GenEd 111 "World History" Lecture & Book Notes: Ch 18 CHAPTER 18 The West on the Eve of a New World Order

17th century Scientific Revolution: Gave Europeans a new way of viewing the universe and their place in it  The scientific Revolution challenged conceptions & beliefs about the nature of the external would that had become dominant by the Late Middle Ages.

Ptolemaic Geocentric Theory (of the universe): Conception that the universe was seen as a series of concentric spheres with a fixed motionless earth at its center Challenged by Nicolaus Copernicus Heliocentric Theory: Argued that the sun was motionless at the center of the universe. The planets revolved around the Sun. the moon revolved around the earth. He did not reject the idea that the heavenly spheres moved in circular orbits. Support for the Copernican System >> Johannes Kepler's Heliocentric Theory: revised copernicus theory from Circular to ELLIPTICAL with the sun at the focus not the center. Galileo Galilei: used telescope to discern that the universe seemed to be made out of the same materials as the Earth instead of perfect and unchanging substance.  Catholic Church freaked and condemned him for his theory. Isaac Newton: Defined the 3 Laws of Motion that govern planetary bodies. Universal law of Gravitation  Developed the World-Machine concept: where the universe was seen as one huge, regulated machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time, space, and motion.  Dominated the scientific community until the 20th century's Albert Einsteins concept of relativity

Geocentric Theory >> Copernicus Heliocentric Theory >> Johannes Kepler's revised Heli theory >> Galileo >> Isaac Newton Geocentric Theory >> Heliocentric Theory >> Kepler's Heliocentric revised >> Galileo >> WorldMachine Concept Philosophes: The intellectuals of the Enlightenment (Literary people, professors, journalists, political scientists etc..

To Philosophes the role of philosophy was not to discuss the world but to change it.

The 3 French Philosophe Giants

Montesquieu: 3 basic kinds of government: Republic, Monarchy & Despotism

Believed in the importance of checks & balances by means of Separation of Powers

Voltaire: Greatest figure of the enlightenment. Criticized traditional religion. For religious toleration. Championed Deism: religious outlook based on Newton's WorldMachine which implied the existence of a Mechanic (GOD) who created the universe.  Universe was like a clock: God = Clockmaker, allowed it to run according to its own natural laws. Diderot: French writer, who's favorite topic was Christianity; he condemned it as fanatical and unreasonable. Also the worst of all religions.  Most famous contribution was the Encyclopedia: Its purpose was to change the general way of thinking. (became a major weapon of the Philosophes against the old French society

Led to the "Science of Man" >> THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

One of the Founders Adam Smith: Believed the state should not impose regulations on economic forces. Laissez-Faire: "leave it alone"

Government has 3 Basic Functions  Protect society from invasion (army  Defend its citizens from injustice (police)  Keep up certain public works (roads, canals)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

(origins of the inequality of mankind) Man created government and laws to protect his private property but in the course became enslaved by government (Social Contract): 1762, An entire society agreed to be governed by its general will. The General will is not only political but also ETHICAL. It represents what the entire community "ought to do" His novel Emile: Education should foster, rather than restrict children's natural instincts.  A balance of heart & mind between emotion & reason

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