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You are on page 1of 23

Prof. Niknejad

University of California, Berkeley

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 1/23

Waveguides and Transmission Lines

We started this course by studying transmission lines

by using the concept of distributed circuits. Now wed

like to develop a eld theory based approach to

analyzing transmission lines.

Transmission lines have one or more disconnected

conductors. Waveguides, though, can consist of a

single conductor. Wed also like to analyze waveguide

structures, such as a hollow metal pipe, or a hollow

rectangular structure. These are known as waveguides.

These structures have a uniform cross-sectional area.

We shall show that these structures can support wave

propagation in the axial direction.

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 2/23

General Wave Propagation

We shall assume that waves in the guide take the

following form

E(x, y, z) = [e(x, y) +ze

z

(x, y)] e

jz

= Ee

jz

H(x, y, z) = [h(x, y) +zh

z

(x, y)] e

jz

Its important to note that we have broken the wave into

two components, a part in the plane of the

cross-section, or the transverse component e(x, y), and

component in the direction of wave propagation, an

axial component, e

z

(x, y).

Recall that TEM plane waves have no components in

the direction of propagation.

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 3/23

Maxwells Equations

Naturally, the elds in the waveguide or T-line have to

satisfy Maxwells equations. In particular

E = jH

Recall that (Ff) = f F + fF

E = je

jz

z E + e

jz

E

Note that (ze

z

(x, y)) does not have a z-component

whereas e has only a z-component

e =

x y z

z

E

x

E

y

0

= x

E

y

z

+ y

E

x

z

+z(

E

y

x

E

x

y

)

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 4/23

Curl of z-Component

Since E

x

and E

y

have only (x, y) dependence

e = z(

E

y

x

E

x

y

)

Taking the curl of the z-component generates only a

transverse component

ze

z

(x, y) =

x y z

z

0 0 e

z

= x

e

z

y

y

e

z

x

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 5/23

Curl of E

Collecting terms we see that the curl of E has two

terms, an axial term and a transverse term

E = jH = (je

jz

) (z e)

. .

tplane

+

e

jz

_

_

z

..

axial

(

E

y

x

E

x

y

) + x

e

z

y

y

e

z

x

. .

tplane

_

_

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 6/23

The Field Component Equations

Note that z (E

x

x + E

y

y) = E

x

y E

y

x, so the

x-component of the curl equation gives

jE

y

+

e

z

y

= jH

x

(1)

and the y-component gives

jE

x

+

e

z

x

= jH

y

(2)

The z-component denes the third of our important

equations

E

y

x

E

x

y

= jh

z

(x, y) (3)

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 7/23

The Curl of H

Note that H = jE, and so a set of similar

equations can be derived without any extra math

jH

y

+

h

z

y

= jE

x

(4)

jH

x

+

h

z

x

= jE

y

(5)

H

y

x

H

x

y

= je

z

(x, y) (6)

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 8/23

Hx = f(non-Transverse Components)

We can now reduce these (6) equations into (4)

equations if we take e

z

and h

z

as known components.

Since

jH

x

=

h

z

x

jE

y

and

E

y

=

_

e

z

y

jH

x

_

1

j

substituting E

y

into the above equation

jH

x

=

h

z

x

j

j

_

e

z

y

jH

x

_

jH

x

=

h

z

x

+

e

z

y

+ j

H

x

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 9/23

Hx = f(z) (cont)

Collecting terms we have and k

2

=

2

_

j j

k

2

_

H

x

=

_

h

z

x

+

e

z

y

_

Let k

2

c

= k

2

2

and simplify

H

x

=

j

k

2

c

_

e

z

y

h

z

x

_

(7)

In the above eq. we have found the transverse

component x in terms of the the axial components of

the elds

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 10/23

Hy = f(z)

We can also solve for H

y

in terms of e

z

and h

z

jH

y

= jE

x

h

z

y

jE

x

=

1

e

z

x

+

j

H

y

jH

y

=

_

e

z

x

+

j

H

y

_

h

z

y

Collecting terms

_

j

2

j

k

2

_

H

y

=

e

z

x

h

z

y

H

y

=

j

k

2

c

_

e

z

x

h

z

y

_

(8)

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 11/23

E = f(z)

In a similar fashion, we can also derive the following

equations

E

x

=

j

k

2

c

_

e

z

x

+

h

z

y

_

(9)

E

y

=

j

k

2

c

_

e

z

y

+

h

z

x

_

(10)

Notice that we now have found a functional relation

between all the transverse leds in terms of the axial

components of the elds

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 12/23

TEM, TE, and TM Waves

We can classify all solutions for the eld components

into 3 classes of waves.

TEM waves, which we have already studied, have no

z-component. In other words e

z

= 0 and h

z

= 0

TE waves, or transverse electric waves, has a

transverse electric eld, so while e

z

= 0, h

z

= 0 (also

known as magnetic waves)

TM waves, or transverse magnetic waves, has a

transverse magnetic eld, so while h

z

= 0, e

z

= 0 (also

known as electric waves)

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 13/23

TEM Waves (again)

From our equations (7) - (10), we see that if e

z

and h

z

are zero, then all the elds are zero unless k

c

= 0

This can be seen by working directly with equations (1)

and (5)

jE

y

= jH

x

jH

x

= jE

y

jE

y

=

(jE

y

)

2

E

y

=

2

E

y

= k

2

E

y

Thus

2

= k

2

, or k

c

= 0

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 14/23

TEM Helmholtz Equation

The Helmholtz Eq. (

2

+ k

2

)E simplies for the TEM

case. Take the x-component

_

2

x

2

+

2

y

2

+

2

z

2

+ k

2

_

E

x

= 0

Since the z-component of the eld is a complex

exponential

_

2

x

2

+

2

y

2

2

+ k

2

_

E

x

= 0

Since k

2

=

2

_

2

x

2

+

2

y

2

_

E

x

= 0

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 15/23

TEM has Static Transverse Fields

The same result applies to E

y

so that we have

2

t

e(x, y) = 0

where

t

= x

x

+ y

y

This is a two-dimensional Laplace equation. Recall that

static elds satisfy Laplaces Eq. So it appears that our

wave is a static eld in the transverse plane!

Therefore, applying our knowledge of electrostatics, we

have

e(x, y) =

t

(x, y)

Where is a scalar potential. This can also be seen by

taking the curl of e. If its a static eld, the curl must be

identically zero

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 16/23

Static E Field

Notice that

t

e =

x y z

y

0

E

x

E

y

0

= z

_

E

y

x

E

x

y

_

= jh

z

= 0

Since h

z

= 0, the curl of e is zero and thus the eld

behaves statically. Since D =

t

e = 0, we also

have

2

t

(x, y) = 0

And thus we can also dene a unique potential function

in the transverse plane

V

12

=

_

2

1

e(x, y) d

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 17/23

Ampres Law (I)

By Ampres Law (extended to include displacement

current)

H = jD+J

Or in integral form

_

C

H d =

_

S

J dS + j

_

S

D dS

But since e

z

= 0, the surface integral term of

displacement current vanishes and we have

_

C

H d =

_

S

J dS = I

Which is an equation satised by static magnetic elds.

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 18/23

Faradays Law

Its easy to show that the electric elds also behave

statically by using Faradays law

E = jB

or

_

C

E d = j

_

S

B dS = 0

The RHS is zero since h

z

= 0 for TEM waves. Thus

_

C

E d = 0

and a unique potential can be dened.

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 19/23

TEM Wave Impedance

By equation (4) we have

jH

y

= jE

x

Thus the TEM wave impedance can be dened as

Z

TEM

=

E

x

H

y

=

=

k

=

_

=

From equation (5) we have

jH

x

= jE

y

Z

TEM

=

E

y

H

x

=

=

_

=

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 20/23

TEM Fields (last)

Since H

x

= E

y

/ and H

y

= E

x

/, we have

h(x, y) =

z e(x, y)

Z

TEM

Thus we only need to compute the electric eld to nd

all the elds in the problem. This is exactly what we

found when we studied uniform plane waves

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 21/23

TEM General Solution

1. Begin by solving Laplaces Eq. in the transverse plane

(2D problem)

2. Apply boundary conditions to resolve some of the

unknown constants

3. Compute the elds e and h

4. Compute V and I (voltage and currents)

5. The propagation constant = j = j

and the

impedance is given by Z

0

= V/I

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 22/23

TEM Waves in Hollow Waveguides?

What do our equations tell us about wave propagation

in a hollow waveguide, such as a metal pipe?

If TEM waves travel inside a such a structure, the

transverse components must be solutions to the static

2D elds.

But if we have a metal conductor surrounding a region,

we have already proven in electrostatics that the only

solution is a zero eld, which are of no interest to us.

Thus TEM waves cannot travel in such waveguides!

We can see through a metal pipe, so whats going on?

There must be other types of waves traveling through it.

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 25 p. 23/23

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