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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Proposition 2.1.

Let a,b,c be natural numbers. If a|b and b|c then a|c.

Lemma 2.2.

Every natural number greater than 1 is divisible by some prime number.

Every non-empty subset of has a least element

Proposition 2.6.

If m and n are natural numbers with n < 0, there exists natural numbers q, and r, with

0 r < n such that m=qn + r

i) ii) Every natural number greater than 1 can be written as a product of prime numbers. Such a factorisation is unique, except for the order of the terms

Corollary 2.9.

If the prime number p divides the product of natural numbers m and n, then p|m or p|n. iep|mn, then p|m or p|n

Lemma 2.10.

If l,m, and n are positive natural numbers and m|n, the the highest power of l to divide m is less than or equal to the highest power of l to divide n.

hcf(m,n) * lcm(m,n) = mn

Proposition 2.14

If g is any common factor of m and n then g divides hcf(m,n) Lcm divides every common multiple of mn

Note:

Definition 3.1

A subset of is called a subgroup if it is nonempty, and the sum and difference of any two of its member is also a member. EG: , 2,,n There are the only examples!

Proposition 3.2

Proposition 3.3

For any two integers m and n, m divides n if and only if m n

Proposition 3.4

i) ii) { m + n : m G1, n G2 } denoted G1 + G2 G1 G2 contains every subgroup contained in G1 and G2

Less precisely : G1 G2 is the largest subgroup contained in G1 and G2 G1 + G2 s the smallest subgroup containing both in G1 and G2

Theorem 3.5.

Let m,n then

i) ii) m + n = h, where h= hcf(m,n) m n = l, where l= lcm(m,n)

Corollary 3.6

For any pair m and n of integers there exist integers a and b such that hcf(m,n) = am + bn

Definition 3.7

The integers m and n are coprime if hcf(m,n) = 1

Corollary 3.8

The integers m and n are coprime if and only if there exist integers a and b such that am + bn = 1

Definition 3.9

Let X be a set. A binary operation on X is a rule which, to each ordered pair of elements of X, associates a single element of X

Definition 3.10.

A binary operation * on X is Commutative if ( x*y)=(y*x) Associative if x*(y*z) = (x*y)*z

Proposition 3.11

Addition and multiplication modulo n are associative

Lemma 3.13

a b a b (mod n) implies (mod n) implies a + a b + b aa bb (mod n) (mod n)

Theorem 3.14

If p is a prime number then for every integer a not divisible by p, ap-1 1 (mod p)

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