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Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

Experimental Observations

Consider a pair of parallel wires carrying steady currents I1 and I2 . Last lecture we found that steady currents imply zero net charge distribution. Therefore, there should be no electrostatic force between these current carrying wires. But experimentally we do observe a force which tends to be attractive if the currents are in the same direction and repulsive if the currents are in opposite direction. This new force is in fact an electrostatic force if we consider the problem from a relativistic point of view! Even though the net charge on each current carrying conductor is zero in a static reference frame, in a moving reference frame there is net charge density and hence force.

University of California, Berkeley

Magnetic Force

Through careful observations, Ampre demonstrated that this force can be computed using the following equation 0 I2 d2 I1 d1 R dFm = 4 R2 The resemblance to the Coulomb force equation is notable. Both forces fall like 1/R2 . For steady currents, J = 0 implies that the currents must ow in loops. Thus we can calculate the force between two loops as follows

Fm =

C1 C2

0 I2 d2 I1 d1 R 4 R2

Magnetic Field

Just as in the case of electric forces, the concept of action at a distance is disturbing and counterintuitive. Thus we prefer to think of the current in loop C1 generating a eld and then we say that this eld interacts with the current in loop C2 to generate a force. Just reordering the magnetic force equation gives

0 Fm = I2 d2 4 C2 I1 d1 R R2

B

C1

Here loop 2 is the source and loop one is the eld point. The unit of B is the tesla (T), where 1T = 104 G, in terms of the CGS units of gauss (G).

University of California, Berkeley

The tesla (T) and gauss (G) are derived units. Since F I 2 , the units of are simply N A2 . This is more commonly known as H m1 . The units of the magnetic eld is therefore

[B] = []A m m2 = H A m2

Not that the units of D are C m2 , which can be written as F V m2 From circuit theory we know that voltage is proportional to LI , so LI has units of V . So the unit of [B] is V s m2 For reference, the magnetic eld of the earth is only .5G, so 1T is a very large eld

University of California, Berkeley

Due to the vector cross product, the direction of the force of the magnetic eld is perpendicular to the direction of motion and the magnetic eld Use the right-hand rule to gure out the direction of Fm in any given situation.

E and B Duality

For a point charge dq , the electric force is given by

Fe = qE

The magnetic force for a point charge in a current loop, we have Fm = Id B = qN dv B The equations for E and B are also similar when we consider an arbitrary current density J and charge density 1 (r )R E= dV 2 4 V R

1 B= 41

University of California, Berkeley

J(r ) R dV 2 R

We may now compare the magnetic eld to the electric eld and look for similarity and differences. In this class we shall not discuss the relativistic viewpoint that explains the link between electrostatics and the magnetic eld. Instead, we shall assume that the magnetic eld is an entity of its own. Apparently, the source of magnetic eld is moving charges (currents) whereas the source of electric elds is charges. But what about magnetic charges? Is there any reason to believe that nature should be asymmetric and give us electrical charge and not magnetic charge?

If magnetic charge existed, then the argument for Gauss law would apply

B dS = Qm

S

Where Qm is the amount of magnetic charge inside the volume V bounded by surface S . But no one has ever observed any magnetic charge! So for all practical purposes, we can assume that Qm 0 and so Gauss law applied to magnetic elds yields

B dS = 0

S

Divergence of B

By the divergence theorem, locally this relation translates into

B dS =

S V

BdV = 0

Since this is true for any surface S , the integrand must be identically zero B=0 A vector eld with zero divergence is known as a solenoidal eld We already encountered such a eld since J = 0. Such a eld does not have any sources and thus always curls back onto itself. B elds are thus always loops.

University of California, Berkeley

Divergence of Curl

Lets calculate the divergence of the curl of an arbitrary vector eld A, A Lets compute the volume of the above quantity and apply the divergence theorem

AdV =

V S

A dS

To compute the surface integral, consider a new surface S with a hole in it. The surface integral of A can be written as the line integral using Stokes Theorem

A dS =

S C

A d

Divergence of Curl

Where C is the perimeter of the hole. As we shrink this hole to a point, the right hand side goes to zero and the surface integral turns into the closed surface integral. Thus

AdV =

V S

A dS = 0

A=0

Thus a solenoidal vector can always be written as the curl of another vector. Thus the magnetic eld B can be written as B=A

University of California, Berkeley

Ampres Law

One of the fundamental relations for the magnetic eld is Amres law. It is analogous to Gauss law. We can derive it by taking the curl of the magnetic eld

1 B= 41 J(r ) R dV R2

After some painful manipulations (see Appendix B), this can be simplied to Ampres famous law

B = J

B dS =

S C

University of California, Berkeley

B d =

S

J dS = I

Ampres Law is very handy in situations involving cylindrical symmetry. This is analogous to applying Gauss law to problems with spherical symmetry For example, consider the magnetic eld due to a long wire. The eld should have no r or z dependence (by symmetry) so the integral of B over a circle enclosing the wire is simply a constant times the perimeter

B d = 2rBr = I

C

I B(r) = 2r

University of California, Berkeley

Earlier we showed that we can also dene a vector A such that B = A. Since B = J

A = J

A = ( A) 2 A

Since the divergence of A is arbitrary, lets choose the most convenient value. In magnetostatics that is A=0 Then we have

2 A = J

University of California, Berkeley

The vector Laplacian can be written as three scalar Laplacian equations (using rectangular coordinates). For instance, the x-component is given by

2 Ax = Jx

Ax = 4 Jx (r )dV |r r |

A= 4

University of California, Berkeley

J(r )dV |r r |

The vector potential A is easier to calculate than B since each component is a simple scalar calculation. Also, the direction of A is easy to determine since it follows J At this point the vector potential seems like a mathematical creation. It does not seem to have physical relevance. This is compounded by the fact that A is arbitrary! Later on, well see that A has a lot of physical relevance and in some ways its more fundamental than the vector B

From Vector A to B

Now that we have an equation for A, we can verify that it is indeed consistent with the experimentally observed equation for B

A= 4 J(r )dV |r r |

A= 4 J(r ) dV |r r |

Its relatively easy to show that for a scalar function times a vector eld F

F = F + F

Applying this to our case note that operates on the coordinates r whereas J(r ) is a function of the primed coordinates, and hence a constant

1 R J(r ) = J(r ) = J(r ) |r r | |r r | |r r |2

R 1 = | |r r |r r |2

University of California, Berkeley

Back to B

The expression for B matches up with the experimentally observed equation

B=A= 4 J(r ) R dV 2 R

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