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# CHEE 455 Process Control Winter 2012

## Laboratory #2 5% of final grade

Proportional and PI Control Teaching Assistant: Mr. Amir Sheikhi (amir.sheikhi @mail.mcgill.ca) In Wong 1310 you will find the same apparatus for controlled heating of a rod which was used in Laboratory #1. Review the features of that apparatus. Start-up - When you arrive, turn everything on and go inside the Process Control account on the computer. From the desktop, go inside the dossier CHEE455-2012 and launch PID Control Loop_2012.vi. The heating (manipulated variable) and the fan (disturbance variable) should start automatically. You can verify this by observing the Volts signals atop the apparatus (with heating to the left and fan to the right). Manual fan control (a variable resistor mounted just beneath the fan motor) should be adjusted so that its Volts signal shows roughly 7 throughout this exercise. The goal of this program is to control the temperature TA. Familiarize yourself with the control interface. You can move the setpoint using the slider bar or numerical entry, and you can manipulate the PID controller parameters (ignore the autotuning controls). Data will be recorded in an Excel spreadsheet (ask your TA for an explanation). PART I Proportional Control of Temperature Put the setpoint somewhere in the range 80 120 C and wait for steady-state. For the moment, use proportional-only control with Kc 5 I 0 D 0

Note that the units for the integral and derivative time constants are minutes. Familiarize yourself with the control interface. At the top left are the input parameters for the PID controller and the setpoint. At the bottom left are measured temperatures, presented graphically versus time. At the top right is a graph of setpoint and measured TA. At the bottom right are representations of the error and controller output. 1a.) What are the mathematical relationships between measured temperature, setpoint, error, controller gain and controller output under proportional-only control? 1b.) Is there an offset (steady-state error)? Is this expected or not? What conditions would need to apply in order to have zero offset under proportional-only control? Is it likely or unlikely to have these conditions? 1c.) Perform a step test: change the temperature setpoint by roughly 10 C and observe the transition. Does the process reaction curve suggest anything about the nature of the transfer

function for setpoint changes under proportional control? Is there an offset? Is it larger or smaller than before? 1d.) Increase the controller gain to Kc=10 and perform another step test by changing the setpoint in the other direction, to the value you had prior to the step test in part 1c.) above. Note changes in the response and the offset. 1e.) Set the proportional control to Kc=30 and perform another step test involving a roughly 10% change in setpoint. Is the controller response a linear function of error over this range? What effect does a relatively large Kc have on the offset, steady state gain, and controlled process transfer function for setpoint changes? PART II PI Control of Temperature Put the setpoint somewhere in the range 80 120 C and wait for steady-state under proportionalonly control with Kc 5 I 0 D 0

## Then introduce proportional-integral control with Kc 5 I 1 D 0

2a.) Note what happens to the error and the controller output, without any change in setpoint. Why does this occur? 2b.) Perform a step test: increase the setpoint by about 10 C and observe the transition to the new steady state under PI control. Does the process reaction curve suggest anything to you about the nature of the transfer function for setpoint changes under PI control? Is there an overshoot? Is there an offset? Why or why not? 2c.) Change the integral control term to some reasonable value and repeat the preceeding step for a decrease in setpoint. Is the overshoot greater or less than it was before? Why? Shutdown When finished, notify your TA. Stop the program by hitting the big red STOP button near the center of the control panel; this will prompt you for a filename to save your data under. Also, it should kill power to the heater (VERIFY THIS) and turn off the fan after 5 minutes. Expectations for Your Report: Restrict the report length to roughly 1000 words total, with sufficient illustrations to explain your experiments and observations. Refer to concepts from the course where useful; you can be brief as long as other students at your level could easily understand your report. 2

Using the process transfer function you determined from laboratory #1, provide clear explanations for your observations. To the extent possible, develop a realistic SIMULINK model of the controlled process and simulate the responses to setpoint changes under proportional-only and PI control. Compare with experimental data. Submission and Grading: Submit your report to the TA a week after completing the lab exercise. Electronic submissions should be acceptable (and encouraged), but verify this with the TA. The grade will be determined by the TA.