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Obj.

23 Vectors
Unit 5 Trigonometric and Circular Functions

Concepts and Objectives


Vectors and Vector Operations(Obj. #23) Find the magnitude and direction angle for a vector. Find the horizontal and vertical components of a vector. Find the magnitude of a resultant. Perform vector operations. Use vectors to solve problems.

Vectors
Magnitude is a word used to describe the size of something, such as 35 lb or 100 mph. A vector quantity is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. For example, 60 mph east represents a vector quantity. A vector quantity is often represented with a directed line segment called a vector. The length of the vector represents the magnitude of the vector quantity. The direction of the vector represents the direction of the vector quantity.

Vectors
In a coordinate plane, a vector with its endpoint at the point (a, b) is written a, b, so u = a, b The numbers a and b are the horizontal and vertical components of the vector. The positive angle between the x-axis and the vector is the direction angle for the vector.

u = a, b u

(a, b) b

Magnitude and Direction Angle


The magnitude of the vector u = a, b is given by

u = a2 + b2
The direction angle satisfies b tan = a

u = a, b u

(a, b) b

Magnitude and Direction Angle


Example: Find the magnitude and direction angle for u = 5, 4. Magnitude: u =

( 5) + 42

= 41 6.403 4 Direction angle: tan = 5


Direction angles are always positive!

= tan 1 5

4 = 38.7 = 141.3

Magnitude and Direction Angle


Example: Find the magnitude and direction angle for u = 5, 4. Magnitude: u = 41

Direction angle: = 141.3

Horizontal & Vertical Components


The horizontal and vertical components, respectively, of a vector u having magnitude u and direction angle are given by

a = u cos

b = u sin

Horizontal & Vertical Components


Example: Vector v has magnitude 14.5 and direction angle 220. Find the horizontal and vertical components.

a = 14.5cos220 11.1
b = 14.5sin220 9.3

11.1, 9.3

Vector Addition
To find the sum of two vectors a and b, we place the initial point of vector b at the terminal point of vector a.
a+b a b

Another way to find the sum of two vectors is to turn them into a parallelogram.
a+b a

Vector Addition
The vector sum of a and b is called the resultant of vectors a and b. Recall that a parallelogram is a quadrilateral whose Opposite sides are parallel Opposite sides are congruent Opposite angles are congruent Consecutive angles are supplementary

Vector Addition
Example: Two forces of 32 and 48 newtons act on a point in the plane. If the angle between the forces is 76, find the magnitude of the resultant vector. v = 322 + 482 2(32)( 48 ) cos104 4071.18 v 64 N
2

48

48

76 32

104

Vector Operations
For any real numbers a, b, c, d, and k:
a, b + c , d = a + c , b + d k i a, b = ka, kb

Vector Operations
Example: Let u = 6, 3 and v = 14, 8. Find the following: (a) u + v, (b) 2u, (c) 5u 2v. (a) u + v = 6 14, 3 + 8 = 8, 5 (b) 2u = 26, 3= 12, 6 (c) 5u 2v = 56, 3 214, 8 = 30, 15 28, 16 = 58, 31

Vector Applications
Example: Find the force required to keep a 2500-lb car parked on a hill that makes a 12 angle with the horizontal. The gravity vector is the sum of f, the force with which the weight pushes against the ramp, and x.
Gravity always points straight down.

x
12

2500

Vector Applications
Example: Find the force required to keep a 2500-lb car parked on a hill that makes a 12 angle with the horizontal. The gravity vector creates a similar right triangle that we x can use trig to solve: 12
12 f 2500

x sin12 = 2500 x = 2500sin12 520 lb

Homework
College Algebra Page 770: 21-54 (3s) HW: 24, 33, 42, 48, 54 Page 776: 5, 6, 8, 10, 15 HW: 5, 10