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Electric Fields, Electric Dipoles, & Electric Flux

Reading: 21.6-7, 22.1-2 HW2 due 1/31 midnight

Julia Hsu S12

Goals for Chapter 21

To study electric charge and charge conservation To see how objects become charged To calculate the electric force between objects using Coulomb s law To learn the distinction between electric force and electric field To calculate the electric field due to many charges To visualize and interpret electric fields To calculate the properties of electric dipoles
Julia Hsu S12 5

Field of a uniformly charged disk

A nonconducting disk of radius R has a uniform surface charge density . Find the electric field at a point along the axis of the disk a distance x from its center. (x >0)

" ! ! $ 1 $1! E= 2"0 $ 1+ R $ x #

( )

% ' ' i 2 ' ' &

R >> x

! ! E= i 2"0

Field of two oppositely charged infinite sheets

Use the infinite sheet results from before

Charge Par&cle Trajectory in E

How far does electron travel before it hits the plate?

Electric field lines

An electric field line is an imaginary line or curve whose tangent at any point is the direction of the electric field vector at that point.

Electric field lines of point charges

Visualizing Electric Field Lines

Julia Hsu S12


Electric dipoles
An electric dipole is a pair of point charges having equal but opposite sign and separated by a distance. Electric dipole moment has a magnitude of p = qd Direction of the dipole is from the charge to the + charge d


! ! p = qd


Water molecule dipole

Force and torque on a dipole

For a dipole in a uniform electric field, the force is zero but there is a non-zero torque to align the dipole to the electric field

! ! ! ! = p!E

! = pE sin "

! ! p || E

Zero torque when:

! ! U = !p E = !pE cos !

Potential Energy of a Dipole

Lowest when the dipole is aligned (parallel) to the E led

H2O Electric Dipole

Neutral H2O molecule in its vapor state has an electric dipole moment of 6.2 x 10-30 Cm. How far apart are the molecules centers of + and charge? If the molecule is placed in an E eld of 1.5 x 104 N/C, what maximum torque can the eld exert on it? What is the dierence in poten&al energy between the dipole is perpendicular to the E eld and its lowest energy congura&on?

Water molecule dipole

Julia Hsu S12


Goals for Chapter 22

To use the electric field at a surface to determine the charge within the surface To learn the meaning of electric flux and how to calculate it To learn the relationship between the electric flux through a surface and the charge within the surface To use Gauss s law to calculate electric fields To learn where the charge on a conductor is located

Symmetry properties play an important role in physics. Gauss s law will allow us to do electric-field calculations using symmetry principles.

Charge and Electric Flux

Positive charge within the box produces outward electric flux through the surface of the box, and negative charge produces inward flux The flux reflects the amount of the charges inside the box

Zero net charge inside a box

Three examples in which there is zero net charge inside a box and no net electric flux through the surface of the box.

What affects the flux through a box?

Doubling the charge within the box doubles the flux Doubling the size of the box does not change the flux.

Calculating electric flux

!E = EA ! ! !E = E A ! ! !E = # E"dA = # E dA

!E = EAcos ! ! A = An E! = E cos ! !E = E! A

Electric flux through a disk

Electric eld magnitude 3.0 x 103 N/C What is the electric ux through the disk? What is the ux if n is perpendicular to E? What is the ux if n is || to E?

Electric flux through a sphere

A point charge q = + 4.0C is surrounded by an imaginary sphere of radius r = 0.10 m centered on the charge. What is the electric ux through the sphere? What if the sphere radius is 0.20m?

Oce hours for today and Thur will be from 2:45 to 3:45 pm, i.e. before class Test GEMS pre-test for extra credits before tomorrow night HW#1 due today at midnight HW#2 due 1/31 midnight
Course ID: HSUS12PHYS2326 Use your initials + last 3 digits of your netID as your ID