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Advertising and other promotional strategies

Any paid form of non personal communication that is transmitted to consumer through such mass media as television, radio, news paper, magazine, direct mail, and out door displays.

Types of Advertising
Advertisement is used to promote goods, services, images, issues, ideas and people. It can be classified in to two categories. Institutional advertising: promote organizational images, ideas, and political issues. Product advertising: promote goods and services.

Advertising objectives
Many specific communication and sales objectives can be assigned to advertising. Advertisers should consider what the firm hopes to accomplish with the campaign. To develop a campaign with direction and purpose, they must define their advertising objectives. . Because advertising objectives guide campaign development, advertisers should define them carefully to ensure that the campaign will accomplish what they desire. Advertising objectives should be stated in clear, precise, and measurable terms. a) Precision and measurability allow advertisers to evaluate advertising success at the campaigns end in terms of whether or not the objectives have been met.

Informative or Pioneer advertising:inform person about what a product is, what it does, how it can be used, where it can be purchased. Use in introductory stage of PLC Persuasive or Competitive advertising:point out a brands uses, features and advantages that benefits consumer

Comparative advertising: which compare two or more specifically identified brands in the same general product class; Defensive advertising: when marketers advertise to offsets or lesson the effects of a competitors promotional program, Reminder advertising: to remind consumer that an established brand is still around and that it has certain uses, characteristics and benefits. Reinforcement advertising:tries to assure current user that they have made the right choice and tell them how to get the most satisfaction from the product.

Deciding on the Advertising Budget

How does a company know if it will be spending the right amount?spending too little will be negligible and spend too much may create problem .there are five specific factors to consider when setting the advertising budget.

Stage in the PLC:new product typically receive large advertisement budget to build awareness Established brand needs lower advertisement. Market share and consumer base: High market share brand usually required less build share by increasing market size required larger advisement expenditure. competition: large number of competitors , brand need to advertise heavily

Advertising frequency:the number of repetition needed to put across the brands message to consumer has an important impact on the advertising budget. Product substitutability: brand in a commodity class (cigarette , beer , soft drink required heavy advertising to established a different image.

Message Decisions
Message Generation Message Evaluation & Selection

Message Execution

Choosing advertising message

Advertising campaigns vary in creativity. Advertising go through four steps to develop a creative strategy : Message generation:the product benefit message should be decided as part of developing the product concept. Creative people use several methods to generate possible advertising appeals.

Creative people proceed inductively by talking to consumer, dealer, expert and by competitors. Some creative people use deductive frame work for generating advertising messages. How many alternative ad should be created? The more ads are created the higher the probability of finding an excellent one.

Message evaluation and selection: a good ad focus on one core selling proposition.message can be rated on desirability, exclusiveness and believability. The advertiser should conduct market research to determine which appeal work best with its target audience.

Message execution:the messages impact depend not only upon what is said but also on how is said.some ads aim for rational positioning benefit design to appeal to the rational mind. Example: gets clothes cleaner brings relief faster Some ads aim for emotional positioning japans ads are more appealing to the emotions. Example:Nissan: showed not the car but beautiful scenes from nature aimed at producing emotional association.

Creative people must find a cohesive style, tone, words and format for executing the message. Style: any message can be presented by number of style, fantasy, mood, images, personality technical expertise. Words: the communicator must choose appropriate words for the ads.example:the-- Memorable and attention getting words must be found. Akhir log hamara charah he tu dekhatay hain.

headline subhead body copy slogan

Theme 7-up is not a cola let us drive you in

our bus instead of Driving your car.

creative copy
the un cola take the bus and leave driving to us

Format element such as size, color, and illustration will effect the ad impact as well as on its cost. Large size ads gain more attention.

Picture , headline and copy are also very important .the reader first notice the picture and it must be strong enough to draw attention.headline also propel the person to read and copy itself must be well composed. In particular, the frequent use of the itas coke is it Just do it

Social responsibility view

Advertising does not over step social and legal norms. Companies must avoid false and ads and demonstration.

Media Decisions
Step 1. Decide on Reach, Frequency, and Impact Step 2. Choosing Among Major Media Types
Media Habits of Target Consumers, Nature of the Product, Types of Message, Cost

Specific Media Within a Given Type, i.e. Magazines. Must Balance Media Cost Against Media Factors:
Audience Quality & Attention, Editorial Quality

Step 3. Selecting Specific Media Vehicles

Deciding on the Media & Measuring Effectiveness

Deciding on reach, frequency and impact Media selection (finding the most cost-effective media to deliver desired number & type of exposures to the target audience)

The effect of exposure on audience awareness depends on Reach (number of different persons or
at least once during a specified time period)

households exposed to a particular media schedule

Frequency (number of times within the

household is exposed to the message)

specified time period that an average person or

Impact (Qualitative value of an exposure through a given medium) I

The relation between reach, frequency and impact is captured in two concepts Total number of exposures (E) E=R*F, this measure is refereed as Gross Rating Point GRP Weighted number of exposures (WE) WE=R*F*I

Choosing among major media types

One of the most important decisions when developing an advertising strategy. The media selected must be capable of accomplishing the communications objectives of informing, persuading, and reminding potential customers of the product or idea being advertised. Research identifies the ads target market t determine its size and characteristics.

Media Types Advantages & Disadvantages

Newspapers Magazines Radio Television

Major Types of Advertising Media

Outdoor Internet Alternative Media

Newspapers 19%
Advantages Disadvantages

Short lead times

flexibility, community prestige, and intensive coverage for ads.high believability.

Short lifespan Low pass-along rate Color capabilities Selectivity of narrow markets

Magazines 5%
Advantages Disadvantages

Image reproduction Long life High geographic and demographic selectivity High quality reproduction

Waste circulation

Radio 8%
variety of stations allows advertisers to easily target audiences and to tailor their messages to those listeners . low cost, flexibility, mobility


No visual treatment Short life span Highly fragmented audience

Television 25%
Advantages Disadvantages

Mass coverage Low cost per customer Demographic selectivity High color capabilities

High execution cost Skepticism Technology Clutter

Media Selection Considerations

Target audience media habits product

Choice among media categories



Selecting Media Vehicles

Audience size has several possible measures Circulation (number of physical units carrying the advertising) Audience (number of people exposed to the vehicle) Effective audience (number of people with target audience characteristics) Effective ad-exposed audience (number of people with target audience characteristics who actually saw the ad)