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Foundation notes

Proposition 2.1.
Let a,b,c be natural numbers. If a|b and b|c then a|c.

Lemma 2.2.
Every natural number greater than 1 is divisible by some prime number.

The Well-Ordering Principle (WOP)


Every non-empty subset of has a least element

Proposition 2.6.
If m and n are natural numbers with n < 0, there exists natural numbers q, and r, with
0 r < n such that m=qn + r

Theorem 2.8. (The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic)


i) ii) Every natural number greater than 1 can be written as a product of prime numbers. Such a factorisation is unique, except for the order of the terms

Corollary 2.9.
If the prime number p divides the product of natural numbers m and n, then p|m or p|n. iep|mn, then p|m or p|n

Lemma 2.10.
If l,m, and n are positive natural numbers and m|n, the the highest power of l to divide m is less than or equal to the highest power of l to divide n.

Note: hfc(0,n)= hcf(n,o)=n and lcm(n,0)=lcm(0,n)=0 Corollary 2.13


hcf(m,n) * lcm(m,n) = mn

Proposition 2.14
If g is any common factor of m and n then g divides hcf(m,n) Lcm divides every common multiple of mn

The Euclidean Algorithm If m = qn + r then hcf(n,m) = hcf (n,r)

Note:

hcf(m,n) = hcf(|m|, |n|) and lcm(m,n)=lcm(|m|,|n|)

Definition 3.1
A subset of is called a subgroup if it is nonempty, and the sum and difference of any two of its member is also a member. EG: , 2,,n There are the only examples!

For any subgroup S: 0 S; If a S then also a S; If a S then every multiple of a is in S.

Proposition 3.2

If S is a subgroup then there is a natural number g such that S = g = {gn : n }

Proposition 3.3
For any two integers m and n, m divides n if and only if m n

Proposition 3.4
i) ii) { m + n : m G1, n G2 } denoted G1 + G2 G1 G2 contains every subgroup contained in G1 and G2

Less precisely : G1 G2 is the largest subgroup contained in G1 and G2 G1 + G2 s the smallest subgroup containing both in G1 and G2

Theorem 3.5.
Let m,n then
i) ii) m + n = h, where h= hcf(m,n) m n = l, where l= lcm(m,n)

Corollary 3.6
For any pair m and n of integers there exist integers a and b such that hcf(m,n) = am + bn

Definition 3.7
The integers m and n are coprime if hcf(m,n) = 1

Corollary 3.8
The integers m and n are coprime if and only if there exist integers a and b such that am + bn = 1

Definition 3.9

Let X be a set. A binary operation on X is a rule which, to each ordered pair of elements of X, associates a single element of X

Definition 3.10.
A binary operation * on X is Commutative if ( x*y)=(y*x) Associative if x*(y*z) = (x*y)*z

Proposition 3.11
Addition and multiplication modulo n are associative

Lemma 3.13
a b a b (mod n) implies (mod n) implies a + a b + b aa bb (mod n) (mod n)

Theorem 3.14
If p is a prime number then for every integer a not divisible by p, ap-1 1 (mod p)