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# BASIC SOIL MECHANICS

NAME NOOR SYAZWANI BINTI MOHD TALIB INTAN MAHSURI BINTI DURANI SITI ZULAIHA BINTI MAHMOOD AMIRAH BINTI ABDUL KAMIL

ID.NO 2010286636

2010496458

2010490818

2010601328

INTRODUCTION In building structures, columns are connected to different footings to transfer the load of the building to the footings of the building. Columns are classified as slender columns and short columns. The slender columns were introduced with the finding of high strength materials. The column is said to be slender, if the cross sectional dimensions are small compared to its length. The load actions on the slender columns are prominent in the form of lateral deflection. The columns are classified as short columns when the condition is opposite to that of slender columns. In practice, short columns are widely used than slender columns. In short columns, compression action dominates above the bending action. In concrete columns, whether slender or short, the main reinforcements are used parallel to the vertical loads, and rectangular or circular ties are used to prevent the bars buckling action. The vertical reinforcement has to be erected straight while pouring concrete.

SHORT COLUMN

A short concrete column used in freeway design Short Column Criteria: To check if a short column is present then the following conditions must be met. Otherwise check to see if you fit under the Concrete Long Column Design type procedure. Ideally, solving for a short column will be easier than a long column. If the structure is part of a braced system then: rklu 3412M2M1 40 If the structure is part of a unbraced system then: rklu 22 where: k = the effective length factor (can be conservatively taken as 1.0 ) lu = clear height of the column M1 = the smaller absolute value of the two end moments acting on the column M2 = the larger absolute value of the two end moments acting on the column r = radius of gyration Concrete Short Column Analysis Several methods for concrete short column design have been provided below including: Concrete Tied Columns Concrete Spiral Columns Concrete Column Design for Small Eccentricity Concrete Column Design for Large Eccentricity Concrete Column Interaction Diagrams
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SLENDER COLUMN

Column Stability Factor Explained: The column stability factor is to ensure that weak-axis buckling or torsional buckling does not occur over non-laterally supported lengths. Note that this is similar to the beam stability factor except it deals with columns in compression, vs. beams in flexure. Situations when the column stability factor is and is not necessary: When the column (compression member) is supported throughout it's length, C P can be assumed to be unity (1.0).

Otherwise the Column Stability Factor (CP) must be solved out. Solving for the column stability factor (CP): 1. Start by solving for slenderness ratio: le=(Ke)(l) where: l = the unbraced length of the column (both major or minor axis) Ke = Wood Buckling Length Coefficients? le = the effective column length (both major and minor axis) dle 50 where: d = depth of the member (both major or minor axis) Note: The slenderness ratio solved above should not exceed 50 (normal use), or 75 (during construction). If it does, then a larger member size should be chosen.

2. Start by solving for the critical buckeling design value, F cE : FcE= le d 20 822E min where: E'min = Minimum modulus of elasticity found it Table 4A of the NDS and multiplied by the appropriate design factors (e.g. for sawn lumber: E'min = Emin * CM * Ct * Ci * CT). le/d = The Slenderness ratio solved in Part 1. 3. Solve for Fc*: Fc* is a reference compression design value which should be multiplied by all factors found here (for sawn lumber) except CP. For Sawn Lumber: Fc =Fc CD CM Ct CF Ci For Glued Laminated Lumber: Fc =Fc CD CM Ct For Round Timber Poles/Piles?: Fc =Fc CD Ct Cu Ccs Csp 4. Solve for CP:
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CP=2c1+(FcE Fc ) where:

2c1+(FcE Fc ) 2cFcE Fc

FcE = Solved in Part 2. Fc* = Solved in Part 3. c = 0.8 (for sawn lumber), 0.85 (round timber poles/piles), 0.9 (glue laminated timber) Note: It may be beneficial to solve for (FcE/Fc*) initially. 5. Multiply CP by your previously solved Fc* to get your actual compressive stress: Now lastly, multiply CP by the Fc* you solved for in section 3 of this example to obtain Fc'. This is your allowable compressive stress and you are now done. Variations on design procedure: d (depth of the member) is used in place of radius of gyration (r) for rectangular beams. If other column shapes are used, d in the procedure above should be replaced with r 12 where r is the radius of gyration?.

CONCLUSION Short column and slender column are structural terms. Short column refers to column failure due to material failure. Slender column is failure due to buckling.

REFERENCES http://www.wikiengineer.com/Structural/ColumnStabilityFactor

www.efunda.com/formulae/solid_mechanics/columns/theory.cfm
http://en.allexperts.com/q/Civil-Engineering-1357/2010/8/Slender-column-design.htm

Slender column