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Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer


CSI 157 Study Guide (SG) 4, p. 91 94 in CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Roles of the Transport Layer

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching

Match the following terms with the correct definition below. Terms a. Multiplexing b. Data Segmentation c. Error checking d. Establishing a session e. Same order delivery f. Reliable delivery

g. Flow control Definitions D : Ensures the application is ready to receive data. G : Manages data delivery if there is congestion on the host. B : Facilitates data preparation for delivery by the lowest four OSI layers. 1

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A : Multiple network-aware applications can use the network at the same time. C : Performed on the data in the segment to check if the segment was changed during transmission. E : Means lost segments are present so the data is received complete. F : Ensures segment sequencing so that data can be presented by the session layer to the application layer with all data intact and ready for processing.

Concept Questions 1. How does the transport layer multiplex different applications communication? The transport layer multiplex different applications communication by using protocols such as UDP and TCP.

2. How does the transport layer tell the difference between different data segments? Transport layer tell the difference between different data segments by header which are source port numbers and destination port number.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion

Fill in the blanks for the following questions.

1. The pieces of communication in UDP are called .

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2. Additional functions specified by TCP are same order, reliable delivery, and flow control.

3. A TCP segment has 20 bytes of overhead in the header encapsulating the application layer data, whereas each UDP segment only has 8 bytes of overhead.

Port Type Range Exercise

The following table lists port types. Fill in the port number ranges in the numbers column.

Port Type Well-known ports Registered ports Dynamic or private ports

Numbers 0-1023 1024-49151 49152-65535

The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability

Concept Questions

1. When the host is using TCP, why does the transport layer initiate a process to create a connection with the destination? 3

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To ensure the tracking of a session or communication stream between the hosts. Ensure each host is aware of and prepared for the communication.

2. A key feature of TCP is its reliability. Define reliability. Ensuring that each piece of data that the source sends arrives at the destination.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching

Match the following terms with the correct definition below.

Flag-Matching Exercise

Flags

a. ACK b. PSH c. SYN d. URG e. FIN f. RST

Definition 4

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D : Urgent pointer field significant

A : Acknowledgement field significant

B : Push function

F :Reset the connection

C : Synchronize sequence numbers

E : No more data from sender

Managing TCP Sessions

Concept Questions

1. What is expectational acknowledgement? TCP uses the acknowledgement number in segments sent back to the source to indicate the next byte in this session that the receiver expects to receive.

2. In what case would it be possible for the destination to acknowledge bytes in 5

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discontiguous segments and request that the host retransmit only the missing data? If segments with sequence numbers 1500 to 3000 and 3400 to 3500 were received the acknowledgement number would be 3001, because segments with sequence numbers 3001 to 3399 have not been received.

3. What is flow control, and what does it do? Flow control assists the reliability of TCP transmission by adjusting the effective rate of data flow between the two services in the session.

The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion

Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.

1. UDP is said to be transaction based.

2. After a client has chosen the source and destination ports, the same pair of ports is used in the header of all datagram used in the transaction.

3. For the data returning to the client from the server, the source and destination port numbers in the datagram header are reversed.