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THE TECHNICAL WRITING PROCESS

The goal of writing process is to generate a clear, effective document for audience. Writing process consist of 3 stages 1. Prewriting/planning 2. Writing/drafting 3. Post writing/finishing

PREWRITING STAGE: PLANNING


Prewriting means coming up with an idea. This stage also called planning; here writers discover the dimension of their topic. In prewriting stage you determine the following steps Goal Audience Constraint Basic facts Four general steps to follow are: Outline Page format Visual aids Tone

GOAL
At first you must determine what your goal is actually, what you want trying to achieve from your message. You have two goals To communicate a specific message To achieve specific purpose

By understanding the readers relationship with the main idea, anticipating their reactions and questions, and maintaining a clear purpose, you can hold the readers attention and builds toward the goal of the message.

AUDIENCE
Audience is person who receives your document; they are the actual readers of your document. You must know the age, background, education and experience of your audience so that you can easily communicate your message to them. Analyze your audience will help you make the necessary decision about what you will write.

CONSTRAINTS
Constraints are the barriers such as time, length, money, physical location, production method affect your ability to write the document and yours readers ability to read it. Constraint can be categorized as: Physical Psychological Semantic Constraint such as time as how much time you have to complete your document and how much time your reader has to read that.

BASIC FACTS
Determining the basic facts for your document is a key planning activity. You must spend time collecting these facts by reading, interviewing or observing. You also need to know the basic facts about each procedure.

OUTLINE
You should begin the writing process with an outline in order to guide your writing. An outline is a document that briefly summarizes the information that will be included in a document. It shows the order in which the information will be presented and indicates the relationship of the pieces of information to each other. Writing an outline is also a great remedy to writer's block, as it allows you to express your ideas briefly without getting down in the details

PAGE FORMAT

Now you need to decide what should be the final shape or form of your page. You must decide on the size of your margins and the look and the placement of your heads. You must decide how wide to set the margin, how far to intend paragraph and lists, and how to indicate level of heads.

VISUAL AIDS
Visual aids help a reader picture what youre trying to say. Visual aids graphs, tables, pictures, figures and drawing, allow you to indicate things that might be difficult to describe with words alone. The more visuals you can select before you start to write the easier your writing will be.

TONE
You must consider the tone of your document. Tone refers to the attitude the writer takes in their piece towards the reader. It means what your writing sounds like should it sounds like funny or serious? If you are writing to your boss you must use formal language and if you are going to write to your colleague you may write informally.

WRITING STAGE: DRAFTING AND REVISING


Once you have planned out your ideas, the next step is to start drafting, or writing. As you write, keep referring back to your notes and the plan that you determined in first step. During the drafting stage, you should concentrate on getting your ideas on paper, organizing your information logically, and developing your topic with enough detail for your audience and purpose. The main object of drafting is to produce and improve writing until it convey your message to the reader Drafting has two primary aspects:

1) Clarifying
As you draft you clarify your ideas for your reader. Our brain processes information as we write things down. You will find yourself making connections and discovering new ideas as you are wiring.

2) Discovering
As you write you will suddenly conceive new ideas, new ways to Present your examples. You must evaluate these new ideas deciding whether to use or reject them you may discover an entirely new ways to organize and approach the whole topic.

In drafting stage you may focus on following points: Style Organization Readers interest

STYLE
You must set the style of your writing. In styling you focus on your sentences .you should make your sentences shorter and increase the use of active voice because it allows you to write natural, direct and concise sentence, also use the language that easily understood by reader, there should be parallelism in your sentences like it help in coordinating elements.

ORGANIZATION
Organization is simply the order and structure of the material in a written document. Here you are focus on strong opening that grabs attention and a satisfying conclusion that serves to both summarize main points and call the reader to action. Organization will usually follow from the purpose that the piece is meant to achieve. Your information must be organized logically and coherently, so that each new detail builds upon the last, throws more light on the main themes, and advances the main idea.

READERS INTEREST
You should try to make your document interesting by using examples, pictures and other interesting tools. As the reader gets interested in it you can easily achieve your purpose of conveying message. There are some other activities that are also helpful in writing stage

BRAINSTROMING
Brainstorming is an activity to generate large number of ideas. This involves taking everything in your head and literally throwing it down on the page. Lists, webs, notes, whatever. Write down all that you know about the topic and everything you can think of that interests you about it. This prevents writers from producing low quality work

because if a writer is interested, and actually knows something about what they are writing, then the reader will be interested too.

TREEING
Treeing helps in indicating relationship by drawing lines between words arranged in descending rows. Each word represents a concept that can be broken down into sub concept in the next row and lines indicate the relationship.

REVISING
Revising is a process of making changes throughout the writing of a draft. When you are ready to revise, you can start by setting up a revision checklist and applying it to your document. As you move systematically from the whole essay to the individual paragraphs to the sentences and words, you can assess your paper's effectiveness. First, check your idea statement to see if it is still accurate. If you departed from your original goal while you were writing, you will need either to revise the main idea so that it accurately sums up the information contained in your document or to remove any unrelated section--or to revise them so that they are relevant to your idea or purpose. You might have to add more facts or examples to one paragraph to make it as strong as the others.

POSTWRITING STAGE: FINISHING


This is the last stage in writing process. At this stage you give the final touching to your document. In Post writing stage writer focus on two types of activities: Editing Producing the document

EDITING
Editing involves the close-up view of individual sentences and words. When editing, go through your piece line by line, and make sure that each sentence, phrase and word is as strong as possible. At this stage you check spelling, grammar page forma, punctuationt, typography, alignment etc. For editing you can construct checklist in which you list the entire possible problem that you will check for.

PRODUCING DOCUMENT
This is the final step of writing process. This step has two dimensions The physical completion of the document Psychological completion of the document

PHYSICAL COMPLETION
Physical completion means typing or printing the final document. This step takes energy and time. This step may be difficult for many people because of some reasons like for example I prepare this assignment of TRW on computer and for submission I must take printout of it now suppose because of any reason or printer fault I may not takeout printout and may loose my marks, so this step may seems difficult for me.

PSYCOLOGICAL COMPLETION
Psychological completion means to attend to your emotions as you near completion and to manage your time properly. Problem with time management often occur in written document. So you must finish your document in specified period of time. As you grow in your ability to generate good documents you will also grow in your ability to estimate accurately the time that it will take you to finish the writing project.