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You are on page 1of 30

Prof. Niknejad

University of California, Berkeley

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 1/30

Review of Divergence

If we try to measure the ux at a point, we are tempted

to compute

_

S

A dS is a small volume surrounding a

point

This ux will diminish, though, as we make the volume

smaller and smaller. We might suspect that normalizing

by volume will solve the problem

In fact, the divergence of a vector is dened as follows

divA lim

V 0

_

S

A dS

V

We usually write

divA = A

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 2/30

Divergence in Rectangular Coor. (I)

x

y

z

r

dx

dy

dz

Consider the ux crossing a small differential volume at

position (x

0

, y

0

, z

0

). We can break up the ux

_

S

A dS

into several components

=

_

xx/2

+

_

x+x/2

+

_

yy/2

+

_

y+y/2

+

_

zz/2

+

_

z+z/2

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 3/30

Divergence in Rectangular Coor. (II)

Without loss of generality, consider the ux crossing the

surfaces in the xz plane, or the third and fourth terms in

the above calculation

The ux for these terms is simply

= A

y

(x

0

, y

0

y

2

, z

0

)xz + A

y

(x

0

, y

0

+

y

2

, z

0

)xz

x

y

z

dx

dy

dz

A

A

y

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 4/30

Divergence in Rectangular Coor. (III)

For a differential volume this becomes

_

S

A dS = xzy

A

y

y

Thus the total ux is simply

_

S

A dS = xyz

_

A

x

x

+

A

y

y

+

A

z

z

_

For rectangular coordinates, we have therefore proved

that

div A =

_

A

x

x

+

A

y

y

+

A

z

z

_

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 5/30

Divergence in Rectangular Coor. (IV)

In terms of the operator

= x

x

+ y

y

+z

z

Since the dot product of the operator and the vector

A gives

A =

A

x

x

+

A

y

y

+

A

z

z

We can rewrite divA as simply A

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 6/30

Gauss Law (again)

Applying the denition of divergence to the electric ux

density D, we have

lim

V 0

_

S

D dS

V

=

q

inside

V

= = D

Therefore we have the important result that at any given

point

D = (x, y, z)

This is the analog to the equivalent statement that we

derived last lecture

_

S

D dS =

_

V

dV

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 7/30

Divergence Theorem

The Divergence Theorem is a direct proof of this

relationship between the volume integral of the

divergence and the surface integral (applies to any

vector function A)

_

V

AdV =

_

S

A dS

Here V is any bounded volume and S is the closed

surface on the boundary of the volume

Application of this theorem to the electric ux density D

immediately gives us the differential form of Gauss law

from the integral form

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 8/30

Perfect Conductors (I)

Perfect conductors are idealized materials with zero

resistivity. Common metals such as gold, copper, aluminum

are examples of good conductors.

A fuzzy picture of a perfect conduc-

tor is a material with many mobile

charges that easily respond to an ex-

ternal elds. These carriers behave

as if they are in vacuumand they can

move unimpeded through the metal.

These mobile charges, though, can-

not leave the material due to a large

potential barrier (related to the work

function of the material).

+ + + + +

+ + + + +

+ + + + +

+ + + + +

+ + + + +

+ + + + +

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 9/30

Perfect Conductors (II)

One may argue that the electric eld is zero under static

equilibrium based on the following argument. Under static

equilibrium charges cannot move. So we might argue that if

an external eld is applied, then all the charges in a perfect

conductor would move to the boundary where they would

remain due to the potential barrier. But this argument

ignores the fact that the external eld can be canceled by

an internal eld due to the rearrangement of charges (see

gure below).

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 10/30

Perfect Conductors (III)

Thus we have to invoke Gauss law to further prove that

in fact there can be no net charge in the body of a

conductor. Because if net charge exists in the body,

Gauss law applied to a small sphere surrounding the

charge would require a eld in the body, which we

already hypothesized to be zero. Therefore our

argument is consistent.

In conclusion, we are convinced that a perfect metal

should have zero electric eld in the body and no net

charge in the body. Thus, we expect that if any net

charge is to be found in the material, it would have to be

on the boundary.

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 11/30

Perfect Conductors (IV)

We could in fact dene a perfect conductor as a

material with zero electric eld inside the material. This

is an alternative way to dene a perfect conductor

without making any assumptions about conductivity

(which we have not yet really explored)

A perfect conductor is also an equipotential material

under static conditions, or the potential is everywhere

constant on the surface of a perfect conductor

This is easy to prove since if E 0 in the material, then

_

E d is likewise zero between any two points in the

material body.

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 12/30

Tangential Boundary Conditions (I)

Its easy to show that the electric eld must cross the

surface of a perfect conductor at a normal angle. Since

_

C

E d 0

For any path C, choose a path that partially crosses into the

conductor. Since E = 0 inside the conductor, the only

contribution to the integral are the side walls and E

t

, or the

tangential component along the path.

In the limit, we can make the

path smaller and smaller un-

til it is tangent to the surface

and imperceptibly penetrates

the material so the side wall

contributions vanish.

C

E = 0

E

t

n

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 13/30

Tangential Boundary Conditions (II)

_

C

E d = E

t

0

We are thus led to conclude that E

t

0 at the surface

Another argument is that since E = and

furthermore since the surface is an equipotential, then

clearly E

t

is zero since there can be no change in

potential along the surface

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 14/30

Normal Boundary Conditions (I)

Consider a pill-box hugging the surface of a perfect

conductor as shown below

E = 0

E

t

n

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 15/30

Normal Boundary Conditions (II)

The electric ux density is computed for this surface.

Like before, well make the volume smaller and smaller

until the sidewall contribution goes to zero. Since the

bottom is still in the conductor and the eld is zero, this

term will not contribute to the integral either. The only

remaining contribution is the normal component of the

top surface

_

D dS = D

n

dS = Q

inside

= dS

s

We have thus shown that D

n

=

s

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 16/30

Example: Spherical Shell

+Q

Neutral Conductor

Consider a charge placed at the center of a spherical

shell made of perfect conducting materials

Lets nd the surface charge density on the inner and

outer surface of the conductor

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 17/30

Example (cont)

Lets apply Gauss law for the dashed sphere lying

inside the conductor. Since E 0 on this surface, the

charge inside bus likewise be zero Q

inside

= 0 which

implies that there exists a uniform charge density (by

symmetry) of

inner

= Q/S

i

where S

i

= 4a

2

If we now consider a larger sphere of radius r > b, since

the sphere is neutral, the net charge is just the isolated

charge Q. Thus

D

r

4r

2

= Q +

inside

S

1

. .

Q

+

outside

S

2

= Q

Thus

outside

= Q/S

2

=

Q

4b

2

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 18/30

Example: Field Sketch

The elds have been sketched in the gure below. Radial

symmetry is preserved and an induced negative and

positive charge density appear at the shell surfaces

+

_

_ _ _

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_ _ _

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

++

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

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+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ + + + +

+

+

+

+

+

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+

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+

+

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+

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+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

++

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 19/30

Example: Electric Field Summary

We have found the following relations to hold

D

r

=

Q

4r

2

r < a

D

r

= 0 a r b

D

r

=

Q

4r

2

r > b

A plot is shown below

a

b

1

r

2

E

r

(

r

)

r

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 20/30

Example: Potential

Lets compute the potential from the elds. Take the

reference point at to be zero and integrate along a

radial path. For r > b

=

_

r

E

r

dr =

Q

4r

Likewise for a r b, since E

r

is zero for the path

inside the conducting sphere, the potential remains

constant at

Q

4

0

b

until we exit the conductor

Finally, once outside the conductor for r < a we

continue integrating

=

Q

4b

_

r

a

Q

4

0

r

2

dr

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 21/30

Example: Potential (cont)

Thus we have

=

Q

4

0

_

1

b

+

1

r

1

a

_

A plot of the potential is shown below. Note that

potential on the conductor is non-zero and its value

depends on the amount of charge at the center

a

b r

r

(r)

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 22/30

Grounded Shell

What if we now ground the shell? That means that

= 0 on the surface of the conductor. The work done in

moving a point charge from innity to the surface of the

shell is thus zero. Choose a radial path

=

_

r

E

r

dr = 0

Since the function E

r

monotonic, E

r

= 0 everywhere

outside the sphere! A grounded spherical shell acts like

a good shield.

If E

r

(b) = 0, then

s

= 0 at the outer surface as well.

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 23/30

Charged Spherical Shell

To nd the charge on the inner sphere, we can use the

same argument as before unchanged so

inside

= Q/S

1

But now the material is not neutral! Where did the

charge go?

Imagine starting with the ungrounded case where the

positive charge is induced on the outer surface. Then

ground the sphere and we see that the charge ows out

of the sphere into ground thus charging the material

negative

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 24/30

Charged Shell Field Sketch

The elds have been sketched in the gure below. Radial

symmetry is preserved and an induced negative charge

density appears at inner shell surfaces. The eld outside

the shell is zero.

+

_

_ _ _

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_ _ _

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 25/30

Poissons Equation (aka Fish Eq.)

We already have an equation for calculating E and

directly from a charge distribution

If we know E, then we can nd by simply taking the

divergence: = E. If we know is it possible to

predict ? Sure:

= E =

The operator A is a new operator and we call it the

Laplacian

2

Thus we have Poissons Equation

2

=

2

= 0. This is known

as Laplaces equation

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 26/30

Laplacian in Rect. Coordinates

Lets untangle the beast operator

=

_

x

x +

y

y +

z

z

_

x

x +

y

y +

z

z

_

OK, all cross products involving mutual vectors die (e.g.

x y 0) so we have

2

=

2

x

2

+

2

y

2

+

2

z

2

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 27/30

Example: Parallel Plate Structure

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

E

V

1

s,t

s,b

Consider a battery connected to a grounded parallel

plate

Suppose the plates are made of perfect conductors. If

the plates are large, then we expect to be a function

of z alone (ignore the edge effects). Thus the operator

2

degenerates and inside the plates we have 0 z d

z

2

= 0

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 28/30

Example (cont)

Thus = az + b. The boundary conditions on the top

and bottom plate determine a and b uniquely. Since

(z = 0) = 0 we have b = 0. Also since (z = d) = V

1

,

a = V

1

/d

(z) =

V

1

d

z

And the eld is easily computed

E = = z

z

_

V

1

d

z

_

= z

V

1

d

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 29/30

Example (cont)

The eld is constant and points in the z direction.

Since the charge density on the inner plate surface is

equal to the normal component of the eld there

s,b

= n E =

V

1

d

s,t

= +

V

1

d

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 9 p. 30/30

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