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EECS 117

Lecture 19: Faradays Law and Maxwells Eq.

Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

Magnetic Energy of a Circuit

Last lecture we derived that the total magnetic energy in a circuit is given by
1 1 2 2 Em = L1 I1 + L2 I2 + M I1 I2 2 2 We would like to show that this implies that M L1 L2 . Lets re-write the above into the following positive denite form Em 1 M I2 = L1 I1 + 2 L1
2

1 + 2

M2 L2 L1

2 I2

An important observation is that regardless of the current I1 or I2 , the magnetic energy is non-negative, so Em 0
University of California, Berkeley

Magnetic Energy is Always Positive

Consider the current I2 = term in Em
1 Em = 2
2 Since I2 0, we have L1 M I1 ,

M2 L2 L1

2 I2 0

M2 L2 0 L1

Therefore its now clear that this implies

L1 L2 M 2
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EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 3/2

Coupling Coefcient
Usually we express this inequality as
M =k L1 L2

Where k is the coupling coefcient between two circuits, with |k| 1.

If two circuits are perfectly coupled (all ux from circuit one crosses circuit 2), k = 1 (ideal transformer) Note that M < 0 implies that k < 0, which is totally reasonable as long as k lies on the unit interval 1 k 1

Negative coupling just means that the ux gets inverted before crossing the second circuit. This is easily achieved by winding the circuits with opposite orientation.
University of California, Berkeley

Motion in Magnetic Field

B F
+ + + +

Consider moving a bar in a constant magnetic eld The conductors therefore feel a force
Fm = qv B

This causes charge separation and thus the generation of an internal electric eld that cancels the magnetic eld E=vB

Motion (cont)
++ ++ + +

Fe

2 2

Vind =

E d =

(v B) d

A Moving Metal Bar

I RL
A B D

v0
z
C

Consider the following generator. A bar of length moves to the right with velocity v0 (always making contact with the rest of the circuit)
D

Vind =
C

(v B) d =

(v0 B0 ) ydy = v0 B0 x z

Current I ows in a direction to decrease the ux (Lenzs Law)

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EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 7/2

Energy Dissipated by R
This current ows through the resistor RL where the energy of motion of the bar is converted to heat The load will dissipate energy
(v0 B0 )2 PL = I 2 RL = RL

This power comes from the mechanical work in moving the bar. The force experienced by a current carrying wire dF = Id B
D D

Fm = I
C

d B = I

dy B0 = IB0 y z

Thus Pin = Fm v0 = IB0 v0 = PL

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 8/2

(im)Practical Example
Lets say we do this experiment using the earths magnetic eld Use a bar with length = 1 m, B0 = 0.5 G To induce only 1 V, we have to move the bar at a speed of Vind = 2 104 m/s v0 = B0 The magnetic eld on the surface of a neutron star is about B0 1012 G, or about 108 T. Even moving at a speed of v0 = 1 m/s, we generate
Vind = 108 V

Energy generation on a neutron star is easy!

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Back to Faradays Equation

Note that this problem is just as easy to solve using Faradays Law The ux crossing the loop is increasing at a constant rate (t) = 0 + v0 tB0 Where 0 is the initial ux at t = 0 The induced voltage is simply
Vind d = = v0 B0 dt

EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 10/2

An AC Generator
+ V B

sinusoidal motion

If we connect our metal bar to a piston, in turn connecting to a water-wheel or otherwise rotating wheel, we have a crude generator To generate substantial voltage, we need a strong magnetic eld Say we rotate the wheel at a rate of = 2 103 s1 , or 1000 RPS (revolutions per second)

EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 11/2

An AC Generator (cont)
The ux is now
= 0 + B0 Am cos t

Where Am is the amplitude of oscillation. Taking the time derivative

= Am B0 sin t = Vind

Plugging in some numbers, we see that with a relatively strong magnetic eld of 1 T, an amplitude Am = 1 m, = 1 m, the voltage generated is reasonable
Vind = 2 103 sin t

The voltage is sinusoidal with frequency equal to the rotation frequency

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EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 12/2

AC Motor/Generator
I

I B0 = xB0

A simple AC motor/generator consists of a rotating loop cutting through a constant magnetic eld. The slip rings maintain contact with the loop as it rotates.
University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 13/2

AC Motor/Generator
If AC current is passed through the loop, it rotates at a rate determined by the frequency. If, on the other hand, the loop is rotated mechanically and the circuit is closed with a load, mechanical power is converted to electricity The ux in the loop of area A is simply
= AB0 cos

The phase = 0 t so
Vind = = AB0 0 sin 0 t

Maxwells Eq (Integral Form)

We have now studied the complete set of Maxwells Equations . In Integral form
d E d = dt C d H d = dt C
S

B dS J dS

D dS + dV
V

D dS =
S

B dS = 0

Maxwells Eq (Differential Form)

The elds are related by the following material parameters
D = E J = E For most materials we assume that these are scalar relations. B E= t P E + 0 (J + + M) B = 0 0 t t 1 E = ( P) 0 B=0
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B = H

Source Free Regions

In source free regions = 0 and J = 0. Assume the material is uniform (no bound charges or currents)
B E= t E B = 0 0 t E=0 B=0

EECS 117 Lecture 19 p. 17/2

Wave Motion
B E E B E B

wave motion
We can see intuitively that wave motion is possible
E t

B t

E t

. . ., that

Time Harmonic Maxwells Eq.

Under time-harmonic conditions (many important practical cases are time harmonic, or nearly so, or else Fourier analysis can handle non-harmonic cases)
E = jB H = J + jD E= B=0

These equations are not all independent. Take the divergence of the curl, for instance
( E) 0 = j B
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Harmonic Eq. (cont)

In other words, the non-existence of magnetic charge is built-in to our curl equation. If magnetic charge is ever observed, wed have to modify our equations This is analogous to the displacement current that Maxwell introduced to make the curl of H equation self-consistent
( H) 0 = J + j D J= = j t This implies that D = , so Gauss law is built-in to our curl equations as well.

Tangential Boundary Conditions

The boundary conditions on the E-eld at the interface of two media is
n (E1 E2 ) = 0

Or equivalently, E1t = E2t . If magnetic charges are ever found, then this condition will have to include the possibility of a surface magnetic current The boundary conditions on H are similar
n (H1 H2 ) = Js

For the interface of a perfect conductor, for example, a surface current ows so that (H2 = 0)
n H1 = Js
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Boundary Conditions for Current

Applying the pillbox argument to the divergence of current
( J)dV = J dS = dV t

in the limit
s J1n J2n = t where s is the surface current. In the static case J1n = J2n

implies that 1 E1 = 2 E2 . This implies that s = 0 since 1 E1 = 2 E2 (unless the ratios of match the ratio of perfectly!)
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