This is the last lecture in the exam , there will be a lecture on Tuesday but it’s not gonna be included

in the exam . Included tables : Chapter 1 : Table 1-1 ( just what the doctor said in the lecture) . Chapter2 : Table 2-1 , 2-3 , 2-4 . Chapter3 : figure 3-1 , Table 3-1 . Chapter4 : Table 4-3 , 4-4 , 4-5 , 4-7 , 4-9 , figure 4-16 .

There is many kinds of bacteria like gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria , each has its own structure . Also we have Unique bacteria which we will talk about today .

Unique Bacteria (Rudimentary Bacteria)
* Unique bacteria : bacteria that don’t posses all the attributes of typical bacterial cells ( typical bacteria has a peptidoglycan layer , if its gram negative it will be a thin layer of peptidoglycan and additional outer membrane with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) embedded in it , if it’s gram positive it will be a thick layer ) . Rickettsias - Bacteria with a gram negative type cell wall . - They are obligate intracellular pathogens ( pathogens that must live within a host cell, they can’t produce their own ATP so they need to attack other cells and survive inside them and use their ATP ) , that cause diseases in humans and animals . - They will not grow on artificial culture media . To grow such bacteria in the laboratory they must be inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs , laboratory animals or cell cultures . - Because they have a leaky cell membrane they must live inside another cell to retain all necessary cellular substances. - All diseases caused by Rickettsias are arthropod-borne ; transmitted by arthropod vectors (carriers) such as lice,fleas,and ticks by their bites or waste products . - Diseases caused by Rickettsias include typhus and typhus like diseases (e.g Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever ) which involve production of rash .

Figure : rickettsia prowazekii (arrows) , the cause of epidemic louseborne typhus .

chlamydias
- Bacteria with a gram negative type cell wall . - They are obligate intracellular pathogens. - referred to as “energy parasites” . ( they can produce ATP but they preferentially use ATP molecules produced by host cell ) . - Diseases caused by chlamydias are transmitted by inhalation of aerosols or by direct contact between hosts (not by arthropods) . - Here is some Chlamydia species and their diseases :

Mycoplasmas
- Called pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) . - They are the smallest of cellular microbes . - They lack cell wall so they assume many shapes (pleomorphic) : from cocci to filamentous .

- The difference between mycoplasms and cell wall deficient bacteria (CWD) that : Mycoplasms: are not able to produce cell wall CWD : lose their shape due to adverse growth conditions that prevent the production of normal cell wall . - In animals and plants : they may be free-living or parasitic , pathogenic In humans : causes primary atypical pneumonia and genitourinary infections . (typical pneumonia caused by streptococcus pneumonia but atypical pneumonia could be caused by mycoplasms ) . - Resistant to treatment with Pencillin ( penicillin can work on gram positive bacteria because it can destroy peptidoglycan of +ve cell wall ) and other antibiotics that inhibit cell wall synthesize because they have no cell walls . ( there is many groups of antibiotics each have mechanism of action different from the other , some of them work on the cell walls , some of them might work on specific proteins or ribosomes in cytoplasm of the cell ) - Can be cultured on artificial media in the laboratory , where they produce tiny colonies called “ fried egg colonies “ that resemble fried egg in appearance . It takes about 10 days to culture them . - Fastidous mo - The absence of cell wall prevent mycoplasms from staining with gram stain procedure .

Photosynthetic bacteria
- Bacteria capable of converting light energy into chemical energy . - Include : 1) Anoxygenic photosynthesis bacteria : bacteria that don’t produce oxygen , ex: green bacteria and purple bacteria . 2) Oxygenic photosynthesis bacteria : bacteria that produce oxygen , ex: Cyanobacteria. - In photosynthetic eukaryotes (plants and algae ) photosynthesis takes place in plastids . In Cyanobacteria photosynthesis takes place in thylakoids ( invagination in cell membrane ) .

Cyanobacteria : - first organisms capable of carrying out oxygenic photosynthesis , and played a major role in the oxygenation of the atmosphere . - Vary in shape , some are cocci , bacilli , and filamentous . - In appropriate conditions ( mild or no wild , balmy water temperature 15-30 C , 6-9 ph of water , abundant nitrogen and phosphorous ) cyanobacteria in lake water or pond will overgrow creating a water bloom that resemble a thick layer of bluish green oil paint . - Nitrogen fixation : cyanobacteria convert N2 gas from air into ammonium ions NH4+ in the soil . - Cyanotoxins : cyanobacteria that produce toxins such as neurotoxins(which affect CNS) , hepatotoxin(affect liver) , cytotoxin(affect other types of cells ) . these cyanotoxins can cause diseases and even death in humans and animals that consume contaminated water .

The Domain Archaea
 Archaea (meaning ancient) were discovered in 1977;  they are procaryotic organisms.

Genetically, archaea are more closely related to eucaryotes than they are to bacteria. When they found the characteristics and lysis the sequences of archaea and of course they already know that the bacteria related prokaryotes and then you have the eucaryotes ,when they did the DNA sequencing to all of these different groups they found that archaea characteristically is very closed to prokaryotes than eucaryotes.

Archaea vary widely in shape (some are cocci, some are bacilli, and others form long filaments) ; some live in extreme environments, such as extremely acidic, extremely hot, or extremely salty environments(Some live at the bottom the ocean in and near thermal vents, where, in addition to heat and salinity, there is extreme pressure).

Other archaea, called methanogens, produce methane, which is a flammable gas. Although virtually all archaea

possess cell walls, their cell walls contain no peptidoglycan. In contrast, all bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan. The 16S rRNA sequences of archaea are quite different from the 16S rRNA sequences of bacteria. The 16S rRNA sequence data suggest that archaea are more closely related to eucaryotes than they are to bacteria.

Archaea possess cell walls, but their cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan (in contrast, all bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan).

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last chapter we described prokaryotic microbes , Now we will talk about other things eukaryotic microbes. Chapter 5 OUTLINE : Introduction. Algae Characteristics and classification. Medical significance .

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Protozoa Characteristics. Classifications and medical significance.

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Fungi Characteristics . Classifications and medical significance.

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Lichens. Slime Moulds

Eukaryotic microbes it’s not bacteria and viruses and prions, but it is a pathogenic and might cause diseases.

Algae Characteristics and Classification :

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Algae are photosynthetic, eucaryotic organisms, and they can through photosynthesis. Algae produce energy by photosynthesis. Some may use organic nutrients. All algal cells consist of cytoplasm, a cell wall (usually),a cell membrane, a nucleus, plastids, ribosomes , mitochondria, and Golgi bodies. ( LIKE OUR CELLS, except because they can go photosynthesis they should have plastids). some algal cells have a pellicle (a thickened cell membrane – cell wall- ) , stigma which is photo receptor (light sensing organelle) ,flagella . Algae range in size from tiny, unicellular, microscopic organisms (e.g., diatoms, dinoflagellates , desmids) to large, multicellular, plantlike seaweeds (e.g., kelp ; Table 5-2 p.70). Diatoms as I tolk you they are beautiful , Diatoms are tiny, usually unicellular algae that live in both freshwater and seawater ,Dinoflagellates are microscopic, unicellular, flagellated, often photosynthetic algae .

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Algae may be arranged in colonies or strands and are found in fresh and salt water, in wet soil, and on wet rocks. Most algal cell walls contain cellulose. Depending on their photosynthetic pigments, algae are classified as green, golden, brown, or red algae. Algae include: diatoms, dinoflagellates, desmids,

Spirogyra, Chlamydomonas, Volvox, and Euglena. Algae are an important source of food, iodine, fertilizers ,emulsifiers, and stabilizers and gelling agents for jams and culture media.

Algae: Medical Significance

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One genus of algae, Prototheca, is a very rare cause of human infections _ Causes protothecosis. Algae in several other genera secrete toxic substances called phycotoxins. Poisonous to humans, fish, and other animals.

If ingested by humans, the phycotoxins produced by the dinoflagellates that cause “red tides” can lead to a disease called paralytic shellfish poisoning.

That is all …

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Mais sami khader Reem yahia al.qawasmi

Good luck

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