You are on page 1of 4

AESTHETICS A set of discipline that includes grammar, philosophy, literature, history and music ( Tabotabo, 200).

0). The humanities are academic disciplines which study the human condition. It refers to arts visual arts such as architecture, painting, and sculpture; music; dance; theater or drama; and literature. They are branches of learning concerned with human thoughts, feelings, and relations and how they are expressed. Aesthetics is the subfield of philosophy concerning beauty and art. It spans all areas of artistic endeavor. The word derives from the Greek aisthetikos, meaning of sense perception. It refers to the forms and psychological effects of arts. BASIC QUESTIONS IN AESTHETICS 1. What is art and what is non art? 2. What do the various arts have in common 3. What, if anything makes some art good or bad? 4. Can art be evaluated objectively, or only subjectively (that is, are aesthetic properties merely "in the eye of the beholder" or "matters of taste")? 5. What is the importance of art, to whom, and for what? 6. What effects can a work of art have on the observer? 7. How does one interpret a work of art? 8. What is beauty and what is its relationship to art? 9. Why do we find certain things beautiful? 10. What is the role of emotion in the appreciation of art? 11. What is the role of the artist's intention in interpreting a work of art? 12. What is the connection between art and ethics? METHODS OF PRESENTING THE ART SUBJECTS 1. REALISM. o Presents the subject as it is. (Realists try to be objective as possible; hence, they describe their subject accurately and honestly. Realists also depicts subjects "in accordance with secular empirical rules as they are considered to exist in third person objective reality, without embellishment or interpretation) o It may emphasize the ugly or sordid in revealing the truth. In general, realists render everyday characters, situations, dilemmas, and objects, all in a "true-to-life" manner. Realists tend to discard theatrical drama, lofty subjects and classical forms of art in favor of commonplace themes. 2. ABSTRACTION does not show the subject at all as an objective reality, but only his idea, or his feeling about it. It moves away from showing things as they really are. a. Distortion twisted shape or misshapen condition b. Elongation something is lengthened/extended c. Mangling something is cut, lacerated, mutilated, or hacked with repeated blows d. Cubism something is presented geometrical shapes

e. Abstract Expressionism uses large canvases, and a deliberate lack of refinement in the application of paint. Strong color, uneven brush strokes, and rough textures are its manifestations. In other words, it departs completely from subject matter, from studied precision, and from any kind of preconceived design. To 'abstract' means to draw away from, to separate, not to refer to something particular anymore A movement of conscious and methodical destruction of particular and recognizable in appearance. Artistic elimination of rational visual association. In a way it is synthetical purification and intensification of colours, forms and ideas that leads to creation of artwork that either resembles a direct print of a soul that refused to undergo rational filters of mind and cognoscence, or a quasiscientific, almost mathematical picture that looks so rational it's difficult to believe how irrational it actually is. 3. SYMBOLISM is a visible sign of something invisible such as an idea or quality. It can be simply an emblem or sign like a lion to represent courage, Jesus Christ to represent Holiness. Symbolism originated in France, and was part of a 19th-century movement in which art became infused with mysticism. French Symbolism was both a continuation of the Romantic tradition and a reaction to the realistic approach of impressionism. It served as a catalyst in the outgrowth of the darker sides of Romanticism and toward abstraction. The term Symbolism means the systematic use of symbols or pictorial conventions to express an allegorical meaning. Symbolism is an important element of most religious arts and reading symbols plays a main role in psychoanalysis. Thus, the Symbolist painters used these symbols from mythology and dream imagery for a visual language of the soul. Not so much a style of art, Symbolism was more an international ideological trend. Symbolists believed that art should apprehend more absolute truths which could only be accessed indirectly. Thus, they painted scenes from nature, human activities, and all other real world phenomena in a highly metaphorical and suggestive manner. They provided particular images or objects with esoteric attractions. 5. SURREALISM uses a weapon against the evils and restrictions that surrealists see in a society. It tries to reveal a new and higher reality than that of daily life. It is an invented word meaning super realism, which emphasizes the activities of the subconscious state of mind. It attempts to show what is inside a persons mind as well as the appearance of his or her outside world. It was an artistic movement that brought together artists, thinkers and researchers in hunt of sense of expression of the unconscious. They were searching for the definition of new aesthetic, new humankind and a new social order. Surrealists had their forerunners in Italian Metaphysical Painters (Giorgio de Chirico) in early 1910's. As the artistic movement, Surrealism came into being after the French poet Andre Breton 1924 published the first Manifeste du surrealisme. In this book Breton suggested that rational thought was repressive to the powers of creativity and imagination and thus inimical to artistic expression. An admirer of Sigmund Freud and his concept of the subconscious, Breton felt that contact with this hidden part of the mind could produce poetic truth 6. EXPRESSIONISM believes in the necessity of a spiritual rebirth for the human being in an age that was fast becoming influenced by materialism. It depicts the idea of rebirth of an individual as possible only within the context of the transformation of the entire society Fauvism: (1898 - 1908) Coming from the French word fauve, meaning "wild animals," Fauvism rejected traditional painting and sculpture ideals and emphasized modern concepts, notably machines and motion. Inspired by the late

impressionist works of Paul Gauguin and Vincent Van Gogh who pushed the boundaries with their bold color choices, the movement took this idea a step further to include simplified design. The first Fauvist exhibition occurred in 1905. The primary focus of the Fauvist movement is non-naturalistic and vibrant color. Dadaism or Dada is a post-World War I cultural movement in visual art as well as literature (mainly poetry), theatre and graphic design. The movement was, among other things, a protest against the barbarism of the War and what Dadaists believed was an oppressive intellectual rigidity in both art and everyday society; its works were characterized by a deliberate irrationality and the rejection of the prevailing standards of art. It influenced later movements including Surrealism According to its proponents, Dada was not art; it was anti-art. For everything that art stood for, Dada was to represent the opposite. Where art was concerned with aesthetics, Dada ignored them. If art is to have at least an implicit or latent message, Dada strives to have no meaning--interpretation of Dada is dependent entirely on the viewer. If art is to appeal to sensibilities, Dada offends. Perhaps it is then ironic that Dada is an influential movement in Modern art. Dada became a commentary on art and the world, thus becoming art itself. The artists of the Dada movement had become disillusioned by art, art history and history in general. Many of them were veterans of World War I and had grown cynical of humanity after seeing what men were capable of doing to each other on the battlefields of Europe. Thus they became attracted to a nihilistic view of the world (they thought that nothing mankind had achieved was worthwhile, not even art), and created art in which chance and randomness formed the basis of creation. The basis of Dada is nonsense. With the order of the world destroyed by World War I, Dada was a way to express the confusion that was felt by many people as their world was turned upside down. Futurism painters wanted their works to capture the speed of force and modern industrial society. Their paintings glorified the mechanical energy of modern life. Subjects included automobiles, motorcycles, and railroad trains subject that express the explosive vitality of a modern city. The leading futurist painter and sculptor is Umberto Boccioni MEDIUMS OF THE VISUAL ARTS 1. PAINTING is the art of creating meaningful effects on a flat surface by the use of pigments. a. OIL. The pigments are mixed in oil. b. Tempera. This is the mixture of ground pigments and either egg yolk, gum or glue. It is usually done on a wooden panel that has been made smooth. c. Watercolor. The pigments are mixed with water and applied to fine white paper d. Pastel. It resembles dry pigments e. FRESCO. The colors are mixed with water and applied to plaster, which absorbs the color. It lasts unless the wall is destroyed. f. ACRYLIC. These are synthetic paints using acrylic emulsion as binder. They combine the transparency and quick-drying qualities of watercolor and are as flexible as oil. They are completely insoluble when dry and can be used almost in any surface. They do not also tend to crack, and turn yellow with age. 2. SCULPTURE. The art or practice of shaping figures or designs in the round or in relief, as by chiseling marble, modeling clay, or casting in metal. THE 2 MAJOR SCULPTURE PROCESSES 1. SUBTRACTIVE. It is a process in which an unwanted material is cut away. Example is the curving of stone and wood.

2. ADDITIVE. It is the construction of figure by putting together bits of clay, or by welding together parts of metal. COMMON MEDIUMS OF SCULPTURE 1. STONE. It is durable, resistant to the elements, fire, and other hazards. However, it is heavy and breaks easily. 2. BRONZE. It is the most commonly used metal. 3. WOOD. It is cheap, readily available, and easy to cut. It is relatively light and can be made easily into a variety of shapes. 4. IVORY. A hard, smooth, yellowish-white substance composed primarily of dentin that forms the tusks of the elephant. 5. TERRA COTTA. A hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction 3. ARCHITECTURE. The art and science of designing and erecting buildings. COMMON MEDIUMS OF ARCHITECTURE 1. Wood 2. Stone 3. Steel ELEMENTS OF THE VISUAL ARTS 1. LINE represents figures and forms. It is either straight or curved. a. HORIZONTAL LINES show relaxation and serenity. They express ideas of calmness and order. b. VERTICAL LINES balances action. It gives an impression of dignity and exaltation c. DIAGONAL LINES suggest action and movement. CURVED LINES suggest grace, movement, flexibility and joyousness. 2. Color is the byproduct of the spectrum of light, as it is reflected or absorbed, as received by the human eye and processed by the human brain. MEANING OF COLORS CONVEYED BY ROSES 1. Red roses are the traditional symbol for love and romance, and a time-honored way to say "I love you." The red rose has long symbolized beauty and perfection. White. It symbolizes truth, purity, glory and the road to heaven. 2. Pink roses are symbols of grace and elegance, they are often given as an expression of admiration, appreciation, and joyfulness. 3. Yellow roses evoke a feeling of warmth and happiness. The warm feelings associated with the yellow rose are often akin to those shared with a true friend. As such, the yellow rose is an ideal symbol for joy and friendship. 4. White roses represent innocence and purity and are traditionally associated with marriages and new beginnings. The white rose is also a symbol of honor and reverence. 5. Orange roses are the embodiment of desire and enthusiasm. Orange roses often symbolize passion and excitement and are an expression of fervent romance. 6. Lavender. The unique beauty of the lavender rose has captured many hearts and imaginations. With their fantastical appearance, lavender roses are a perfect symbol of enchantment. The lavender rose is also traditionally used to express feelings of love at first sight.