierarchy for Person class and it's classes

In Java, we can create a reference that is of type superclass to an object of its subclass. For example, public static main( String[] args ) { Person ref; Student Employee studentObject = new Student(); employeeObject = new Employee();

ref = studentObject; //Person ref points to a // Student object } //some code here

Now suppose we have a getName method in our superclass Person, and we override this method in both the subclasses Student and Employee, public class Person { public String getName(){ System.out.println(“Person Name:” + name); return name; } } public class Student extends Person { public String getName(){ System.out.println(“Student Name:” + name); return name; } } public class Employee extends Person { public String getName(){ System.out.println(“Employee Name:” + name); return name; } }

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getName(). Employee employeeObject = new Employee(). public static main( String[] args ) { Person ref.out. Polymorphism allows multiple objects of different subclasses to be treated as objects of a single superclass. //getName of Employee //class is called System. Another example that exhibits the property of polymorphism is when we try to pass a reference to methods. . . ref = employeeObject. } This ability of our reference to change behavior according to what object it is holding is called polymorphism.I Going back to our main method. while automatically selecting the proper methods to apply to a particular object based on the subclass it belongs to. employeeObject = new Employee(). } Introduction to Programming I 189 .D. when we try to call the getName method of the reference Person ref. } printInformation( employeeObject ). the getName method of the Student object will be called.J.out. //Person reference points to a // Student object String temp = ref. printInformation( studentObject ). Now. public static printInformation( Person p ){ .println( temp ). Student Employee studentObject = new Student().getName(). ref = studentObject.E. Suppose we have a static method printInformation that takes in a Person object as reference.println( temp ). public static main( String[] args ) { Student studentObject = new Student(). we can actually pass a reference of type Employee and type Student to this method as long as it is a subclass of the class Person. the getName method of Employee will be called. //Person reference points to an // Employee object String temp = ref. . //getName of Student //class is called System. if we assign ref to an Employee object.

D. Those methods in the abstract classes that do not have implementation are called abstract methods. there are many characteristics that living things have in common. and some methods wherein we just want to be overridden by its subclasses. eat. the walk method. To create an abstract method. For example.J. However.E. This class has certain methods like breath. there are some methods in this superclass wherein we cannot generalize the behavior. sleep and walk. just write the method declaration without the body and use the abstract keyword. However. we can create a superclass that has some methods with implementations and others which do not. while other living things like dogs walk on four legs. we want to create a superclass named LivingThing. defining the broad types of actions possible with objects of all subclasses of the class.I 11. public abstract void someMethod().4: Abstract class In order to do this. This kind of class is called an abstract class. Take for example. Not all living things walk the same way. that is why we want to create a general superclass for this. we humans walk on two legs. Figure 11. It often appears at the top of an object-oriented programming class hierarchy. An abstract class is a class that cannot be instantiated. Take the humans for instance. Introduction to Programming I 190 .4 Abstract Classes Now suppose we want to create a superclass wherein it has certain methods in it that contains some implementation. For example.

public abstract class LivingThing { public void breath(){ System. Introduction to Programming I 191 .. it is required to override the abstract method walk(). } public void eat(){ System.D... } } If the class Human does not override the walk method.").println("Human walks.. and use its subclasses to provide implementation details of the abstract class. and therefore cannot be instantiated.J. or else. } /** * abstract method walk * We want this method to be overridden by subclasses of * LivingThing */ public abstract void walk().java:1: Human is not abstract and does not override abstract method walk() in LivingThing public class Human extends LivingThing ^ 1 error Coding Guidelines: Use abstract classes to define broad types of behaviors at the top of an object-oriented programming class hierarchy.").E. that subclass will also become an abstract class.println("Living Thing breathing.I Now. } When a class extends the LivingThing abstract class.out. Human. let's create an example abstract class.. public class Human extends LivingThing { public void walk(){ System.out. For example.println("Living Thing eating.").. we would encounter the following error message.out.

we need to use interfaces to model multiple inheritance which allows a class to have more than one superclass. Abstract Class The following are the main differences between an interface and an abstract class: interface methods have no body. Multiple inheritance is not present in Java.5. In order to enforce a way to make sure that these two classes implement some methods with similar signatures. suppose we have another class MyInteger which contains methods that compares a MyInteger object to objects of the same class. Interfaces define a standard and public way of specifying the behavior of classes.I 11.D. we can use an interface for this. public boolean isEqual( Object a. Note that interfaces exhibit polymorphism as well. Object b). As we can see later on the section Interface vs. Classes.5 Interfaces An interface is a special kind of block containing method signatures (and possibly constants) only. public interface Relation { public boolean isGreater( Object a.5. but present in other object-oriented languages like C++. regardless of their location in the class hierarchy.2 Interface vs. } Another reason for using an object's programming interface is to reveal an object's programming interface without revealing its class. let's say interface Relation which has some comparison method declarations. Let's take as an example a class Line which contains methods that computes the length of the line and compares a Line object to objects of the same class.E. Object b). Thru interfaces. Object b). public boolean isLess( Object a. since program may call an interface method and the proper version of that method will be executed depending on the type of object passed to the interface method call. They allow classes. an interface can only define constants and an interface have no direct inherited relationship with any particular class. We can create an interface class. Interfaces define the signatures of a set of methods without the body.1 Why do we use Interfaces? We need to use interfaces if we want unrelated classes to implement similar methods. 11. but they are not related whatsoever. Our interface Relation can be declared as. Now. Finally. both of the classes have some similar methods which compares them from other objects of the same type. we can actually capture similarities among unrelated classes without artificially forcing a class relationship.J. they are defined independently. to implement common behaviors. As we can see here. we can actually use an interface as data type. Introduction to Programming I 192 . 11.

For example.E. public interface Relation { public boolean isGreater( Object a. this. Object b). to use the interface. double x2. private double x2. given a class Person and an interface PersonInterface. private double y2. This means that an interface can be used in places where a class can be used. Object b).x1 = x1. Class One common characteristic of an interface and class is that they are both types. For example. double y2){ this. the following declarations are valid: PersonInterface Person pi = new Person(). /** * This class defines a line segment */ public class Line implements Relation { private double x1. However. //COMPILE //ERROR!!! Another common characteristic is that both interface and class can define methods. However. pc = new Person().x2 = x2. public interface [InterfaceName] { //some methods without the body } As an example. double y1. public boolean isEqual( Object a. Object b). } public double getLength(){ Introduction to Programming I 193 . private double y1. you cannot create an instance from an interface.I 11.4 Creating Interfaces To create an interface. we write. public boolean isLess( Object a.J. 11. } Now. public Line(double x1. we use the implements keyword.y2 = y2.5. this.5. An example of this is: PersonInterface pi = new PersonInterface(). let's create an interface that defines relationships between two objects according to the “natural order” of the objects. this.D.y1 = y1.3 Interface vs. an interface does not have an implementation code while the class have one.

getLength(). Line.getLength().getLength(). you would encounter this error. or else. always make sure that you implement all the methods of that interface. return (aLen > bLen).I } double length = Math.Object. Object b){ double aLen = ((Line)a). you can write a single method to manipulate all of the classes that implement the interface.J. Once a set of standard method definition is created. Introduction to Programming I 194 .D. } public boolean isLess( Object a.sqrt((x2-x1)*(x2-x1) + (y2-y1)* (y2-y1)). } } When your class tries to implement an interface. double bLen = ((Line)b).getLength(). Object b){ double aLen = ((Line)a).getLength(). double bLen = ((Line)b).lang.Object) in Relation public class Line implements Relation ^ 1 error Coding Guidelines: Use interfaces to create the same standard method definitions in may different classes. } public boolean isEqual( Object a.lang. public boolean isGreater( Object a.E. return (aLen == bLen).java. Object b){ double aLen = ((Line)a). return (aLen < bLen). double bLen = ((Line)b).java:4: Line is not abstract and does not override abstract method isGreater(java. return length.getLength().

E. a class can implement an interface as long as it provides the implementation code for all the methods defined in the interface.5 Relationship of an Interface to a Class As we have seen in the previous section. 11. . public class ComputerScienceStudent extends Student implements PersonInterface. } public interface StudentInterface extends PersonInterface { . it will inherit all of the method declarations in PersonInterface.J. .5. but it can IMPLEMENT MANY interfaces. If StudentInterface extends PersonInterface. public interface PersonInterface { . . WhateverInterface { } //some code here Another example of a class that extends one super class and implements an interface is. However.5.I 11. } Introduction to Programming I 195 . a class can only EXTEND ONE super class. suppose we have two interfaces StudentInterface and PersonInterface. LivingThing. . public class Person implements PersonInterface.6 Inheritance among Interfaces Interfaces are not part of the class hierarchy. Unrelated classes can implement the same interface. interfaces can have inheritance relationship among themselves. Another thing to note about the relationship of interfaces to classes is that. An example of a class that implements many interfaces is.D. LivingThing { } //some code here Take note that an interface is not part of the class inheritance hierarchy. For example.

Your task is to extend the StudentRecord class that was implemented in the previous lessons. Add some attributes and methods that you think are needed for a Computer Science student record.1 Extending StudentRecord In this exercise.D. Try to override some existing methods in the superclass StudentRecord.2 The Shape abstract class Try to create an abstract class called Shape with abstract methods getArea() and getName().6. You can add additional methods to its subclasses if you want to. if you really need to. Introduction to Programming I 196 . Write two of its subclasses Circle and Square. 11.E. we want to create a more specialized student record that contains additional information about a Computer Science student.J.I 11.6.6 Exercises 11.

3 Handling Exceptions To handle exceptions in Java. 12. catch( <exceptionTypen> <varNamen> ){ //write the action your program will do if an //exception of a certain type occurs } finally{ //add more cleanup code here } //write the action your program will do if an exception //of a certain type occurs Introduction to Programming I 197 . we are going to study a technique used in Java to handle unusual conditions that interrupt the normal operation of the program.E. At the end of the lesson. . What we do in our programs is that we place the statements that can possibly generate an exception inside this block.J. The general form of a try-catch-finally block is. This event is usually some error of some sort. which occurs when we try to pass as a parameter a non-number in the Integer. the student should be able to: • • Define exceptions Handle exceptions using a simple try-catch-finally block 12. Some examples of exceptions that you might have encountered in our previous exercises are: ArrayIndexOutOfBounds exceptions. try{ //write the statements that can generate an exception //in this block } catch( <exceptionType1> <varName1> ){ } .parseInt method. This technique is called exception handling. which occurs if we try to access a non-existent array element.I 12 Basic Exception Handling 12.1 Objectives In this section.D. or maybe a NumberFormatException. . we use a try-catch-finally block.2 What are Exceptions? An exception is an event that interrupts the normal processing flow of a program. This causes our program to terminate abnormally.

The exception must be of the Throwable class or one of its subclasses.main(ExceptionExample. there is no checking inside your code for the number of arguments and we just access the second argument args[1] right away. or both. Figure 12. The code in the finally block is always executed. • A try block must be followed by at least one catch block OR one finally block. Suppose. Exception in thread "main" java. there can be one or more catch blocks.lang. and in the above order. • The catch blocks and finally blocks must always appear in conjunction with the try block. The header of the catch block takes exactly one argument.I Exceptions thrown during execution of the try block can be caught and handled in a catch block.J. • Each catch block defines an exception handle. but only one finally block.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException: 1 at ExceptionExample. which is the exception its block is willing to handle.java:5) Introduction to Programming I 198 .E.1: Flow of events in a try-catch-finally block Let's take for example a code that prints the second argument when we try to run the code using command-line arguments. The following are the key aspects about the syntax of the try-catch-finally construct: • The block notation is mandatory.D. • For each try block. we'll get the following exception.

I To prevent this from happening.println( args[1] ). public class ExceptionExample { public static void main( String[] args ){ System. we can place the code inside a try-catch block.D.out.println("Exception caught!"). The finally block is just optional.out. For this example. we won't use the finally block. the output would be.E. } } try{ } So when we try to run the program again without arguments. Exception caught! Introduction to Programming I 199 .J. }catch( ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException exp ){ System.

4..lang.D.4 Exercises 12. i++ ){ System. true.main(1. Go back to those programs and implement exception handling. Introduction to Programming I 200 . The output should look like this: javac TestExceptions one two three args[0]=one args[1]=two args[2]=three Exception in thread "main" java. 12.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException: 3 at TestExceptions. The output of the program after catching the exception should look like this: javac TestExceptions one two three args[0]=one args[1]=two args[2]=three Exception caught: java.I 12.1 Catching Exceptions1 Given the following code: public class TestExceptions{ public static void main( String[] args ){ for( int i=0.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException: 3 Quiting.java:4) Modify the TestExceptions program to handle the exception.out..4.lang.J. } } } Compile and run the TestExceptions program. Since you didn't catch the exceptions.E.2 Catching Exceptions 2 Chances are very good that some programs you've written before have encountered exceptions. they simply halted the execution of your code.println("args["+i+"]="+ args[i]).

For Linux: Create a folder under the /usr directory and name it java.sun. If you are not provided with the Java 1.5 and Netbeans 4.netbeans.5. You will now have a /usr/java directory. For Windows: Just copy the installers in any temporary directory. Before starting with the installation.0 installers by your instructor.jsp for Java and http://www. and copy all the installers inside this folder.D.I Appendix A : Java and Netbeans Installation In this section. copy the installers in your hard disk first.com/j2se/1.J.E. Introduction to Programming I 201 . we will discuss on how to install Java and Netbeans in your system (Redhat Linux 9.0/download.0/Windows XP).org/downloads/ for Netbeans). you can download a copy of the installers from the Sun Microsystems website (http://java.

E.I Installing Java in Linux Step 1: Run Terminal To start Terminal. click on Menu-> System Tools-> Terminal Figure 12.J.D.2: Start Terminal Introduction to Programming I 202 .

E.I Step 2: Go to the folder where you copied the Java installer.J.D. type: cd /usr/java Figure 12. To go to the folder.3: Change directory Introduction to Programming I 203 .

To do this.J.I To make sure that all installers you need are already in the folder.4: List all files Make your installer file executable by using the chmod command. type: ls The ls (list) command will list all the files inside your directory.D.bin Figure 12. type: chmod u+x jdk-1_5_0_01-linux-i586. Figure 12.5: Make an installer an executable file Introduction to Programming I 204 .E.

J.6: Run installer Introduction to Programming I 205 .E.D.I Step 3: Run the installer To run the installer./jdk-1_5_0_01-linux-i586. just type: .bin Figure 12.

8: License agreement Introduction to Programming I 206 .E. Just press enter.I After pressing ENTER.7: License agreement Figure 12. and press ENTER.D. until you see the question: Do you agree to the above license terms? [yes or no]. Figure 12.J. Just type: yes. you will see the license agreement displayed on the console.9: License agreement Figure 12.

D.E.10: Finish installation Introduction to Programming I 207 .J. Figure 12.I Just wait for the installer to finish unpacking all its contents and installing java.

I Step 4: Creating symbolic links In order to run java commands anywhere. To do this. go to the directory:/usr/local/bin. Type: cd /usr/local/bin Figure 12.11: Change directory Introduction to Programming I 208 .J. we need to create symbolic links for all the commands in JDK inside the /usr/local/bin directory.E.D.

0_01/bin/* .D.E.J.12: Create Symbolic links Introduction to Programming I 209 . type: ln -s /usr/java/jdk1.I To make the symbolic links to the commands. Figure 12.5.

J.D. go to the folder where your Java installer is located Figure 12.I Installing Java in Windows Step 1: Using Windows Explorer.13: Folder containing installers Introduction to Programming I 210 .E.

E. Figure 12.14: License agreement Introduction to Programming I 211 . Click on the radio button labeled "I accept the terms in the license agreement" and press NEXT.D. A J2SE installer dialog will then appear.I Step 2: Run the installer To run the installer. just double-click on the installer icon.J.

J. Figure 12.15: Custom setup Click on FINISH to complete installation.16: Finish installation Introduction to Programming I 212 .D. Figure 12.E.I Click on NEXT to continue installation.

I Installing Netbeans in Linux Step 1: Run Terminal To start Terminal.D.J.17: Run Console Introduction to Programming I 213 .E. click on Menu-> System Tools-> Terminal Figure 12.

E.J. To go to the folder.18: Change directory Introduction to Programming I 214 .D. type: cd /usr/java Figure 12.I Step 2: Go to the folder where you copied the Netbeans installer.

type: ls The ls (list) command will list all the files inside your directory. type: chmod u+x netbeans-4_0-bin-linux.I To make sure that all installers you need are already in the folder.bin Figure 12. Figure 12.20: Make installer an executable Introduction to Programming I 215 .E.19: List all files Make your installer file executable by using the chmod command.D. To do this.J.

Click on NEXT.J. type: .I Step 3: Run Installer To run the netbeans installer.E./netbeans-4_0-bin-linux. Figure 12.0 Installer dialog will then appear.22: Netbeans installation wizard 216 .bin A netbeans 4.D.21: Run installer Figure Introduction to Programming I 12.

23: Netbeans license agreement Figure 12. change it to: /usr/java/netbeans-4. For the directory name.I Click on the radio button that says "I accept the terms in the license agreement". then click on NEXT. Figure 12.E.24: Choose directory on where to install netbeans Introduction to Programming I 217 .D. And then click on NEXT.0.J.

26: Installation summary Introduction to Programming I 218 . Just click again on NEXT.E. The next dialog just shows information about Netbeans thatyou will install.25: Choose jdk version to use Figure 12.0_01.D.I For the JDK directory. choose /usr/java/jdk1. Figure 12.5.J. and then click on NEXT.

E.I Now.28: Installation successful Introduction to Programming I 219 . Figure 12.D.27: Netbeans installation Click on FINISH to complete the installation.J. Figure 12. just wait for netbeans to finish its installation.

I Step 4: Creating symbolic links In order to run netbeans anywhere.J.29: Change directory Figure 12. Figure 12.D. Type: cd /usr/local/bin Make a symbolic link to the netbeans executable by typing: ln -s /usr/java/netbeans-4.30: Create symbolic links Introduction to Programming I 220 .E.0/bin/netbeans . go first to the directory:/usr/local/bin. To do this. we need to create symbolic link for it.

you can run netbeans in any directory by typing: netbeans & Figure 12.D.31: Netbeans running Introduction to Programming I 221 .I Now.J.E.

the Netbeans installation wizard will appear.32: Netbeans installer files Step 2: Run the installer To run the installer.D.33: Netbeans installation Introduction to Programming I 222 .I Installing Netbeans in Windows Step 1: Using Windows Explorer. Click on NEXT to enter installation process. just double-click on the installer icon.J. After clicking on the netbeans4_0-bin-windows icon. Figure 12. go to the folder where your Netbeans installer is located Figure 12.E.

D.E. Choose to ACCEPT and click NEXT to continue. Then you will be given the choice on which directory to place the Netbeans.35: Choose directory where to install Netbeans Introduction to Programming I 223 . You can move on by clicking NEXT or you can click on BROWSE to choose a different directory.34: License agreement Figure 12.J. Figure 12.I The agreement page will the appear.

J.37: Installation summary Introduction to Programming I 224 . the jdk1. Click on NEXT to finish installation. It will then inform you the location and size of Netbeans which will be installed to your machine. Click on NEXT to continue.E. Figure 12.I Next is choosing the Standard Edition JDKs from your machine. If you have finished installing Java.0_01 chould appear from your choices.36: Choose JDK to use Figure 12.D.5.

D. Figure 12.I You have installed Netbeans on your computer.J.E. Click on FINISH to complete installation.38: Successful installation Introduction to Programming I 225 .

} } Before we try to explain what the program means.D. let us first take a look at the first Java program you will be writing. Introduction to Programming I 226 . the first one is by using a console and a text editor. An IDE is a programming environment integrated into a software application that provides a GUI builder. we will be discussing on how to write.I Appendix B: Getting to know your Programming Environment (Windows XP version) In this section. There are two ways of doing this. compile and run Java programs.E.println("Hello world!").J. a compiler and/or interpreter and a debugger. a text or code editor. My First Java Program public class Hello { /** * My first java program */ public static void main(String[] args) { //prints the string "Hello world" on screen System.out. let's first try to write this program in a file and try to run it. The second one is by using Netbeans which is an Integrated Development Environment or IDE. Before going into details.

I Using a Text Editor and Console For this example. click on start-> All Programs-> Accessories-> Notepad. we will be using the text editor "Notepad"(for Windows) to edit the Java source code.39: Click on start-> All Programs-> Accessories -> Notepad Introduction to Programming I 227 .D. You can use other text editors if you want to.40: Notepad Application Figure 12. Step 1: Start Notepad To start Notepad in Windows.E. You will also need to open the MS-DOS prompt window to compile and execute your Java programs. Figure 12.J.

J.41: start-> All programs-> Accessories -> Command Prompt Figure 12.D.E. click on start-> All programs-> Accessories-> Command Prompt.I Step 2: Open the Command Prompt window To open the MSDOS command prompt in Windows.42: MSDOS Command Prompt Introduction to Programming I 228 . Figure 12.

Introduction to Programming I 229 .E.J.java".I Step 3: Write your the source code of your Java program in Notepad Step 4: Save your Java Program We will save our program on a file named "Hello. To open the Save dialog box. click on the File menu found on the menubar and then click on Save.D. and we will be saving it inside a folder named MYJAVAPROGRAMS.

D.43: This Dialog appears after clicking on File -> Save Click on the MY DOCUMENTS button to open the My Documents folder where we will be saving all your Java programs. Introduction to Programming I 230 . Figure 12.J.E. a dialog box will appear as shown in Figure below.I After doing the procedure described above.

J. This will open your "My Documents" folder Figure 12.I Now.44: Click on the button encircled. we'll create a new folder inside the My Documents folder where we will save your programs.E. Click on the button encircled in the figure below to create the folder. We shall name this folder MYJAVAPROGRAMS. Figure 12. Introduction to Programming I 231 .45: Clicking on the encircled button will create a New Folder.D.

you can type in the desired name for this folder.I After the folder is created. and then press ENTER.E. In this case. Introduction to Programming I 232 .D. type in MYJAVAPROGRAMS.J.

I Now that we've created the folder where we will save all the files. double click on that folder to open it.J. Introduction to Programming I 233 . You will see a similar figure as shown below. The folder should be empty for now since it's a newly created folder and we haven't saved anything in it yet.E.D.

Introduction to Programming I 234 . Click on the "All Files" option.J.D. and then click on the SAVE button.E. so that we can choose what kind of file we want to save. in the Filename textbox. type in the filename of your program. Now. which is "Hello.java".I Now click on the drop down list box "Save as type".

you can just edit it.java-Notepad. Introduction to Programming I 235 . Take note that if you want to make changes in your file.D.E. notice how the title of the frame changes from UntitledNotepad to Hello. and then save it again by clicking on File -> Save.J.I Now that you've saved your file.

D. type DIR or dir and then press ENTER. it opens up and takes you directly to what is called your home folder.E.J. when you open the command prompt window. Now let's go inside that directory. To see what is inside that home folder. Introduction to Programming I 236 . Now.I Step 5: Compiling your program Now. the next step is to compile your program. you can see here that there is a folder named "My Documents" where we created your MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder. Figure 12. What you will see is a list of files and folders inside your home folder. Typically. Go to the MSDOS command prompt window we just opened a while ago.46: List of files and folders shown after executing the command DIR.

Figure 12. change directory.D. Figure 12.47: Inside the My Documents folder Now that you are inside the "My Documents" folder.J.48: The contents of My Documents Now perform the same steps described before to go inside the MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder. In this case. you type in the command: cd [directory name].E. since the name of our directory is My Documents. you type in: cd My Documents. Introduction to Programming I 237 . and tell me what you see.I To go inside a directory. try typing in the "dir" command again. The "cd" command stands for.

which is the actual bytecode. javac adds a file to the disk called [filename]. let us now start compiling your Java program. Hello.J. So in this case. we type in the command: javac [filename]. Introduction to Programming I 238 . or in this case. Take note that.class. you should make sure that the file is inside the folder where you are in. Figure 12.D.class.50: Compile program by usingthe javac command During compilation. In order to do that.49: Inside the MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder Figure 12.I Once inside the folder where your Java programs are. type in: javac Hello. To compile a Java program.java.E. execute the dir command again to see if your file is inside that folder.

so in the case of our example. type in the command: java [filename without the extension]. Figure 12. type in: java Hello You can see on the screen that you have just run your first Java program that prints the message. "Hello world!".E.I Step 6: Running the Program Now.J. To run your Java program.51: Output of the program Introduction to Programming I 239 .D. assuming that there are no problems during compilation (we'll explore more of the problems encountered during compilation in the next section). we are now ready to run your program.

E.2_04\bin. To do this. This will tell your system to look for the commands in the C:\j2sdk1. operable program or batch file. Figure 12. type in the command: set PATH=C:\j2sdk1. which is usually the default location wherein your Java files are placed during installation.J. Figure 12. you encounter the message: 'javac' is not recognized as an internal or external command. try setting the PATH variable to point to where the Java commands are installed. or you have to configure the path on where the Java commands are installed so that your system will know where to find them.I Setting the Path Sometimes.4.52: System did not recognize the javac command If you are sure that you've already installed Java in your system.4. when you try to invoke the javac or java command.53: Setting the path and running java Introduction to Programming I 240 . After doing this.D.2_04\bin folder. you can now use the Java commands. This means that either you haven't installed Java in your system yet.

E. Step 1: Run Netbeans To run Netbeans. a text or code editor.0 -> NetBeans IDE Introduction to Programming I 241 .I Using Netbeans Now that we've tried doing our programs the complicated way. a compiler and/or interpreter and a debugger.D. An IDE is a programming environment integrated into a software application that provides a GUI builder. let's now see how to do all the processes we've described in the previous sections by using just one application. we will be using Netbeans. which is an Integrated Development Environment or IDE. In this part of the lesson.J. click on start-> All Programs-> NetBeans 4.

D.E. Figure 12.J. you will see a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to what is shown below.54: NetBeans IDE Introduction to Programming I 242 .I After you've open NetBeans IDE.

a New Project dialog will appear. After doing this.E. let's first make a project.D. Click on File-> New Project.J.I Step 2: Make a project Now. Introduction to Programming I 243 .

a New Application dialog will appear. Now.E. Introduction to Programming I 244 .I Now click on Java Application and click on the NEXT button.D.J. Edit the Project Name part and type in "HelloApplication".

55: Change Project Name Now try to change the Application Location.D. and then click on the FINISH button.E. Introduction to Programming I 245 . Finally. type in Hello as the main class' name.J. Follow the steps described in the previous section to go to your MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder. by clicking on the BROWSE button.I Figure 12. on the Create Main Class textfield.

I Step 3: Type in your program Before typing in your program.J.E. let us first describe the main window after creating the project.D. you can see a list of folders and files that NetBeans generated after creating the project. Introduction to Programming I 246 . As shown below. This can all be found in your MYJAVAPROGRAMS folder. NetBeans automatically creates the basic code for your Java program. where you set the Project location. On the left side of the window. You can just add your own statements to the generated code.

try to modify the code generated by Netbeans. Step 4: Compile your program Now.I Now.E.D. Insert the code: System. to compile your program.out.J. Ignore the other parts of the program for now. after the statement. Introduction to Programming I 247 . //TODO code application logic here. as we will explain the details of the code later. just click on Build -> Build Main Project. Or.println("Hello world!"). you could also use the shortcut button to compile your code.

D.I Figure 12.E.J.56: Shortcut button to compile code Introduction to Programming I 248 .

E.I If there are no errors in your program.J.D. you will see a build successful message on the output window. Figure 12.57: Output window just below the window where you type your source code Introduction to Programming I 249 .

Figure 12. Or you could also use the shortcut button to run your program.D.58: Shortcut button to run program The output of your program is displayed in the output window. click on Run-> Run Main Project.I Step 5: Run your program To run your program. Figure 12.java Introduction to Programming I 250 .E.J.59: Output of Hello.

J.1 Writing Algorithms 1. Baking Bread Pseudocode: prepare all ingredients pour all ingredients in mixing bowl while batter not smooth yet mix ingredients pour into bread pan place inside oven while bread not yet done wait Flowchart: remove from oven Introduction to Programming I 251 .D.E.I Appendix C : Answers to Exercises Chapter 1 Exercises 1.

J.D.I 2. Logging into your laboratory's computer Pseudocode: Let power = computer's power button Let in = status of user (initially false) if power == off Press power button Enter "boot" process while in== false enter user name enter password if password and user name correct in = true end while Flowchart: Introduction to Programming I 252 .E.

Getting the average of three numbers Pseudocode: Let count = 0 Let sum = 0 Let average = 0 While count < 3 Get number sum = sum + number count++ average = sum/3 Flowchart: Display average Introduction to Programming I 253 .J.E.I 3.D.

I 1.2 Number Conversions 1.J. 3 Octal = 3674 110. C 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 011. 7 100 4 Introduction to Programming I 254 . hexadecimal and octal To Binary: 1980/2 = 990 990/2 = 495 495/2 = 247 247/2 = 123 123/2 = 61 61/2 = 30 30/2 = 15 15/2 = 7 7/2 = 3 3/2 = 1 1/2 = 0 Binary = 11110111100 To Hexadecimal: 0111.D. 6 111.E. B 1100. 7 Hexadecimal = 7BC To Octal: 1011. 198010 to binary.

4 1101 D 001. 1 101 5 Introduction to Programming I 255 .E.D. 1 Octal = 1115 001. 10010011012 to decimal. hexadecimal and octal To Decimal: 1*1 = 1 0*2 = 0 1*4 = 4 1*8 = 8 0 * 16 = 0 0 * 32 = 0 1 * 64 = 64 0 * 128 = 0 0 * 256 = 0 1 * 512 = 512 TOTAL= 589 Decimal = 589 To Hexadecimal: 0010.J. 2 Hexadecimal = 24D To Octal: 0100.I 2. 1 001.

7 Binary = 111110 To Hexadecimal: 110.I 3.E.J. 768 to binary. 6 0011.D. E Introduction to Programming I 256 . hexadecimal and decimal To Binary: 111. 3 Hexadecimal = 3E To Decimal: 6*1= 6 7 * 8 = 56 TOTAL = 62 Decimal = 62 1110.

F 1111 010.D. 2 Octal = 02077 000 .I 4.E. decimal and octal To Binary: 4 0100. Binary = 010000111111 To Decimal: F * 1 = 15 3 * 16 = 48 4 * 256 = 1024 TOTAL= 1087 Decimal = 1087 To Octal: 3 0011. 7 111 7 Chapter 2 (No exercises) Introduction to Programming I 257 .J. 0 111 . 43F16 to binary.

D.2 The Tree /** * A program that prints four lines on screen */ public class TheTree { public static void main(String[] args){ System.println("Against the Earth's flowing breast. */ public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String[] args){ System.println("Welcome to Java Programming [YourName]!!!").out.out.out.println("A tree whose hungry mouth is pressed"). System. System.").out.").E.out. } } 3.println("a poem as lovely as a tree.1 Hello World! /** * This class prints the line "Welcome to Java Programming [YourName]!!!" * on screen.println("I think I shall never see.J. System. } } Introduction to Programming I 258 .I Chapter 3 Exercises 3.").

I Chapter 4 Exercises 4.println("letter = "+letter). System.D. 45.println("result = "+result).out.println("number 2 = "+num2).20.out. and 45 * then outputs the result on the screen */ public class AverageNumber { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares int num1 = int num2 = int num3 = the three numbers 10.println("str = "+str).2 Getting the average of three numbers /** * A program that solves for the average * of the three numbers: 10. System. //declares character letter with 'a' as initial value char letter = 'a'.println("number 3 = "+num3).J. //prints the output on the screen System.out. //declares String str with "hello" as initial value String str = "hello".out.out. //get the average of the three numbers // and saves it inside the ave variable int ave = (num1+num2+num3)/3.out. } } Introduction to Programming I 259 . System.println("number 1 = "+num1). System. System. //prints the values of the variables on screen System.out. 20. //declares boolean result with true as initial value boolean result = true.println("Number = "+number). System.println("Average is = "+ave).out.E.1 Declaring and printing variables /** * A program that declares different variables * then outputs the values of the variables */ public class VariableSample { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares integer number with 10 as initial value int number = 10. } } 4.

//determines the highest number max = (num1>num2)?num1:num2.println("number 1 = "+num1).println("number 2 = "+num2).out.out. System.4 Operator precedence 1.D.E.J. //prints the output on the screen System. ((((((3*10)*2)/15)-2+4)^2)^2) 3.println("The highest number is = "+max).out. max = (max>num3)?max:num3. System. System. ((r^((((s*t)/u)-v)+w))^(x-(y++))) Introduction to Programming I 260 .I 4.println("number 3 = "+num3). } } 4.3 Output greatest value /** * A program that outputs the number with * the greatest value given thre numbers */ public class GreatestValue { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares the numbers int num1 = 10. (((a/b)^c)^((d-e+f-(g*h))+i)) 2. int num3 = 5. int num2 = 23.out. int max = 0.

readLine(). } //prints the phrase System. firstWord = reader. thirdWord = reader.//gets the 3rd word }catch( IOException e){ System.print("Enter word3: ").out. String thirdWord = "".1 Last 3 words (BufferedReader version) import java.J.D.//gets the 2nd word System.readLine().//gets the 1st word System.E.in)).println("Error in getting input").*.print("Enter word2: ").out.print("Enter word1: "). /** * A program that asks three words from the user * and then prints it on the screen as a phrase */ public class LastThreeWords { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares the variable reader as the BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader( new InputStreamReader( System. secondWord = reader. } } Introduction to Programming I 261 .I Chapter 5 Exercises 5.out. try{ System.println(firstWord + " " + secondWord + " " + thirdWord).out. String secondWord = "".readLine().io.out. //declares the String variables for the three words String firstWord = "".

swing.firstWord+ " "+secondWord+ " "+thirdWord).J.D. /** * A program that asks three words from the user using the JOptionPane * and then displays these three words as a phrase on the screen */ public class LastThreeWords { public static void main(String[] args){ //gets the first word from the user String firstWord = JoptionPane. //displays the message JoptionPane.I 5. } } Introduction to Programming I 262 .showInputDialog ("Enter word3").2 Last 3 words (JOptionPane version) import javax.JOptionPane. //gets the second word from the user String secondWord = JoptionPane.showMessageDialog(null. //gets the third word from the user String thirdWord = JoptionPane.showInputDialog ("Enter word2").showInputDialog ("Enter word1").E.

} } Introduction to Programming I 263 . int thirdGrade = 0.-(").-)"). if(average>=60) System. thirdGrade = Integer. else System.exit(0).readLine()). } //solves for the average average = (firstGrade+secondGrade+thirdGrade)/3. System. }catch( Exception e){ System. System.J.print("First grade: ").out. /** * Gets three number inputs from the user * then displays the average on the screen */ public class Grades { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares the variable reader as the BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader ( new InputStreamReader( System. firstGrade = Integer.out. try{ System. secondGrade = Integer.println("Input is invalid").parseInt (reader.out.in)).*.parseInt (reader.readLine()).D.out.E.print(" .out.print("Third grade: ").print("Second grade: ").out.I Chapter 6 Exercises 6.print("Average: "+average).1 Grades Using BufferedReader: import java.io. //prints the average of the three exams System. System. double average = 0.out. int firstGrade = 0.readLine()).parseInt (reader. int secondGrade = 0.print(" .

parseDouble (JoptionPane. secondGrade = 0. "Input is invalid"). System. average = 0.exit(0). /** * Gets three number inputs from the user * then displays the average on the screen */ public class Grades { public static void main(String[] args){ double double double double try{ firstGrade = 0. }catch( Exception e){ JoptionPane. if(average>=60){ JoptionPane. } //solves for the average average = (firstGrade+secondGrade+thirdGrade)/3.D. thirdGrade = Double.parseDouble (JOptionPane.-)").E.showInputDialog ("Second grade"))."Average : "+average+" . thirdGrade = 0.J.swing.parseDouble (JoptionPane. firstGrade = Double.showInputDialog ("Third grade")).showMessageDialog (null.showMessageDialog (null.-(").showInputDialog ("First grade")).I Using JOptionPane: import javax. secondGrade = Double."Average : "+average+" . } } } Introduction to Programming I 264 . } else{ JoptionPane.JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null.

I 6.showInputDialog ("Enter number")).JOptionPane.J.parseInt(JOptionPane.2 Number in words Using if-else statement: import javax. /** * Transforms a number input from 1-10 to words * using if-else */ public class NumWords { public static void main(String[] args){ String msg = "".msg). //sets msg to the string equivalent of input if(input == 1) msg = "one". else if(input == 2) msg = "two". } } Introduction to Programming I 265 . int input = 0. //displays the number in words if with in range JOptionPane. else if(input == 3) msg = "three". else if(input == 4) msg = "four". else if(input == 7) msg = "seven". else if(input == 8) msg = "eight". else msg = "Invalid number". else if(input == 5) msg = "five".D.E. else if(input == 10) msg = "ten". else if(input == 9) msg = "nine". else if(input == 6) msg = "six". //gets the input string input = Integer.showMessageDialog(null.swing.

case 9: msg = "nine".I Using switch statement: import javax. case 10: msg = "ten". break. /** * Transforms a number input from 1-10 to words * using switch. break. */ public class NumWords { public static void main(String[] args){ String msg = "".JOptionPane. case 8: msg = "eight".showMessageDialog(null. case 4: msg = "four". break.E. case 3: msg = "three". case 6: msg = "six".D. case 7: msg = "seven".J. case 2: msg = "two". break. break. break. break. int input = 0.swing. break. } //displays the number in words if with in range JOptionPane. //sets msg to the string equivalent of input switch(input){ case 1: msg = "one". break. } } Introduction to Programming I 266 . //gets the input string input = Integer.msg). break. break.parseInt (JOptionPane.showInputDialog ("Enter number")). case 5: msg = "five". default: msg = "Invalid number".

name = reader.io.exit(0). int counter = 0. } //while loop that prints the name one hundred times while(counter < 100){ System.print("Enter name: ").out. /** * A program that prints a given name one hundred times * using while loop */ public class HundredNames{ public static void main(String[] args){ BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader ( System.in)). } } } Introduction to Programming I 267 .E. counter++. String name = "".out.println(name).I 6. System.3 Hundred Times Using while-loop: import java.J.D.out.readLine().*. }catch(Exception e){ System.println("Invalid input"). //gets the users' name try{ System.

io. /** * A program that prints a given name one hundred times * using do-while loop */ public class HundredNames { public static void main(String[] args){ BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader ( System.println("Invalid input"). } } Introduction to Programming I 268 .println(name).print("Enter name: ").J.I Using do-while loop: import java.exit(0). //gets the users' name try{ System.*.E.out. name = reader.out. }while(counter < 100).out. }catch(Exception e){ System. String name = "".D.in)). System.readLine(). counter++. int counter = 0. } times //do-while loop that prints the name one hundred do{ System.

*.io. System.exit(0). //gets the users' name try{ System.J.println("Invalid input").E.out.readLine().I Using for loop: import java.out. counter++){ System. name = reader.println(name).D. } } } Introduction to Programming I 269 . String name = "".print("Enter name: ").out.in)). counter < 100. /** * A program that prints a given name one hundred times * using do-while loop */ public class HundredNames { public static void main(String[] args){ BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader ( System. }catch(Exception e){ System. } //for loop that prints the name one hundred times for(int counter = 0.

parseInt (JOptionPane."Positive numbers only please").D.I 6. exp = 0.showMessageDialog (null.swing. counter++. /** * Computes the power of a number given the base and the * exponent. } //displays the result JoptionPane. } } Introduction to Programming I 270 .showInputDialog("Exponent")).J. */ public class Powers { public static void main(String[] args){ int int int int base = 0. power = 1. System.exit(0).showMessageDialog (null. The exponent is limited to positive numbers only.showInputDialog("Base")). counter = 0. //limits the exp to positive numbers only if(exp < 0 ){ JoptionPane. exp = Integer.JOptionPane. } //while loop that solves for the power while(counter < exp){ power = power*base.4 Powers Using while-loop: import javax. //gets the user input for base and power using // JOptionPane base = Integer.base+" to the "+exp+ " is "+power).parseInt (JOptionPane.E.

The exponent is limited to positive numbers only. */ public class Powers { public static void main(String[] args){ int int int int base = 0. }while(counter < exp).swing. exp = 0. /** * Computes the power of a number given the base and the * exponent. } //do-while loop that solves the power given the base // and exponent do{ if(exp != 0) power = power*base.parseInt(JOptionPane. exp = Integer.showInputDialog ("Exponent")).J. power = 1.showMessageDialog (null.showMessageDialog(null. //displays the result JoptionPane.showInputDialog ("Base")). //gets the user input for base and power //using JOptionPane base = Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane."Positive numbers only please").D. System. //limits the exp to positive numbers only if(exp < 0 ){ JoptionPane.base + " to the "+exp + " is "+power).exit(0).I Using do-while loop: import javax. } } Introduction to Programming I 271 .JOptionPane. counter++. counter = 0.E.

} } Introduction to Programming I 272 .J.showMessageDialog(null.base + " to the "+exp + " is "+power).showMessageDialog(null. The exponent is limited to positive numbers only.showInputDialog ("Base")).parseInt(JOptionPane.D.showInputDialog ("Exponent")). } //displays the result JoptionPane. //limits the exp to positive numbers only if(exp < 0 ){ JoptionPane.E. exp = Integer. power = 1. /** * Computes the power of a number given the base and the * exponent. exp = 0."Positive numbers only please"). //gets the user input for base and power using // JOptionPane base = Integer.exit(0).parseInt(JOptionPane. counter = 0. */ public class Powers { public static void main(String[] args){ int int int int base = 0. counter < exp.JOptionPane.swing. System. counter++){ power = power*base. } //for loop for computing the power for(counter = 0.I Using for loop: import javax.

int counter = 0."Thursday". int counter = 0. counter++.println(days[counter]). //while loop that prints the days of the week while(counter < days."Tuesday". //do-while loop that prints the days of the // week do{ System.out."Friday"."Monday". "Wednesday".println(days[counter]). counter++.length){ System.length).E."Friday". } } } Using do-while loop: /** * Uses an array string to save the days of the wee * then prints it on the screen with a do-while loop.J. "Wednesday".1 Days of the Week Using while loop: /** * Uses an array string to save the days of the wee * then prints it on the screen. "Saturday"}."Thursday".I Chapter 7 Exercises 7."Monday". } } Introduction to Programming I 273 . */ public class DaysOfTheWeek { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares the String array of the days of // the week String[] days ={"Sunday"."Tuesday". }while(counter < days. */ public class DaysOfTheWeek { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares the String array of the days of the week String[] days = {"Sunday".D.out. "Saturday"}.

*/ public class GreatestNumber { public static void main(String[] args){ int[] num = new int[10]. */ public class DaysOfTheWeek { public static void main(String[] args){ //declares the String array of the days of // the week String[] days ={"Sunday"."Tuesday". counter++){ num[counter] = Integer. counter < days. "Wednesday". } } } //displays the number with the greatest number JoptionPane. int counter."Monday". "The number with the greatest value is "+max).out.I Using for loop: /** * Uses an array string to save the days of the wee * then prints it on the screen with a for loop. Introduction to Programming I 274 . //for loop that gets the 10 numbers from the user for(counter = 0.parseInt (JoptionPane."Friday".showMessageDialog(null.length.E.D. counter++) } } 7.J. counter < 10.JOptionPane. int max = 0.2 Greatest number import javax.println(days[counter])."Thursday".swing. "Saturday"}.showInputDialog( "Enter number "+(counter+1))). //for loop that prints the days of the week for(int counter = 0. System. /** * A program that uses JOptionPane to get ten numbers * from the user then outputs the largest number. //gets the maximum number if((counter == 0)||(num[counter] > max)) max = num[counter].

//for loop that prints the arguments from the //command line for(int counter=0.println(args[counter]).D.out.length.1 Print Arguments /** * A program that prints the string from the command line if any.length == 0) System.exit(0).E.J. */ public class CommandLineSample { public static void main(String[] args){ //checks if a command line argument exists if(args. counter++){ System.I Chapter 8 Exercises 8. } } } Introduction to Programming I 275 .counter<args.

//5.out. //4. Check the Java API for more answers.out. isDigit System. Class: String Method: public boolean endsWith( String suffix ) 2. 16) ).println( str. 9. //2.println( Math. endsWith String str = "Hello".isDigit('A')).println( Character.J.exit(1).out.println("if this is executed. Sample Usage: public class Homework1 { public static void main(String []args){ //1. System.out.14)).D. //3. forDIgit System.println( "A=" +Character.floor(3.E.isDigit('0')). Class: Math Method: public static double floor( double a ) 5. floor System. exit was not called").out. Class: Character Method: public static char forDigit( int digit.2 Java Scavenger Hunt To the teacher: These are just some sample methods in the Java API that you can use.1 Defining terms See definitions in book. System. } } Class and Method declaration: 1.I Chapter 9 Exercises 9.println( "0=" + Character. System. Class: Character Method: public static boolean isDigit( char ch ) Introduction to Programming I 276 .forDigit(13. Class: System Method: public static void exit( int status ) 4. System. int radix ) 3.out.endsWith( "slo" ) ).

} /** * returns the variable add */ public String getAddress(){ return add. int tel. int tel. String email. /** * default constructor */ public AddressBookEntry(){ name = "". email = "". tel = 0. this.email = email.E. String add. address. and email address */ public class AddressBookEntry { private private private private String name. add = "". } /** * Creates an AddressBookEntry object with the given * name.1 Address Book Entry /** * An address book class that record a persons * name. } Introduction to Programming I 277 . telephone number and email adress */ public AddressBookEntry(String name. this. String email){ this. String add. this.D. telephone number. } /** * changes the variable name */ public void changeName(String name){ this.tel = tel.name = name.I Chapter 10 Exercises 10. } /** * returns the variable name */ public String getName(){ return name. address.add = add.J.name = name.

} /** * changes the variable tel */ public void changeTelNumber(int tel){ this.email = email.tel = tel.D. } /** * changes the variable email */ public void changeEmailAdd(String email){ this.add = add.I /** * changes the variable add */ public void changeAddress(String add){ this. } /** * returns the variable tel */ public int getTelNumber(){ return tel.J. } } Introduction to Programming I 278 .E. } /** * returns the variable email */ public String getEmailAdd(){ return email.

System.out. String act = "".println("[D] Delete entry").println("[Q] Quit"). System. System.out.D. } Introduction to Programming I 279 .out.println("[V] View all entries").J.*. }catch(Exception e){ System.io. System.I 10. System.out. while(true){ //displays the optons System. //array of Address Book Entries private AddressBookEntry[] list.E.out. //constant number that indicates the maximum //number of entries in the address book private static final int MAXENTRIES = 100.println("\n[A] Add entry").in)).readLine().println("[U] Update entry").println("Error").out. try{ //gets the choice act = keyIn. /** * The main method */ public static void main(String[] args){ BufferedReader keyIn = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader (System.out. AddressBook addBook = new AddressBook().2 AddressBook import java. /** * Creates an addresbook that contains 100 AddressBookEntries */ public class AddressBook { //index of the last entry private int top = 0.print("Enter desired action: ").

updateEntry().equals("Q")||act.equals("U")||act.exit(0).equals("u")) addBook.equals("V")||act.addEntry().E. else if(act. else System.equals("a")) addBook.out.println ("Unknown command").D.I } } //checks for the appropriate action for // his choice if(act.delEntry().equals("v")) addBook.equals("q")) System.equals("d")) addBook.equals("A")||act.J. Introduction to Programming I 280 .viewEntries(). else if(act. else if(act. else if(act.equals("D")||act.

print("Name: ").out.D.print("Address: "). } /** * method for adding an AddressBookEntry to the Adressbook */ public void addEntry(){ BufferedReader keyIn = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader (System. String email = "". return.out.out. if(top == MAXENTRIES){ System. add = keyIn. tel = Integer.readLine(). name = keyIn. String name = "". int tel = 0. System.in)). email).I /** * creates the AddressBook */ public AddressBook(){ list = new AddressBookEntry[MAXENTRIES].print("Email Adress: "). list[top] = entry.J.readLine(). System. } AddressBookEntry entry = new AddressBookEntry (name.print("Telephone number: "). tel. } Introduction to Programming I 281 .println(e). System.E. add.out.exit(0). top++.out.parseInt(keyIn.println("Address Book is full"). String add = "". }catch(Exception e){ System.readLine()).readLine(). email = keyIn. } //asks the user for the data of the address book try{ System.out. System.

getName()).out. System. i<top. }else{ for( int i=index. index = Integer. return. System. return.E.out.println("Address Book is empty").readLine())-1. System. System.println("Index Out Of Bounds"). i++ ){ list[i] = list[i+1].out.println("Telephone Number:"+ list[index].D.getTelNumber()).print("\nEnter entry number: "). index++){ System.out.I /** * method that deletes an AddressBookEntry from the * Adressbook with the index */ public void delEntry(){ BufferedReader keyIn = new BufferedReader (new InputStreamReader(System.out.println("Email Address:"+ list[index].in)). }catch(Exception e){} //checks if the index is with in bounds if(index < 0 || index >= top){ System. index < top.println("Address:"+ list[index]. } list[top] = null. } } /** * method that prints all the entries in the AddressBook */ public void viewEntries(){ for(int index = 0.getAddress()).println((index+1)+" Name:"+ list[index].J. top--. //checks if the address book is empty if(top == 0){ System. int index = 0.parseInt(keyIn.out.out. } } Introduction to Programming I 282 .getEmailAdd()). } //asks for the entry which is to be deleted try{ //shows the current entries on the record book viewEntries().

print("Address: "). email). add = keyIn. name = keyIn.out.readLine())-1.readLine(). index =Integer.readLine(). String name = "".print("Telephone number: "). String email = "".parseInt(keyIn. int tel = 0.E. //asks for the entries data try{ System. list[index] = entry. System.readLine(). } //updates the entry AddressBookEntry entry = new AddressBookEntry (name. add. int index = 0.out. tel = Integer.print("Name: ").out.I /** * method that updates an entry */ public void updateEntry(){ BufferedReader keyIn = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader (System. } } Introduction to Programming I 283 . System.exit(0).out.println(e). System. System.parseInt(keyIn.J.in)). String add = "". tel.print("Entry number: "). }catch(Exception e){ System. email = keyIn.out. System.D.readLine()).out.print("Email Adress: ").

protected static int studentCount. } /** * Returns the address of the student */ public String getAddress(){ return address. protected double englishGrade. protected double average. protected String address. protected int age.E. } /** * Returns the age of the student */ public int getAge(){ return age. } /** * Changes the address of the student */ public void setAddress(String temp){ address = temp.J.I Chapter 11 Exercises 11. /** * Returns the name of the student */ public String getName(){ return name. } Introduction to Programming I 284 .1 Extending StudentRecord /** * An object that holds the data for a student */ public class StudentRecord { protected String name.D. } /** * Changes the name of the student */ public void setName(String temp){ name = temp. } /** * Changes the age of the student */ public void setAge(int temp){ age = temp. protected double mathGrade. protected double scienceGrade.

} /** * Changes the scienceGrade of the student */ public void setScienceGrade(double temp){ scienceGrade = temp. } /** * Changes the mathGrade of the student */ public void setMathGrade(double temp){ mathGrade = temp. math and * science grades */ public double getAverage(){ return (mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade)/3.I /** * Returns the englishGrade of the student */ public double getEnglishGrade(){ return englishGrade. } /** * Changes the englishGrade of the student */ public void setEnglishGrade(double temp){ englishGrade = temp. } } Introduction to Programming I 285 . } /** * Returns the scienceGrade of the student */ public double getScienceGrade(){ return scienceGrade.E.D. } /** * Returns the mathGrade of the student */ public double getMathGrade(){ return mathGrade. } /** * Returns the number of instances of the * StudentRecords */ public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount. } /** * Computes the average of the english.J.

} /** * Changes the studentNumber of the student */ public void setStudentNumber(String temp){ studentNumber = temp. } /** * Returns the comSciGrade of the student */ public double getComSciGrade(){ return comSciGrade.J. /** * Returns the studentNumber of the student */ public String getStudentNumber(){ return studentNumber. } } Introduction to Programming I 286 .D.E. comSciGrade.I /** * A student record for a Computer Science student */ public class ComputerScienceStudentRecord extends StudentRecord { private String private double studentNumber. } /** * Changes the comSciGrade of the student */ public void setComSciGrade(double temp){ comSciGrade = temp.

I 11. } /** * returns radius */ public double getRadius(){ return radius. /** * returns the name of the shape */ public abstract String getName(). } /** * returns shape name */ public String getName(){ return "circle". private double radius = 0. } /** * set radius */ public void setRadius(double r){ radius = r.2 Abstract Classes /** * Definition of shape abstract class */ public abstract class Shape { /** * returns the area of a certain shape */ public abstract double getArea().J. /** * Constructor */ public Circle(double r){ setRadius( r ). } /** * Class definition for object circle */ public class Circle extends Shape { private static final double pi = 3.D.E. } /** * returns area */ public double getArea(){ return pi*radius*radius. } } Introduction to Programming I 287 .1416.

} } Introduction to Programming I 288 . /** * Constructor */ public Square(double s){ setSide( s ). } /** * returns shape name */ public String getName(){ return "square". } /** * returns area */ public double getArea(){ return side*side.I /** * Class definition for object square */ public class Square extends Shape { private double side = 0. } /** * set length of side */ public void setSide(double s){ side = s.J. } /** * returns length of one side */ public double getSide(){ return side.E.D.

int counter."). } } } //displays the number with the greatest number JoptionPane. Introduction to Programming I 289 . i++ ){ System. import javax."Error "+e)."The number with the greatest value is "+max).E.2 Catching Exceptions 2 Here are three sample programs that we did before. System.J. System..println("args["+i+"]="+args[i]).D. wherein we included some exception handling. } //gets the maximum number if((counter == 0)||(num[counter] > max)) max = num[counter].I Chapter 12 Exercises 12. int max = 0. }catch(NumberFormatException e){ JoptionPane. } }catch( ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e ){ System.out.out.out..swing.out.println("Quiting. } } } 12. counter++){ try{ num[counter] = Integer.println("Exception caught:").showMessageDialog (null. /** * A program that uses JOptionPane to get ten numbers * from the user then outputs the largest number. //for loop that gets the 10 numbers from the user for(counter = 0. */ public class GreatestNumber { public static void main(String[] args){ int[] num = new int[10]. true.parseInt (JoptionPane. counter < 10.showMessageDialog (null.JOptionPane.showInputDialog ("Enter number "+(counter+1))).println(" "+e).1 Catching Exceptions 1 public class TestExceptions{ public static void main( String[] args ){ try{ for( int i=0.

case 3: msg = "three". //gets the input string input = Integer. case 10: msg = "ten". break. break. default: msg = "Invalid number". break. case 2: msg = "two". System. break. /** * Transforms a number input from 1-10 to words using switch."Invalid input").JOptionPane. case 5: msg = "five".showMessageDialog(null. case 9: msg = "nine". case 8: msg = "eight". break. break.showInputDialog ("Enter number")). */ public class NumWords { public static void main(String[] args){ String msg = "". int input = 0. break.D. break. } //displays the number in words if with in range JOptionPane. case 6: msg = "six".exit(0).I import javax. break. case 4: msg = "four". case 7: msg = "seven". } //sets msg to the string equivalent of input switch(input){ case 1: msg = "one".E.J. }catch(Exception e){ JOptionPane. break.showMessageDialog(null.swing. break. Introduction to Programming I 290 try{ .parseInt (JoptionPane.msg).

J.E.D.I

} } import javax.swing.JOptionPane; /** * Computes the power of a number given the base and the exponent. * The exponent is limited to positive numbers only. */ public class Powers { public static void main(String[] args){ int int int int base = 0; exp = 0; power = 1; counter = 0;

//gets the user input for base and power using JOptionPane try{ base = Integer.parseInt (JoptionPane.showInputDialog ("Base")); exp = Integer.parseInt (JoptionPane.showInputDialog ("Exponent")); }catch(NumberFormatException e){ JoptionPane.showMessageDialog (null,"Input Error"); System.exit(0); } //limits the exp to positive numbers only if(exp < 0 ){ JoptionPane.showMessageDialog (null,"Positive numbers only please"); System.exit(0); } //for loop for computing the power for(;counter < exp;counter++){ power = power*base; } //displays the result JoptionPane.showMessageDialog (null,base+" to the "+exp +" is "+power);

}

}

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Appendix D : Machine Problems Machine Problem 1: Phone Book
Write a program that will create an phonebook, wherein you can add entries in the phonebook, delete entries, view all entries and search for entries. In viewing all entries, the user should have a choice, whether to view the entries in alphabetical order or in increasing order of telephone numbers. In searching for entries, the user should also have an option to search entries by name or by telephone numbers. In searching by name, the user should also have an option if he/she wants to search by first name or last name. MAIN MENU 1 - Add phonebook entry 2 - Delete phonebook entry 3 - View all entries a - alphabetical order b - increasing order of telephone numbers 4 - Search entries a - by name b - by telephone number 5 – Quit The following will appear when one of the choices in the main menu is chosen. Add phonebook entry Enter Name: Enter Telephone number: (* if entry already exists, warn user about this) View all entries Displays all entries in alphabetical order Displays all entries in increasing order of telephone #s Search entries Search phonebook entry by name Search phonebook entry by telephone number Quit close phonebook

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Machine Problem 2: Minesweeper
This is a one player game of a simplified version of the popular computer game minesweeper. First, the user is asked if he or she wants to play on a 5x5 grid or 10x10 grid. You have two 2-dimensional arrays that contains information about your grid. An entry in the array should either contain a 0 or 1. A 1 signifies that there is a bomb in that location, and a 0 if none. For example, given the array: int bombList5by5[][]={{0, 0, 1, 0, 0}, {0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, {0, 1, 0, 0, 0}, {0, 0, 0, 1, 1}, {0, 1, 1, 0, 0}}; Given the bomb list, we have 6 bombs on our list. The bombs are located in (row,col) cells, (0,2), (2,1), (3,3), (3,4), (4,1) and (4,2). If the user chooses a cell that contains a bomb, the game ends and all the bombs are displayed. If the user chooses a cell that does not contain a bomb, a number appears at that location indicating the number of neighbors that contain bombs. The game should end when all the cells that do not contain bombs have been marked (player wins) or when the user steps on a bomb(player loses). Here's a sample output of the game, given the bombList5by5. Welcome to Minesweeper! Choose size of grid (Press 1 for 5x5, Press 2 for 10x10): 1 [][][][][] [][][][][] [][][][][] [][][][][] [][][][][] Enter row and column of the cell you want to open[row col]: 1 1 [][][][][] [ ] [2] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [] [ ] [ ] [][][][][] [][][][][] Enter row and column of the cell you want to open[row col]: 3 2 [][][][][] [ ] [2 ] [ ] [] [ ] [][][][][] [ ] [ ] [4 ] [ ] [ ] [][][][][] Enter row and column of the cell you want to open[row col]: 0 2 [] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [2] [ ] [] [ ] [ ] [X ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [4] [ ] [ ] [][][][][] Ooppps! You stepped on a bomb. Sorry, game over!

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Machine Problem 3: Number Conversion
Create your own scientific calculator that will convert the inputted numbers to the four number representations ( Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal ). Your program should output the following menu on screen. MAIN MENU: Please type the number of your choice: 1 – Binary to Decimal 2 – Decimal to Octal 3 – Octal to Hexadecimal 4 – Hexadecimal to Binary 5 – Quit The following will appear when one of the choices in the main menu is chosen. Choice 1: Enter a binary number: 11000 11000 base 2 = 24 base 10 (goes back to main menu) Choice 2: Enter a Decimal number: 24 24 base 10 = 30 base 8 (goes back to main menu) Choice 3: Enter an Octal number: 30 30 base 8 = 18 base 16 (goes back to main menu) Choice 4: Enter a Hexadecimal number: 18 18 base 16 = 11000 base 2 Choice 1: Enter a binary number: 110A Invalid binary number! Enter a binary number: 1 1 base 2 = 1 base 10 (goes back to main menu) (user chooses 5) Goodbye! You can be more creative with your user interface if you want to, as long as the program outputs the correct conversion of numbers.

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Appendix E : Hands-on Laboratory Note to the Teacher
This part of the manual is not included in the student's manual. You can give a copy of this to your students if you wish for them to do the exercises on their own. Some of the answers for "Creating your own" exercises are found in the last part of this section.

Chapter 1 Hands-on
None

Chapter 2 Hands-on
None

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Chapter 3 Hands-on
3.1 Things to check before you start the lab
Once you installed J2SE SDK, please make sure you do the following: 1. Make sure the installation has set %JAVA_HOME% (Windows) or $JAVA_HOME (Solaris/Linux) environment variable to the installation directory of J2SE 1.4.2_06 (or later version) 2. Type "echo %JAVA_HOME%" (Windows) or "echo $JAVA_HOME" (Solaris/Linux) in a terminal window. You should see the following: c:\j2sdk1.4.2_06 (Windows) /usr/jdk/jdk1.4.2_06 (Solaris/Linux) 3. Make sure the installation has placed %JAVA_HOME%\bin (Windows) or $JAVA_HOME/bin (Solaris/Linux) in the "path" environment variable. Type "java -version" in a terminal window. You should see something like following: java version "1.4.2_06" Java(TM) 2 Runtime Environment, Standard Edition (build 1.4.2_06-b03) Java HotSpot(TM) Client VM (build 1.4.2_06-b03, mixed mode)

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3.2 Write, Compile, and Run Hello Java Program
1. mkdir c:\lab 2. cd \lab 3. Create Hello.java using your editor of choice public class Hello { /** * My first Java program */ public static void main( String[] args ){ //prints the string "Hello world" on screen System.out.println("Hello world"); } }

4. Compile Hello.java javac Hello.java 5. Make sure Hello.class file has been created dir 6. Run the Hello program java Hello 7. Verify that the result is as following C:\lab>java Hello Hello world 8. Modify, compile, and run the Hello.java so that it prints the following "This is my first Java program" (instead of "Hello world")

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E. Run Hello class • • Right click Hello. and Run Hello Java Program using NetBeans 1.Hello hello. Start the NetBeans IDE 4. Create a new NetBeans project and Hello main class • • • • Select File from the menu bar and select New Project. 4. select General and Java Application Click Next.1 desktop icon Solaris/Linux: <NETBEANS41_HOME>/bin/netbeans 2.I 3. Under Name and Location pane.D.java code in the source editor with the one in Chapter 2 while leaving the package statement on the top. change it to hello.1 > NetBeans IDE or click NetBeans IDE 4. Compile.60 :Create new Java application • Note that the IDE generated Hello.3 Write. fill it with Hello • For Create Main Class field.java code gets displayed in the source editor. (Figure-10 below) • For Project Name field.java node under Hello->Source Packages->hello and select Run File (Shift+F6) Note that the Output window displays the result Introduction to Programming I 298 . Modify the Hello class • Replace the code of Hello class of IDE generated Hello.J. Under Choose Project.Main) • Click Finish (from Figure 12. 3.1 • • Windows: Start > All Programs > NetBeans 4.

I Chapter 4 Hands-on 4.println( value ). Printing Variables 1.D.out. Verify that the result is as following C:\lab>java OutputVariable 10 The value of x=A 4.println( "The value of grade =" + grade ). } } 2. Introduction to Programming I 299 . char x.println( "The value of x=" + x ). System.J.java using your editor of choice public class OutputVariable { public static void main( String[] args ){ int value = 10. System. Compile and run the code javac OutputVariable.1 Declaring. Create OutputVariable.java java OutputVariable 3. Initializing.out.out.E. Modify OutputVariable. x = 'A'.java as following and compile and run the code • • Define another primitive type as following double grade = 11. Print out the value of grade variable as following System.

int grade = 80.java java ConditionalOperator 3.out. Compile and run the code javac ConditionalOperator. Introduction to Programming I 300 .I 4.2 Conditional Operator 1.java as following.D. Modify ConditionalOperator. Print "rich" if the salary is over 50000. } } 2.E. compile and run the code int salary = 100000. //get status of the student status = (grade >= 60)?"Passed":"Fail".J.java using your editor of choice public class ConditionalOperator { public static void main( String[] args ){ String status = "".println( status ). Verify that the result is as following C:\lab>java ConditionalOperator Passed 4. Create ConditionalOperator. Print "poor" otherwise. //print status System.

System. } System.readLine(). compile and run the code • • Make the program to ask the following question Please enter your age Display the entered age as following • If the age is over 100.io.BufferedReader.IOException.io. Compile and run the code javac GetInputFromKeyboard.out.J.in) ).E.java java GetInputFromKeyboard 3.out.println("Error!").InputStreamReader. try{ name = dataIn. String name = "".println("Hello " + name +"!"). Create GetInputFromKeyboard. }catch( IOException e ){ System. import java.java as following.io.print("Please Enter Your Name:"). import java.out. public class GetInputFromKeyboard { public static void main( String[] args ){ BufferedReader dataIn = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader( System. } } 2.java using your editor of choice import java.I Chapter 5 Hands-on 5.1 Getting Input From Keyboard via BufferedReader 1. Modify GetInputFromKeyboard. display Hello <name> You are old! • Otherwise Hello <name> You are young! Introduction to Programming I 301 .D.

J.swing. Create GetInputFromKeyboardJOptionPane. JOptionPane. msg). name=JOptionPane.java java GetInputFromKeyboardJOptionPane Enter your name CTRL/C to close the application 3. compile and run the code • • Make the program to ask the following question Please enter your age Display the entered age as following • If the age is over 100.java as following.JOptionPane.2 Getting Input From Keyboard via JOptionPane 1. public class GetInputFromKeyboardJOptionPane { public static void main( String[] args ){ String name = "". } } 2.java using your editor of choice import javax. String msg = "Hello " + name + "!". display Hello <name> You are old! • Otherwise Hello <name> You are young! Introduction to Programming I 302 .E.showInputDialog("Please enter your name").I 5.showMessageDialog(null. Compile and run the code javac GetInputFromKeyboardJOptionPane.D. Modify GetInputFromKeyboardJOptionPane.

equals(searchName )){ foundName =true. } } if (foundName ) System. break.java as following.J."Belle"."Nico"."Bianca"."). else System.out.D.println(searchName +" is not found.java java ForLoop 3. Modify ForLoop.I Chapter 6 Hands-on 6.length. } } 2."Lance".println(searchName +" is found!"). String searchName ="Yza".java using your editor of choice public class ForLoop { public static void main( String[] args ){ String names []= {"Beah". for (int i=0.1 For Loop 1.i<names. Compile and run the code javac ForLoop.out."Ethan"}.i++){ if (names [i ].E. boolean foundName =false. compile and run the code • Change the code to use while loop Introduction to Programming I 303 . Verify that the result is as following C:\lab>java ForLoop Yza is found! 4. Create ForLoop."Yza"."Gem".

java using your editor of choice public class ArraySample { public static void main( String[] args ){ int[] ages = new int[100]. i<ages.D. and so on Introduction to Programming I 304 .java as following. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java ArraySample 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000 00000000000000000000 4. } } } 2.1 Arrays 1.E. ages[1].J. compile and run the code • Just before the for loop that prints out the value of each entry of the ages[] array. ages[0].I Chapter 7 Hands-on 7. for( int i=0. 101 to the next entry of the array.java java ArraySample 3. Compile and run the code javac Arraysample. create another for loop in which a value of 100 is assigned to the first entry of the array. Create ArraySample.print( ages[i] ).length. i++ ){ System. Modify ArraySample.out.

J.println(i).1 Pass-by-Value 1.out.E. //print the value of i System.println(i).D.I Chapter 8 Hands-on None Chapter 9 Hands-on 9. // print the value of i. i not changed System. Compile and run the code javac TestPassByValue. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java TestPassByValue 10 10 Introduction to Programming I 305 .java java TestPassByValue 3. Create . } } 2.out. //Call method test //and pass i to method test test( i ). } public static void test(int j){ // change value of parameter i j = 33.java using your editor of choice public class TestPassByValue { public static void main(String[] args){ int i = 10.

i++ ){ System.println(ages[i]).println(ages[i]).out. } } public static void test(int[] arr){ // change values of array for (int i=0. i<arr. } } } 2.2 Pass-by-Reference 1. } //call test and pass references to array test(ages).J. Compile and run the code javac TestPassByReference. //print array values again for (int i=0.out. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java TestPassByReference 10 11 12 50 51 52 Introduction to Programming I 306 .D.java java TestPassByReference 3.length. 11.E. i<ages. 12}. i++ ){ arr[i] = i + 50.java using your editor of choice public class TestPassByReference { public static void main(String[] args){ //create an array of integers int [] ages = {10. //print array values for (int i=0. i++ ){ System.length.length. Create .I 9. i<ages.

println("Integer2: " + integer2). periodicals.java java EqualsTestInteger Introduction to Programming I 307 periodicals.out.D. str1 = "Free the bound periodicals. Verify the result is as following.println("Same object? " + (integer1 == integer2)).J.3 Comparing Objects 1.out.println("String2: " + str2).I 9. System.equals(str2)). Create EqualsTestInteger.out.java class EqualsTestInteger { public static void main(String[] arguments) { Integer integer1.out.println("Integer1: " + integer1). integer1 = new Integer(5).". integer2. System.E. periodicals.out. C:\lab>java EqualsTest String1: Free the bound String2: Free the bound Same object? true String1: Free the bound String2: Free the bound Same object? false Same value? true 4.println("String2: " + str2). Compile and run the code javac EqualsTest.println("Same value? " + str1.equals (integer2)).println("Same value? " + integer1. System.out.println("Same object? " + (integer1 == integer2)).println("Same object? " + (str1 == str2)). System. System. System. System.println("Integer2: " + integer2). Create EqualsTest.out. } } 2. System. System. Compile and run the code javac EqualsTestInteger.println("String1: " + str1).java using your editor of choice class EqualsTest { public static void main(String[] arguments) { String str1. System. . integer2 = new Integer(5).out. integer1 = integer2. System. System. str2 = new String(str1). str2.out. periodicals.java java EqualsTest 3.println("Integer1: " + integer1).out.println("String1: " + str1). } } 5.out.out. System.out.out. str2 = str1.println("Same object? " + (str1 == str2)). System.

// static variables private static int studentCount = 0. } } 2. return result. } /** *returns the number of instances of StudentRecords */ public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount. Create StudentRecordExample.D. private double average.I Chapter 10 Hands-on 10.J. private double englishGrade.java using your editor of choice public class StudentRecord { // instance variables private String name.E. } /** *Changes the name of the student */ public void setName(String temp ){ name =temp. Introduction to Programming I 308 . Create StudentRecord.1 Create your own class Using Text Editor: 1.java using your editor of choice public class StudentRecordExample{ public static void main(String [] args ){ //create three objects for Student record StudentRecord annaRecord =new StudentRecord(). private double scienceGrade. result =(mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade )/3. private double mathGrade. } /** *Computes the average of the english.math and science *grades */ public double getAverage(){ double result =0. /** *Returns the name of the student */ public String getName(){ return name.

Compile and run the code javac *.println(annaRecord.setName("Cris").java (or javac StudentRecord.println ("Count="+StudentRecord.setName("Anna"). Verify the result C:\lab1>java StudentRecordExample Anna Count=0 Introduction to Programming I 309 . StudentRecord crisRecord =new StudentRecord().I StudentRecord beahRecord =new StudentRecord(). //set the name of the students annaRecord.E.getName()). } } 3.java StudentRecordExample.out.java) java StudentRecordExample 4.getStudentCount()). //print number of students System. beahRecord.setName("Beah").D. crisRecord.J.out. //print anna's name System.

change it to studentrecordexample. Create a new NetBeans project and StudentRecordExample main class • • • • • • • Select File from the menu bar and select New Project. Start the NetBeans IDE 4.StudentRecordExample (from studentrecordexample. (Figure-10 below) For Project Name field.D.I Using Netbeans: 1. Under Name and Location pane. Modify the NetBeans generated code • Replace the NetBeans generated StudentRecordExample. Under Choose Project.E.java Introduction to Programming I 310 .1 > NetBeans IDE or click NetBeans IDE 4. select General and Java Application Click Next.J. Write StudentRecord.Main) Click Finish 3.1 (if you have not done so yet) • • Windows: Start > All Programs > NetBeans 4. 4.java code in the source editor with the one you have written before.1 desktop icon Solaris/Linux: <NETBEANS41_HOME>/bin/netbeans 2. fill it with StudentRecordExample For Create Main Class field.

Run StudentRecordExample application • • Right click StudentRecordExample. choose studentrecordexample from the drop-down menu (or you can type studentrecordexample) Click Finish 5. The New Java Class window appears. 6.J.D.java node under Hello->Source Packages>studentrecordexample and select Run File (Shift+F6) Note that the Output window displays the result Introduction to Programming I 311 . for Class Name field.I • • • Right click StudentRecordExample project node and select New->Java Class.E.java code in the source editor with the one you have written before. Under Name and Location pane. Modify the NetBeans generated code • Replace the NetBeans generated StudentRecord. type StudentRecord for Package field.

Modify StudentRecord.I Creating your own: 1. call it myOwnRecord Call setName() method of the myOwnRecord object passing "myOwn" as the value to set Display the name of the myOwnRecord object Set Math grade of myOwnRecord object Set English grade of myOwnRecord object Set Science grade of myOwnRecord object Display the average grade of myOwnRecord 3. this method increase the static variable studentCount by 1 2.D.java as following • • • • • • • Create another StudentRecord object. Modify StudentRecordExample.J. Run StudentRecordExample application Introduction to Programming I 312 .E..java as following • • • • Add setMathGrade(double grade) method Add setEnglishGrade(double grade) method Add setScienceGrade(double grade) method Add static method called increaseStudentCount().

//overloaded methods annaRecord. Add two overloaded print(.5).println("Name:"+name).D.out.java as following.) methods.java) java StudentRecordExample2 4. double averageGrade){ System. System.println("Average Grade:"+averageGrade).print("Name:"+name+" ")..setName("Anna").java (or javac StudentRecord. annaRecord.out.getName()).. fix the compile errors. Modify StudentRecord.. public void print(String name ){ System.16666666666667 Introduction to Programming I 313 . annaRecord.E.setEnglishGrade(95.2 Overloading Using Text Editor: 1.print(annaRecord. } } 3.print(annaRecord. annaRecord. annaRecord.java StudentRecordExample2. annaRecord.java as follows public class StudentRecordExample2{ public static void main(String [] args) { StudentRecord annaRecord =new StudentRecord(). The code fragement that needs to be added is highlighted with bold.getAverage()). public class StudentRecord { .setScienceGrade(100).getName().Create StudentRecordExample2. } public void print(String name. javac *. Compile and run the code.I 10.J. } } 2.out. If you experience compile errors. Verify the result Name:Anna Name:Anna Average Grade:65.

1.I Using Netbeans: It is assumed you are using the same NetBeans project you created in 10. Modify the NetBeans generated StudentRecordExample2. Create StudentRecordExample2.J.E. type StudentRecordExamle2 Click Finish 3. Right click StudentRecordExamle2 and select Run File Introduction to Programming I 314 .java • Replace the code of the NetBeans generated StudentRecordExample2. for Class Name field. Right click studentrecordexample package node (Not StudentRecordExample project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 5.java 2.java with the one of above while leaving the package statement at the top 4. Modify the StudentRecord. 1.java • • • • Right studentrecordexample package node (Not StudentRecordExample project node) and select New->Java Class Under Name and Location pane.D.

java as following • Invoke the newly added print() method Introduction to Programming I 315 .java as following • Add another print() method which takes the following three parameters • name • grade average • student count 2. Modify StudentRecordExmaple2.I Creating your own: 1.J.E.D. Modify StudentRecord.

J.math and science *grades */ public double getAverage(){ double result =0. please create StudentRecord. 0.I 10. result =(mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade )/3. private double scienceGrade.java and StudenRecordExample. } /** *returns the number of instances of StudentRecords */ public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount. If have used NetBeans to do the exercise 13 above. // static variables private static int studentCount = 0.E.D. private double englishGrade. } } Introduction to Programming I 316 .java as following public class StudentRecord { // instance variables private String name. } /** *Changes the name of the student */ public void setName(String temp ){ name =temp. private double mathGrade. private double average. This is to learn the packaging structure without the help of NetBeans. return result. /** *Returns the name of the student */ public String getName(){ return name.3 Packaging Please do this exercise at the command line instead of using NetBeans. } /** *Computes the average of the english.

It is because the java runtime is trying to find StudentRecordExample. Run the code..java as following to add a package statement.println ("Count="+StudentRecord.setName("Anna"). The code fragement that needs to be added is is in bold characters.java StudentRecordExample.println(annaRecord. beahRecord. StudentRecord beahRecord =new StudentRecord(). } } 1. StudentRecord crisRecord =new StudentRecord(). } 3. javac StudentRecord. //print number of students System. • C:\lab>java StudentRecordExample Exception in thread "main" java..I public class StudentRecordExample{ public static void main(String [] args ){ //create three objects for Student record StudentRecord annaRecord =new StudentRecord(). package studentpackage.out. } 2.setName("Cris"). Modify StudentRecord.lang.getName())..lang. //print anna's name System.out.java as following to add a package statement.defineClass0(Native 317 Introduction to Programming I .NoClassDefFoundError: StudentRecordExample (wrong name: studentpackage/StudentRecordExample) at java.java now has a package statement which says the Java class file resides under studentpackage directory.ClassLoader.E.J. crisRecord.D. Compile code.setName("Beah").java 4. It is because the StudentRecordExample. //set the name of the students annaRecord.class under studentpackage directory.. package studentpackage. Modify StudentRecordExample.getStudentCount()). The code fragment that needs to be added is in bold characters. You will experience an NoClassDefFoundError exception. Think about why you are getting this exception for a moment. public class StudentRecordExample{ . public class StudentRecord { .

ClassLoader. Compile the code using a directory structure. You will experience compile errors as following.Launcher$AppClassLoader.lang.run (URLClassLoader.class 1.java \lab\studentpackage\StudentRecordExample.java 6.java:302) 5. .loadClassInternal (ClassLoader.net. 1.defineClass (ClassLoader.java:194) at java.misc.java:251) at java.class C:\lab>javac StudentRecord.URLClassLoader$1.java:187) at java.loadClass (ClassLoader. Create a new directory called studentpackage and then move StudentRecord. The compilation should succeed. Compile code. Note that the class files are now created under studentpackage directory not in the current directory javac studentpackage\StudentRecord..425 StudentRecord.defineClass (SecureClassLoader. del StudentRecord.AccessController.loadClass (Launcher.security.class del StudentRecordExample.SecureClassLoader. mkdir \lab\studentpackage move \lab\StudentRecordExample.doPrivileged (Native Method) at java.java:289) at sun.java C:\lab>dir studentpackage Volume in drive C is S3A1256D004 Volume Serial Number is 447E-6EBC Directory of C:\lab\studentpackage 07/06/2005 07/06/2005 07/06/2005 07/06/2005 07/06/2005 Introduction to Programming I 12:39 12:39 12:40 12:16 12:40 PM PM PM PM PM <DIR> <DIR> .access$100 (URLClassLoader.java 1 error 7.net.net.ClassLoader. You get this compile error because you are trying to compile the two Java files that are not present in the current directory anymore.java move \lab\StudentRecord.lang.URLClassLoader.D.E.java and StudentRecordExample.ClassLoader.java:274) at java.J.java \lab\studentpackage\StudentRecord.java under it.499 StudentRecord.security.java StudentRecordExample.java:123) at java.defineClass (URLClassLoader.java:235) at java.loadClass (ClassLoader.java:539) at java.java studentpackage\StudentRecordExample.lang.java:55) at java.net.URLClassLoader.I Method) at java.findClass (URLClassLoader.java error: cannot read: StudentRecord.java 880 318 .ClassLoader.URLClassLoader.lang.

ClassLoader.java:55) at java.security.D.ClassLoader. C:\lab>cd studentpackage C:\lab\studentpackage>java StudentRecordExample Exception in thread "main" java.lang.lang. C:\lab>java studentpackage.loadClass (ClassLoader.ClassLoader.java:187) at java.net. Now you thught you should be able to run the application under the studentpackage directory itself so you go into the directory and run the code.java 4 File(s) 4.lang.E.ClassLoader.J.loadClass (Launcher.SecureClassLoader.findClass (URLClassLoader.NoClassDefFoundError: StudentRecordExample 9.ClassLoader.java:274) at java.java:235) at java.net.java:289) at sun.URLClassLoader$1.loadClassInternal (ClassLoader.class in the currently directory and it could not find it.415. Run the code with propert package structure.net.I StudentRecordExample.lang.access$100 (URLClassLoader.java:194) at java.java:302) Introduction to Programming I 319 .lang.494 bytes 2 Dir(s) 1. C:\lab>java StudentRecordExample Exception in thread "main" java.URLClassLoader.doPrivileged(Native Method) at java. It is because it is still looking for studentpackage/StudentRecordExample.java:123) at java.loadClass (ClassLoader.defineClass (URLClassLoader.run (URLClassLoader. And the following is what you will experience.security.URLClassLoader. It should work this time.java:539) at java.856.lang.defineClass (SecureClassLoader.misc. You will experience NoClassDefFoundError because it is trying to find the class in the current directory instead of in the studentpackage directory.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: StudentRecordExample (wrong name: studentpackage/StudentRecordExample) at java.128 bytes free 8. Run the code as follows.class 07/06/2005 12:17 PM 690 StudentRecordExample.URLClassLoader.Launcher$AppClassLoader.defineClass0(Native Method) at java.StudentRecordExample Anna Count=0 10.net.defineClass (ClassLoader.AccessController.java:251) at java.

NoClassDefFoundError: StudentRecordExample C:\lab\studentpackage>java -classpath \lab studentpackage.lang.fruitpackage package • • FoodMain class creates an Food object FoodMain class then calls a method of Food object 3. Create a class called FoodMain under foodpackage. Create a class called Food under foodpackage.E.StudentRecordExample Anna Count=0 Creating your own: 1. Compile and run the code Introduction to Programming I 320 . Now there is a way you can specify the classpath using -classpath command line option as following: C:\lab\studentpackage>java -classpath \lab StudentRecordExample Exception in thread "main" java.fruitpackage Add a couple of methods of your own 2.I 11.fruitpackage pacakge • • Food.java should have the following package statement at the top • package foodpackage.J.D.

println("Person: getName()").println("Inside Person:Constructor"). " + address). } public String getAddress(){ return address.println("Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: " + name + ".out. } public Person (String name. private String address. String address){ System. } public void setAddress(String s){ address = s. } } Introduction to Programming I 321 .java package personpackage. } public void setName(String s){ name = s.E. Write Person.address = address. public Person(){ System.name = name.D. public class Person { private String name. this. this. return name. } public String getName(){ System.J.out.1 Inheritance – Constructor 1.out.I Chapter 11 Hands-on 11.

out. } } 4. public String getHobby(){ return hobby.println("Inside Student:Constructor").I 2. } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s. cd \lab javac personpackage\*. Write Student.Main 5. } } } 3.E.D. public class Student extends Person { private String hobby. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java personpackage.Main Inside Person:Constructor Inside Student:Constructor Introduction to Programming I 322 . public class Main { public static void main(String [] args ){ Student student1 =new Student(). Write Main.java package personpackage.J. Compile and run the code using a directory structure.java java personpackage. public Student(){ System.java package personpackage.

The code fragment that needs to be added is in bold characters.E. Modify the Student. package personpackage.out. cd \lab javac personpackage\*.java java personpackage.I 6. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java personpackage.java as following. public class Student extends Person { private String hobby. Compile and run the code using a directory structure.D. System.println("Inside Student:Constructor").Main 8.Main Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Sang. "1 Dreamland"). public Student(){ super("Sang". } } } 7. public String getHobby(){ return hobby. 1 Dreamland Inside Student:Constructor Introduction to Programming I 323 .J. } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s.

java main class • • • • Select File from the menu bar and select New Project. fill it with PersonPackage • Click Finish 3. Right click personpackage pacakge node (not PersonPackage project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 12. • for Class Name field. Under Choose Project. 11.1 > NetBeans IDE or click NetBeans IDE 4. Right click Main select Run File 10. Create Person. Right click Main select Run File Introduction to Programming I 324 . • for Class Name field. (Figure-10 below) • For Project Name field.java • Right personpackage node (not PersonPackage project node) and select New>Java Class • Under Name and Location pane. Create Student.Modify the Student. type Person • Click Finish 5.java 4.1 (if you have not done so yet) • • Windows: Start > All Programs > NetBeans 4. Start the NetBeans IDE 4.java • • Right personpackage package node (not PersonPackage project node) and select New->Java Class Under Name and Location pane. Replace the code in the NetBeans generated Main.J. Replaced the code in the NetBeans generated Person.java. Right click personpackage package node (not PersonPackage project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 9. Under Name and Location pane.D. Replaced the code in the NetBeans generated Student.E.java 6.1 desktop icon Solaris/Linux: <NETBEANS41_HOME>/bin/netbeans 2.I Using Netbeans: 1.java 8. select General and Java Application Click Next. Create a new NetBeans project and Main. type Student • Click Finish 7.

Write TuftsStudent. } 2.java as following • • TuftsStudent class extends Student class Write a constructor of the TuftsStudent class as following public TuftsStudent(){ System. Student student3 =new TuftsStudent().J.java to create an instance of TuftsStudent class as following TuftsStudent student2 =new TuftsStudent().E. Compile and run the code.out.println("Inside TuftsStudent:Constructor"). 3. You should see the following: Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Person:Constructor Student:Constructor Person:Constructor Student:Constructor TuftsStudent:Constructor Person:Constructor Student:Constructor TuftsStudent:Constructor Introduction to Programming I 325 . Modify the Main.I Creating your own: 1.D.

setName("Sang"). public class Main { public static void main(String [] args ){ Student student1 =new Student(). which is a parent class of Student class student1. Compile and run the code using a directory structure.java java personpackage.out.println("Calling getName() method: name is " + student1.Main Inside Person:Constructor Inside Student:Constructor Person: getName() Calling getName() method: name is Sang Introduction to Programming I 326 . package personpackage.J. System. Modify Main.D.2 Inheritance .Overriding 1.I 11. } } 2. The code fragment that needs to be added is in bold characters.Main 3.java as following. cd \lab javac personpackage\*. Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java personpackage.getName()). // Calling methods defined in Person class.E.

The code fragment that needs to be added is in bold characters. return "Passionate" + super.Main 7. } } } 6. public class Student extends Person { private String hobby.getName(). Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java personpackage.J.java as following.out.I 5. Compile and run the code using a directory structure.println("Inside Student:Constructor"). } // Override getName() method of the parent class public String getName(){ System.println("Student: getName()").E.Main Inside Person:Constructor Inside Student:Constructor Student: getName() Person: getName() Calling getName() method: name is PassionateSang Introduction to Programming I 327 . public String getHobby(){ return hobby. public Student(){ System. package personpackage.java java personpackage. } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s.D. Modify the Student.out. cd \lab javac personpackage\*.

In your TuftsStudent class.println("Inside TuftsStudent:setHobby() method").out. override getHobby() and setHobby() methods of the Student class as follows public String getHobby(){ System.println("Hobby of student3 " + hobby3). Right click personpackage package node (not PersonPackage project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 3.D. System.println("Hobby of student2 " + hobby2). System.out. // set hobbies of student2 and student3 student2.setHobby("swimming"). Modify the Main. } public void setHobby(String s){ System. Change Main.java to invoke setHobby() and getHobby() methods of the newly created TuftsStudent object instances as follows. } 2.java 5.getHobby(). return "My hobby is " + super.J.setHobby(s).java.out. Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Inside Person:Constructor Student:Constructor Person:Constructor Student:Constructor TuftsStudent:Constructor Person:Constructor 328 Introduction to Programming I . // get hobbies of student2 and student3 String hobby2 = student2.out.E. String hobby3 = student3.I Using NetBeans: It is assumed you are using the same NetBeans project you are using the same NetBeans project you created in Chapter 10. Right click Main select Run File 4. student3. super. You should see the following result.setHobby("dancing").getHobby(). 2. Modify the Student. 3. Compile and run the code.println("Inside TuftsStudent:getHobby() method"). 1. Right click Main select Run File Creating your own: 1.getHobby(). Right click personpackage pacakge node (not PersonPackage project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 6.

E.I Inside Student:Constructor Inside TuftsStudent:Constructor Inside TuftsStudent:setHobby() method Inside TuftsStudent:setHobby() method Inside TuftsStudent:getHobby() method Hobby of student2 My hobby is swimming Inside TuftsStudent:getHobby() method Hobby of student3 My hobby is dancing Introduction to Programming I 329 .D.J.

this. } public void setAddress(String s){ address = s. public Person(){ System. public class Person { private String name. Write Person. package polypackage. } public Person (String name. This is the same Person.println("Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: " + name + ".println("Person: getName()"). return name.name = name. String address){ System. } } Introduction to Programming I 330 . } public String getAddress(){ return address. Person class is a parent class of both Student and Employee classes.out.java as in the previous exercise except the package name.out. this.I 11. which you will write in the subsequent steps.D. " + address).println("Inside Person:Constructor"). } public void setName(String s){ name = s. } public String getName(){ System.address = address.out.J.java.E. private String address.3 Polymorphism 1.

address).D. public Student(){ System. } public Student (String name. Student class is a subclass of a Person class. package polypackage.getName().java.J. System.out.I 2.println("Student: getName()").out.out. return "Passionate Student " + super. } } Introduction to Programming I 331 .E. String address){ super(name.println("Inside Student:Constructor").println("Inside Student:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: " + name + ". public class Student extends Person { private String hobby. Write Student. } // Override getName() method of the parent class public String getName(){ System. " + address). } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s. } public String getHobby(){ return hobby.

System. address).out.D. " + address). } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s. return "Not so Passionate Employee " + super. Employee class is subclass of Person class.getName } (). public Employee(){ System.E. } public Employee(String name.println("Inside Employee:Constructor"). } Introduction to Programming I 332 . package polypackage.java. String address){ super(name.J. } // Override getName() method of the parent class public String getName(){ System.println("Inside Employee:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: " + name + ". } public String getHobby(){ return hobby.out.out.println("Employee: getName()").I 3. public class Employee extends Person { private String hobby. Write Employee.

java C:\lab>java polypackage.getName().Main 6. Student studentObject = new Student("Sang". Write Main. Employee type or Student type. "2 Dreamland"). Compile and run the code using a directory structure.out. "1 Dreamland").java java polypackage. points to a Student //getName of Student class is called String temp1=ref. Verify the result is as following. ref = employeeObject. object ref = studentObject. C:\lab>javac polypackage\*. points to an Employee object //getName of Employee class is called String temp2 = ref. 1 Dreamland Inside Student:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Sang.println( "temp1 -" + temp1 + "\n" ). Employee employeeObject = new Employee("Young".java package polypackage.J. public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Person ref.println("\n").I 4. 2 Dreamland Inside Employee:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Young. System.getName(). Note that depending on what object type the ref variable refers to.Main Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Sang. //Person ref. 2 Dreamland Student: getName() Person: getName() temp1 -Passionate Student Sang Employee: getName() Person: getName() temp2 -Not so Passionate Employee Young Introduction to Programming I 333 . //Person ref.out.E. cd \lab javac polypackage\*. System.out.println( "temp2 -" + temp2 + "\n" ). proper method gets invoked.D. } } 5. 1 Dreamland Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Young. System.

E.J.I Introduction to Programming I 334 .D.

Replaced the code in the NetBeans generated Student. type Student • Click Finish 7.java main class • • • • Select File from the menu bar and select New Project. type Person • Click Finish 5. Replaced the code in the NetBeans generated Person.1 (if you have not done so yet) • • Windows: Start > All Programs > NetBeans 4. Create Person. Under Name and Location pane. Create Employee.java • • Right polypackage node (not PolyPackage project node) and select New->Java Class Under Name and Location pane.J. type Employee • Click Finish Introduction to Programming I 335 .java • • Right polypackage node (not PolyPackage project node) and select New->Java Class Under Name and Location pane.E. Replace the code in the NetBeans generated Main. (Figure-10 below) • For Project Name field.java 6. fill it with PolyPackage • Click Finish 3.1 > NetBeans IDE or click NetBeans IDE 4. select General and Java Application Click Next.1 desktop icon Solaris/Linux: <NETBEANS41_HOME>/bin/netbeans 2. Create a new NetBeans project and Main. • for Class Name field.java 8. Under Choose Project. Start the NetBeans IDE 4. • for Class Name field.java • • Right polypackage package node (not PolyPackage project node) and select New->Java Class Under Name and Location pane.java 4.I Using NetBeans: 1. Create Student.D. • for Class Name field.

You should see the following result. Right click Main select Run File 12.I 9.java 10. Right click polypackage package node (not PolyPackage project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 11. 2 Dreamland Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Wende. Right click Main select Run File Creating your own: 1.J.E. 1 Dreamland Inside Student:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Sang.Main Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Sang. return "Maybe Passionate Teacher" + super. Right click polypackage pacakge node (not PolyPackage project node) and select Compile Package (F9) 14. getName() method of the Teacher object gets called 3.println("Teacher: getName()").getName(). Modify the Main. 21 New York Inside Teacher:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Wende.D.out. 2 Dreamland Inside Employee:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Young. 21 New York Student: getName() Person: getName() Passionate Student Sang temp1 -Passionate Student Sang Employee: getName() Person: getName() Not so Passionate Employee Young temp2 -Not so Passionate Employee Young Teacher: getName() Person: getName() temp3 -Maybe Passionate Teacher Wende Introduction to Programming I 336 . Create another class called Teacher.java as following • • Teacher class extends Person class Teacher clsss also has the following method // Override getName() method of the parent class public String getName(){ System. 1 Dreamland Inside Person:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: Young.java in which. Compile and run the code. } 2.Modify the Student. Replaced the code in the NetBeans generated Employee. C:\lab>java polypackage.java 13.

Note that you will experience a compile error since you cannot create an object instance from an abstract class.J. public abstract class LivingThing { public void breath(){ System.java abstractexercise\Main.. } } 3. cannot be instantiated LivingThing x = new LivingThing().println("Living Thing eating. ^ 1 error Introduction to Programming I 337 .java package abstractexercise.out. Compile Livingthing.I 11. Write Main.").D.out. cd \lab javac abstractexercise\LivingThing.E.4 Abstract Classes 1.. C:\lab>javac abstractexercise\LivingThing. } public void eat(){ System. package abstractexercise.java:5: abstractexercise. } /** * abstract method walk * We want this method to be overridden by subclasses of * LivingThing */ public abstract void walk(). public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { LivingThing x = new LivingThing().").java.java.println("Living Thing breathing.java abstractexercise\Main.LivingThing is abstract..java 4.. } 2.java and Main.java abstractexercise\Main. Write abstract class called LivingThing.

J.E. public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Human x = new Human().java as following public abstract void dance(String dancingStyle). Creating your own: 1.Main Human walks. Implement a concrete method in the Human. Modify the Main. package abstractexercise.java java abstractexercise.java that implements the dance() abstract method."). cd \lab javac abstractexercise\*. Rewrite Main.java so that it calls dance(ds) method Introduction to Programming I 338 .out.println("Human dances..walk().. LivingThing y = new Human(). x. Define another abstract method in the LivingThing.Main 8..D." + ds). } } 7. Human walks. } 3.java that extends the abstract LivingThing class package abstractexercise. 2.I 5.. public void dance(String ds){ System. y. public class Human extends LivingThing { public void walk(){ System. Verify the result is as following. Compile and run the code using a directory structure. } } 6.java.. C:\lab>java abstractexercise.walk()..out... Write a concrete class called Human.println("Human walks.

. Human dances in Saturday Night Live Introduction to Programming I 339 . You should see the following result.J.Main Human walks. Human dances in Swing Human walks.I 4.E..D.. C:\lab>java abstractexercise.. Compile and run the code.

J.I 11. Note that you will experience a compile error since you cannot create an object instance from an Interface.java:5: interfaceexercise. } 2. cd \lab javac interfaceexercise\Relation. Object b).java which is an Interface. public interface Relation { public boolean isGreater( Object a.java. package interfaceexercise. C:\lab>javac interfaceexercise\Relation.java interfaceexercise\Main.E.5 Interfaces 1 1. package interfaceexercise. Write Relation.Relation is abstract. Compile Relation.java interfaceexercise\Main.java interfaceexercise\Main. public boolean isLess( Object a.D.java and Main. Object b). } } 3.java 4. Object b). public boolean isEqual( Object a. Write Main. ^ 1 error Introduction to Programming I 340 . public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Relation x = new Relation(). cannot be instantiated Relation x = new Relation().java.

this. return (aLen < bLen).x2 = x2. } public boolean isGreater( Object a. private double y2.double x2. Write a concrete class that implements Relation. } public boolean isEqual( Object a. } public double getLength(){ double length = Math.double y2){ this. this. double bLen = ((Line)b). return (aLen > bLen). package interfaceexercise. } public boolean isLess( Object a.E. Object b){ double aLen = ((Line)a).y1 = y1. return length. return (aLen == bLen).J. double bLen = ((Line)b). } } Introduction to Programming I 341 . this.I 5.double y1. private double y1. Object b){ double aLen = ((Line)a).getLength(). public class Line implements Relation { private double x1. Object b){ double aLen = ((Line)a). private double x2.getLength().x1 = x1.getLength().y2 = y2.sqrt( (x2-x1)*(x2-x1) + (y2-y1)* (y2-y1) ). double bLen = ((Line)b).getLength(). public Line(double x1.D.getLength().getLength().

java. boolean b1 = line1.println("line1 is equal with line3: " + b3). System.0). } } 7.0. 2.getLength()). 2.java java interfaceexercise.getLength()).0).out. System.4142135623730951 Length of line2 is 1.E. 3.656854249492381 Introduction to Programming I 342 . = new Line(2.J.0.out.println("Length of line1 is " + line1. 3.0). b1).isEqual(line1.Main line1 is greater than line2: false line1 is equal with line2: true line1 is equal with line3: false Length of line1 is 1. 5. line3). Rewrite Main.out. System. 2. 1.getLength()). System.0.isGreater(line1. System. cd \lab javac interfaceexercise\*.4142135623730951 Length of line3 is 5.out.I 6. package interfaceexercise. boolean b3 = line3. Compile and run the code using a directory structure.println("Length of line2 is " + line2. 5.0.isEqual(line1. public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Line line1 Line line2 = new Line(1.0.D. b2). 1.println("line1 is equal with line2: " + Line line3 = new Line(1.0.0. line2).Main 8.0. Verify the result as following: C:\lab>java interfaceexercise.out.0.out.println("line1 is greater than line2: " + boolean b2 = line1. line2).println("Length of line3 is " + line3. System.

Modify Main class that compares two int type numbers. You should see the following result • • C:\lab>java interfaceexercise.656854249492381 1 is greater than 5 false 1 is equal with 5 false 1 is less than 5 true Introduction to Programming I 343 .J. 3.I Creating your own: 1.4142135623730951 Length of line2 is 1.Main line1 is greater than line2: false line1 is equal with line2: true line1 is equal with line3: false Length of line1 is 1.4142135623730951 Length of line3 is 5.E. Create another implementation class called NumberComparison that implements Relation interface.D. 2.

return name.6 Interfaces 2 1. } } Introduction to Programming I 344 .out. PersonImpl class implements PersonInterface Interface.java.address = address. private String address. this. void setAddress(String s).java which is an Interface.I 11. Write PersonImpl. } public void setAddress(String s){ address = s. Write PersonInterface.out. } public String getAddress(){ return address. public class PersonImpl implements PersonInterface { private String name. public interface PersonInterface { public public public public String getName().name = name. } 2. String address){ System. public PersonImpl(){ System. void setName(String s). this. " + address).D. package interfaceexercise2.E. } public PersonImpl (String name.println("Inside PersonImpl:Constructor"). String getAddress(). } public void setName(String s){ name = s.J.println("Inside PersonImpl:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: " + name + ".println("PersonImpl: getName()").out. package interfaceexercise2. } public String getName(){ System.

package interfaceexercise2. public void setHobby(String s).E. return hobby.out. public class StudentImpl implements StudentInterface { private String hobby. public StudentImpl(){ System. } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s. } } Introduction to Programming I 345 . package interfaceexercise2. } 5. The StudentInteface interface extends PersonInterface interface.println("StudentImpl: getHobby()").out.J. Write StudentInteface. Write StudentImpl.java and PersonImpl.java 4. } public String getHobby(){ System.java.java interfaceexercise2\PersonImpl. cd \lab javac interfaceexercise2\PersonInterface.D.println("Inside StudentImpl:Constructor"). public interface StudentInterface extends PersonInterface { public String getHobby().java.java.I 3. Compile PersonInterface.

java and StudentImpl. public class StudentImpl extends PersonImpl implements StudentInterface { private String hobby. Modify StudentImpl.J. } public String getHobby(){ System. Compile Studentnterface. Compile Studentnterface.java.E.String) in interfaceexercise2.I 6.println("Inside StudentImpl:Constructor"). package interfaceexercise2.java did not implement all the abstract methods defined in both StudentInterface and PersonInteface interfaces.out.println("StudentImpl: getHobby()"). } } 8.java interfaceexercise2\StudentImpl.java.java. } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s. This is because StudentImpl. Compilation should succeed.java interfaceexercise2\StudentImpl.java and StudentImpl. C:\lab>javac interfaceexercise2\StudentInterface.lang. return hobby.java Introduction to Programming I 346 . javac interfaceexercise2\StudentInterface.java interfaceexercise2\StudentImpl.StudentImpl is not abstract and does not override abstract method setAddress(java.java:3: interfaceexercise2.PersonInterface public class StudentImpl implements StudentInterface{ ^ 1 error 7. The code fragment that needs to be added is highlighted in bold font.out. public StudentImpl(){ System. You will experience the compile error.D.

Verify the result is as following C:\lab>java interfaceexercise2.println("student1's name is " + s1).setName("Ann"). student1.out. Write Main. String s1 = student1.setHobby("Dancing").E.java java interfaceexercise2. String s2 = student1. public class Main { public static void main(String [] args ){ StudentInterface student1 = new StudentImpl().out.Main Inside PersonImpl:Constructor Inside StudentImpl:Constructor PersonImpl: getName() student1's name is Ann StudentImpl: getHobby() student1's hobby is Dancing Introduction to Programming I 347 . student1.java.println("student1's hobby is " + s2).J.getHobby().getName().Main 11. Compile all the source code and run it. System. } } 10.D.I 9. package interfaceexercise2. javac interfaceexercise2\*. System.

int y). 3. Modify the Main. It should "extend" StudentInterface inteface. It should also "extend" StudentImpl class.Main Inside PersonImpl:Constructor Inside StudentImpl:Constructor PersonImpl: getName() student1's name is Ann StudentImpl: getHobby() student1's hobby is Dancing Inside PersonImpl:Constructor Inside StudentImpl:Constructor PersonImpl: getName() tuftsstudent1's name is Mario StudentImpl: getHobby() tuftsstudent1's hobby is Tennis StudentImpl: add() tuftsstudent1's addition is 11 StudentImpl: multiply() tuftsstudent1's multiplication is 311.J.2 Introduction to Programming I 348 . public double multiply(double p.I Creating your own: 1. public int add(int x. Write TuftsStudentImpl class.D. that it calls add and multiply methods of the 4.E. Define the following new methods inside the TuftsStudentInterface interface. It "implements" TuftsStudentInterface. 2. Write TuftsStudentInterface inteface. You should see the result something like following: C:\lab>java interfaceexercise2.java so TuftsStudentInterface interface. double q).

D. Verify the result C:\lab>java exceptionexercise. Write ExceptionExample. } } } 2. public class ExceptionExample { public static void main( String[] args ){ try{ System. Compile and run the code using a directory structure.println( args[1] ).ExceptionExample Exception caught! Introduction to Programming I 349 .1 Exception Handling 1.java java exceptionexercise.println("Exception caught!").I Chapter 12 Hands-on 12.E.out.ExceptionExample 3.out.J. cd \lab javac exceptionexercise\*.java package exceptionexercise. } catch( ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException exp ){ System.

StudentRecord beahRecord =new StudentRecord().out.out. //print anna's name System.getAverage()).increaseStudentCount(). } } Introduction to Programming I 350 .1 Create your own class StudentRecoredExample.setName("myOwn"). System.2).increaseStudentCount().setName("Anna"). //set grades myOwnRecord.println(myOwnRecord.I Answers to Hands-on Exercises 10.increaseStudentCount(). crisRecord.println(annaRecord. beahRecord. StudentRecord. //print number of students System.setName("Cris"). StudentRecord crisRecord =new StudentRecord(). myOwnRecord.increaseStudentCount().out.2). System.setName("Beah").J.setScienceGrade(70. StudentRecord.println("Average of my Own="+myOwnRecord.2). myOwnRecord. StudentRecord.setEnglishGrade(90.E. StudentRecord.getName()).java public class StudentRecordExample{ public static void main(String [] args ){ //create three objects for Student record StudentRecord annaRecord =new StudentRecord().setMathGrade(60.getStudentCount()).println ("Count="+StudentRecord.out. //set the name of the students annaRecord. StudentRecord myOwnRecord =new StudentRecord().D.getName()). myOwnRecord.

I StudentRecord. private double mathGrade.E. private double scienceGrade. } /** *Changes the name of the student */ public void setName(String temp ){ name =temp. } public void setScienceGrade(double grade){ scienceGrade = grade. return result. } public void setMathGrade(double grade){ mathGrade = grade. result =(mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade )/3.java public class StudentRecord { // instance variables private String name.math and science *grades */ public double getAverage(){ double result =0. } public static void increaseStudentCount(){ studentCount++.J. /** *Returns the name of the student */ public String getName(){ return name. // static variables private static int studentCount = 0. } /** *Computes the average of the english. } /** *returns the number of instances of StudentRecords */ public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount. } } Introduction to Programming I 351 . } public void setEnglishGrade(double grade){ englishGrade = grade.D. private double englishGrade. private double average.

} public void setMathGrade(double grade){ mathGrade = grade. /** *Returns the name of the student */ public String getName(){ return name. private double mathGrade.D. private double average. } /** *returns the number of instances of StudentRecords */ public static int getStudentCount(){ return studentCount. } public void setEnglishGrade(double grade){ englishGrade = grade.2 Overloading StudentRecord. } Introduction to Programming I 352 .E. } public static void increaseStudentCount(){ studentCount++. } public void setScienceGrade(double grade){ scienceGrade = grade. } /** *Computes the average of the english. return result. result =(mathGrade+englishGrade+scienceGrade )/3. // static variables private static int studentCount = 0.math and science *grades */ public double getAverage(){ double result =0.java public class StudentRecord { // instance variables private String name. private double scienceGrade. private double englishGrade. } /** *Changes the name of the student */ public void setName(String temp ){ name =temp.I 10.J.

} public void print(String name. } } Introduction to Programming I 353 .D. System.getName(). annaRecord.println("Student count:"+studentCount).getAverage()).setScienceGrade(100).out.I public void print(String name ){ System. double averageGrade. } } StudentExample2.out. annaRecord.out.getName().getName()).print(annaRecord.println("Name:"+name). annaRecord.E. System. //overloaded methods annaRecord.print("Name:"+name+" "). int studentCount){ System. annaRecord.setEnglishGrade(95. annaRecord.out.J. double averageGrade){ System. } public void print(String name.getStudentCount()).out.print(annaRecord. System.getAverage().print(annaRecord. annaRecord.println("Average Grade:"+averageGrade).setName("Anna").print("Name:"+name+" ").println("Average Grade:"+averageGrade).java public class StudentRecordExample2{ public static void main(String [] args) { StudentRecord annaRecord =new StudentRecord().out.5). annaRecord. annaRecord.

J. } } 2.out.java package foodpackage.java under a proper directory structure FoodMain.E. Create Food.FoodMain 4.java package foodpackage.fruitpackage.java java foodpackage. Create FoodMain.getColor } ()).FoodMain Color of the food =white Introduction to Programming I 354 . public class Food { //instance variables private String color = "white".D.println("Color of the food ="+food1.java under a proper directory structure cd \lab mkdir foodpackage mkdir foodpackage\fruitpackage jedit foodpackage\fruitpackage\Food. } 3. Compile and run the code cd \lab javac foodpackage\fruitpackage\*.I 10.fruitpackage.3 Packaging 1.fruitpackage.java Food. Verify the result C:\lab>java foodpackage. public class FoodMain{ public static void main(String [] args ){ Food food1 =new Food(). System.fruitpackage. public String getColor(){ return color.

java public class TuftsStudent extends Student{ /** Creates a new instance of TuftsStudent */ public TuftsStudent() { System. return "My hobby is " + super.E. /** * * @author sang */ public class TuftsStudent extends Student{ /** Creates a new instance of TuftsStudent */ public TuftsStudent() { System.println("Inside TuftsStudent:Constructor").Overriding TuftsStudent. } public void setHobby(String s){ System.java package personpackage.out. } } Introduction to Programming I 355 .println("Inside TuftsStudent:getHobby() method").out.I 11.D.println("Inside TuftsStudent:setHobby() method"). } } Main.2 Inheritance . } } 11.1 Inheritance – Constructor TuftsStudent. } public String getHobby(){ System. super.J.java public class Main { public static void main(String [] args ){ Student student1 =new Student().out.out.println("Inside TuftsStudent:Constructor").setHobby(s). Student student3 =new TuftsStudent(). TuftsStudent student2 =new TuftsStudent().getHobby().

// set hobbies of student2 and student3 student2.setHobby("swimming").setHobby("dancing").getHobby().E. String hobby3 = student3.D.getHobby(). } } Introduction to Programming I 356 . System. System.I Main. public class Main { public static void main(String [] args ){ Student student1 =new Student(). student3. TuftsStudent student2 =new TuftsStudent().java package personpackage.out.out. // get hobbies of student2 and student3 String hobby2 = student2. Student student3 =new TuftsStudent().println("Hobby of student2 " + hobby2).println("Hobby of student3 " + hobby3).J.

System. } public void setHobby(String s){ hobby = s. ref = studentObject. System. public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Person ref. //Person ref. points to an // Employee object Introduction to Programming I 357 .I 11. " + address). public class Teacher extends Person { private String hobby. } public Teacher(String name.getName().out.out.J. String address){ super(name. System. } public String getHobby(){ return hobby. address).out.E. points to a // Student object //getName of Student class is called String temp1=ref. System. Student studentObject = new Student("Sang". } } Main.println( "temp1 -" + temp1 + "\n" ).java package polypackage.out. public Teacher(){ System. Employee employeeObject = new Employee("Young".println("Teacher: getName()").out.D.println("\n").println("Inside Teacher:Constructor"). "1 Dreamland"). "21 New York"). "2 Dreamland"). //Person ref. ref = employeeObject.out. } // Override getName() method of the parent class public String getName(){ System.println("Inside Teacher:Constructor 2 receiving two parameters: " + name + ".java package polypackage. Teacher teacherObject = new Teacher("Wende".println( temp1 ).getName().3 Polymorphism Teacher. return "Maybe Passionate Teacher " + super.

println("Living Thing eating.java package abstractexercise.getName().out..println( temp2 ).4 Abstract Classes LivingThing.out. /** * abstract method dance * We want this method to be overridden by subclasses of * LivingThing */ public abstract void dance(String dancingStyle).").getName().println( "temp2 -" + temp2 + "\n" ).").out.println( "temp3 -" + temp3 + "\n" ).D.out.println("Living Thing breathing.. } Introduction to Programming I 358 .. ref = teacherObject. //Person ref.J.I //getName of Employee class is called String temp2 = ref. points to an // Teacher object //getName of Employee class is called String temp3 = ref. System.out. } /** * abstract method walk * We want this method to be overridden by subclasses of * LivingThing */ public abstract void walk(). } public void eat(){ System.E. public abstract class LivingThing { public void breath(){ System. } } 11.. System. System.

out.. } public void dance(String ds){ System.E.println("Human dances in " + ds). y. LivingThing y = new Human().java package abstractexercise. y.java package abstractexercise.J. x.walk(). x.walk(). } } Main. public class Human extends LivingThing { public void walk(){ System.").I Human.dance("Swing").out.D.println("Human walks..dance("Saturday Night Live"). public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Human x = new Human(). } } Introduction to Programming I 359 .

println(""). 3. Relation r1 = new NumberComparison().0.isGreater(line1.getLength()). Integer bi = (Integer)b.out. public class Main { public static void main( String[] args ) { Line line1 Line line2 = new Line(1. System.java package interfaceexercise.intValue() == bi. Object b){ Integer ai = (Integer)a.0. 1. 1. Object b){ Integer ai = (Integer)a. 5. 2.out.println("Length of line3 is " + line3.0).0. System.println("Length of line2 is " + line2.println("Length of line1 is " + line1.out.0. } } Main.E.0). System. return (ai. } public boolean isEqual(Object a. boolean b1 = line1. Line line3 = new Line(1. Object b){ Integer ai = (Integer)a. 2.getLength()). Integer bi = (Integer)b.D. 5.I 11. line2).intValue() > bi.5 Interfaces 1 NumberComparion.out.0).0.intValue()). 3. return (ai. = new Line(2.intValue()).J.intValue() < bi. System. boolean b3 = line3. Integer y = new Integer(5).isEqual(line1.println("line1 is greater than line2: " + boolean b2 = line1.out. public class NumberComparison implements Relation { public boolean isGreater(Object a. Integer x = new Integer(1). System.out. b1). } public boolean isLess(Object a. System. Integer bi = (Integer)b.0. Introduction to Programming I 360 .intValue()). line2). return (ai.0.java package interfaceexercise.0.isEqual(line1.println("line1 is equal with line2: " + b2). System.getLength()). line3).0.out. 2.println("line1 is equal with line3: " + b3).

System. y).println(x + " is equal with " + y boolean b6 = r1.isEqual(x.J.isLess(x.out. boolean b4 = r1. + " " + b6).isGreater(x.E. y). System.println(x + " is greater than " + y boolean b5 = r1. y).out. } + " " + } Introduction to Programming I 361 . System.println(x + " is less than " + y + " " + b5).I b4).out.D.

println("").getName(). return x+y.setName("Ann"). } } Main.out.println("student1's hobby is " + s2). String s3 = tuftsstudent1. String s2 = student1.java package interfaceexercise2.out. int y).setHobby("Dancing"). int y){ System.out.println("StudentImpl: multiply()"). student1.getHobby(). public interface TuftsStudentInterface extends StudentInterface { public int add(int x. double q){ System.E. System.println("student1's name is " + s1). double q).out.6 Interfaces 2 TuftsStudentInterface.println("StudentImpl: add()").out. System.I 11. System. Introduction to Programming I 362 .java package interfaceexercise2. } public double multiply(double p. return p*q.setHobby("Tennis").java package interfaceexercise2.setName("Mario"). student1.D.println("tuftsstudent1's name is " + s3). tuftsstudent1. tuftsstudent1. public class Main { public static void main(String [] args ){ StudentInterface student1 = new StudentImpl(). } TuftsStudentImpl. String s1 = student1. TuftsStudentInterface tuftsstudent1 = new TuftsStudentImpl(). System. public class TuftsStudentImpl extends StudentImpl implements TuftsStudentInterface { public int add(int x. public double multiply(double p.getName().J.out.

12). int i1 = tuftsstudent1.add(5. System.I String s4 = tuftsstudent1.out.println("tuftsstudent1's hobby is " + s4).0.E.getHobby(). System.out.J.println("tuftsstudent1's multiplication is " i1).multiply(10.println("tuftsstudent1's addition is " + double d1 = tuftsstudent1. + d1).D. System. 6). 31. } } Introduction to Programming I 363 .out.

html.Deitel & Deitel.answers.html 27. Java Programming Complete Concepts and Techniques.org/wiki/Programming_language 2.Encapsulation. Available at http://java. Defining an Interface.sun.htm 21. Course Technology Thomson Learning. From Answers.Java Branching Statements.com/docs/books/tutorial/java/interpack/interfaceDef. 2001. Programming Language. Thomas J.webopedia. Writing Abstract Classes and Methods.com/TERM/I/integrated_development_environment. Available at http://www. Integrated Development Environment.com/basic_flow_chart_symbols.geocities.html 7.wikipedia.ca/~ve3ll/jatutor7.com/SiliconValley/Park/3230/java/javl1002. Cashman. Variables and Expressions.webopedia. Chapman. Programming Language.com at http://www. 2004 24.sun. Pearson Prentice Hall.javaworld.developer. Available at http://home. Shelly.Does Java pass by reference or pass by value? Why can't you swap in Java? Available at http://www. 28.htm 6.org/wiki/High-level_programming_language 5. Defining Flowchart Symbols.ca/~ve3ll/jatutor4.Gary B. 25.I References 1.cogeco.The Essence of OOP using Java.pattonpatton. Java for Engineers and Scientists 2nd Edition. From Wikipedia at http://en. February 2001. Available at http://java.com/TERM/p/programming_language.wikipedia.Sun Java Programming Student Guide SL-275.Stephen J. Available at http://www.com/docs/books/tutorial/java/nutsandbolts/branch.J.sun.html 20. Starks.html 8. Available at http://www. 26.com/topic/programming-language 4.com/docs/books/tutorial/java/javaOO/abstract. High-Level Programming Language.htm. Joy L.com/javaworld/javaqa/2000-05/03-qa-0526-pass. Java How to Program 5th Edition. Runtime Polymorphism through Inheritance.D.cogeco. From Webopedia at http://www. 23. Sun Microsystems. Programming Language.html 3.html 9.Inheritance and Polymorphism.com/tech/article. Available at http://home. From Wikipedia at http://en. From Webopedia at http://www.E.php/983081 22. Introduction to Programming I 364 . Available at http://java.

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