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**Lecture 6: Lossy Transmission Lines and the Smith Chart
**

Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 1/3

Dispersionless Line

To ﬁnd the conditions for the transmission line to be dispersionless in terms of the R, L, C , G, expand

γ =

=

=

(jωL + R )(jωC + G )

(jω)2 LC(1 +

(jω)2 LC √

RG G R ) + + 2 LC jωL jωC (jω)

**Suppose that R/L = G/C and simplify the
**

R2 2R + =1+ jωL (jω)2 L2

University of California, Berkeley

term

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 2/3

Dispersionless Line (II)

For R/L = G/C the propagation constant simpliﬁes

= R 1+ jωL

2

√ R γ = −jω LC 1 + jωL

**Breaking γ into real and imaginary components
**

γ=R

√ C − jω LC = α + jβ L

**The attenauation constant α is independent of R frequency. For low loss lines, α ≈ − Z0
**

The propagation constant β is a linear function of frequency

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 3/3

**Lossy Transmission Line Attenuation
**

The power delivered into the line at a point z is now non-constant and decaying exponentially

|v + |2 −2αz 1 ∗ e (Z0 ) (v(z)i(z) ) = Pav (z) = 2 2|Z0 | 2

For instance, if α = .01m− 1, then a transmission line of length = 10m will attenuate the signal by 10 log(e2α ) or 2 dB. At = 100m will attenuate the signal by 10 log(e2α ) or 20 dB.

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 4/3

**Lossy Transmission Line Impedance
**

Using the same methods to calculate the impedance for the low-loss line, we arrive at the following line voltage/current

v(z) = v + e−γz (1 + ρL e2γz ) = v + e−γz (1 + ρL (z)) v + −γz e (1 − ρL (z)) i(z) = Z0

Where ρL (z) is the complex reﬂection coefﬁcient at position z and the load reﬂection coefﬁcient is unaltered from before The input impedance is therefore

e−γz + ρL eγz Zin (z) = Z0 −γz e − ρL eγz

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 5/3

**Lossy T-Line Impedance (cont)
**

Substituting the value of ρL we arrive at a similar equation (now a hyperbolic tangent)

ZL + Z0 tanh(γ ) Zin (− ) = Z0 Z0 + ZL tanh(γ )

For a short line, if γδ

1, we may safely assume that

Zin (−δ ) = Z0 tanh(γδ ) ≈ Z0 γδ √ Recall that Z0 γ = Z /Y Z Y

**As expected, input impedance is therefore the series impedance of the line (where R = R δ and L = L δ )
**

Zin (−δ ) = Z δ = R + jωL

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 6/3

Review of Resonance (I)

We’d like to ﬁnd the impedance of a series resonator 1 near resonance Z(ω) = jωL + jωC + R

Recall the deﬁnition of the circuit Q

time average energy stored Q = ω0 energy lost per cycle

**For a series resonator, Q = ω0 L/R. For a small frequency shift from resonance δω ω0
**

1 Z(ω0 + δω) = jω0 L + jδωL + jω0 C

1 1 + δω ω0

+R

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 7/3

Review of Resonance (II)

Which can be simpliﬁed using the fact that ω0 L =

Z(ω0 + δω) = j2δωL + R

1 ω0 C

**Using the deﬁnition of Q
**

δω Z(ω0 + δω) = R 1 + j2Q ω0

**For a parallel line, the same formula applies to the admittance
**

δω Y (ω0 + δω) = G 1 + j2Q ω0

Where Q = ω0 C/G

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 8/3

**λ/2 T-Line Resonators (Series)
**

A shorted transmission line of length has input impedance of Zin = Z0 tanh(γ ) For a low-loss line, Z0 is almost real Expanding the tanh term into real and imaginary parts

j sin(2β ) sinh(2α ) + tanh(α +jβ ) = cos(2β ) + cosh(2α ) cos(2β ) + cosh(2α )

Since λ0 f0 = c and = λ0 /2 (near the resonant frequency), we have β = 2π /λ = 2π f /c = π + 2πδf /c = π + πδω/ω0 If the lines are low loss, then α

1

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 9/3

λ/2 Series Resonance

Simplifying the above relation we come to

Zi n = Z 0 πδω α +j ω0

The above form for the input impedance of the series resonant T-line has the same form as that of the series LRC circuit We can deﬁne equivalent elements

Req = Z0 α = Z0 αλ/2 πZ0 = 2ω0

University of California, Berkeley

Leq

Ceq

2 = Z0 πω0

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 10/3

λ/2 Series Resonance Q

The equivalent Q factor is given by

β0 π 1 = = Q= 2α αλ0 ω0 Req Ceq

For a low-loss line, this Q factor can be made very large. A good T-line might have a Q of 1000 or 10,000 or more It’s difﬁcult to build a lumped circuit resonator with such a high Q factor

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 11/3

**λ/4 T-Line Resonators (Parallel)
**

For a short-circuited λ/4 line

Zin tanh α + j tan β = Z0 tanh(α + jβ) = Z0 1 + j tan β tanh α

**Multiply numerator and denominator by −j cot β
**

Zin 1 − j tanh α cot β = Z0 tanh α − j cot β

For = λ/4 at ω = ω0 and ω = ω0 + δω

π πδω δω ω0 = + + β = 2ω0 2 v v

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 12/3

**λ/4 T-Line Resonators (Parallel)
**

So cot β = −tan πδω ≈ 2ω0

Zin

−πδω 2ω0

and tanh α ≈ α

Z0 1 + jα πδω/2ω0 ≈ = Z0 α + jπδω/2ω0 α + jπδω/2ω0

**This has the same form for a parallel resonant RLC circuit 1 Zin = 1/R + 2jδωC
**

The equivalent circuit elements are

Req Z0 = α

Ceq π = 4ω0 Z0

Leq 1 = 2 ω0 Ceq

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 13/3

**λ/4 T-Line Resonators Q Factor
**

The quality factor is thus

β π = Q = ω0 RC = 2α 4α

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 14/3

**The Smith Chart
**

The Smith Chart is simply a graphical calculator for computing impedance as a function of reﬂection coefﬁcient z = f (ρ) More importantly, many problems can be easily visualized with the Smith Chart This visualization leads to a insight about the behavior of transmission lines All the knowledge is coherently and compactly represented by the Smith Chart Why else study the Smith Chart? It’s beautiful! There are deep mathematical connections in the Smith Chart. It’s the tip of the iceberg! Study complex analysis to learn more.

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 15/3

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**University of California, Berkeley
**

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EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 16/33

**Generalized Reﬂection Coefﬁcient
**

In sinusoidal steady-state, the voltage on the line is a T-line

v(z) = v + (z) + v − (z) = V + (e−γz + ρL eγz )

Recall that we can deﬁne the reﬂection coefﬁcient anywhere by taking the ratio of the reﬂected wave to the forward wave

ρL eγz v − (z) = −γz = ρL e2γz ρ(z) = + e v (z)

**Therefore the impedance on the line ...
**

v + e−γz (1 + ρL e2γz ) Z(z) = v+ e−γz (1 − ρL e2γz ) Z0

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 17/3

Normalized Impedance

...can be expressed in terms of ρ(z)

1 + ρ(z) Z(z) = Z0 1 − ρ(z)

**It is extremely fruitful to work with normalized impedance values z = Z/Z0
**

1 + ρ(z) Z(z) = z(z) = 1 − ρ(z) Z0

Let the normalized impedance be written as z = r + jx (note small case) The reﬂection coefﬁcient is “normalized” by default since for passive loads |ρ| ≤ 1. Let ρ = u + jv

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 18/3

**Dissection of the Transformation
**

Now simply equate the above equaiton and components in the

((1 + u + jv)(1 − u + jv) (1 + u) + jv = r + jx = (1 − u)2 + v 2 (1 − u) − jv

**To obtain the relationship between the (r,x) plane and the (u,v) plane 1 − u2 − v 2 r= (1 − u)2 + v 2
**

v(1 − u) + v(1 + u) x= (1 − u)2 + v 2

**The above equations can be simpliﬁed and put into a nice form
**

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 19/3

**Completing Your Squares...
**

If you remember your high school algebra, you can derive the following equivalent equations

r u− 1+r

2

1 +v = (1 + r)2

2

2

1 2 (u − 1) + v − x

1 = 2 x

These are circles in the (u,v) plane! Circles are good! We see that vertical and horizontal lines in the (r,x) plane (complex impedance plane) are transformed to circles in the (u,v) plane (complex reﬂection coefﬁcient)

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 20/3

Resistance Transformations

v

r=

0

r=0 .5

r=1

r=2

u

r

r=0 r=.5 r=1

r=2

r = 0 maps to u2 + v 2 = 1 (unit circle) r = 1 maps to (u − 1/2)2 + v 2 = (1/2)2 (matched real part) r = .5 maps to (u − 1/3)2 + v 2 = (2/3)2 (load R less than Z0 ) r = 2 maps to (u − 2/3)2 + v 2 = (1/3)2 (load R greater than Z0 )

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 21/3

Reactance Transformations

x v

x=1

x=2

x

x=2 x=1

x=0

=

.5

u

r

x = -1

x

=.5

x = -2

x = ±1 maps to (u − 1)2 + (v x = ±2 maps to (u − 1)2 + (v x = ±1/2 maps to (u − 1)2 + (v

x = -1

1)2 = 1 1/2)2 = (1/2)2 2)2 = 22

Inductive reactance maps to upper half of unit circle Capacitive reactance maps to lower half of unit circle

University of California, Berkeley

-2 x=

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 22/3

**Complete Smith Chart
**

r>1 v

match

x=1

x=2

x =

r=

short

.5

0

open

r=0 .5

inductive

r=1

r=2

u

capacitive

x

=.5

University of California, Berkeley

x = -1

-2 x=

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 23/3

Load on Smith Chart

load

First map zL on the Smith Chart as ρL To read off the impedance on the T-line at any point on a lossless line, simply move on a circle of constant radius since ρ(z) = ρL e2jβ

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 24/3

**Motion Towards Generator
**

Moving towards generator means ρ(− ) = ρL e−2jβ , or clockwise motion For a lossy line, this corresponds to a spiral motion We’re back to where we started when 2β = 2π , or = λ/2 Thus the impedance is periodic (as we know)

University of California, Berkeley

towards generator ent em v mo

load

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 25/3

SWR Circle

Since SWR is a function of |ρ|, a circle at origin in (u,v) plane is called an SWR circle Recall the voltage max occurs when the reﬂected wave is in phase with the forward wave, so ρ(zmin ) = |ρL |

S

W

R

CIRC

LE

ρL = |ρL |ejθ

voltage min

voltage max

ρ = |ρL |ej(θ−2β

)

This corresponds to the intersection of the SWR circle with the positive real axis Likewise, the intersection with the negative real axis is the location of the voltge min

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 26/3

**Example of Smith Chart Visualization
**

Prove that if ZL has an inductance reactance, then the position of the ﬁrst voltage maximum occurs before the voltage minimum as we move towards the generator A visual proof is easy using Smith Chart On the Smith Chart start at any point in the upper half of the unit circle. Moving towards the generator corresponds to clockwise motion on a circle. Therefore we will always cross the positive real axis ﬁrst and then the negative real axis.

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 27/3

**Impedance Matching Example
**

Single stub impedance matching is easy to do with the Smith Chart Simply ﬁnd the intersection of the SWR circle with the r = 1 circle The match is at the center of the circle. Grab a reactance in series or shunt to move you there!

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 28/3

Series Stub Match

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 29/3

Admittance Chart

1−ρ Since y = 1/z = 1+ρ , you can imagine that an Admittance Smith Chart looks very similar

In fact everything is switched around a bit and you can buy or construct a combined admittance/impedance smith chart. You can also use an impedance chart for admittance if you simply map x → b and r → g Be careful ... the caps are now on the top of the chart and the inductors on the bottom The short and open likewise swap positions

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 30/3

**Admittance on Smith Chart
**

Sometimes you may need to work with both impedances and admittances. This is easy on the Smith Chart due to the impedance inversion property of a λ/4 line

2 Z0 Z = Z

**If we normalize Z we get y
**

1 Z0 Z = =y = z Z Z0

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 31/3

Admittance Conversion

Thus if we simply rotate π degrees on the Smith Chart and read off the impedance, we’re actually reading off the admittance! Rotating π degrees is easy. Simply draw a line through origin and zL and read off the second point of intersection on the SWR circle

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 32/3

**Shunt Stub Match
**

Let’s now solve the same matching problem with a shunt stub. To ﬁnd the shunt stub value, simply convert the value of z = 1 + jx to y = 1 + jb and place a reactance of −jb in shunt

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 6 – p. 33/3

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- Lecture 24 Oblique Incidence on Dielectrics
- Lecture 23 Oblique Incidence and Reflection
- Lecture 22 Poynting’s Theorem and Normal Incidence
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- Lecture 8 Electrostatic Potential & Gauss Law
- Lecture 7 Electrostatics Review
- Lecture 5 Transmission Line Impedance Matching
- Lecture 4 Transmission Lines With Time Harmonic Exitation
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