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EECS 117

Lecture 16: Magnetic Flux and Magnetization


Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 1/2

Magnetic Flux
Magnetic ux plays an important role in many EM problems (in analogy with electric charge)
=
S
C

B dS

Due to the absence of magnetic charge


=
S

B dS 0

but net ux can certainly cross an open surface.


University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 2/2

Magnetic Flux and Vector Potential


S2

S1

Magnetic ux is independent of the surface but only depends on the curve bounding the surface. This is easy to show since
=
S

B dS =
S

A dS =
C

A d

=
S1

B dS =
S2

B dS

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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 3/2

Flux Linkage
I1 B field

S2

Consider the ux crossing surface S2 due to a current owing in loop I1


21 =
S2

B1 dS

Likewise, the self-ux of a loop is dened by the ux crossing the surface of a path when a current is owing in the path
11 =
S1
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B1 dS

EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 4/2

The Geometry of Flux Calculations


The ux is linearly proportional to the current and otherwise only a function of the geometry of the path To see this, lets calculate 21 for lamental loops
21 =
C2

A1 d2

but
1 A1 = 41 0
C1

I1 d1 R R1

substituting, we have a double integral


21 I1 = 41 0 d1 R R1 d2

C2

C1

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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 5/2

Geometry of Flux (cont)


R2 - R 1 d1 R1 R2 d2

We thus have a simple formula that only involves the magnitude of the current and the average distance between every two points on the loops
21 I1 = 41 0 d1 d2 R2 R1

C2

C1

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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 6/2

Mutual and Self Inductance


Since the ux is proportional to the current by a geometric factor, we may write
21 = M21 I1

We call the factor M21 the mutual inductance


M21 21 1 = = I1 41 0 d1 d2 R2 R1

C2

C1

The units of M are H since [] = H/m. Its clear that mutual inductance is reciprocal, M21 = M12 The self-ux mutual inductance is simply called the self-inductance and donated by L1 = M11
University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 7/2

System of Mutual Inductance Equations


If we generalize to a system of current loops we have a system of equations
1 = L1 I1 + M12 I2 + . . . M1N IN . . . N = MN 1 I1 + MN 2 I2 + . . . LN IN

Or in matrix form = M i, where M is the inductance matrix. This equation resembles q = Cv, where C is the capacitance matrix.

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 8/2

Solenoid Magnetic Field


We have seen that a tightly wound long long solenoid has B = 0 outside and Bx = 0 inside, so that by Ampres law
By = N I0

where N is the number of current loops crossing the surface of the path. The vertical magnetic eld is therefore constant
N I0 By = = 0 In
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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 9/2

Solenoid Inductance
The ux per turn is therefore simply given by
turn = a2 By

The total ux through N turns is thus


= N turn = N a2 By N 2 a2 I = 0 The solenoid inductance is thus 0 N 2 a2 L= = I

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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 10/2

Coaxial Conductor
In transmission line problems, we need to compute inductance/unit length. Consider the shaded area from r = a to r = b
S

The magnetic eld in the region between conductors if easily computed B d = B 2r = 0 I

The external ux (excluding the volume of the ideal conductors) is given by


b

=
a

0 I B dr = 2
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b a

dr 0 I b = ln r 2 a

EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 11/2

Coaxial Transmission Line (cont)


The inductance per unit length is therefore
0 L = ln 2

b a

[H/m]

Recall that the product of inductance and capacitance per unit length is a constant
1 LC = 2 c

where c is the speed of light in the medium. Thus we can also calculate the capacitance per unit length without any extra work.

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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 12/2

Magnetization Vector
Wed like to study magnetic elds in magnetic materials. Lets dene the magnetization vector as
M = lim mk V
k

V 0

where mk is the magnetic dipole of an atom or molecule The vector potential due to these magnetic dipoles is given by in a differential volume dv is given by
M r dA = 0 dv 2 4R

so
0 A= 4
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M r dv 2 R

EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 13/2

Vector Potential
Using
0 A= 4

1 R

r = 2 R

M
V

1 R

dv

Consider the vector identity


M R

1 = M + R

1 R

We can thus break the vector potential into two terms


0 A= 4 M 0 dv R 4
V

M R

dv

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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 14/2

Another Divergence Theorem


Consider the vector u = a v, where a is an arbitrary constant. Then
u = (a v) = ( a)v( v)a = ( v)a

Now apply the Divergence Theorem to u


( v) adV =
V S

((a v) u) dS

Re-ordering the vector triple product

(a v n) dS

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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 15/2

Another Divergence Thm (cont)


Since the vector a is constant, we can pull it out of the integrals
a
V

( v) dV = a
S

r n dS

The vector a is arbitrary, so we have


( v) dV =
V S

r n dS

Applying this to the second term of the vector potential



V

M R

dv =
S

Mn dS R

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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 16/2

Vector Potential due to Magnetization


The vector potential due to magnetization has a volume component and a surface component
0 A= 4 M 0 dv + R 4 Mn dSdv R

We can thus dene an equivalent magnetic volume current density Jm = M and an equivalent magnetic surface current density
Js = M n

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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 17/2

Volume and Surface Currents


Js

Js

Js

In the gure above, we can see that for uniform magnetization, all the internal currents cancel and only the magnetization vector on the boundary (surface) contributes to the integral

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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 18/2

Relative Permeability
We can include the effects of materials on the macroscopic magnetic eld by including a volume current M in Ampres eq
B = 0 J = 0 (J + M)

or
B M=J 0

We thus have dened a new quantity H


B M H= 0

The units of H, the magnetic eld, are A/m


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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 19/2

Amperes Equation for Media


We can thus state that for any medium under static conditions H=J equivalently
H d = I
C

Linear materials respond to the external eld in a linear fashion, so M = m H so


B = (1 + m )H = H

or

1 H= B
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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 20/2

Magnetic Materials
Magnetic materials are classied as follows Diamagnetic: r 1, usually m is a small negative number Paramagnetic: r 1, usually m is a small positive number Ferromagnetic: r 1, thus m is a large positive number Most materials in nature are diamagnetic. To fully understand the magnetic behavior of materials requires a detailed study (and quantum mechanics) In this class we mostly assume 0

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EECS 117 Lecture 16 p. 21/2