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# EECS 117

## Lecture 19: Faradays Law and Maxwells Eq.

Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

## Magnetic Energy of a Circuit

Last lecture we derived that the total magnetic energy in a circuit is given by
1 1 2 2 Em = L1 I1 + L2 I2 + M I1 I2 2 2 We would like to show that this implies that M L1 L2 . Lets re-write the above into the following positive denite form Em 1 M I2 = L1 I1 + 2 L1
2

1 + 2

M2 L2 L1

2 I2

An important observation is that regardless of the current I1 or I2 , the magnetic energy is non-negative, so Em 0
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## Magnetic Energy is Always Positive

Consider the current I2 = term in Em
1 Em = 2
2 Since I2 0, we have L1 M I1 ,

M2 L2 L1

2 I2 0

M2 L2 0 L1

## Therefore its now clear that this implies

L1 L2 M 2
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## EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 3/2

Coupling Coefcient
Usually we express this inequality as
M =k L1 L2

## Where k is the coupling coefcient between two circuits, with |k| 1.

If two circuits are perfectly coupled (all ux from circuit one crosses circuit 2), k = 1 (ideal transformer) Note that M < 0 implies that k < 0, which is totally reasonable as long as k lies on the unit interval 1 k 1

Negative coupling just means that the ux gets inverted before crossing the second circuit. This is easily achieved by winding the circuits with opposite orientation.
University of California, Berkeley

## Motion in Magnetic Field

B F
+ + + +

Consider moving a bar in a constant magnetic eld The conductors therefore feel a force
Fm = qv B

This causes charge separation and thus the generation of an internal electric eld that cancels the magnetic eld E=vB

Motion (cont)
++ ++ + +

Fe

2 2

Vind =

E d =

(v B) d

## A Moving Metal Bar

I RL
A B D

v0
z
C

Consider the following generator. A bar of length moves to the right with velocity v0 (always making contact with the rest of the circuit)
D

Vind =
C

(v B) d =

(v0 B0 ) ydy = v0 B0 x z

## Current I ows in a direction to decrease the ux (Lenzs Law)

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## EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 7/2

Energy Dissipated by R
This current ows through the resistor RL where the energy of motion of the bar is converted to heat The load will dissipate energy
(v0 B0 )2 PL = I 2 RL = RL

This power comes from the mechanical work in moving the bar. The force experienced by a current carrying wire dF = Id B
D D

Fm = I
C

d B = I

dy B0 = IB0 y z

## Thus Pin = Fm v0 = IB0 v0 = PL

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## EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 8/2

(im)Practical Example
Lets say we do this experiment using the earths magnetic eld Use a bar with length = 1 m, B0 = 0.5 G To induce only 1 V, we have to move the bar at a speed of Vind = 2 104 m/s v0 = B0 The magnetic eld on the surface of a neutron star is about B0 1012 G, or about 108 T. Even moving at a speed of v0 = 1 m/s, we generate
Vind = 108 V

## Energy generation on a neutron star is easy!

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## EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 9/2

Note that this problem is just as easy to solve using Faradays Law The ux crossing the loop is increasing at a constant rate (t) = 0 + v0 tB0 Where 0 is the initial ux at t = 0 The induced voltage is simply
Vind d = = v0 B0 dt

## EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 10/2

An AC Generator
+ V B

sinusoidal motion

If we connect our metal bar to a piston, in turn connecting to a water-wheel or otherwise rotating wheel, we have a crude generator To generate substantial voltage, we need a strong magnetic eld Say we rotate the wheel at a rate of = 2 103 s1 , or 1000 RPS (revolutions per second)

## EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 11/2

An AC Generator (cont)
The ux is now
= 0 + B0 Am cos t

## Where Am is the amplitude of oscillation. Taking the time derivative

= Am B0 sin t = Vind

Plugging in some numbers, we see that with a relatively strong magnetic eld of 1 T, an amplitude Am = 1 m, = 1 m, the voltage generated is reasonable
Vind = 2 103 sin t

## The voltage is sinusoidal with frequency equal to the rotation frequency

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## EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 12/2

AC Motor/Generator
I

I B0 = xB0

A simple AC motor/generator consists of a rotating loop cutting through a constant magnetic eld. The slip rings maintain contact with the loop as it rotates.
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## EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 13/2

AC Motor/Generator
If AC current is passed through the loop, it rotates at a rate determined by the frequency. If, on the other hand, the loop is rotated mechanically and the circuit is closed with a load, mechanical power is converted to electricity The ux in the loop of area A is simply
= AB0 cos

The phase = 0 t so
Vind = = AB0 0 sin 0 t

## Maxwells Eq (Integral Form)

We have now studied the complete set of Maxwells Equations . In Integral form
d E d = dt C d H d = dt C
S

B dS J dS

D dS + dV
V

D dS =
S

B dS = 0

## Maxwells Eq (Differential Form)

The elds are related by the following material parameters
D = E J = E For most materials we assume that these are scalar relations. B E= t P E + 0 (J + + M) B = 0 0 t t 1 E = ( P) 0 B=0
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B = H

## Source Free Regions

In source free regions = 0 and J = 0. Assume the material is uniform (no bound charges or currents)
B E= t E B = 0 0 t E=0 B=0

## EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 17/2

Wave Motion
B E E B E B

wave motion
We can see intuitively that wave motion is possible
E t

B t

E t

. . ., that

## Time Harmonic Maxwells Eq.

Under time-harmonic conditions (many important practical cases are time harmonic, or nearly so, or else Fourier analysis can handle non-harmonic cases)
E = jB H = J + jD E= B=0

These equations are not all independent. Take the divergence of the curl, for instance
( E) 0 = j B
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## Harmonic Eq. (cont)

In other words, the non-existence of magnetic charge is built-in to our curl equation. If magnetic charge is ever observed, wed have to modify our equations This is analogous to the displacement current that Maxwell introduced to make the curl of H equation self-consistent
( H) 0 = J + j D J= = j t This implies that D = , so Gauss law is built-in to our curl equations as well.

## Tangential Boundary Conditions

The boundary conditions on the E-eld at the interface of two media is
n (E1 E2 ) = 0

Or equivalently, E1t = E2t . If magnetic charges are ever found, then this condition will have to include the possibility of a surface magnetic current The boundary conditions on H are similar
n (H1 H2 ) = Js

For the interface of a perfect conductor, for example, a surface current ows so that (H2 = 0)
n H1 = Js
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## Boundary Conditions for Current

Applying the pillbox argument to the divergence of current
( J)dV = J dS = dV t

in the limit
s J1n J2n = t where s is the surface current. In the static case J1n = J2n

implies that 1 E1 = 2 E2 . This implies that s = 0 since 1 E1 = 2 E2 (unless the ratios of match the ratio of perfectly!)
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