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A Brief Insight of Poverty:

According to Amartya Sen (2000: 85), poverty is not just having a low income but is rather basic capability deprivation and that relative deprivation related to income can lead to absolute deprivation in with regards to capabilities. Sen argues that income is not the only instrument in extracting capabilities; there are other social and cultural factors as well. He has used the term, instrumental significance for low income whereas; he mentioned the various deprivations as intrinsically important. Similarly, whatever income may seem sufficient for an individual may be insufficient for the other. Therefore, poverty, whether more or less inflicted upon a person, would depend upon the age of people to determine their needs according to how young or how old they are. A lot depends upon gender and location as poverty is at times the result of gender inequality and the living conditions of a specific place. For instance, a specific village in Bangladesh (coastal region of Munshiganj) sinking slowly and gradually would render the poor more poor when it would get people displaced and urge them to find more accommodation. This would add up to their cost of living. A lot is also dependent on how much disease inflicted an area is. Likewise, disability and old age would require a person to consume more of the income earned by the bread winner or himself. Therefore, the older or ill a person would become he would need a significant amount of medication related expenditure. Sen (2000: 88) elaborates that in such cases, real poverty in terms of capability deprivation would be more intense given the bracket of income they fall into. Inequality often results in the income being spent disproportionately among the family. This is a resultant factor of gender biasness in many parts of the world (both underdeveloped as well as some developed Western countries) especially those places where a lack of education is prevalent in the society. Unrecognized labour by female workers is a characteristic of male preferred and sex biased society (highest ratio in Italy), due to which males are considered as an asset, rather an investment to reap further income to support the family. Moreover, being poor (relatively poor in a country and richer in terms of worlds poors standards) in a developed country could derive the demand for commodities to come up at the level of social functioning in the society. The inability to afford an affluent living in a rich country could render a person poor even though he is relatively more affluent in terms of international poverty. Therefore, the level of poverty could be mentioned as domestic and ranges from country to country. Often we hear the word, democracy in daily news on television, in newspapers, everywhere around us we get haunted or enlightened by this phrase. However, democracy is not about availing or getting freedom, rather, it depends upon how freedoms are exercised to put democracy to good use (Sen 2000: 155). Therefore, democracy paves way for opportunities and it is up to the society whether these opportunities in return are used positively or negatively. For instance, there has been prevalent democracy in USA since many decades but it does not help to eradicate the differences and neglect faced by the African Americans in their society. It is for this reason that they are deprived in terms of health care and education and thus their mortality rates are high as well. They contribute to high crime rates due to such neglect and at the same time are
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also in their army in great numbers. This is due to the fact that they are given incentives in the form of free university education if they have served in the army. Usually Hispanics and African American avail this opportunity as not all are affluent enough to afford university education. Even after so many years of democracy, inequality continues in American towards such minorities. Is such democracy of any help then in eradication poverty related to inequality? Therefore, when we talk about Pakistan, whether we have democracy or not does not play a very significant role in the eradication of gender biasness (factor contributing to poverty). The poor are not better off in Pakistan with or without democracy, hence, having democracy now would not have a very significant effect; it depends upon how funds are utilized or, consumed under the table (by officials themselves). When it comes to gender inequality, it is often the (at times artificially induced) female mortality which results in deprivation of women in the society (Sen 2000: 104). On the contrary, around the world 5% more boys are born than girls, however, girls are more prone to survival whether they are born or still fetuses. It is because of this reason that in some Western countries the ratio of women to men is higher (France, United States, and United Kingdom). Comparatively, the ratio of women to men being low is attributed to gender inequality prevalent in the developing countries (India 0.93:1, Pakistan 0.90:1, Bangladesh, West Asia, and China 0.94:1). Due to neglect in terms of medical care, food and the entire social aspect, female mortality rates are higher in such countries. Considering China (Sen 2000: 107), after the law of one child per family were introduced in 1979, the level of neglect towards females have increased. The ratio of male births to female births has increased. It is often as a result of induced mortality when it comes to female infant death mortality rates; sex selective abortion has become common in China.

The table shows female to male ratios in some parts of the world:

End Poverty 2015, The Eight Millennium Goals:


End Poverty 2015, is a global campaign which came into conception in the year 2000. 189 leaders from around the world pledged to eradicate poverty by the year 2015. The millennium declaration was signed at United Nations Millennium Summit and the Millennium Development Goals were signed (often abbreviated as MDGs). The MDGs are eight goals which are directed towards improving the lives of the poorest people around the globe. These eight goals that were agreed upon are: End hunger Universal education Gender equity Child health Maternal health Combat HIV/ Aids Environmental sustainability Global partnership

The director of the Millennium Development Goals, Salil Shetty had to be accosted with the issue of climate change and global warming and now people feel this campaign would be hindered by the food crisis. However, he is of the view that if governments have invested properly and wisely in this regard, then they should not be haunted by the latter issue. According to him such a problem was predicted to occur but it came sooner than expected because the governments of developing countries were busy paying more heed to infrastructure development and enhancement of the service sector. A similar issue is confronted by Pakistan in terms of soaring food prices, especially the wheat prices. Major cities have witnessed massive infrastructure development in the form of underpasses and flyovers; however, this has not curbed certain problems such as traffic related issues. We are an agriculture based economy; therefore, the agriculture sector needs to be strengthened to act as a base for all. This does not mean that infrastructure development should be halted but rather spending should be done equitably in terms of the needs of a country. If these issues are not dealt with, it would lead to more poverty and more slums being created in major cities like Karachi. As far as the MDGs are concerned, countries like, Zambia, Malawi, Mali, Tanzania and Burkina Faso are progressing with their ongoing achievement of six goals. Shetty seems to be very pleased with the reduction in infant mortality rates of Tanazia by 30% in just a matter of five years. Comparing this to Pakistan, infant mortality rates have not been better off with being around 80 to 82 per 1000 births. Shetty is of the view that those countries with committed people, namely, their governments, like that of Vietnam are witnessing a more profound progress than any other. This is one of the countries where development issues are tackled more seriously; therefore, there are more
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chances of meeting targets on time. Moreover, he also elaborated that too much of government involvement and corruption let the development down and that excluding people and the society undermine progress in this regard. The amount of aid has gone up, however, the quality of progress still lacks credibility and is not as impressive in terms of aid given. This is attributed to the reasons given by Shetty.

Farmers Loans as part of Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan:


Since years after the creation of our country various governments have devised plans for farmers to benefit them and agriculture altogether. However, some end up not being implemented properly or usually governments havent lasted long enough to see the outcomes reap. Other than the slums, these people in rural areas are the worst hit, especially by food inflation. Some have argued that agricultural sector was being neglected by the government of 1950s (Zaidi 1999, 2005) because industrialization was being paid more stress on as a means of development. However, towards the end of that decade it was then realized that having an agricultural sector is as much essential as any other development for the survival of our country. Similarly, as discussed earlier, Salil Shetty is of the same view that developing countries need to strengthen their agricultural sector first and make them more secure in this regard given the international food crisis and should not stress more on fancy items like having unnecessary investment on the industrial sector. Some would argue that the aim of international financial institutions is directed towards economic and human development (Bales 2007), however, it is the faulty system or the corrupt process due to which help does not reach those more in need. Therefore, our farmers are one of the entities who are the victims of such a system. Due to security not being provided our agricultural sector is at risk with happens to be the backbone of our economy. In order to strengthen a countrys economy food security should be there. For instance, USA highly subsidises its farmers in order to keep to from migrating to city centers and avoid a potential settling problem. Therefore, in Pakistan more and more town people are enthusiastic about moving to metropolitan cities to seek better job opportunities which are not available in their respective towns and villages. This creates issues related to their housing and living and they then pave way to slums being created which have sever problems of their own. Agricultural sector contributes to only 3% of the GDP of the European Union, however, they provide heavy subsidies worth of $2 to $3 billion annually. All this is done to avail food security which is a nations basic need, and thus, the farmers of the EU and the USA are the most competitive in the world. Furthermore, elaborating on USA, an average cow there receives a subsidy of $2 a day (Bale 2007: 168) something below which more than a billion people around the globe live, it is a demarcation of the poverty line and even the livestock in USA is rich. This is argued to be unfair for developing countries and in 2004, Brazil won a case against USA in this regard. Brazil put its point forward that such US subsidies depressed the international cotton prices and therefore, the American farmers have a competitive edge over those of the Less Developed countries. However, USA had appealed to the court and still
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continues to give agricultural subsidies. It argued that US rice was so cheap that their farmers were getting forced out of the market. Further elaborating on Pakistan in this regard, when IMF deal is in the process, our food security could be shattered given the strict loan conditions. It is noteworthy from the past that our governments have taxed the agricultural sector and withdrawn input subsidies (khan 2008). Therefore, presently the farmers are keeping their fingers crossed for nay bad or cost incurring news. Around the world, 87% of wheat and 96% of rice are kept for local consumers so that domestic food security is confirmed. However, presently, we are witnessing a 40% shortage in wheat (Khan 2008). Therefore, with the IMF deal being finalized, the first blow to the farmers would be a cut in subsidies worth Rs. 27 billion on Di-Ammonium Phosphate, known as the DAP Fertiliser. Last year, the DAP bag cost RS. 3000 and the Rabi season had witnessed a 70% drop, some of the farmers resorted to low quality fertilizers that were weakening for the crops. This resulted in the crop being of low quality too. Thus, if the subsidy is removed, the price is expected to go beyond Rs. 5,500. As a result its use could become impossible and our food security would be at high risk and the governments day dreamt target of 25 million tones would become difficult to achieve. Our agricultural sector provides 65% of the total employment to people and if the subsidies are removed that they are expected to be so, this job providing sector would be in ruins and so would be the food security. Therefore, is would not be unrealistic to think that more slums could be expected to be created with the present ones being more concentrated. Pakistans price inflation has surged a 30 year high record with it being recorded to be at 25% and Rupee value has declined by 25% in terms of Dollar prices (Jamal 2008). With IMFs packages would come great threats, such as further decline in Rupee value as the condition for open markets goes and the emphasis on private sector. How could a government break the ladder (agricultural sector) and yet be expected to climb up to the required stage.

Legal Action against some Slums (Katchi Abadis):


There has been some illegal expansion of slums being witnessed in Karachi over the years and need to be counteracted. In order to do so the Sindh Minister for Katchi Abaadis, Rafiq Engineer has encouraged further creation of cost effective houses, though some laid back approach has prevailed in its regularisation. He has explained how these slums have increased from 1,200 in Sindh (out of which 72 were in Karachi) to numerous amounts. Therefore, the problem not only arises to get them settled but also for maintaining proper infrastructure orderly in the city. To add further discrepancy to the problem, there have been issues that have been curtailing the development of these areas and leasing of property. There have been some property claims by Railways and KPT, however, records show them as state owned. It is important for issues like this to be resolved in order to continue with housing process in some of the slum areas of the city. Moreover there has been burgeoning growth of land mafia too that has occupied both state owned and private land, therefore, this problem needs to be tackled as well. Furthermore, to regularize some slum areas, they need to be able to match the criteria of the so called katchi abaadis and other than this there is low cost housing scheme already existing and being worked upon side by side. According to Cowasjee (Dawn 2007), Karachi happens to be the most polluted mega city in the world and ironically the ranks second for the largest slum in Asia. Written according to him, Karachi has the smallest particulate matter that can enter nostrils and finally up to the extent of lungs, damaging them in various ways. Pm smaller than 10 micrometer in diameter is an extremely dangerous thing we should worry about other than the worsening conditions due to unrecognized slums. As a whole, Pakistan has the fifth largest slum population around the globe and continues to grow 74% of urban dwellers as part of slums, therefore, for development in such areas we need to have increased literacy rates and good employment opportunities which are recently undermined due to have price inflation (30 year high record with official price inflation at 25% and unofficial as high as 60% to 65%). Similarly, our situation has gone way too shameful to the extent that The National Geographic Magazine has mentioned Orangi Township slums as being the largest ones in Asia after even leaving behind Dharvi in Mumbai. Over a span of a few years, rather months, we have also witnessed slum areas as being worst hit as a result of violence taking place in the wake of political disorder or law and order turmoil. This is seen in the form of tires and vehicles being burnt up other than shops No matter how much development takes place for a leap over of development and title, such situations always drag the process into a negative timeline, slowing the progress that has taken place.

Housing Schemes:
The concept of housing schemes has been prevalent since Bhuttos reign since the 1970s. However, they have had changes from governments to governments. Various housing schemes have been adopted for improving the living conditions in the slum areas. Those of Karachi include people coming in from different parts and provinces of Pakistan, with them come hopes of better living and employment opportunities to support their families. However, the conditions they live in make them no better off in these slum areas. Pakistan Housing Association (PHA) is an outcome of a cabinet decision and was formed on May 18, 1999. The basic purpose was to provide shelter to the less affluent class around, namely, the poor and those of a very low income bracket. It was started off in the reign of former prime minister under the title. Apna Ghar. However after his exile it was properly reviewed again and later in March of the following year was approved by the cabinet and the National Security Council. Moreover, eighteen related projects were approved to commence throughout Pakistan. In August 2007, the then prime minister, Shaukat Aziz handed the ownership of 544 apartments to their allottees. These apartments were built in Gulistan-e-Johar to serve the purpose of housing schemes. Furthermore, the present Prime Minister, Yousuf Raza Gillani, has ordered one million more houses to be built annually to serve the poor. Pakistan Housing Association, since its conception had planned to build three types of houses in major cities like, Karachi, Islamabad, Peshawar and Lahore. The categories/ names have been given with respect to sizes (Farhan 2008):

Type B Type C Type D

1,300 sq feet units to 1,450 sq feet units 1,000 sq feet units to 1,125 sq feet units 820 sq feet units to 920 sq feet units

The three cities; Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad have all three types of housing units for people to reside in (2,250, 5,716 and 5,841 units respectively), whereas Peshawar has category C and D types of housing units (1,035 units) (Farhan 2008). The PHA authorities are determined that their projects are in accordance with international standards of design and quality, however, these have doubts attached and it is some of the residents of those units whom seem to be very dissatisfied and say that they are made of low quality material and have some problems in them. They have also written complaint letters to the PHA though unanswered. On the other hand, those who have spoken for it, think that the housing units are up to the mark.

Referring back to the housing projects in Karachi, it has been documented that there are three housing projects here, out of which one is a Type B project which comprises of 544 units in Gulistan-e-Johar. Type D project, comprising of 368 units is at Landhi Railway Station, whereas, both Type C and D projects are at Landhi PBC. PHA Apartments Owners Association had been formed in April 2008 by the residents of these housing units; this association was also registered under The Societies Registration Act, XXI of 1860. However, PHA does not recognize any such associations and denies to do so. It is of the view that the housing association would form its own body under PHA regional manager. This was made adamant in the response to the numerous letters of complaints by the owners of these units. The President of the association, Zahid Khalil, told local newspapers that their association of owners got new water connection, made the street lights functional and got a new water suction plant as well; this was an initiative in getting all the residents of these units involved in the improvement of their society. However, its a pity that PHA does not want to recognize them and continue with their autocratic stance. The Director General, Col Subah Sadiq Malik, still goes on to reject such a kind of a private association. On the other hand, the president of owners association points out that the director general hardly visits these housing units to find out if they are facing any problems, moreover, the people residing here do not have any contact with him either. To add misery to their problems, PHA charges the residents Rs. 800 as monthly maintenance costs, however, the facilities provided are not up to the mark and its not worth it for the money being paid to them. Therefore, the residents are of the view that the PHA should take recommendations and advice from them for the recruitment and downsizing of the administrative staff that they hire, they should have a say in the selection of people for this purpose because it is them they are going to serve and not the higher authorities. Last year in September, the city government of Karachi, sealed the office and all 30 year records of the Lines Area Redevelopment Project (LARP) without even giving any reason for this abrupt decision (Ayub 2007). The project director of LARP, Mr Fareed Yousufani was not at all sure as to why this initiative had been taken for such an old project and the records were taken into control and consideration by the city government (CDGK). LARP was responsible for development work in 462 acres of land which was divided into 8 sectors. This area was built as a cantonment for army officials during the world wars and after partition it was occupied by the immigrants and thus, population densification started taking place. LARP was conceptualized in 1973 and in 1981 it was issued as a self financing project. However, now it seems at the verge of being shutting down. Javed Hanif, the district

coordination officer says that this project would be re launched but did not specify when and he also mentioned that the records were sealed for the purpose of computerization (Ayub 2007).

Population and settlement of Slums areas:


The table below shows the population of slum areas with respect to the number of households:

1974 Population Number of Households 709,000 109,077

1986 1,036,000 164,000

2000 (Projection) 1,064,400 148,000

(Source: Mohib & Hassan. The Case of Karachi Pakistan) Taking the year 1974 as a benchmark we can find out that, till 1986, the population increased by 46.12% and the number of households increased by 50.35%, a little more than the population increase. Comparing this up to these last twenty six years from 1976, the total population increase has been 50.13%, whereas, the number of households in these slum areas have risen by 35.68%, having a low trend between 1986 and 2000. However, creating housing units is not the only solution in accommodating the less affluent class of our society, rather maintenance issues should be sorted out before thinking of building new ones. According to the survey by Mohib and Hassan, Karachi is in a need of 80,000 units per year but to negative aspect of the unsubstantiated problem is that the building permits issued are only 27,000 annually. Often, the construction that takes place in the so called Katchi abadis, is at times undocumented and paves way to further densification. The housing units developed here by people every year is without any government support or subsidies. Therefore, the residents of these units themselves pool in for sanitation, water and other necessities needed to eke out their living and make both ends meet. This goes to the extent that they even invest in the creation of schools in these slum areas. For instance, in Orangi Town, the population comprises of 1.2 million people and has schooling facilities as well, both private and public. Surprisingly, the private schools even in Orangi Town outnumber public schools. It has 509 private schools and 76 government schools, and out of these 71% of school age children are enrolled in private schools (Mohsin & Hassan 2003). When it comes to the health sector, even here, the private clinics out number public clinics with them being 468 and the government clinics having as low a number as 18. They are being run by health visitors and qualified doctors who work both pro bono and for some pay as well. Other health facilities are run by NGOs in this area.

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According to a survey of Ghaziabad (settlement in West Karachi) conducted by Mohib and Hassan, income of 20 households was recorded, and it was found out that average income of these households was Rs. 4,500 to Rs. 6000 with average per capita income being as low as Rs. 500. Highest household income had been Rs. 28,000 and the lowest had been Rs. 1,500 was is extremely low not just as compared to the rising cost of living but according to being a resident of the slums. This often becomes difficult to afford a life when on average the number of children in a house is 9.5 as usually families have four children and above. This is also supported by the fact that the birth rate in Orangi is 40.8 per 1000 people. With this surged birth rate, there would be a need of more and more housing units to accommodate these people without merely getting their living conditions improved. The sewage, water and electricity problems continue more often in these areas. KAIRP has been an important program for the improvement and regularization for the slums of Karachi. It has been operating since the late 1980s. for the implementation of this program, a loan of $ 7.3 million was taken from the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank in 2000 (Mohsin & Hassan 2003). Even though the residents would deny it, the government officials have say that relevant work has been completed in slum areas and leases have been issued to 108,245 housing units as compared to a total of 415,000 units. However, there is no mention of the details available for any work carried out through these councilor/MNA/MPA funds because of the absence of monitoring and there is a high weightage that these funds might have been misused. These slum areas are not directly linked with the city infrastructure because of which development programs fail.

Slums and Votes:


The Peoples Party had been associated with housing for the poor in the 1970s. Hence, their motto of Roti, Kapra, Makan was devised to provide shelter for the poor and slums areas. Similarly, it would not be wrong to say that the governments that followed capitalized on the same phrase for votes. Their main purpose has been to get the residents of slums enrolled for getting their votes and therefore, governments have been quite successful for that. Mostly, the people belonging to slum areas have been allowed to be on their own in terms of some aspects of development and thus, came along some level of corruption in terms of bribery and informal development. After all, this is the part of society the government can expect a lot of votes from.

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Votes per Province:


According to a survey conducted by International Republican Institute (IRI) from January 19 to 29, 2008, PPP had got the most favoured opinions for votes and that was by 50%, the PML- N was second. IRI selected random samples of 3,485 adults from 223 rural and 127 urban areas (Shaikh 2008) ranging from the entire districts of Pakistan. PPP, according to public opinion had been leading with 44% even before votes were cast, whereas, this support was greatest at 74% at Sindh and reminaed at 44% in Balouchistan. When people were asked by the IRI team as to who should win, 58% spoke in favour of PPP., 22% favoured PML-N and only 13% favoured PML-Q. It should not be forgotten that the recent assassination of Ms. Benazir Bhutto had got the nation emotional and increased the chances of getting vote for PPP. Moreover, 79% of Pakistanis still thought that the elections were manipulated though they were in favour of the respective political parties they supported. Secondly, voters highly were against the elections being postponed by a year and the number of people were about 85% and 69% were of the view that President Pervaiz Musharraf should resign (Shaikh 2008). It should be noted that those who comprised of this sample never voted for anyone out of the blue as the prime minister. Therefore, no one cast a vote for MR. Zardari as being the prime minister of Pakistan, 56% had voted for Makhdoom Amin Fahim, 15% were in favour of Javed Hashmi of PML-N, whereas, 12% were in favour of Pervaiz Elahi of PML-Q. Furthermore, 66% percent of the population chose Makhdoom Amin Fahim as taking charge of PPP until Bilawal Bhutto is able to be able to lead it and most even favoured the latter as the political personality they liked. Lastly, from those people whom the sample comprised of 90% said they were somewhat likely to vote.

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Analytical Perspective:
Migration Statistics show that Sindh has the most of the migrated population and Karachi happens to be the hub of rural areas not just in Pakistan but the entire Asia as well. SIndh has 52% of population comprising of people from Punjab and 36% from NWFP (Anonymous 2, 2008). Similarly, Sindh has the highest growth rate of 7.2% per year. As migration continues on yearly bases, it paves way to further creation of slums. It is appropriate to find and generate the right kind of employment for these people. However, our society has not gone through the different phases of production and, therefore, we became Post Fordist without going through Fordism. When countries like Pakistan are evolving along these lines they skip stages or Leap over. If we consider ourselves from Rostows models Stages of Economic Growth, we are still at stage 3 (when industrilisation takes place) since the 1960s and find it difficult to fully expand into stage 4 (drive to maturity) as there is not much technological innovation or hardly nonexistent and we still heavily rely on imports. Therefore, in order to have less imports we need to work on our job market by creating employment for the less educated and less affluent class and side by side also increasing the level of education for them. Moreover, we have not yet fully grown into stage 4 and have penetrated into stage 5 where our service sector is becoming increasingly dominant. This for us is a leap over stage. From the perspective of Neo Classical Theory, our government should adopt policies to free up markets and improve the supply side, however, privatizing profit generating assets like the Steel Mills is not appropriate and has generated uproar from the public.

Once activities are adopted to have freer market and improved supply side strategies our economies potential output would increase and a right shift in LRAS would be witnessed, therefore it would become easier to tackle issues related to slums. We are an agricultural economy, therefore, over the years we have witnessed labour saving technological progress which includes tractors and mechanical ploughs etcetera. However, with recent fertilizer prices soaring away, farmers are finding it difficult to have good quality farm product in use and such progress would not be of much use when our society is not much educated and is not providing skilled labour and thus, we have migrated people living in slums

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and contributing to the number of unskilled labour force which is findind it difficult to get jobs given the recent financial crunch. At the same time, we cannot have capital saving technological progress as we are a developing nation, however, we labour augmenting technological progress by upgrading the quality or skills of labour force so that they are kept from migrating from rural to urban areas and eventually contributing to slums. In the wake of this discussion, we have been having more growth in land resources as an agricultural nation and capital stock is very insufficient and this sector needs to be lokked upon for further growth.

Over the years, as Dr. Kaiser Bengali had elaborated, we have been producing sellers of imported technology (mobile phones, computers) in the form of MBAs, however, those creating and inventing technology are almost nonexistent (Mathematician, engineers), therefore out production possibility curve(as shown above) has been shifting outwards along the x-axis through our agricultural products. However, it has not bulged outwards towards technological innovation and progress along the y axis. A balance needs to be maintained when growth should be high in technological growth and growth of capital stock so that surplus employment opportunities could be created as shown below.

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Bibliography:

SLUMS OF KARACHI

Bibliography:
Ayub, Imran (2007) city government Winds up Lines Area Project. The News, Jang Group of Publications, published on September 7, 2007. Anonymous (2008) Actions against illegal Slums shortly. Dawn, Herald Group of Publications, published on May 17, 2008.
Anonymous 2 (2008) Prioritise education for women to increase literacy: Khuhro.

Dawn, Herald Group of Publications, published on August 10, 2008.

Bales, Kevin (2007) Ending Slavery. University of California Press. Pp 75 70. Cowasjee, Ardeshir (2008 Karachi Numero Uno. Dawn, Herald Group of Publications, published on June 10, 2008.

Jamal, Nasir (2008) Home grown Policies and IMF prescriptions. Dawn, Herald Group of Publications, published on Nov 3, 2008. Khan, Ahmad Fraz (2008) IMF Facility and Fertiliser Subsidy. Dawn, Herald Group of Publications, published on Nov 3, 2008. Mohib & Hassan (2003) UNDERSTANDING SLUMS: Case Studies for the Global Report on Human Settlements 200. Nazar, Yousuf (2007) Real Income Growth lags behind Asia. Dawn, Herald Group of Publications, published on June 4, 2007. Sen, Amartya (2000) Development as Freedom. Anchor Books, pp 85 -160. Shaikh, Shakil (2008) PPP to poll 50 pc votes: IRI survey. The News, Jang Group of Publications, published on February 12, 2008.

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Zaidi, S. Akbar (1999) Issues in Pakistans Economy. Oxford University Press, 1999; pg 23 40. Zaheer, M. Farhan (2008) PHA officials indifferent to Apna Ghar residents as govt promises more houses. The News, Jang Group of Publications, published on July 22, 2008.

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