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**Couplers and Connectors
**

Lecture 17 L t

Electrical Engineering San Jose State University

Khosrow Ghadiri

**Couplers and connectors
**

Connectors: Metallic system: Wire: Soldering: Lossless: Economical Fiber system: fiber: Splicing: Loss: Economical Splicing is the permanent connection of two optical fiber. Two mechanism of splicing: Fusion Mechanical Splices are of two types: Midspan: the connecting of two cables Pigtail: assembly of a fiber that has been factory-installed into a connector in one end, with the other end free for splicing to a cable. The quality of splicing is measured by the insertion and reflection losses caused by the splice

© Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept. SJSU 2

**Couplers and connectors losses
**

Connectors losses at any splice stem from the fact that no all light from one fiber is transmitted to another. The loss results from: Mismatch: due to fiber’s mechanical dimensions and numerical aperture. An improvement in splicing technique can not solve the problem. Also called intrinsic connection losses. Misalignment: are caused by some imperfection in splicing, l db f l that theoretically can be eliminated. An improvement in splicing technique can solve the problem. Also called extrinsic connection losses. Misalignment Losses in fiber-to-fiber: Core misalignment and imperfections. Lateral (axial) misalignment Angular misalignment gap b t between ends contact d t t Non-flat ends Cladding alignment

© Khosrow Ghadiri

Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept. SJSU

3

g Lateral (axial) misalignment Angular misalignment gap between ends contact Non-flat ends due to cleaving θ Cladding alignment © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.Couplers and connectors losses Misalignment Losses in fiber-to-fiber due to some imperfection in fiber to fiber splicing: Core misalignment and imperfections. SJSU 4 .

The distance between the excitation point and the connector ( (due to unknown distribution of p power across the fiber end face. excitation method) Length of fiber following the Junctions. The core is not centered in the cladding and the outside cladding is used as the reference for aligning the Joint. Reasonable loss of 0.1 dB for splices p Reasonable loss of reusable connectors with losses less then 1 dB.Mismatch losses Coupling efficiency reduction due to mismatch: Different numerical aperture Different core diameter Elliptical cross sections (rather than Circular) with cross section are attached with their major axes unaligned. © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept. SJSU 5 .

The lateral misalignment loss is due only to the non-overlap of transmission and receiving cores.Losses due to lateral misalignment Assumptions: Uniform power distribution over the fiber core (suitable for multimode step index fiber). SJSU 6 . 2 2 ⎧ −1 d d ⎡ ⎛ d ⎞ ⎤⎫ ⎪ ⎪ η = ⎨cos − ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎬ π⎪ 2a 2a ⎢ ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎥ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ The inversed cosine is calculated in radians. The loss in dB is: L = −10 log10 η © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept. g The coupling efficiency η is defined as the ratio of the overlapping area to the core area.

SJSU 7 . The lateral misalignment loss is due only to the non-overlap of g transmission and receiving cores. a θm θ x 0 r d 2 r d 2 cos θ m = a cos θ = θ m = cos −1 d 2 a d 2 © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.Losses due to lateral misalignment Assumptions: Uniform power distribution over the fiber core (suitable for multimode step index fiber).

Losses due to lateral misalignment The small displacements d 2a < 0 2the equation: 0. SJSU 8 .2 2 2 ⎧ −1 d d ⎡ ⎛ d ⎞ ⎤⎫ ⎪ ⎪ − η = ⎨cos ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎬ 2a 2a ⎢ ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎥ ⎪ π⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ 2d 2d η = 1− Reduces to: πa Lateral misalignment loss for a multimode SI fiber © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.

1 dB. Solution: The coupling efficiency L The d/a L = −10 log10 η ⇒ η = 10 − 10 2 ⎧ −1 d d ⎪ η = ⎨cos − π⎪ 2a 2a ⎩ ⎡ ⎛ d ⎞2 ⎤ ⎫ ⎪ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎬ ⎢ ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎥ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎪ The displacement © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.5 dB. 2) Repeat for losses of 0.Axial displacement loss example A fiber has a core diameter of 50 μ m . 3) Repeat for losses of 0. 1) what is the allowable axial displacement if the coupling loss is to be less than 1 dB. SJSU 9 .

5 0.Axial displacement loss example A fiber has a core diameter of 50 μ m .0 0. − L 10 L = −10 log10 η ⇒ η = 10 The displacement 2 ⎧ −1 d d ⎪ η = ⎨cos − π⎪ 2a 2a ⎩ Loss (dB) 1.1 © Khosrow Ghadiri ⎡ ⎛ d ⎞2 ⎤ ⎫ ⎪ 1− ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎬ ⎢ ⎢ ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎥ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎭ d ( μm) 8 4. SJSU .5 1 10 d / 2a 0.02 Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.09 0.16 0.

only the edges of the transmitting core miss the receiving fiber but the edge contain less power than is assumed in L = −10 log10 η The actual loss is less than that predicted by theory. © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept. Higher-ordered modes contained more power near the corecladding interface. SJSU 11 . The power density at the end of a long fiber will be lower at the edge of the core than at points near its center.Losses due to lateral misalignment Higher ordered Higher-ordered modes are more heavily attenuated than lower modes. For small axial displacements.

At those points where the receiver NA is larger than the transmitter NA. some of the power is lost. The numerical aperture has ⎛r⎞ NA = n1 2Δ 1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝a⎠ 2 The numerical apertures of transmitter and receiver match at every point within the core when the two fibers meet with no offset. all the power is transferred. SJSU 12 .Losses due to lateral misalignment Multimode Graded-index fiber (GRIN) numerical aperture varies Graded index across the face of the core. With an offset. there is a NA mismatch at nearly every point. © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept. At those points where the receiver NA is less than the transmitter NA.

Losses due to lateral misalignment The fractional efficiency at those points is equal to the ratio of square of the local numerical aperture. SJSU 13 . The power distribution across the face is not generally known. For both step index (SI) and parabolic-index fibers with the nearly Gaussian beam. This fact discourage comprehensive analysis. The coupling efficiency is the average of the local efficiencies weighted according to power distribution across the end face. The spot size in the focal plane L = −10 log10 e λf πW ⎛d⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ⎝ w⎠ 2 W0 = © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept. The loss between identical fibers: beam Where W is the spot size.

Physical optics (Diffraction theory) review Collimated uniform light beam does not converge to a point but instead reduces to a central spot of light surrounded by rings of a steadily diminishing intensity. The central spot has diameter. SJSU 14 .44 P D Fiber f © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept. d = 2 44λ f D 2.

SJSU . A transverse pattern is the Gaussian distribution. A Gaussian intensity d distribution: b I = I 0e − 2 x2 W2 W0 = λf πW A normalized Gaussian intensity distribution: I I0 1 0. The intensities vary across the transverse plane.5 0.135 −2W © Khosrow Ghadiri −W 0 W 2W x 15 Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.Diffraction theory review Very small fibers (having diameters of a few micrometers) and actual light sources produces non-uniform beams.

the maximum at the center. The radius of the spot is the distance at which the beam intensity has d h dropped to 1 e 2 = 0. The edges of the circle are not sharp. There are no surrounding rings like those that appear when focusing a uniform beam. The spot size in the focal plane is: 2W 0 W0 = λf πW © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.135 times its peak value I 0 . SJSU 16 . This radius is d k l h d called the spot size. Focusing a Gaussian light with a lens yields distribution of light in the focal plane that is also Gaussian shaped. The light intensity drops gradually from I 0 .Diffraction theory review The Gaussian beam spot pattern appears to be a circle of light light.

SJSU 17 .Losses due to lateral misalignment The small displacements d 2a < 0 2the equation: 0.2 © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.

65 + 1. Do this for offset from 0 to 5μ m. Solution: The V parameters must be calculated at two wavelengths of interest.31 1.3 13 W ( μ m) 4.55μ m .94 1 94 W a 1. Plot the single mode coupling loss as a function of lateral misalignment at the wavelengths 1.13 1.47 5.619V 2 + 2.879V −6 a λ ( μ m) 1. SJSU .3μ m and1. l h f V= 2π a λ 2 n12 − n2 3 − W = 0.Lateral misalignment loss example Consider the single-mode fiber core diameter of 50 μ m .55 1 55 © Khosrow Ghadiri V 2.3 1.16 5 16 18 Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.

55μ m © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.3μ m and 1.Lateral misalignment loss plot example Plot of the coupling loss as a function of lateral misalignment at the wavelengths 1. SJSU 19 .

assuming uniform power distribution. SJSU .Angular misalignment The coupling efficiency due to small angular misalignment of multimode SI fibers is: Where n0 is the refractive i d Wh i th f ti index of the material filling the grove f th t i l filli th formed by the two fibers and θ is the misalignment angle in radian. nθ ⎞ ⎛ L = −10 log10 ⎜1 − 0 ⎟ ⎝ π NA ⎠ θ Where θ is tilt angle and © Khosrow Ghadiri NA = n0 sin α 0 α0 20 Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept. The loss is: n0θ η = 1− π NA The efficiency was found by computing the overlap of the transmitting and receiving cones.

SJSU 21 .Angular misalignment plot Plot of the coupling efficiency due to small angular misalignment of multimode SI fibers per degree is: © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.

SJSU 22 .Angular misalignment Angular misalignment losses for single-mode fiber: single mode L = −10 log10 e ⎛ π n wθ ⎞ −⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ λ ⎠ 2 The coupling efficiency due to small angular misalignment of single SI fibers is: © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.

1( 2.65 + 1.53μ m 2π ( 0.12 ) 3 3 − w − −6 −6 2 = 0.4.879V = 0.example A SI fiber n1 = 1 465 n2 = 1 46 and normalized frequency 2 4 2.8μ m. 2) The spot size at 0.879 ( 2. 1.1 a w = 1.465 ) − (1.8μ m .465.8 ( 2.46 ) 2 2 = 0.12 V= 2π a 2 2π n12 − n2 2) The spot size at 0.619 ( 2.8μ m . Solution: 1) the numerical aperture 2 NA = n12 − n2 = (1.4 ) = 1.4 ) = 2.619V + 2. λ 2 n12 − n2 ⇒ a = λV = 0.78μ m © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept. SJSU 23 . 1.65 + 1.46 1) Compute its numerical aperture and core radius at 0.4 ) 2 + 2.53) = 2.

04 ⎝ n1 + n2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 + 1. SJSU 24 .End separation loss Losses due to gap between the fibers being joined has two components: 1) Two boundaries between the fiber medium and air: ⎛ n − n ⎞ ⎛ 1−1 5 ⎞ 1. 96% transmitted.177 0.5 ⎠ 2 2 4% of light reflected. Loss in dB. © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.5 R=⎜ 1 2 ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ = 0.177 dB The total loss L = 2 × 0 177 dB = 0 35 0.96 = 0.35 To improve the loss: fill the gap by the index-matching fluid. L = −10 log10 0.

An indexmatching fluid decreases fiber separation loss by reducing beam fiber-separation divergence © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept. SJSU 25 .End separation loss Losses due to gap between the fibers being joined has two components: 2) some transmitted ray are not intercepted by receiving fiber: ⎛ xNA ⎞ NA L = −10 log10 ⎜1 − ⎟ 4 a n0 ⎠ ⎝ Where n0 is the refractive index of matching fluid.

SJSU 26 .End separation loss for multimode fiber End separation for a multimode SI fiber: L = −10 log10 ⎜1 − ⎛ ⎝ xNA ⎞ ⎟ 4 a n0 ⎠ © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.

045 ( 2 × 50 μ m ) = 4.045.24 1) lateral offset: L=0.Example Estimate the allowed misalignment for a multimode SI fiber if each type of error is allowed to contribute 0.25 dB of loss. SJSU 27 . L = 0.5μ m © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept. The core radius is 50 μ m and NA = 0.25 from the figure d/2a=0.

24 2) angular misalignment: from the figure. the angle is 2.045 ( 2 × 50 μ m ) = 4.4 degrees.25 dB of loss.Example Estimate the allowed misalignment for a multimode SI fiber if each type of error is allowed to contribute 0. SJSU 28 . degrees L = 0. The core radius is 50 μ m and NA = 0.5μ m © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.

Example Estimate the allowed misalignment for a multimode SI fiber if each type of error is allowed to contribute 0. the x a = 0.94 x = 0. SJSU 29 .25 dB of loss.94 ( 50μ m ) = 47 μ m © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.24 3) the end separation: from the figure.94a = 0. The core radius is 50 μ m and NA = 0.

SJSU 30 .4 dB. Axial misalignment is potentially the most serious problem in multimode SI fiber. © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.The gap loss for single mode fibers The gap loss for single mode fibers: L = −10 log10 Where xλ z= 2π n2 w2 ( 4z 4 ( 4 z 2 + 1) 2 + 2) + 4z 2 From the next page figure the gap of 10 times of the core radius produces a loss than 0.

separation loss for single mode SI fiber V=2.12and w/a=1 1 NA=0 12and λ = 0 8μ m 0.8 © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.Gap loss for single-mode fiber The gap loss for single-mode fiber is: single mode End. SJSU 31 .4.1.NA=0. w/a=1.

SJSU 32 . If all the allowed modes are equally excited If the receiving fiber core is larger than the transmitting one a1 > a2 there is no loss. 2a2 2a1 © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.Loss due to fiber core radius difference The loss transmitting from a fiber of core radius a1 to one having core radiusa2 is: ⎛a ⎞ L = −10 log10 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ a1 ⎠ 2 Applicable for both SI and GRIN fibers.

If all the allowed modes are equally excited If the receiving fiber NA is larger than the transmitting one NA1 there is no loss. SJSU 33 .Loss due to fiber core radius difference The loss transmitting from a fiber with a higher numerical aperture to lower one is: ⎛ NA ⎞ L = −10 log10 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ NA1 ⎠ 2 Applicable for both multimode SI and GRIN fibers. > NA2 NA2 NA1 © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.

Palais. 2005. Pearson. © Khosrow Ghadiri Fiber Optics Communications EE Dept.Reference Joseph C Palais Fiber optic communication fifth edition Pearson C. Prentice Hall. edition. communication. SJSU 34 .

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