Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

12 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Measuring Residual Magnetism
- 2 Magnetic Fields
- Magnetic Particle Inspection Quiz
- THEORY OF MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND COUPLED CIRCUITS
- Wireless Energy Transfer
- Effects of mutual induction
- Notes
- EEL303_L4_Inductance2
- 2011 - EM & Optics - Solutions
- Magnetic Field.docx
- Final Laboratory Work Student
- V EC (Sy)281111050128
- Eem Notes Chapter1 002
- r 10 Syllabus
- physics
- LM3
- Ampere's Law MC Questions.pdf
- 00849654
- Doc1
- emags

You are on page 1of 21

Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

Magnetic Flux

Magnetic ux plays an important role in many EM problems (in analogy with electric charge)

=

S

C

B dS

=

S

B dS 0

University of California, Berkeley

S2

S1

Magnetic ux is independent of the surface but only depends on the curve bounding the surface. This is easy to show since

=

S

B dS =

S

A dS =

C

A d

=

S1

B dS =

S2

B dS

Flux Linkage

I1 B field

S2

21 =

S2

B1 dS

Likewise, the self-ux of a loop is dened by the ux crossing the surface of a path when a current is owing in the path

11 =

S1

University of California, Berkeley

B1 dS

The ux is linearly proportional to the current and otherwise only a function of the geometry of the path To see this, lets calculate 21 for lamental loops

21 =

C2

A1 d2

but

1 A1 = 41 0

C1

I1 d1 R R1

21 I1 = 41 0 d1 R R1 d2

C2

C1

R2 - R 1 d1 R1 R2 d2

We thus have a simple formula that only involves the magnitude of the current and the average distance between every two points on the loops

21 I1 = 41 0 d1 d2 R2 R1

C2

C1

Since the ux is proportional to the current by a geometric factor, we may write

21 = M21 I1

M21 21 1 = = I1 41 0 d1 d2 R2 R1

C2

C1

The units of M are H since [] = H/m. Its clear that mutual inductance is reciprocal, M21 = M12 The self-ux mutual inductance is simply called the self-inductance and donated by L1 = M11

University of California, Berkeley

If we generalize to a system of current loops we have a system of equations

1 = L1 I1 + M12 I2 + . . . M1N IN . . . N = MN 1 I1 + MN 2 I2 + . . . LN IN

Or in matrix form = M i, where M is the inductance matrix. This equation resembles q = Cv, where C is the capacitance matrix.

We have seen that a tightly wound long long solenoid has B = 0 outside and Bx = 0 inside, so that by Ampres law

By = N I0

where N is the number of current loops crossing the surface of the path. The vertical magnetic eld is therefore constant

N I0 By = = 0 In

University of California, Berkeley

Solenoid Inductance

The ux per turn is therefore simply given by

turn = a2 By

= N turn = N a2 By N 2 a2 I = 0 The solenoid inductance is thus 0 N 2 a2 L= = I

Coaxial Conductor

In transmission line problems, we need to compute inductance/unit length. Consider the shaded area from r = a to r = b

S

b

=

a

0 I B dr = 2

University of California, Berkeley

b a

dr 0 I b = ln r 2 a

The inductance per unit length is therefore

0 L = ln 2

b a

[H/m]

Recall that the product of inductance and capacitance per unit length is a constant

1 LC = 2 c

where c is the speed of light in the medium. Thus we can also calculate the capacitance per unit length without any extra work.

Magnetization Vector

Wed like to study magnetic elds in magnetic materials. Lets dene the magnetization vector as

M = lim mk V

k

V 0

where mk is the magnetic dipole of an atom or molecule The vector potential due to these magnetic dipoles is given by in a differential volume dv is given by

M r dA = 0 dv 2 4R

so

0 A= 4

University of California, Berkeley

M r dv 2 R

Vector Potential

Using

0 A= 4

1 R

r = 2 R

M

V

1 R

dv

M R

1 = M + R

1 R

0 A= 4 M 0 dv R 4

V

M R

dv

Consider the vector u = a v, where a is an arbitrary constant. Then

u = (a v) = ( a)v( v)a = ( v)a

( v) adV =

V S

((a v) u) dS

(a v n) dS

Since the vector a is constant, we can pull it out of the integrals

a

V

( v) dV = a

S

r n dS

( v) dV =

V S

r n dS

V

M R

dv =

S

Mn dS R

The vector potential due to magnetization has a volume component and a surface component

0 A= 4 M 0 dv + R 4 Mn dSdv R

We can thus dene an equivalent magnetic volume current density Jm = M and an equivalent magnetic surface current density

Js = M n

Js

Js

Js

In the gure above, we can see that for uniform magnetization, all the internal currents cancel and only the magnetization vector on the boundary (surface) contributes to the integral

Relative Permeability

We can include the effects of materials on the macroscopic magnetic eld by including a volume current M in Ampres eq

B = 0 J = 0 (J + M)

or

B M=J 0

B M H= 0

University of California, Berkeley

We can thus state that for any medium under static conditions H=J equivalently

H d = I

C

B = (1 + m )H = H

or

1 H= B

University of California, Berkeley

Magnetic Materials

Magnetic materials are classied as follows Diamagnetic: r 1, usually m is a small negative number Paramagnetic: r 1, usually m is a small positive number Ferromagnetic: r 1, thus m is a large positive number Most materials in nature are diamagnetic. To fully understand the magnetic behavior of materials requires a detailed study (and quantum mechanics) In this class we mostly assume 0

- Measuring Residual MagnetismUploaded byCarlos Ortega Jones
- 2 Magnetic FieldsUploaded byrebbieg
- Magnetic Particle Inspection QuizUploaded byarplacido
- THEORY OF MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND COUPLED CIRCUITSUploaded byShyam Iyer
- Wireless Energy TransferUploaded byKrishna Das
- Effects of mutual inductionUploaded bynedian08
- NotesUploaded byPriyesh Mohture
- EEL303_L4_Inductance2Uploaded byIftikhar Ansari
- Magnetic Field.docxUploaded byRobin Singh
- 2011 - EM & Optics - SolutionsUploaded byneveragain123
- Final Laboratory Work StudentUploaded byAjayi Olumide
- V EC (Sy)281111050128Uploaded byKavita Burse
- Eem Notes Chapter1 002Uploaded byDalam Maharshi
- r 10 SyllabusUploaded byAlluri Appa Rao
- physicsUploaded byRishabh Sethi
- LM3Uploaded byEléctrico Ingeniería
- Ampere's Law MC Questions.pdfUploaded byLynn Hollenbeck Breindel
- 00849654Uploaded byAnonymous 1880JHcG
- Doc1Uploaded byjlunyc
- emagsUploaded byrobertz_tolentino014
- Campeanu Modelarea Și Simularea Proceselor DinamiceUploaded byvalentinmuller
- T127_Question Bank_Basic Electrical EngineeringUploaded byharish babu aluru
- Physics 72 Second Sem 2014-15 SyllabusUploaded byMaan Rigor
- Ch 27Uploaded byMark Reyes
- On Chip Free Flow MagnetophoresisUploaded byJohnny Cross
- DlpUploaded bythenimadhavan
- 1106.3170v1Uploaded byander0alm
- MagneticUploaded byTrinity Wechegah Faith
- Exposure to Static Magnetic FieldUploaded byAchintDuggal
- EMlect10Uploaded byAjitBabban

- Ham Radio Transmission Line Transformers HandbookUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 26 TE and TM WavesUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 25 Field Theory of T-Lines and Wave GuidesUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 24 Oblique Incidence on DielectricsUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 15 Biot-Savart Law, Ampere’s Law and Magnetic DipoleUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 2 Transmission Line DiscontinuitiesUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 23 Oblique Incidence and ReflectionUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 22 Poynting’s Theorem and Normal IncidenceUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 1 Transmission LinesUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 6 Lossy Transmission Lines and the Smith ChartUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 21 Wave Propagation in Lossy Media and Poynting’s TheoremUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 20 Plane WavesUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 4 Transmission Lines With Time Harmonic ExitationUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- EMC How to Reduce RF EmissionsUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 19 Faraday’s Law and Maxwell’s Eq.Uploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 18 Magnetic Energy and InductanceUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 11 Capacitance and EnergyUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 8 Electrostatic Potential & Gauss LawUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 17 Magnetic ForcesTorque, Faraday’s LawUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 14 Static Magnetic FieldsUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 7 Electrostatics ReviewUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 5 Transmission Line Impedance MatchingUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 13 Method of Images Steady CurrentsUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 12 Dielectric MaterialsUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- matching50to75homsUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 3 Transmission Line Junctions Time Harmonic ExitationUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 10 Laplace’s Eq, Curl, and CapacitanceUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Lecture 9 Electrostatics and Poisson’s EquationUploaded byvaldesc_tol
- Bias Circuits for RF DevicesUploaded byMe Eng Mas

- Lecture 2Uploaded byMuhammad Rizwan
- 2.7. Special Integrating FactorsUploaded byuchiha_rhenzaki
- SA Entry Viva QAsUploaded byWaqas Ud-din
- Angular VelocityUploaded byXiang Tan
- Mathematic 1Uploaded byBangaru Babu
- Constraint singularities of DYMO robotUploaded byAbhilash UN
- Group Theory Lecture Notes AmsterdamUploaded byyapmadur
- Ettore MajoranaUploaded byMin Jae Park
- Linear Algebra Answers to ExercisesUploaded byKleyton Nascimento
- Advmai Ws1718 iUploaded byMandar Priya Phatak
- MFCSUploaded bySuraj Kumar
- Removing_the_Mystery_of_Entropy_and_Termodynamics__32636__-1 (1).pdfUploaded byRocio Milagros Farfan Silva
- 0 - IntroductionUploaded byBryan Pajarito
- Physics for WikipediaUploaded byDoar Fericirea
- Lecture 3, definiteness.docxUploaded byReem Sak
- Unit_3.5Uploaded byLaxman Naidu N
- Wolski-2.pdfUploaded byScott Walton
- SH CollegeUploaded bysatee3253
- Presentation on MatricesUploaded bya_diti
- Dark Energy May Be Incompatible With String TheoryUploaded bySilvino González Morales
- Persuasive Speech-multiverse theoryUploaded byPhen Montalbo
- www.mathcentre.ac.uk_resources_uploaded_mc-ty-tannorm-2009-1.pdfUploaded byRahul Yadav
- The Mass of The Oppenheimer Black Hole: Only Finite Mass Quasi Black Holes (Eternally Collapsing Objects'': IJMPD 2013Uploaded byDr Abhas Mitra
- 6.1Uploaded byspanishram
- Calculation of EPR Parameters 2006Uploaded bydeep
- lecture_8.pdfUploaded byAyorinde T Tunde
- Derivation of Permitivity, Permeability, c and Transit Time FluctuationsUploaded byGordon Rogers
- Leibniz s RuleUploaded byjames
- apendice 1Uploaded byrarunr1
- BDA14103 Engineering Matthematic 2-Tutorial 1Uploaded byKhai

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.