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1 Buildings Damage to buildings and houses can be broadly divided into two regions, namely, Bachau, Anjar, Bhuj, Chobari near to the earthquake epicenter and Ahmedabad far from the epicenter. Particularly Ahmedabad us about 230km southwest of the epicenter. The buildings of piloty type and having 10 stories are heavily damaged. On the other hand, buildings having 3-4 stories were almost non-damaged. The number of collapsed buildings is about 28. Although ground conditions of these buildings are not well known, it seems that the construction sites were previously ponds, small lakes or riverbeds. Since building having 10 stories were collapsed or heavily damaged in these earthquakes, it reminds the effects of Michoan-Mexico earthquake of 1985 on Mexico City. . As for the damage to buildings and houses near the epicenter, the degree of damage was mainly associated with construction materials and construction methods. Most of houses are of stone masonry or brick masonry and they may contain reinforced concrete columns and slabs. However, the effect of reinforcement is almost negligible in such houses due to the structural reasons. For bonding materials, mud or lime is used between the blocks. Since the use of mud-mortar was quite widespread, the bonding strength is almost nil. However, the use of cement mortar tends to become widespread for the rehabilitation and retrofitting of the structures. Even the columns and beams are of reinforced concrete, the infill walls are constructed without reinforcement. These infill walls easily topple or fracture due to nonreinforcement and they result in the failure of the structures. 10.1.1. Damage in Ahmedabad City As mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, Ahmedabad City is about 230km away from the earthquake epicenter and the damage was quite heavy on building having about 10 stories. The number of totally collapsed buildings was 28. As clearly seen in Figure 10.1 to Figure 10.4, the damage to buildings having 10 stories are quite severe as compared to those having less stories (Figure 10.4). Although various investigations are carried out to clarify the causes of the damage in Ahmedabad City, the personal view of the author (M. Hakuno) is that the high frequecy wave components are damped and low frequency waves only remained. These low frequency waves are amplified by the thick alluvial deposits and filling materials at the ponds, lakes and river beds, resulting in the resonance phenomenon of the ground. This in turn coincided with that of the piloty buildings having 10 stories, which subsequently caused the resonance of the buildings. The concept is confirmed by the severe damage of a piloty building having 2 stories, while the non-piloty building on the opposite side has almost no damage. In the open space, a building having more stories existed. The piloty building on the right hand side in the figure has a relatively longer natural frequencies as compared with the non-piloty building on the opposite site. It is quite likely that the collapse building existed on the open space was quite higher and this resulted in the resonance of the building during earthquake shaking.


Figure 10.1 The apartment block collapsed next to the similar block. The low story building on the right-hand side was also hit by the collapsed block

Figure 10.2 A close-up view of the remaining apartment block showin in Figure 10.1. This apartment block is of piloty type and it has 10 stories.


Figure 10.3 The remaining part of the collapsed building. No walls is seen in the ground floor

Figure 10.4 Micro-tremor measurements on the site of collpased building. The severly damaged building was quite similar to the one on the right hand side. The building on the opposite side is non-piloty and it was almost non-damaged


10.1.2 Damage to Buildings and Houses near Epicenter Most of buildings in towns such Bhuj, Anjar, Bachau and Chobari were either stone masonry or brick masonry with mud-mortar. Some new buildings are reinforced concrete frame structures with stone or brick masonary walls. a) Damage to Stone or Brick Masonary Houses As seen in Figure 10.5 to 10.9, the total collapse ratio reached at 100% in some locations. Athe wooden beams placed in the holes in masonary wals with mud mortar displaced and fallen simultaneously during the earthquake shaking, resulting in the caving of the roof. As a result the walls seen in Figure 10.6 are commonly observed in many places. b) Damage to RC buildings with stone or brick masonary RC buildings are quite common in large cities and towns. The damage is not due to the non-existence of the RC frame, but it is due to the unproper constructions of the columns. The thickness of the visible columns and actual column thickness very much differ from each other. As seen in Figure 10.16, the brick column is 2/3 of the column while the RC column is only 1/3 of the total column. As a result, such structures were easily damaged during the earthquake (Figures 10.10-10.11, 10.15-10.16. c) the effect of ground and geomporhological conditions As seen in Figure 10.12, when soft sedimentary layer exist on top of the hard ground, the damage rate increases as the soft soil thickness decreases. This fact was clearly observed in Bachau town. It is considered that the energy transfer from hard ground to soft ground is much more easier that otherwise. As a result the energy concentrated in the top soft soil resulting in the amplification of the ground motions. This effect may be called as the wedging effect. On the other hand, when a soft layer is bounded by the hard ground in a valley, the ground amplifications become also very large as the energy could escape out of the valley. Furthermore, the low hills may also result in the amplifications of the ground motions as observed in Anjar.

Figure 10.5 The houses with mud mortar are very weak (Ratnal)


Figure 10.6 A houses with collapsed wooden beams (Bhuj)

Figure 10.7 Stone masonary with mud mortar (kukma)


Figure 10.8 There are some streets with non-totally collapsed houses (Ratnal)

Figure 10.9 This building must have been a beatiful house before the earthquake (Anjar)


Figure 10.10 This building collapsed as it has a piloty ground floor. (Bhuj)

Figure 10.11 A collapsed RC building (Manfera)


Figure 10.12 The damage increases as the soft top soil thins near the hard hill (Bachau)

Figure 10.13 The damage to structures on a soft soil layer bounded by hard ground in a valley

Figure 10.14 Damage in Anjar, which was built on a small hill


Figure 10.15 Seemingly less damaged building in Ghandidham. The column inside are damaged was

Figure 10.16 A close-up view of the column shown in Figure 10.15. 1/3 of the column is RC and the rest is brick masonry. This building did not totally collapsed since it had only 4 stories.


10.4 Elevated Water Tanks Many of the systems have elevated concrete storage tanks that are on the order of 30m high (Figure 10.17). Most of the water tanks, which are elevated, did not suffer any substantial damage although severe damage could be observed at nearby buildings and structures. The water tank at Chobari village was toppled (Figure 10.18). The water tower was fallen in the direction of S30E. The location is 23o 31 22N;70o 20 64E. The water tank in Bachau town also survived the earthquake. The water tank in Anjar was an RC structure with four piers and built in 1955 with a capacity of 20000 gallons.. It seems that there arae more 250 water tanks in the region. However, 5 elevated tanks failed in the Malya-Morbi region south of the Gulf of Kutch. All the tanks are designed in the same state office. However, it is unclear why the failures in the Malya-Morbi area would have occurred and this deserves further investigation.

Figure 10.17 Non-damaged typical elevated water tank in Bachau

Figure 10.18 Collapsed water tank in Chobari village