This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
CALCULUS OF
VECTOR VALUED
FUNCTIONS
14.1 VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13.1)
Preliminary Questions
1. Which one of the following does not parametrize a line?
(a) r
1
(t ) = 8 −t, 2t, 3t
(b) r
2
(t ) = t
3
i −7t
3
j +t
3
k
(c) r
3
(t ) =
_
8 −4t
3
, 2 +5t
2
, 9t
3
_
SOLUTION
(a) This is a parametrization of the line passing through the point (8, 0, 0) in the direction parallel to the vector −1, 2, 3,
since:
8 −t, 2t, 3t = 8, 0, 0 +t −1, 2, 3
(b) Using the parameter s = t
3
we get:
_
t
3
i −7t
3
j +t
3
k
_
= s, −7s, s = s 1, −7, 1
This is a parametrization of the line through the origin, with the direction vector v = −1, 7, 1.
(c) The parametrization
_
8 −4t
3
, 2 +5t
2
, 9t
3
_
does not parametrize a line. In particular, the points (8, 2, 0) (at t = 0),
(4, 7, 9) (at t = 1), and (−24, 22, 72) (at t = 2) are not colinear.
2. What is the projection of r(t ) = t i +t
4
j +e
t
k onto the xzplane?
SOLUTION The projection of the path onto the xzplane is the curve traced by t i + e
t
k =
_
t, 0, e
t
_
. This is the curve
z = e
x
in the xzplane.
3. Which projection of cos t, cos 2t, sin t is a circle?
SOLUTION The parametric equations are
x = cos t, y = cos 2t, z = sin t
The projection onto the xzplane is cos t, 0, sin t . Since x
2
+ z
2
= cos
2
t +sin
2
t = 1, the projection is a circle in the
xzplane. The projection onto the xyplane is traced by the curve cos t, cos 2t, 0. Therefore, x = cos t and y = cos 2t .
We express y in terms of x:
y = cos 2t = 2 cos
2
t −1 = 2x
2
−1
The projection onto the xyplane is a parabola. The projection onto the yzplane is the curve 0, cos 2t, sin t . Hence
y = cos 2t and z = sin t . We ﬁnd y as a function of z:
y = cos 2t = 1 −2 sin
2
t = 1 −2z
2
The projection onto the yzplane is again a parabola.
4. What is the center of the circle with parametrization
r(t ) = (−2 +cos t )i +2j +(3 −sin t )k?
SOLUTION The parametric equations are
x = −2 +cos t, y = 2, z = 3 −sin t
Therefore, the curve is contained in the plane y = 2, and the following holds:
(x +2)
2
+(z −3)
2
= cos
2
t +sin
2
t = 1
We conclude that the curve r(t ) is the circle of radius 1 in the plane y = 2 centered at the point (−2, 2, 3).
242 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
5. How do the paths r
1
(t ) = cos t, sin t and r
2
(t ) = sin t, cos t around the unit circle differ?
SOLUTION The two paths describe the unit circle. However, as t increases from 0 to 2π, the point on the path sin t i +
cos t j moves in a clockwise direction, whereas the point on the path cos t i +sin t j moves in a counterclockwise direction.
6. Which three of the following vectorvalued functions parametrize the same space curve?
(a) (−2 +cos t )i +9j +(3 −sin t )k (b) (2 +cos t )i −9j +(−3 −sin t )k
(c) (−2 +cos 3t )i +9j +(3 −sin 3t )k (d) (−2 −cos t )i +9j +(3 +sin t )k
(e) (2 +cos t )i +9j +(3 +sin t )k
SOLUTION All the curves except for (b) lie in the vertical plane y = 9. We identify each one of the curves (a), (c), (d)
and (e).
(a) The parametric equations are:
x = −2 +cos t, y = 9, z = 3 −sin t
Hence,
(x +2)
2
+(z −3)
2
= (cos t )
2
+(−sin t )
2
= 1
This is the circle of radius 1 in the plane y = 9, centered at (−2, 9, 3).
(c) The parametric equations are:
x = −2 +cos 3t, y = 9, z = 3 −sin 3t
Hence,
(x +2)
2
+(z −3)
2
= (cos 3t )
2
+(−sin 3t )
2
= 1
This is the circle of radius 1 in the plane y = 9, centered at (−2, 9, 3).
(d) In this curve we have:
x = −2 −cos t, y = 9, z = 3 +sin t
Hence,
(x +2)
2
+(z −3)
2
= (−cos t )
2
+(sin t )
2
= 1
Again, the circle of radius 1 in the plane y = 9, centered at (−2, 9, 3).
(e) In this parametrization we have:
x = 2 +cos t, y = 9, z = 3 +sin t
Hence,
(x −2)
2
+(z −3)
2
= (cos t )
2
+(sin t )
2
= 1
This is the circle of radius 1 in the plane y = 9, centered at (2, 9, 3).
We conclude that (a), (c) and (d) parametrize the same circle whereas (b) and (e) are different curves.
Exercises
1. What is the domain of r(t ) = e
t
i +
1
t
j +(t +1)
−3
k?
SOLUTION r(t ) is deﬁned for t = 0 and t = −1, hence the domain of r(t ) is:
D = {t ∈ R : t = 0, t = −1}
What is the domain of r(s) = e
s
i +
√
sj +cos sk?
3. Find a vector parametrization of the line through P = (3, −5, 7) in the direction v = 3, 0, 1.
SOLUTION We use the vector parametrization of the line to obtain:
r(t ) =
−→
OP +t v = 3, −5, 7 +t 3, 0, 1 = 3 +3t, −5, 7 +t
or in the form:
r(t ) = (3 +3t )i −5j +(7 +t )k
Find a direction vector for the line with parametrization r(t ) = (4 −t )i +(2 +5t )j +
1
2
t k.
S E C T I O N 14.1 VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13.1) 243
5. Match the space curves in Figure 8 with their projections onto the xyplane in Figure 9.
(A) (B) (C)
y
x
z
y
x
z
y
x
z
FIGURE 8
(i)
x
y
(ii)
x
y
(iii)
x
y
FIGURE 9
SOLUTION The projection of curve (C) onto the xyplane is neither a segment nor a periodic wave. Hence, the correct
projection is (iii), rather than the two other graphs. The projection of curve (A) onto the xyplane is a vertical line, hence
the corresponding projection is (ii). The projection of curve (B) onto the xyplane is a periodic wave as illustrated in (i).
Match the space curves in Figure 8 with the following vectorvalued functions:
(a) r
1
(t ) = cos 2t, cos t, sin t
(b) r
2
(t ) = t, cos 2t, sin 2t
(c) r
3
(t ) = 1, t, t
7. Match the vectorvalued functions (a)–(f) with the space curves (i)–(vi) in Figure 10.
(a) r(t ) =
_
t +15, e
0.08t
cos t, e
0.08t
sin t
_
(b) r(t ) =
_
cos t, sin t, sin 12t
_
(c) r(t ) =
_
t, t,
25t
1 +t
2
_
(d) r(t ) =
_
cos
3
t, sin
3
t, sin 2t
_
(e) r(t ) =
_
t, t
2
, 2t
_
(f) r(t ) =
_
cos t, sin t, cos t sin 12t
_
y
(i) (ii) (iii)
(iv) (v) (vi)
x
z
y
x
z
y
x
z
y
y
x
x
z
z
y
x
z
FIGURE 10
SOLUTION
(a) (v) (b) (i) (c) (ii)
(d) (vi) (e) (iv) (f) (iii)
Which of the following curves have the same projection onto the xyplane?
(a) r
1
(t ) =
_
t, t
2
, e
t
_
(b) r
2
(t ) =
_
e
t
, t
2
, t
_
(c) r
3
(t ) =
_
t, t
2
, cos t
_
9. Match the space curves (A)–(C) in Figure 11 with their projections (i)–(iii) onto the xyplane.
y
y
x
x
(A) (B) (C)
(i) (iii) (ii)
z
y
x
z
y
x
z
z
y
x
z
y
x
z
FIGURE 11
244 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
SOLUTION Observing the curves and the projections onto the xyplane we conclude that: Projection (i) corresponds to
curve (C); Projection (ii) corresponds to curve (A); Projection (iii) corresponds to curve (B).
In Exercises 10–13, the function r(t ) traces a circle. Determine the radius, center, and plane containing the circle.
r(t ) = (9 cos t )i +(9 sin t )j
11. r(t ) = 7i +(12 cos t )j +(12 sin t )k
SOLUTION We have:
x(t ) = 7, y(t ) = 12 cos t, z(t ) = 12 sin t
Hence,
y(t )
2
+ z(t )
2
= 144 cos
2
t +144 sin
2
t = 144
_
cos
2
t +sin
2
t
_
= 144
This is the equation of a circle in the vertical plane x = 7. The circle is centered at the point (7, 0, 0) and its radius is
√
144 = 12.
r(t ) = sin t, 0, 4 +cos t
13. r(t ) = 6 +3 sin t, 9, 4 +3 cos t
SOLUTION Since y(t ) = 9 the curve is contained in the vertical plane y = 9. By the given equations, x(t ) = 6 +3 sin t
and z = 4 +3 cos t , hence:
_
x −6
3
_
2
+
_
z −4
3
_
2
= sin
2
t +cos
2
t = 1
We conclude that the function traces a circle in the vertical plane y = 9, centered at the point (6, 9, 4) and with radius 3.
Describe the projections of the circle r(t ) = sin t, 0, 4 +cos t onto the coordinate planes.
15. Do either of P = (4, 11, 20) or Q = (−1, 6, 16) lie on the curve r(t ) =
_
1 +t, 2 +t
2
, t
4
_
?
SOLUTION The point P = (4, 11, 20) lies on the curve r(t ) =
_
1 + t, 2 + t
2
, t
4
_
if there exists a value of t such that
−→
OP = r(t ). That is,
_
4, 11, 20
_
=
_
1 +t, 2 +t
2
, t
4
_
Equating like components we get:
1 +t = 4
2 +t
2
= 11
t
4
= 20
The ﬁrst equation implies that t = 3, but this value does not satisfy the third equation. We conclude that P does not lie
on the curve. The point Q = (−1, 6, 16) lies on the curve if there exists a value of t such that:
−1, 6, 16 =
_
1 +t, 2 +t
2
, t
4
_
or equivalently:
1 +t = −1
2 +t
2
= 6
t
4
= 16
These equations have the solution t = −2, hence Q = (−1, 6, 16) lies on the curve.
(a) Describe the curve r(t ) = t cos t, t sin t, t and its projections onto the xy and xzplanes.
(b) Plot r(t ) with a computer algebra system if you have one.
17. Find the points where the path r(t ) = sin t, cos t, sin t cos 2t intersects the xyplane.
SOLUTION The curve intersects the xyplane at the points where z = 0. That is, sin t cos 2t = 0 and so either sin t = 0
or cos 2t = 0. The solutions are, thus:
t = πk or t =
π
4
+
πk
2
, k = 0, ±1, ±2, . . .
The values t = πk yield the points: (sin πk, cos πk, 0) =
_
0, (−1)
k
, 0
_
. The values t =
π
4
+
πk
2
yield the points:
k = 0 :
_
sin
π
4
, cos
π
4
, 0
_
=
_
1
√
2
,
1
√
2
, 0
_
k = 1 :
_
sin
3π
4
, cos
3π
4
, 0
_
=
_
1
√
2
, −
1
√
2
, 0
_
k = 2 :
_
sin
5π
4
, cos
5π
4
, 0
_
=
_
−
1
√
2
, −
1
√
2
, 0
_
S E C T I O N 14.1 VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13.1) 245
k = 3 :
_
sin
7π
4
, cos
7π
4
, 0
_
=
_
−
1
√
2
,
1
√
2
, 0
_
(Other values of k do not provide new points). We conclude that the curve intersects the xyplane at the following points:
(0, 1, 0), (0, −1, 0),
_
1
√
2
,
1
√
2
, 0
_
,
_
1
√
2
, −
1
√
2
, 0
_
,
_
−
1
√
2
, −
1
√
2
, 0
_
,
_
−
1
√
2
,
1
√
2
, 0
_
Parametrize the intersection of the surfaces
y
2
− z
2
= x −2, y
2
+ z
2
= 9
using t = y as the parameter (two vector functions are needed as in Example 2).
19. Find a parametrization of the curve in Exercise 18 using trigonometric functions.
SOLUTION The curve in Exercise 18 is the intersection of the surfaces y
2
− z
2
= x − 2, y
2
+ z
2
= 9. The circle
y
2
+ z
2
= 9 is parametrized by y = 3 cos t , z = 3 sin t . Substituting in the ﬁrst equation and using the identity
cos
2
t −sin
2
t = cos 2t , gives:
x = 2 + y
2
− z
2
= 2 +(3 cos t )
2
−(3 sin t )
2
= 2 +9
_
cos
2
t −sin
2
t
_
= 2 +9 cos 2t
We obtain the following trigonometric parametrization:
r(t ) = 2 +9 cos 2t, 3 cos t, 3 sin t
Viviani’s Curve C is the intersection of the surfaces x
2
+ y
2
= z
2
, y = z
2
(Figure 12).
(a) Parametrize each of the two parts of C corresponding to x ≥ 0 and x ≤ 0 taking t = z as parameter.
(b) Describe the projection of C onto the xyplane.
(c) Show that C lies on the sphere of radius 1 with center (0, 1, 0). This curve looks like a ﬁgure eight lying on a
sphere [Figure 12(B)].
21. Show that any point on x
2
+ y
2
= z
2
can be written in the form (z cos θ, z sin θ, z) for some θ. Use this to ﬁnd a
parametrization of Viviani’s curve (Exercise 20) with θ as parameter.
SOLUTION We ﬁrst verify that x = z cos θ, y = z sin θ, and z = z satisfy the equation of the surface:
x
2
+ y
2
= z
2
cos
2
θ + z
2
sin
2
θ = z
2
_
cos
2
θ +sin
2
θ
_
= z
2
We now show that if (x, y, z) satisﬁes x
2
+ y
2
= z
2
, then there exists a value of θ such that x = z cos θ, y = z sin θ.
Since x
2
+ y
2
= z
2
, we have x ≤ z and y ≤ z. If z = 0, then also x = y = 0 and any value of θ is adequate. If
z = 0 then
x
z
≤ 1 and
y
z
≤ 1, hence there exists θ
0
such that
x
z
= cos θ
0
. Hence,
y
z
= ±
_
z
2
− x
2
z
2
= ±
_
1 −
_
x
z
_
2
= ±
_
1 −cos
2
θ
0
= ±sin θ
0
If
x
z
and
y
z
are both positive, we choose θ
0
such that 0 < θ
0
<
π
2
. If
x
z
> 0 and
y
z
< 0 we choose θ
0
such that
3π
2
< θ
0
< 2π. If
x
z
< 0 and
y
z
< 0 we choose θ
0
such that π < θ
0
<
3π
2
, and if
x
z
< 0 and
y
z
> 0 we choose θ
0
such
that
π
2
< θ
0
< π. In either case we can represent the points on the surface as required. Viviani’s curve is the intersection
of the surfaces x
2
+ y
2
= z
2
and x = z
2
. The points on these surfaces are of the form:
x
2
+ y
2
= z
2
: (z cos θ, z sin θ, z)
x = z
2
: (z
2
, y, z)
(1)
The points (x, y, z) on the intersection curve must satisfy the following equations:
_
z
2
= z cos θ
y = z sin θ
The ﬁrst equation implies that z = 0 or z = cos θ. The second equation implies that y = 0 or y = cos θ sin θ =
1
2
sin 2θ.
The x coordinate is obtained by substituting z = cos θ in x = z cos θ (or in x = z
2
). That is, x = cos
2
θ. We obtain the
following vector parametrization of the curve:
r(t ) =
_
cos
2
θ,
1
2
sin 2θ, cos θ
_
Use sine and cosine to parametrize the intersection of the cylinders x
2
+ y
2
= 1 and x
2
+ z
2
= 1 (use two
vectorvalued functions). Then describe the projections of this curve on the three coordinate planes.
23. Use sine and cosine to parametrize the intersection of the surfaces x
2
+ y
2
= 1 and z = 4x
2
, and plot this
curve using a CAS (Figure 13).
x
y
z
FIGURE 13 Intersection of the surfaces x
2
+ y
2
= 1 and z = 4x
2
.
246 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
SOLUTION The points on the cylinder x
2
+ y
2
= 1 and on the parabolic cylinder z = 4x
2
can be written in the form:
x
2
+ y
2
= 1: (cos t, sin t, z)
z = 4x
2
: (x, y, 4x
2
)
The points (x, y, z) on the intersection curve must satisfy the following equations:
x = cos t
y = sin t
z = 4x
2
⇒ x = cos t, y = sin t, z = 4 cos
2
t
We obtain the vector parametrization:
r(t ) =
_
cos t, sin t, 4 cos
2
t
_
Using the CAS we obtain the following curve:
z
–2
x
y
1 –1
2
4
2
1
–1
r(t ) =
_
cos t, sin t, 4 cos
2
t
_
Use hyperbolic functions to parametrize the intersection of the surfaces x
2
− y
2
= 4, z = xy.
In Exercises 25–34, ﬁnd a parametrization of the curve.
25. The vertical line passing through the point (3, 2, 0)
SOLUTION The points of the vertical line passing through the point (3, 2, 0) can be written as (3, 2, z). Using z = t as
parameter we get the following parametrization:
r(t ) = 3, 2, t , −∞ < t < ∞
The line passing through (1, 0, 4) and (4, 1, 2)
27. The line through the origin whose projection on the xyplane is a line of slope 3 and on the yzplane is a line of
slope 5 (i.e., y/z = 5)
SOLUTION We denote by (x, y, z) the points on the line. The projection of the line on the xyplane is the line through
the origin having slope 3, that is the line y = 3x in the xyplane. The projection of the line on the yzplane is the line
through the origin with slope 5, that is the line z = 5y. Thus, the points on the desired line satisfy the following equalities:
y = 3x
z = 5y
⇒ y = 3x, z = 5 · 3x = 15x
We conclude that the points on the line are all the points in the form (x, 3x, 15x). Using x = t as parameter we obtain
the following parametrization:
r(t ) = t, 3t, 15t .
The horizontal circle of radius 1 with center (2, −1, 4)
29. The circle of radius 2 with center (1, 2, 5) in a plane parallel to the yzplane
SOLUTION The circle is parallel to the yzplane and centered at (1, 2, 5), hence the xcoordinates of the points on
the circle are x = 1. The projection of the circle on the yzplane is a circle of radius 2 centered at (2, 5). This circle is
parametrized by:
y = 2 +2 cos t, z = 5 +2 sin t
We conclude that the points on the required circle can be written as (1, 2 +2 cos t, 5 +2 sin t ). This gives the following
parametrization:
r(t ) = 1, 2 +2 cos t, 5 +2 sin t .
The ellipse
_
x
2
_
2
+
_
y
3
_
2
= 1 in the xyplane, translated to have center (9, −4, 0)
31. The intersection of the plane y =
1
2
with the sphere x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 1
S E C T I O N 14.1 VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13.1) 247
SOLUTION Substituting y =
1
2
in the equation of the sphere gives:
x
2
+
_
1
2
_
2
+ z
2
= 1 ⇒ x
2
+ z
2
=
3
4
This circle in the horizontal plane y =
1
2
has the parametrization x =
√
3
2
cos t , z =
√
3
2
sin t . Therefore, the points on
the intersection of the plane y =
1
2
and the sphere x
2
+ y
2
+z
2
= 1, can be written in the form
_√
3
2
cos t,
1
2
,
√
3
2
sin t
_
,
yielding the following parametrization:
r(t ) =
_
√
3
2
cos t,
1
2
,
√
3
2
sin t
_
.
The intersection of the surfaces
z = x
2
− y
2
and z = x
2
+ xy −1
33. The ellipse
_
x
2
_
2
+
_
z
3
_
2
= 1 in the xzplane, translated to have center (3, 1, 5) [Figure 14(A)]
(A)
3
1
(B)
y
x
z z
y
x
3
1
FIGURE 14 The ellipses described in Exercise 33 and 34.
SOLUTION The translated ellipse is in the vertical plane y = 1, hence the ycoordinate of the points on this ellipse is
y = 1. The x and z coordinates satisfy the equation of the ellipse:
_
x −3
2
_
2
+
_
z −5
3
_
2
= 1.
This ellipse is parametrized by the following equations:
x = 3 +2 cos t, z = 5 +3 sin t.
Therefore, the points on the translated ellipse can be written as (3 +2 cos t, 1, 5 +3 sin t ). This gives the following
parametrization:
r(t ) = 3 +2 cos t, 1, 5 +3 sin t .
The ellipse
_
y
2
_
2
+
_
z
3
_
2
= 1, translated to have center (3, 1, 5) [Figure 14(B)]
In Exercises 35–37, assume that two paths r
1
(t ) and r
2
(t ) intersect if there is a point P lying on both curves. We say that
r
1
(t ) and r
2
(t ) collide if r
1
(t
0
) = r
2
(t
0
) at some time t
0
.
35. Which of the following are true?
(a) If r
1
and r
2
intersect, then they collide.
(b) If r
1
and r
2
collide, then they intersect.
(c) Intersection depends only on the underlying curves traced by r
1
and r
2
but collision depends on the actual
parametrizations.
SOLUTION
(a) This statement is wrong. r
1
(t ) and r
2
(t ) may intersect but the point of intersection may correspond to different
values of the parameters in the two curves, as illustrated in the following example:
r
1
(t ) = cos t, sin t (the unit circle)
r
2
(s) = s, 1 (the horizontal line y = 1)
x
(0, 1)
y
248 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
The point of intersection (0, 1) corresponds to t =
π
2
and s = 0.
(b) This statement is true. If r
1
(t
0
) = r
2
(t
0
), then the head of the vector r
1
(t
0
) (or r
2
(t
0
)) is a point of intersection of
the two curves.
(c) The statement is true. Intersection is a geometric property of the curves and it is independent of the parametrization
we choose for the curves. Collision depends on the actual parametrization. Notice that if we parametrize the line y = 1
in the example given in part (a) by r
3
(s) =
_
s −
π
2
, 1
_
, then r
1
_
π
2
_
= r
3
_
π
2
_
hence the two paths collide.
Determine whether r
1
and r
2
collide or intersect:
r
1
(t ) =
_
t
2
+3, t +1, 6t
−1
_
r
2
(t ) =
_
4t, 2t −2, t
2
−7
_
37. Determine whether r
1
and r
2
collide or intersect:
r
1
(t ) =
_
t, t
2
, t
3
_
, r
2
(t ) =
_
4t +6, 4t
2
, 7 −t
_
SOLUTION The two paths collide if there exists a value of t such that:
_
t, t
2
, t
3
_
=
_
4t +6, 4t
2
, 7 −t
_
Equating corresponding components we obtain the following equations:
t = 4t +6
t
2
= 4t
2
t
3
= 7 −t
The second equation implies that t = 0, but this value does not satisfy the other equations. Therefore, the equations have
no solution, which means that the paths do not collide. The two paths intersect if there exist values of t and s such that:
_
t, t
2
, t
3
_
=
_
4s +6, 4s
2
, 7 −s
_
Or equivalently:
t = 4s +6
t
2
= 4s
2
(1)
t
3
= 7 −s
The second equation implies that t
1
= 2s or t
2
= −2s. Substituting t
1
= 2s and t
2
= −2s in the ﬁrst equation gives:
t
1
= 2s : 2s = 4s +6 ⇒ 2s = −6 ⇒ s
1
= −3
t
2
= −2s : −2s = 4s +6 ⇒ 6s = −6 ⇒ s
2
= −1
The solutions of the ﬁrst two equations are thus
(t
1
, s
1
) = (−6, −3); (t
2
, s
2
) = (2, −1)
(t
1
, s
1
) does not satisfy the third equation whereas (t
2
, s
2
) does. We conclude that the equations in (1) have a solution
t = 2, s = −1, hence the two paths intersect.
Further Insights and Challenges
Sketch the curve parametrized by r(t ) = t  +t, t  −t .
39. Find the maximum height above the xyplane of a point on r(t ) =
_
e
t
, sin t, t (4 −t )
_
.
SOLUTION The height of a point is the value of the zcoordinate of the point. Therefore we need to maximize the
function z = t (4 −t ). z(t ) is a quadratic function having the roots t = 0 and t = 4, hence the maximum value is
obtained at the midpoint of the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 4, that is at t = 2. The corresponding value of z is:
z
max
= z(2) = 2 (4 −2) = 4
The point of maximum height is, thus,
(e
2
, sin 2, 4) ≈ (7.39, 0.91, 4)
Let C be the curve obtained by intersecting a cylinder of radius r and a plane. Insert two spheres of radius r
into the cylinder above and below the plane, and let F
1
and F
2
be the points where the plane is tangent to the sphere
[Figure 15(A)]. Let K be the vertical distance between the equators of the two spheres. Rediscover Archimedes’s
proof that C is an ellipse by showing that every point P on C satisﬁes
PF
1
+ PF
2
= K
Hint: If two lines through a point P are tangent to a sphere and intersect the sphere at Q
1
and Q
2
as in Figure 15(B),
then the segments PQ
1
and PQ
2
have equal length. Use this to show that PF
1
= PR
1
and PF
2
= PR
2
.
41. Now reprove the result of Exercise 40 using vector geometry. Assume that the cylinder has equation x
2
+
y
2
= r
2
and the plane has equation z = ax +by.
(a) Show that the upper and lower spheres in Figure 15 have centers
C
1
=
_
0, 0, r
_
a
2
+b
2
+1
_
C
2
=
_
0, 0, −r
_
a
2
+b
2
+1
_
S E C T I O N 14.2 Calculus of VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13.2) 249
(b) Show that the points where the plane is tangent to the sphere are
F
1
=
r
_
a
2
+b
2
+1
_
a, b, a
2
+b
2
_
F
2
=
−r
_
a
2
+b
2
+1
_
a, b, a
2
+b
2
_
Hint: Show that C
1
F
1
and C
2
F
2
have length r and are orthogonal to the plane.
(c) Verify, with the aid of a computer algebra system, that Eq. (2) holds with K = 2r
_
a
2
+b
2
+1. To simplify the
algebra, observe that since a and b are arbitrary, it sufﬁces to verify Eq. (2) for the point P = (r, 0, ar).
SOLUTION
(a) and (b) Since F
1
is the tangency point of the sphere and the plane, the radius to F
1
is orthogonal to the plane.
Therefore to show that the center of the sphere is at C
1
and the tangency point is the given point we must show that:
−−→
C
1
F
1
= r (1)
−−→
C
1
F
1
is orthogonal to the plane. (2)
We compute the vector
−−→
C
1
F
1
:
−−→
C
1
F
1
=
_
ra
_
a
2
+b
2
+1
,
rb
_
a
2
+b
2
+1
,
r(a
2
+b
2
)
_
a
2
+b
2
+1
−r
_
a
2
+b
2
+1
_
=
r
_
a
2
+b
2
+1
a, b, −1
Hence,
−−→
C
1
F
1
=
r
_
a
2
+b
2
+1
a, b, −1 =
r
_
a
2
+b
2
+1
_
a
2
+b
2
+(−1)
2
= r
We, thus, proved that (1) is satisﬁed. To show (2) we must show that
−−→
C
1
F
1
is parallel to the normal vector a, b, −1 to
the plane z = ax + by (i.e., ax + by − z = 0). The two vectors are parallel since by (1)
−−→
C
1
F
1
is a constant multiple of
a, b, −1. In a similar manner one can show (1) and (2) for the vector
−−→
C
2
F
2
.
(c) This is an extremely challenging problem. As suggested in the book, we use P = (r, 0, ar), and we also use the
expressions for F
1
and F
2
as given above. This gives us:
PF
1
=
_
_
1 +2 a
2
+b
2
−2 a
_
1 +a
2
+b
2
_
r
2
PF
2
=
_
_
1 +2 a
2
+b
2
+2 a
_
1 +a
2
+b
2
_
r
2
Their sum is not very inspiring:
PF
1
+ PF
2
=
_
_
1 +2 a
2
+b
2
−2 a
_
1 +a
2
+b
2
_
r
2
+
_
_
1 +2 a
2
+b
2
+2 a
_
1 +a
2
+b
2
_
r
2
Let us look, instead, at (PF
1
+ PF
2
)
2
, and show that this is equal to K
2
. Since everything is positive, this will imply
that PF
1
+ PF
2
= K, as desired.
(PF
1
+ PF
2
)
2
= 2 r
2
+4 a
2
r
2
+2 b
2
r
2
+2
_
r
4
+2b
2
r
4
+b
4
r
4
= 2 r
2
+4 a
2
r
2
+2 b
2
r
2
+2 (1 +b
2
)r
2
= 4r
2
(1 +a
2
+b
2
) = K
2
14.2 Calculus of VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13.2)
Preliminary Questions
1. State the three forms of the Product Rule for vectorvalued functions.
SOLUTION The Product Rule for scalar multiple f (t ) of a vectorvalued function r(t ) states that:
d
dt
f (t )r(t ) = f (t )r
(t ) + f
(t )r(t )
The Product Rule for dot products states that:
d
dt
r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t ) = r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t ) +r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t )
250 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
Finally, the Product Rule for cross product is
d
dt
r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t ) = r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t ) +r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t ).
In Questions 2–6, indicate whether true or false and if false, provide a correct statement.
2. The derivative of a vectorvalued function is deﬁned as the limit of the difference quotient, just as in the scalarvalued
case.
SOLUTION The statement is true. The derivative of a vectorvalued function r(t ) is deﬁned a limit of the difference
quotient:
r
(t ) = lim
t →0
r (t +h) −r(t )
h
in the same way as in the scalarvalued case.
3. There are two Chain Rules for vectorvalued functions, one for the composite of two vectorvalued functions and
one for the composite of a vectorvalued and scalarvalued function.
SOLUTION This statement is false. A vectorvalued function r(t ) is a function whose domain is a set of real numbers
and whose range consists of position vectors. Therefore, if r
1
(t ) and r
2
(t ) are vectorvalued functions, the composition
“(r
1
· r
2
)(t ) = r
1
(r
2
(t ))” has no meaning since r
2
(t ) is a vector and not a real number. However, for a scalarvalued
function f (t ), the composition r( f (t )) has a meaning, and there is a Chain Rule for differentiability of this vectorvalued
function.
4. The terms “velocity vector” and “tangent vector” for a path r(t ) mean one and the same thing.
SOLUTION This statement is true.
5. The derivative of a vectorvalued function is the slope of the tangent line, just as in the scalar case.
SOLUTION The statement is false. The derivative of a vectorvalued function is again a vectorvalued function, hence
it cannot be the slope of the tangent line (which is a scalar). However, the derivative, r
(t
0
) is the direction vector of the
tangent line to the curve traced by r(t ), at r(t
0
).
6. The derivative of the cross product is the cross product of the derivatives.
SOLUTION The statement is false, since usually,
d
dt
r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t ) = r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t )
The correct statement is the Product Rule for Cross Products. That is,
d
dt
r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t ) = r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t ) +r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t )
7. State whether the following derivatives of vectorvalued functions r
1
(t ) and r
2
(t ) are scalars or vectors:
(a)
d
dt
r
1
(t ) (b)
d
dt
_
r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t )
_
(c)
d
dt
_
r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t )
_
SOLUTION (a) vector, (b) scalar, (c) vector.
Exercises
In Exercises 1–4, evaluate the limit.
1. lim
t →3
_
t
2
, 4t,
1
t
_
SOLUTION By the theorem on vectorvalued limits we have:
lim
t →3
_
t
2
, 4t,
1
t
_
=
_
lim
t →3
t
2
, lim
t →3
4t, lim
t →3
1
t
_
=
_
9, 12,
1
3
_
.
lim
t →π
sin 2t i +cos t j +tan 4t k
3. lim
t →0
e
2t
i +ln(t +1)j +4k
S E C T I O N 14.2 Calculus of VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13.2) 251
SOLUTION Computing the limit of each component, we obtain:
lim
t →0
_
e
2t
i +ln (t +1) j +4k
_
=
_
lim
t →0
e
2t
_
i +
_
lim
t →0
ln(t +1)
_
j +
_
lim
t →0
4
_
k = e
0
i +(ln 1)j +4k = i +4k
lim
t →0
_
1
t +1
,
e
t
−1
t
, 4t
_
5. Evaluate lim
h→0
r(t +h) −r(t )
h
for r(t ) =
_
t
−1
, sin t, 4
_
.
SOLUTION This limit is the derivative
dr
dt
. Using componentwise differentiation yields:
lim
h→0
r (t +h) −r(t )
h
=
dr
dt
=
_
d
dt
_
t
−1
_
,
d
dt
(sin t ) ,
d
dt
(4)
_
=
_
−
1
t
2
, cos t, 0
_
.
Evaluate lim
t →0
r(t )
t
for r(t ) = sin t, 1 −cos t, −2t .
In Exercises 7–14, compute the derivative.
7. r(t ) =
_
t, t
2
, t
3
_
SOLUTION Using componentwise differentiation we get:
dr
dt
=
_
d
dt
(t ),
d
dt
(t
2
),
d
dt
(t
3
)
_
=
_
1, 2t, 3t
2
_
v(t ) =
_
sin 3t, cos 3t
_
9. w(s) =
_
e
s
, e
−2s
_
SOLUTION Componentwise differentiation gives:
w
(s) =
__
e
s
_
,
_
e
−2s
_
_
=
_
e
s
, −2e
−2s
_
r(θ) =
_
tan θ, 4θ −2, sin θ
_
11. r(t ) =
_
t −t
−1
, 4t
2
, 8
_
SOLUTION We compute the derivative of each component to obtain:
r
(t ) =
_
(t −t
−1
)
, (4t
2
)
, (8)
_
=
_
1 +t
−2
, 8t, 0
_
c(t ) = t
−1
i −e
2t
k
13. a(θ) = (cos 2θ)i +(sin 2θ)j +(sin 4θ)k
SOLUTION Using componentwise differentiation yields:
a
(θ) = (cos 2θ)
i +(sin 2θ)
j +(sin 4θ)
k = (−2 sin 2θ) i +(2 cos 2θ) j +(4 cos 4θ) k
b(t ) =
_
e
4t −3
, sin(t
2
), (4t +3)
−1
_ 15. Calculate r
(t ) and r
(t ) for r(t ) =
_
t, t
2
, t
3
_
.
SOLUTION We perform the differentiation componentwise to obtain:
r
(t ) =
_
(t )
, (t
2
)
, (t
3
)
_
=
_
1, 2t, 3t
2
_
We now differentiate the derivative vector to ﬁnd the second derivative:
r
(t ) =
d
dt
_
1, 2t, 3t
2
_
= 0, 2, 6t .
Sketch the curve r(t ) =
_
1 −t
2
, t
_
for −1 ≤ t ≤ 1. Compute the tangent vector at t = 1 and add it to the sketch.
17. Sketch the curve r
1
(t ) =
_
t, t
2
_
together with its tangent vector at t = 1. Then do the same for r
2
(t ) =
_
t
3
, t
6
_
.
SOLUTION Note that r
1
(t ) = 1, 2t and so r
1
(1) = 1, 2. The graph of r
1
(t ) satisﬁes y = x
2
. Likewise, r
2
(t ) =
_
3t
2
, 6t
5
_
and so r
2
(1) = 3, 6. The graph of r
2
(t ) also satisﬁes y = x
2
. Both graphs and tangent vectors are given
here.
2
r
2
(t )
1
r
1
(t )
Sketch the cycloid r(t ) =
_
t −sin t, 1 −cos t
_
together with its tangent vectors at t =
π
3
and
3π
4
.
In Exercises 19–22, use the appropriate Product Rule to evaluate the derivative, where
r
1
(t ) =
_
8t, 4, −t
3
_
, r
2
(t ) =
_
0, e
t
, −6
_
252 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
19.
d
dt
_
r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t )
_
SOLUTION By the Product Rule for dot products we have:
d
dt
r
1
· r
2
= r
1
· r
2
+r
1
· r
2
We compute the derivatives of r
1
and r
2
:
r
1
=
d
dt
_
8t, 4, −t
3
_
=
_
8, 0, −3t
2
_
r
2
=
d
dt
_
0, e
t
, −6
_
=
_
0, e
t
, 0
_
By (1) we have:
d
dt
r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t ) =
_
8t, 4, −t
3
_
·
_
0, e
t
, 0
_
+
_
8, 0, −3t
2
_
·
_
0, e
t
, −6
_
= 4e
t
+18t
2
d
dt
_
t
4
r
1
(t )
_ 21.
d
dt
_
r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t )
_
SOLUTION We use the Product Rule for cross products:
d
dt
r
1
×r
2
= r
1
×r
2
+r
1
×r
2
=
_
8t, 4, −t
3
_
×
_
0, e
t
, 0
_
+
_
8, 0, −3t
2
_
×
_
0, e
t
, −6
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
8t 4 −t
3
0 e
t
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
8 0 −3t
2
0 e
t
−6
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= t
3
e
t
i +8t e
t
k +3t
2
e
t
i +48j +8e
t
k
= t
2
e
t
(t +3)i +48j +8e
t
(t +1)k =
_
t
2
e
t
(t +3), 48, 8e
t
(t +1)
_
d
dt
_
r
1
(t ) · r
3
(t )
_
¸
¸
¸
t =5
, assuming that r
3
(5) = 3, 1, 2 and r
3
(5) = −1, 2, 7.
In Exercises 23–25, let
r
1
(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
3
, 4t
_
, r
2
(t ) =
_
t
−1
, 1 +t, 2
_
23. Let F(t ) = r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t ).
(a) Calculate F
(t ) using the Product Rule.
(b) Expand the product r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t ) and differentiate. Compare with part (a).
SOLUTION
(a) By the Product Rule for dot products we have:
F
(t ) = r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t ) +r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t )
We compute the derivatives of r
1
(t ) and r
2
(t ):
r
1
(t ) =
d
dt
_
t
2
, t
3
, 4t
_
=
_
2t, 3t
2
, 4
_
r
2
(t ) =
d
dt
_
t
−1
, 1 +t, 2
_
=
_
−t
−2
, 1, 0
_
Thus,
F
(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
3
, 4t
_
·
_
−t
−2
, 1, 0
_
+
_
2t, 3t
2
, 4
_
·
_
t
−1
, 1 +t, 2
_
=
_
−1 +t
3
+0
_
+
_
2 +3t
2
+3t
3
+8
_
= 4t
3
+3t
2
+9
That is,
F
(t ) = 4t
3
+3t
2
+9 (1)
(b) We now ﬁrst compute the product r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t ) and then differentiate the resulting function. This gives:
F(t ) = r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
3
, 4t
_
·
_
t
−1
, 1 +t, 2
_
= t +t
3
(1 +t ) +8t = t
4
+t
3
+9t
Differentiating F(t ) gives:
F
(t ) = 4t
3
+3t
2
+9 (2)
The derivatives in (1) and (2) are the same, as expected.
S E C T I O N 14.2 Calculus of VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13.2) 253
Let G(t ) = r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t ).
(a) Calculate G
(t ) using the Product Rule.
(b) Expand the cross product r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t ) and differentiate. Compare with part (a).
25. Find the rate of change of the angle θ between r
1
(t ) and r
2
(t ) at t = 2, assuming that t is measured in seconds.
SOLUTION Recall the formula for the dot product:
r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t ) = r
1
(t )r
2
(t ) cos θ
Thus,
cos θ =
r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t )
r
1
(t )r
2
(t )
=
t +t
3
+t
4
+8t
_
t
4
+t
6
+16t
2
_
t
−2
+5 +2t +t
2
=
t
4
+t
3
+9t
_
t
2
+t
4
+16
_
1 +5t
2
+2t
3
+t
4
= (t
4
+t
3
+9t )
_
(t
2
+t
4
+16)(1 +5t
2
+2t
3
+t
4
)
_
−1/2
Taking the derivative, we ﬁnd that (after a lot of work)
d
dt
cos θ =
144 +48 t
2
−80 t
3
−36 t
4
+264 t
5
−6 t
6
−24 t
8
+5 t
9
__
16 +t
2
+t
4
_ _
1 +5 t
2
+2 t
3
+t
4
__ 3
2
So, at t = 2, we get (after a lot of work)
d
dt
cos θ
¸
¸
¸
¸
t =2
=
50
159
√
53
On the other hand, using the chain rule,
d
dt
cos θ = −sin θ
d
dt
θ
So, we have that
d
dt
θ =
1
−sin θ
d
dt
cos θ
Thus, at t = 2,
d
dt
θ
¸
¸
¸
¸
t =2
=
1
−sin θ
d
dt
cos θ
¸
¸
¸
¸
t =2
We need only calculate sin θ at t = 2. From above, we know that
cos θ = (t
4
+t
3
+9t )
_
(t
2
+t
4
+16)(1 +5t
2
+2t
3
+t
4
)
_
−1/2
so at t = 2, cos θ =
7
√
53
. Since sin
2
θ +cos
2
θ = 1, we get that sin θ =
2
√
53
. We can now conclude that
d
dt
θ
¸
¸
¸
¸
t =2
=
−
√
53
2
·
50
159
√
53
=
−25
159
In Exercises 26–29, evaluate
d
dt
r(g(t )) using the Chain Rule.
r(t ) =
_
t
2
, 2t, 4
_
, g(t ) = e
t
27. r(t ) =
_
e
t
, e
2t
, 4
_
, g(t ) = 4t +9
SOLUTION We ﬁrst differentiate the two functions:
r
(t ) =
d
dt
_
e
t
, e
2t
, 4
_
=
_
e
t
, 2e
2t
, 0
_
g
(t ) =
d
dt
(4t +9) = 4
Using the Chain Rule we get:
d
dt
r (g(t )) = g
(t )r
(g(t )) = 4
_
e
4t +9
, 2e
2(4t +9)
, 0
_
=
_
4e
4t +9
, 8e
8t +18
, 0
_
r(t ) = 4 sin 2t, 6 cos 2t , g(t ) = t
2
29. r(t ) =
_
3
t
, tan
−1
t
_
, g(t ) = sin t
254 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
SOLUTION We ﬁrst compute the derivatives of the two functions:
r
(t ) =
d
dt
_
3
t
, tan
−1
t
_
=
_
3
t
ln 3,
1
1 +t
2
_
g
(t ) = cos t
We now differentiate the composition function r(g(t )) using the Chain Rule:
d
dt
r(g(t )) = g
(t )r
(g(t )) = cos t
_
3
sin t
ln 3,
1
1 +sin
2
t
_
=
_
3
sin t
cos t ln 3,
cos t
1 +sin
2
t
_
Let v(s) = s
2
i +2sj +9s
−2
k. Evaluate
d
ds
v(g(s)) at s = 4, assuming that g(4) = 3 and g
(4) = −9.
31. Let r(t ) =
_
t
2
, 1 − t, 4t
_
. Calculate the derivative of r(t ) · a(t ) at t = 2, assuming that a(2) = 1, 3, 3 and
a
(2) = −1, 4, 1.
SOLUTION By the Product Rule for dot products we have
d
dt
r(t ) · a(t ) = r(t ) · a
(t ) +r
(t ) · a(t )
At t = 2 we have
d
dt
r(t ) · a(t )
¸
¸
¸
¸
t =2
= r(2) · a
(2) +r
(2) · a(2) (1)
We compute the derivative r
(2):
r
(t ) =
d
dt
_
t
2
, 1 −t, 4t
_
= 2t, −1, 4 ⇒ r
(2) = 4, −1, 4 (2)
Also, r(2) =
_
2
2
, 1 −2, 4 · 2
_
= 4, −1, 8. Substituting the vectors in the equation above, we obtain:
d
dt
r(t ) · a(t )
¸
¸
¸
¸
t =2
= 4, −1, 8 · −1, 4, 1 +4, −1, 4 · 1, 3, 3 = (−4 −4 +8) +(4 −3 +12) = 13
The derivative of r(t ) · a(t ) at t = 2 is 13.
Let r(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
3
, e
t
_
. Use Example 4 to calculate
d
dt
(r ×r
).
In Exercises 33–37, ﬁnd a parametrization of the tangent line at the point indicated.
33. r(t ) =
_
1 −t
2
, 5t, 2t
3
_
, t = 2
SOLUTION The tangent line is parametrized by:
(t ) = r(2) +t r
(2) (1)
We compute the vectors in the above parametrization:
r(2) =
_
1 −2
2
, 5 · 2, 2 · 2
3
_
= −3, 10, 16
r
(t ) =
d
dt
_
1 −t
2
, 5t, 2t
3
_
=
_
−2t, 5, 6t
2
_
⇒ r
(2) = −4, 5, 24
Substituting the vectors in (1) we obtain the following parametrization:
(t ) = −3, 10, 16 +t −4, 5, 24 = −3 −4t, 10 +5t, 16 +24t
r(t ) =
_
cos 2t, sin 3t, sin 4t
_
, t =
π
4
35. r(s) = 4s
−1
i −8s
−3
k, s = 2
SOLUTION The tangent line has the following parametrization:
(s) = r(2) +sr
(2) (1)
We compute the vectors r(2) and r
(2):
r(2) = 4 · 2
−1
i −8 · 2
−3
k = 2i −k
r
(s) =
d
ds
_
4s
−1
i −8s
−3
k
_
= −4s
−2
i +24s
−4
k
⇒ r
(2) = −4 · 2
−2
i +24 · 2
−4
k = −i +
3
2
k
S E C T I O N 14.2 Calculus of VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13.2) 255
Substituting in (1) gives the following parametrization:
(t ) = 2i −k +s
_
−i +
3
2
k
_
= (2 −s) i +
_
3
2
s −1
_
k
or in scalar form:
x = 2 −s, y = 0, z =
3
2
s −1.
r(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
4
_
, t = 1
37. r(s) = ln si +s
−1
j +9sk, s = 1
SOLUTION The tangent line has the following parametrization:
(s) = r(1) +sr
(1) (1)
We compute the vectors r(1) and r
(1):
r(1) = ln 1i +1
−1
j +9 · 1k = j +9k
r
(s) =
d
ds
(ln si +s
−1
j +9sk) =
1
s
i −s
−2
j +9k ⇒ r
(1) = i −j +9k
We substitute the vectors in (1) to obtain the following parametrization:
(s) = j +9k +s(i −j +9k) = si +(1 −s)j +(9 +9s)k
or in scalar form:
x = s, y = 1 −s, z = 9 +9s.
Let r(t ) = sin 2t cos t, sin 2t sin t, cos 2t . Show that r(t ) is constant and conclude using Example 6 that r(t )
and r
(t ) are orthogonal. Then compute r
(t ) and verify directly that it is orthogonal to r(t ).
39. Show, by ﬁnding a counterexample, that in general r
(t ) need not equal r(t )
.
SOLUTION Let r(t ) = 1, 1, t . Then r(t ) =
_
1
2
+1
2
+t
2
=
_
2 +t
2
, hence:
r(t )
=
d
dt
__
2 +t
2
_
=
2t
2
_
2 +t
2
=
t
_
2 +t
2
On the other hand, we have r
(t ) = 0, 0, 1, hence:
r
(t ) =
_
0
2
+0
2
+1
2
= 1.
We see that r
(t ) = r(t )
.
In Exercises 40–45, evaluate the integrals.
_
1
0
2t, 4t, −cos 3t dt
41.
_
4
1
_
t
−1
i +4
√
t j −8t
3/2
k
_
dt
SOLUTION We perform the integration componentwise. Computing the integral of each component we get:
_
4
1
t
−1
dt = ln t
¸
¸
¸
¸
4
1
= ln 4 −ln 1 = ln 4
_
4
1
4
√
t dt = 4 ·
2
3
t
3/2
¸
¸
¸
¸
4
1
=
8
3
_
4
3/2
−1
_
=
56
3
_
4
1
−8t
3/2
dt = −
16
5
t
5/2
¸
¸
¸
¸
4
1
= −
16
5
_
4
5/2
−1
_
= −
496
5
Hence,
_
4
1
_
t
−1
i +4
√
t j −8t
3/2
k
_
dt = (ln 4) i +
56
3
j −
496
5
k
_
1
0
_
t e
−t
2
, t ln(t
2
+1)
_
dt
43.
_
2
−2
_
u
3
i +u
5
j +u
7
k
_
du
SOLUTION We perform componentwise integration, but before doing so we notice that u
3
, u
5
and u
7
are all odd
functions, so their integrals over this symmetric region will all be zero! Thus, the answer is 0i +0j +0k.
_
1
0
_
1
1 +s
2
,
s
1 +s
2
_
ds
256 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
45.
_
t
0
_
3si +6s
2
j +9k
_
ds
SOLUTION We ﬁrst compute the integral of each component:
_
t
0
3s ds =
3
2
s
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
=
3
2
t
2
_
t
0
6s
2
ds =
6
3
s
3
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
= 2t
3
_
t
0
9 ds = 9s
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
= 9t
Hence,
_
t
0
_
3si +6s
2
j +9k
_
dt =
__
t
0
3s ds
_
i +
__
t
0
6s
2
ds
_
j +
__
t
0
9 ds
_
k =
_
3
2
t
2
_
i +
_
2t
3
_
j +(9t )k
In Exercises 46–53, ﬁnd the general solution r(t ) of the differential equation and the solution with the given initial
condition.
dr
dt
= 1 −2t, 4t , r(0) = 3, 1
47. r
(t ) = i −j, r(0) = 2i +3k
SOLUTION The general solution is obtained by integrating r
(t ):
r(t ) =
_
(i −j) dt =
__
1 dt
_
i −
__
1 dt
_
j = t i −t j +c (1)
Hence,
r(0) = 0i −0j +c = c
The solution with the initial condition r(0) = 2i +3k must satisfy:
r(0) = c = 2i +3k
Substituting in (1) yields the solution:
r(t ) = t i −t j +2i +3k = (t +2) i −t j +3k
r
(t ) = t
2
i +5t j +k, r(0) = j +2k
49. r
(t ) = sin 3t, sin 3t, t , r(0) = 0, 1, 8
SOLUTION We ﬁrst integrate the vector r
(t ) to ﬁnd the general solution:
r(t ) =
_
sin 3t, sin 3t, t dt =
__
sin 3t dt,
_
sin 3t dt,
_
t dt
_
=
_
−
1
3
cos 3t, −
1
3
cos 3t,
1
2
t
2
_
+c (1)
Substituting the initial condition we obtain:
r(0) =
_
−
1
3
cos 0, −
1
3
cos 0,
1
2
· 0
2
_
+c = 0, 1, 8 =
_
−
1
3
, −
1
3
, 0
_
+c = 0, 1, 8
Hence,
c = 0, 1, 8 −
_
−
1
3
, −
1
3
, 0
_
=
_
1
3
,
4
3
, 8
_
Substituting in (1) we obtain the solution:
r(t ) =
_
−
1
3
cos 3t, −
1
3
cos 3t,
1
2
t
2
_
+
_
1
3
,
4
3
, 8
_
=
_
1
3
(1 −cos 3t ) ,
1
3
(4 −cos 3t ) , 8 +
1
2
t
2
_
dr
dt
=
_
e
2t
, e
t
, e
−2t
_
, r(0) = 4, −2, 3
51. r
(t ) = 16k, r(0) = 1, 0, 0, r
(0) = 0, 1, 0
SOLUTION To ﬁnd the general solution we ﬁrst ﬁnd r
(t ) by integrating r
(t ):
r
(t ) =
_
r
(t ) dt =
_
16kdt = (16t ) k +c
1
(1)
S E C T I O N 14.2 Calculus of VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13.2) 257
We now integrate r
(t ) to ﬁnd the general solution r(t ):
r(t ) =
_
r
(t ) dt =
_
((16t ) k +c
1
) dt =
__
16(t ) dt
_
k +c
1
t +c
2
= (8t
2
)k +c
1
t +c
2
(2)
We substitute the initial conditions in (1) and (2). This gives:
r
(0) = c
1
= 0, 1, 0 = j
r(0) = 0k +c
1
· 0 +c
2
= 1, 0, 0 ⇒ c
2
= 1, 0, 0 = i
Combining with (2) we obtain the following solution:
r(t ) = (8t
2
)k +t j +i = i +t j +(8t
2
)k
r
(t ) = 0, 0, 1, r(0) = 2, 1, 1, r
(0) = 3, 1, 1
53. r
(t ) =
_
e
t
, sin t, cos t
_
, r(0) = 1, 0, 1, r
(0) = 0, 2, 2
SOLUTION We perform integration componentwise on r
(t ) to obtain:
r
(t ) =
_
_
e
t
, sin t, cos t
_
dt =
_
e
t
, −cos t, sin t
_
+c
1
(1)
We now integrate r
(t ) to obtain the general solution:
r(t ) =
_
__
e
t
, −cos t, sin t
_
+c
1
_
dt =
_
e
t
, −sin t, −cos t
_
+c
1
t +c
2
(2)
Now, we substitute the initial conditions r(0) = 1, 0, 1 and r
(0) = 0, 2, 2 into (1) and (2) and solve for the vectors
c
1
and c
2
. We obtain:
r
(0) = 1, −1, 0 +c
1
= 0, 2, 2 ⇒ c
1
= −1, 3, 2
r(0) = 1, 0, −1 +c
2
= 1, 0, 1 ⇒ c
2
= 0, 0, 2
Finally we combine the above to obtain the solution:
r(t ) =
_
e
t
, −sin t, −cos t
_
+−1, 3, 2 t +0, 0, 2 =
_
e
t
−t, −sin t +3t, −cos t +2t +2
_
Show that w(t ) = sin(3t +4), sin(3t −2), cos 3t satisﬁes the differential equation w
(t ) = −9w(t ).
55. The path r(t ) of a particle satisﬁes
dr
dt
=
_
8, 5 −3t, 4t
2
_
. Where is the particle located at t = 4 if r(0) = 1, 6, 0?
SOLUTION We ﬁrst ﬁnd the general solution by integrating the vector
dr
dt
componentwise. This gives:
r(t ) =
_
_
8, 5 −3t, 4t
2
_
dt =
_
8t, 5t −
3
2
t
2
,
4
3
t
3
_
+c (1)
Substituting t = 0 we get:
r(0) =
_
8 · 0, 5 · 0 −
3
2
· 0
2
,
4
3
· 0
3
_
+c = c
The initial condition r(0) = 1, 6, 0 gives c = 1, 6, 0. Combining with (1) we obtain the following solution:
r(t ) =
_
8t, 5t −
3
2
t
2
,
4
3
t
3
_
+1, 6, 0 =
_
1 +8t, 6 +5t −
3
2
t
2
,
4
3
t
3
_
To ﬁnd the particle’s position at t = 4, we substitute t = 4 in r(t ) obtaining:
r(4) =
_
1 +8 · 4, 6 +5 · 4 −
3
2
· 4
2
,
4
3
· 4
3
_
=
_
33, 2,
256
3
_
A ﬁghter plane, which can only shoot bullets straight ahead, travels along the path r(t ) =
_
5 − t, 21 − t
2
, 3 −
t
3
/27
_
. Show that there is precisely one time t at which the pilot can hit a target located at the origin.
57. Find all solutions to r
(t ) = v, where v is a constant vector in R
3
.
SOLUTION We denote the components of the constant vector v by v = v
1
, v
2
, v
3
and integrate to ﬁnd the general
solution. This gives:
r(t ) =
_
v dt =
_
v
1
, v
2
, v
3
dt =
__
v
1
dt,
_
v
2
dt,
_
v
3
dt
_
= v
1
t +c
1
, v
2
t +c
2
, v
3
t +c
3
= t v
1
, v
2
, v
3
+c
1
, c
2
, c
3
We let c = c
1
, c
2
, c
3
and obtain:
r(t ) = t v +c = c +t v
Notice that the solutions are the vector parametrizations of all the lines with direction vector v.
258 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
Let u be a constant vector in R
3
. Find the solution of r
(t ) = (sin t )u satisfying r
(0) = 0.
59. Find all solutions to r
(t ) = 2r(t ) where r(t ) is a vectorvalued function in threespace.
SOLUTION We denote the components of r(t ) by r(t ) = x(t ), y(t ), z(t ). Then, r
(t ) =
_
x
(t ), y
(t ), z
(t )
_
. Substi
tuting in the differential equation we get:
_
x
(t ), y
(t ), z
(t )
_
= 2 x(t ), y(t ), z(t )
Equating corresponding components gives:
x
(t ) = 2x(t )
y
(t ) = 2y(t )
z
(t ) = 2z(t )
⇒
x(t ) = c
1
e
2t
y(t ) = c
2
e
2t
z(t ) = c
3
e
2t
We denote the constant vector by c = c
1
, c
2
, c
3
and obtain the following solutions:
r(t ) =
_
c
1
e
2t
, c
2
e
2t
, c
3
e
2t
_
= e
2t
c
1
, c
2
, c
3
= e
2t
c
Show that
d
dt
(a ×r) = a ×r
for any constant vector a.
61. Prove that r(t
0
) and r
(t
0
) are orthogonal at values t = t
0
where r(t ) takes on a local minimum or
maximum value. Explain how this result is related to Figure 7. Hint: In the ﬁgure, r(t
0
) is a minimum and the path
r(t ) intersects the sphere of radius r(t
0
) in a single point (and hence is tangent at that point).
z
y
x
r′(t
0
)
r(t
0
)
r(t)
FIGURE 7
SOLUTION Suppose that r(t ) takes on a minimum or maximum value at t = t
0
. Hence, r(t )
2
also takes on a
minimum or maximum value at t = t
0
, therefore
d
dt
r(t )
2
¸
¸
t =t
0
= 0. Using the Product Rule for dot products we get
d
dt
r(t )
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
t =t
0
=
d
dt
r(t ) · r(t )
¸
¸
¸
¸
t =t
0
= r(t
0
) · r
(t
0
) +r
(t
0
) · r(t
0
) = 2r(t
0
) · r
(t
0
) = 0
Thus r(t
0
) · r
(t
0
) = 0, which implies the orthogonality of r(t
0
) and r
(t
0
). In Figure 7, r(t
0
) is a minimum and the
path intersects the sphere of radius r(t
0
) at a single point. Therefore, the point of intersection is a tangency point which
implies that r
(t
0
) is tangent to the sphere at t
0
. We conclude that r(t
0
) and r
(t
0
) are orthogonal.
Newton’s Second Law of Motion in vector form states that F =
dp
dt
where F is the force acting on an object of
mass m and p = mr
(t ) is the object’s momentum. The analogs of force and momentum for rotational motion are
the torque τ = r ×F and angular momentum J = r(t ) ×p(t ). Use the Second Law to prove that τ =
dJ
dt
. This is
a rotational version of the Second Law.
Further Insights and Challenges
63. In this exercise, we verify that the deﬁnition of the tangent line using vectorvalued functions agrees with the usual
deﬁnition in terms of the scalar derivative in the case of a plane curve. Suppose that r(t ) = x(t ), y(t ) traces a plane
curve C.
(a) Show that
dy
dx
=
y
(t )
x
(t )
at any point such that x
(t ) = 0. Hint: By the Chain Rule,
dy
dt
=
dy
dx
dx
dt
.
(b) Show that if x
(t
0
) = 0, then the line L(t ) = r(t
0
) +t r
(t
0
) passes through r(t
0
) and has slope
dy
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
t =t
0
.
SOLUTION
(a) By the Chain Rule we have
dy
dt
=
dy
dx
·
dx
dt
Hence, at the points where
dx
dt
= 0 we have:
dy
dx
=
dy
dt
dx
dt
=
y
(t )
x
(t )
(b) The line (t ) = a, b +t r
(t
0
) passes through (a, b) at t = 0. It holds that:
(0) = a, b +0r
(t
0
) = a, b
That is, (a, b) is the terminal point of the vector (0), hence the line passes through (a, b). The line has the direction
vector r
(t
0
) =
_
x
(t
0
), y
(t
0
)
_
, therefore the slope of the line is
y
(t
0
)
x
(t
0
)
which is equal to
dy
dx
¸
¸
¸
t =t
0
by part (a).
S E C T I O N 14.2 Calculus of VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13.2) 259
Verify the Sum and Product Rules for derivatives of vectorvalued functions.
65. Verify the Chain Rule for vectorvalued functions.
SOLUTION Let g(t ) and r(t ) = x(t ), y(t ), z(t ) be differentiable scalar and vector valued functions respectively. We
must show that:
d
dt
r (g(t )) = g
(t )r
(g(t )) .
We have
r (g(t )) = x (g(t )) , y (g(t )) , z (g(t ))
We differentiate the vector componentwise, using the Chain Rule for scalar functions. This gives:
d
dt
r (g(t )) =
_
d
dt
(x (g(t ))) ,
d
dt
(y (g(t ))) ,
d
dt
(z (g(t )))
_
=
_
g
(t )x
(g(t )) , g
(t )y
(g(t )) , g
(t )z
(g(t ))
_
= g
(t )
_
x
(g(t )) , y
(g(t )) , z
(g(t ))
_
= g
(t )r
(g(t ))
Verify the Product Rule for cross products [Eq. (6)]. 67. Prove that
d
dt
(r · (r
×r
)) = r · (r
×r
)
SOLUTION We use the Product Rule for dot products to obtain:
d
dt
_
r ·
_
r
×r
__
= r ·
d
dt
_
r
×r
_
+r
·
_
r
×r
_
(1)
By the Product Rule for cross products and properties of cross products, we have:
d
dt
_
r
×r
_
= r
×r
+r
×r
= r
×r
+0 = r
×r
(2)
Substituting (2) into (1) yields:
d
dt
_
r ·
_
r
×r
__
= r ·
_
r
×r
_
+r
·
_
r
×r
_
(3)
Since r
×r
is orthogonal to r
, the dot product r
·
_
r
×r
_
= 0. So (3) gives:
d
dt
_
r ·
_
r
×r
__
= r ·
_
r
×r
_
+0 = r ·
_
r
×r
_
Exercises 68–71 establish additional properties of vectorvalued integrals. Assume that all functions are integrable.
Prove the linearity properties
_
cr(t ) dt = c
_
r(t ) dt (c any constant)
_
_
r
1
(t ) +r
2
(t )
_
dt =
_
r
1
(t ) dt +
_
r
2
(t ) dt
69. Prove the Substitution Rule [where g(t ) is a differentiable scalar function]:
_
b
a
r(g(t ))g
(t ) dt =
_
g
−1
(b)
g
−1
(a)
r(u) du
SOLUTION (Note that an early edition of the textbook had the integral limits as g(a) and g(b); they should actually
be g
−1
(a) and g
−1
(b).) We denote the components of the vectorvalued function by r(t ) dt = x(t ), y(t ), z(t ). Using
componentwise integration we have:
_
b
a
r(t ) dt =
_
_
b
a
x(t ) dt,
_
b
a
y(t ) dt,
_
b
a
z(t ) dt
_
Write
_
b
a
x(t ) dt as
_
b
a
x(s) ds. Let s = g(t ), so ds = g
(t ) dt . The substitution gives us
_
g
−1
(b)
g
−1
(a)
x(g(t ))g
(t ) dt . A
similar procedure for the other two integrals gives us:
_
b
a
r(t ) dt =
_
_
g
−1
(b)
g
−1
(a)
x (g(t )) g
(t ) dt,
_
g
−1
(b)
g
−1
(a)
y (g(t )) g
(t ) dt,
_
g
−1
(b)
g
−1
(a)
z (g(t )) g
(t ) dt
_
=
_
g
−1
(b)
g
−1
(a)
_
x (g(t )) g
(t ), y (g(t )) g
(t ), z (g(t )) g
(t )
_
dt
=
_
g
−1
(b)
g
−1
(a)
x (g(t )) , y (g(t )) , z (g(t )) g
(t ) dt =
_
g
−1
(b)
g
−1
(a)
r (g(t )) g
(t ) dt
Formulate and verify a version of Integration by Parts for vectorvalued integrals.
260 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
71. Show that if r(t ) ≤ K for t ∈ [a, b], then
_
_
_
_
_
_
b
a
r(t ) dt
_
_
_
_
_
≤ K(b −a)
SOLUTION Think of r(t ) as a velocity vector. Then,
_
b
a
r(t ) dt gives the displacement vector from the location at time
t = a to the time t = b, and so
_
_
_
_
_
_
b
a
r(t ) dt
_
_
_
_
_
gives the length of this displacement vector. But, since speed is r(t )
which is less than or equal to K, then in the interval a ≤ t ≤ b, the object can move a total distance not more than
K(b − a). Thus, the length of the displacement vector is ≤ K(b − a), which gives us
_
_
_
_
_
_
b
a
r(t ) dt
_
_
_
_
_
≤ K(b −a), as
desired.
14.3 Arc Length and Speed (ET Section 13.3)
Preliminary Questions
1. At a given instant, a car on a roller coaster has velocity vector r
= 25, −35, 10 (in miles per hour). What would
the velocity vector be if the speed were doubled? What would it be if the car’s direction were reversed but its speed
remained unchanged?
SOLUTION The speed is doubled but the direction is unchanged, hence the new velocity vector has the form:
λr
= λ 25, −35, 10 for λ > 0
We use λ = 2, and so the new velocity vector is 50, −70, 20. If the direction is reversed but the speed is unchanged,
the new velocity vector is:
−r
= −25, 35, −10 .
2. Two cars travel in the same direction along the same roller coaster (at different times). Which of the following
statements about their velocity vectors at a given point P on the roller coaster are true?
(a) The velocity vectors are identical.
(b) The velocity vectors point in the same direction but may have different lengths.
(c) The velocity vectors may point in opposite directions.
SOLUTION
(a) The length of the velocity vector is the speed of the particle. Therefore, if the speeds of the cars are different the
velocities are not identical. The statement is false.
(b) The velocity vector is tangent to the curve. Since the cars travel in the same direction, their velocity vectors point in
the same direction. The statement is true.
(c) Since the cars travel in the same direction, the velocity vectors point in the same direction. The statement is false.
3. A mosquito ﬂies along a parabola with speed v(t ) = t
2
. Let L(t ) be the total distance traveled at time t .
(a) How fast is L(t ) changing at t = 2?
(b) Is L(t ) equal to the mosquito’s distance from the origin?
SOLUTION
(a) By the Arc Length Formula, we have:
L(t ) =
_
t
t
0
r
(t ) dt =
_
t
t
0
v(t ) dt
Therefore,
L
(t ) = v(t )
To ﬁnd the rate of change of L(t ) at t = 2 we compute the derivative of L(t ) at t = 2, that is,
L
(2) = v(2) = 2
2
= 4
(b) L(t ) is the distance along the path traveled by the mosquito. This distance is usually different from the mosquito’s
distance from the origin, which is the length of r(t ).
S E C T I O N 14.3 Arc Length and Speed (ET Section 13.3) 261
r(t )
Distance L(t)
Distance from
the origin
t
0
t
4. What is the length of the path traced by r(t ) for 4 ≤ t ≤ 10 if r(t ) is an arc length parametrization?
SOLUTION Since r(t ) is an arc length parametrization, the length of the path for 4 ≤ t ≤ 10 is equal to the length of
the time interval 4 ≤ t ≤ 10, which is 6.
Exercises
In Exercises 1–6, compute the length of the curve over the given interval.
1. r(t ) = 3t, 4t −3, 6t +1, 0 ≤ t ≤ 3
SOLUTION We have x(t ) = 3t , y(t ) = 4t −3, z(t ) = 6t +1 hence
x
(t ) = 3, y
(t ) = 4, z
(t ) = 6.
We use the Arc Length Formula to obtain:
L =
_
3
0
r
(t ) dt =
_
3
0
_
x
(t )
2
+ y
(t )
2
+ z
(t )
2
dt =
_
3
0
_
3
2
+4
2
+6
2
dt = 3
√
61
r(t ) = 2t i −3t k, 11 ≤ t ≤ 15
3. r(t ) =
_
2t, ln t, t
2
_
, 1 ≤ t ≤ 4
SOLUTION The derivative of r(t ) is r
(t ) =
_
2,
1
t
, 2t
_
. We use the Arc Length Formula to obtain:
L =
_
4
1
r
(t ) dt =
_
4
1
_
2
2
+
_
1
t
_
2
+(2t )
2
dt =
_
4
1
_
4t
2
+4 +
1
t
2
dt =
_
4
1
_
_
2t +
1
t
_
2
dt
=
_
4
1
_
2t +
1
t
_
dt = t
2
+ln t
¸
¸
¸
¸
4
1
= (16 +ln 4) −(1 +ln 1) = 15 +ln 4
r(t ) =
_
2t
2
+1, 2t
2
−1, t
3
_
, 0 ≤ t ≤ 4
5. r(t ) = t i +2t j +(t
2
−3)k, 0 ≤ t ≤ 2. Hint:
_
_
t
2
+a
2
dt =
1
2
t
_
t
2
+a
2
+
1
2
a
2
ln
_
t +
_
t
2
+a
2
_
SOLUTION The derivative of r(t ) is r
(t ) = i +2j +2t k. Using the Arc Length Formula we get:
L =
_
2
0
r
(t ) dt =
_
2
0
_
1
2
+(2)
2
+(2t )
2
dt =
_
2
0
_
4t
2
+5 dt
We substitute u = 2t , du = 2 dt and use the given integration formula. This gives:
L =
1
2
_
4
0
_
u
2
+5 du =
1
4
u
_
u
2
+5 +
1
4
· 5 ln
_
u +
_
u
2
+5
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
4
0
=
1
4
· 4
_
4
2
+5 +
5
4
ln
_
4 +
_
4
2
+5
_
−
5
4
ln
√
5 =
√
21 +
5
4
ln
_
4 +
√
21
_
−
5
4
ln
√
5
=
√
21 +
5
4
ln
4 +
√
21
√
5
≈ 6.26
r(t ) = t cos t, t sin t, 3t , 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π 7. Compute s(t ) =
_
t
0
r
(u) du for r(t ) =
_
t
2
, 2t
2
, t
3
_
.
SOLUTION The derivative of r(t ) is r
(t ) =
_
2t, 4t, 3t
2
_
. Hence,
r
(t ) =
_
(2t )
2
+(4t )
2
+(3t
2
)
2
=
_
4t
2
+16t
2
+9t
4
=
_
20 +9t
2
t
262 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
Hence,
s(t ) =
_
t
0
r
(u) du =
_
t
0
_
20 +9u
2
u du
We compute the integral using the substitution v = 20 +9u
2
, dv = 18u du. This gives:
s(t ) =
1
18
_
20+9t
2
20
v
1/2
dv =
1
18
·
2
3
v
3/2
¸
¸
¸
¸
20+9t
2
20
=
1
27
_
(20 +9t
2
)
3/2
−20
3/2
_
.
In Exercises 8–11, ﬁnd the speed at the given value of t .
r(t ) = 2t +3, 4t −3, 5 −t , t = 4
9. r(t ) =
_
e
t −3
, 12, 3t
−1
_
, t = 3
SOLUTION The velocity vector is r
(t ) =
_
e
t −3
, 0, −3t
−2
_
and at t = 3, r
(3) =
_
e
3−3
, 0, −3 · 3
−2
_
=
_
1, 0, −
1
3
_
.
The speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector, that is,
v(3) = r
(3) =
_
1
2
+0
2
+
_
−
1
3
_
2
=
_
10
9
≈ 1.05
r(t ) = sin 3t, cos 4t, cos 5t , t =
π
2
11. r(t ) = cosh t, sinh t, t , t = 0
SOLUTION The velocity vector is r
(t ) = sinh t, cosh t, 1. At t = 0 the velocity is r
(0) = sinh(0), cosh(0), 1 =
0, 1, 1, hence the speed is
v(0) = r
(0) =
_
0
2
+1
2
+1
2
=
√
2.
What is the velocity vector of a particle traveling to the right along the hyperbola y = x
−1
with constant speed
5 cm/s when the particle’s location is (2,
1
2
)?
13. A bee with velocity vector r
(t ) starts out at the origin at t = 0 and ﬂies around for T seconds. Where is the bee
located at time T if
_
T
0
r
(u) du = 0? What does the quantity
_
T
0
r
(u) du represent?
SOLUTION By the Fundamental Theorem for vectorvalued functions,
_
T
0
r
(u) du = r(T) − r(0), hence by the
given information r(T) = r(0). It follows that at time T the bee is located at the starting point which is at the origin. The
integral
_
T
0
r
(u) du is the length of the path traveled by the bee in the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ T. Notice that there is a
difference between the displacement and the actual length traveled.
Which of the following is an arc length parametrization of a circle of radius 4 centered at the origin?
(a) r
1
(t ) = 4 sin t, 4 cos t
(b) r
2
(t ) = 4 sin 4t, 4 cos 4t
(c) r
3
(t ) =
_
4 sin
t
4
, 4 cos
t
4
_
15. Let r(t ) = 3t +1, 4t −5, 2t .
(a) Calculate s(t ) =
_
t
0
r
(u) du as a function of t .
(b) Find the inverse ϕ(s) = t (s) and show that r
1
(s) = r(ϕ(s)) is an arc length parametrization.
SOLUTION
(a) We differentiate r(t ) componentwise and then compute the norm of the derivative vector. This gives:
r
(t ) = 3, 4, 2
r
(t ) =
_
3
2
+4
2
+2
2
=
√
29
We compute s(t ):
s(t ) =
_
t
0
r
(u) du =
_
t
0
√
29 du =
√
29 u
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
=
√
29t
(b) We ﬁnd the inverse ϕ(s) = t (s) by solving s =
√
29t for t . We obtain:
s =
√
29t ⇒ t = ϕ(s) =
s
√
29
We obtain the following arc length parametrization:
r
1
(s) = r
_
s
√
29
_
=
_
3s
√
29
+1,
4s
√
29
−5,
2s
√
29
_
To verify that r
1
(s) is an arc length parametrization we must show that r
1
(s) = 1. We compute r
1
(s):
r
1
(s) =
d
ds
_
3s
√
29
+1,
4s
√
29
−5,
2s
√
29
_
=
_
3
√
29
,
4
√
29
,
2
√
29
_
=
1
√
29
3, 4, 2
Thus,
r
1
(s) =
1
√
29
3, 4, 2 =
1
√
29
_
3
2
+4
2
+2
2
=
1
√
29
·
√
29 = 1
S E C T I O N 14.3 Arc Length and Speed (ET Section 13.3) 263
Find an arc length parametrization of the circle in the plane z = 9 with radius 4 and center (1, 4, 9).
17. Find a path that traces the circle in the plane y = 10 with radius 4 and center (2, 10, −3) with constant speed 8.
SOLUTION We start with the following parametrization of the circle:
r(t ) = 2, 10, −3 +4 cos t, 0, sin t = 2 +4 cos t, 10, −3 +4 sin t
We need to reparametrize the curve by making a substitution t = ϕ(s), so that the new parametrization r
1
(s) = r
_
ϕ(s)
_
satisﬁes r
1
(s) = 8 for all s. We ﬁnd r
1
(s) using the Chain Rule:
r
1
(s) =
d
ds
r
_
ϕ(s)
_
= ϕ
(s)r
_
ϕ(s)
_
(1)
Next, we differentiate r(t ) and then replace t by ϕ(s):
r
(t ) = −4 sin t, 0, 4 cos t
r
_
ϕ(s)
_
=
_
−4 sin ϕ(s), 0, 4 cos ϕ(s)
_
Substituting in (1) we get:
r
1
(s) = ϕ
(s)
_
−4 sin ϕ(s), 0, 4 cos ϕ(s)
_
= −4ϕ
(s)
_
sin ϕ(s), 0, −cos ϕ(s)
_
Hence,
r
1
(s) = 4ϕ
(s)
_
_
sin ϕ(s)
_
2
+
_
−cos ϕ(s)
_
2
= 4ϕ
(s)
To satisfy r
1
(s) = 8 for all s, we choose ϕ
(s) = 2. We may take the antiderivative ϕ(s) = 2 · s, and obtain the
following parametrization:
r
1
(s) = r
_
ϕ(s)
_
= r(2s) = 2 +4 cos(2s), 10, −3 +4 sin(2s) .
This is a parametrization of the given circle, with constant speed 8.
Show that one arch of the cycloid r(t ) = t −sin t, 1 −cos t has length 8. Find the value of t in [0, 2π] where
the speed is at a maximum.
19. Find an arc length parametrization of r(t ) =
_
e
t
sin t, e
t
cos t, e
t
_
.
SOLUTION An arc length parametrization is r
1
(s) = r
_
ϕ(s)
_
where t = ϕ(s) is the inverse of the arc length function.
We compute the arc length function:
s(t ) =
_
t
0
r
(u) du (1)
Differentiating r(t ) and computing the norm of r
(t ) gives:
r
(t ) =
_
e
t
sin t +e
t
cos t, e
t
cos t −e
t
sin t, e
t
_
= e
t
sin t +cos t, cos t −sin t, 1
r
(t ) = e
t
_
(sin t +cos t )
2
+(cos t −sin t )
2
+1
2
= e
t
(sin
2
t +2 sin t cos t +cos
2
t +cos
2
t −2 sin t cos t +sin
2
t +1)
1/2
= e
t
_
2(sin
2
t +cos
2
t ) +1 = e
t
√
2 · 1 +1 =
√
3 e
t
(2)
Substituting (2) into (1) gives:
s(t ) =
_
t
0
√
3 e
u
du =
√
3 e
u
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
=
√
3(e
t
−e
0
) =
√
3(e
t
−1)
We ﬁnd the inverse function of s(t ) by solving s =
√
3
_
e
t
−1
_
for t . We obtain:
s =
√
3(e
t
−1)
s
√
3
= e
t
−1
e
t
= 1 +
s
√
3
⇒ t = ϕ(s) = ln
_
1 +
s
√
3
_
An arc length parametrization for r
1
(s) = r
_
ϕ(s)
_
is:
_
e
ln(1+s/(
√
3))
sin
_
ln
_
1 +
s
√
3
__
, e
ln(1+s/(
√
3))
cos
_
ln
_
1 +
s
√
3
__
, e
ln(1+s/(
√
3))
_
=
_
1 +
s
√
3
__
sin
_
ln
_
1 +
s
√
3
__
, cos
_
ln
_
1 +
s
√
3
__
, 1
_
264 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
Find an arc length parametrization of r(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
3
_
.
21. Express the arc length L of y = x
3
for 0 ≤ x ≤ 8 as an integral in two ways, using the parametrizations r
1
(t ) =
_
t, t
3
_
and r
2
(t ) =
_
t
3
, t
9
_
. Do not evaluate the integrals, but use substitution to show that they yield the same result.
SOLUTION For r
1
(t ) =
_
t, t
3
_
we have r
1
(t ) =
_
1, 3t
2
_
hence r
1
(t ) =
_
1 +9t
4
. For r
2
(t ) =
_
t
3
, t
9
_
we have
r
2
(t ) =
_
3t
2
, 9t
8
_
hence r
2
(t ) =
_
9t
4
+81t
16
. The length L may be computed using the two parametrizations by
the following integrals (notice that in the second parametrization 0 ≤ t
3
≤ 8 hence 0 ≤ t ≤ 2).
L =
_
8
0
r
1
(t ) dt =
_
8
0
_
1 +9t
4
dt (1)
L =
_
2
0
r
2
(t ) dt =
_
2
0
_
1 +9t
12
3t
2
dt (2)
We use the substitution u = t
3
, du = 3t
2
dt in the second integral to obtain:
_
2
0
_
1 +9t
12
3t
2
dt =
_
8
0
_
1 +9u
4
du
This integral is the same as the integral in (1), in accordance with the well known property: the arc length is independent
of the parametrization we choose for the curve.
Show that a helix of radius R and height h making N complete turns has the parametrization
_
R cos
_
2πNt
h
_
, R sin
_
2πNt
h
_
, t
_
, 0 ≤ t ≤ h
23. Consider the two springs in Figure 5. One has radius 5 cm, height 4 cm, and makes three complete turns. The other
has height 3 cm, radius 4 cm, and makes ﬁve complete turns.
(a) Take a guess as to which spring uses more wire.
(b) Compute the lengths of the two springs (use Exercise 22) and compare.
4 cm
3 turns, radius 5 cm 5 turns, radius 4 cm
3 cm
FIGURE 5 Which spring uses more wire?
SOLUTION
(a) The second wire seems to use more wire than the ﬁrst one.
(b) Setting R = 5, h = 4 and N = 3 in the parametrization in Exercise 22 gives:
r
1
(t ) =
_
5 cos
2π · 3t
4
, 5 sin
2π · 3t
4
, t
_
=
_
5 cos
3πt
2
, 5 sin
3πt
2
, t
_
, 0 ≤ t ≤ 4
Setting R = 4, h = 3 and N = 5 in this parametrization we get:
r
2
(t ) =
_
4 cos
2π · 5t
3
, 4 sin
2π · 5t
3
, t
_
=
_
4 cos
10πt
3
, 4 sin
10πt
3
, t
_
, 0 ≤ t ≤ 3
We ﬁnd the derivatives of the two vectors and their lengths:
r
1
(t ) =
_
−
15π
2
sin
3πt
2
,
15π
2
cos
3πt
2
, 1
_
⇒ r
1
(t ) =
_
225π
2
4
+1 =
1
2
_
225π
2
+4
r
2
(t ) =
_
−
40π
3
sin
10πt
3
,
40π
3
cos
10πt
3
, 1
_
⇒ r
2
(t ) =
_
1,600π
2
9
+1 =
1
3
_
1,600π
2
+9
Using the Arc Length Formula we obtain the following lengths:
L
1
=
_
4
0
1
2
_
225π
2
+4 dt = 2
_
225π
2
+4 ≈ 94.3
L
2
=
_
3
0
1
3
_
1,600π
2
+9 dt =
_
1,600π
2
+9 ≈ 125.7
We see that the second spring uses more wire than the ﬁrst one.
Use Exercise 22 to ﬁnd a general formula for the length of a helix of radius R and height h that makes N complete
turns.
25. Evaluate s(t ) =
_
t
−∞
r
(u) du for the Bernoulli spiral r(t ) =
_
e
t
cos 4t, e
t
sin 4t
_
(Figure 6). It is convenient to
take −∞as the lower limit since s(−∞) = 0. Then:
S E C T I O N 14.3 Arc Length and Speed (ET Section 13.3) 265
(a) Use s to obtain an arc length parametrization of r(t ).
(b) Prove that the angle between the position vector and the tangent vector is constant.
t = 0
t = 2
10 20
x
y
FIGURE 6 Bernoulli spiral.
SOLUTION
(a) We differentiate r(t ) and compute the norm of the derivative vector. This gives:
r
(t ) =
_
e
t
cos 4t −4e
t
sin 4t, e
t
sin 4t +4e
t
cos 4t
_
= e
t
cos 4t −4 sin 4t, sin 4t +4 cos 4t
r
(t ) = e
t
_
(cos 4t −4 sin 4t )
2
+(sin 4t +4 cos 4t )
2
= e
t
_
cos
2
4t −8 cos 4t sin 4t +16 sin
2
4t +sin
2
4t +8 sin 4t cos 4t +16 cos
2
4t
_
1/2
= e
t
_
cos
2
4t +sin
2
4t +16
_
sin
2
4t +cos
2
4t
_
= e
t
√
1 +16 · 1 =
√
17e
t
We now evaluate the improper integral:
s(t ) =
_
t
−∞
r
(u) du = lim
R→−∞
_
t
R
√
17e
u
du = lim
R→−∞
√
17e
u
¸
¸
¸
t
R
= lim
R→−∞
√
17(e
t
−e
R
)
=
√
17(e
t
−0) =
√
17e
t
An arc length parametrization of r(t ) is r
1
(s) = r
_
ϕ(s)
_
where t = ϕ(s) is the inverse function of s(t ). We ﬁnd t = ϕ(s)
by solving s =
√
17e
t
for t :
s =
√
17e
t
⇒ e
t
=
s
√
17
⇒ t = ϕ(s) = ln
s
√
17
An arc length parametrization of r(t ) is:
r
1
(s) = r
_
ϕ(s)
_
=
_
e
ln(s/(
√
17))
cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
, e
ln(s/(
√
17))
sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
__
=
s
√
17
_
cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
, sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
__
(1)
(b) The cosine of the angle θ between the position vector r
1
(s) and the tangent vector r
1
(s) is:
cos θ =
r
1
(s) · r
1
(s)
r
1
(s)r
1
(s)
Since for the arc length parametrization r
1
(s) = 1, we obtain:
cos θ =
r
1
(s) · r
1
(s)
r
1
(s)
(2)
We compute the dot product in (2). We ﬁrst compute r
1
(s) from (1):
r
1
(s) =
1
√
17
_
cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
, sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
__
+
s
√
17
_
−sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
·
4
√
17
s
·
1
√
17
, cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
·
4
√
17
s
·
1
√
17
_
=
1
√
17
_
cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
, sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
__
+
4
√
17
_
−sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
, cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
__
=
1
√
17
_
cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
−4 sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
, sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
+4 cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
__
266 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
Thus,
r
1
(s) · r
1
(s) =
s
√
17
·
1
√
17
_
cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
__
cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
−4 sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
__
+sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
__
sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
+4 cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
___
=
s
17
_
cos
2
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
−4 cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
+sin
2
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
+4 sin
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
cos
_
4 ln
s
√
17
__
=
s
17
_
cos
2
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
+sin
2
_
4 ln
s
√
17
__
=
s
17
· 1 =
s
17
(3)
We now compute r
1
(s) from (1) (Notice that s(t ) > 0 for all t ):
r
1
(s) =
s
√
17
_
cos
2
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
+sin
2
_
4 ln
s
√
17
_
=
s
√
17
· 1 =
s
√
17
(4)
Combining (2), (3) and (4) yields:
cos θ =
s
17
s
√
17
=
1
√
17
The solution for 0 ≤ θ ≤ π is θ = 1.326 rad. Thus, the angle between r
1
(s) and r
1
(s) is constant.
Further Insights and Challenges
Prove that the length of a curve as computed using the arc length integral does not depend on its parametriza
tion. More precisely, let C be the curve traced by r(t ) for a ≤ t ≤ b. Let ϕ(s) be a differentiable function such that
ϕ
(s) > 0 and that ϕ(c) = a and ϕ(d) = b. Then r
1
(s) = r(ϕ(s)) parametrizes C for c ≤ s ≤ d. Verify that
_
b
a
r
(t ) dt =
_
d
c
r
1
(s) ds
27. Show that path r(t ) =
_
1 −t
2
1 +t
2
,
2t
1 +t
2
_
parametrizes the unit circle with the point (−1, 0) excluded for −∞ < t <
∞. Use this parametrization to compute the length of the unit circle as an improper integral. Hint: The expression for
r
(t ) simpliﬁes.
SOLUTION We have x(t ) =
1−t
2
1+t
2
, y(t ) =
2t
1+t
2
. Hence,
x
2
(t ) + y
2
(t ) =
_
1 −t
2
1 +t
2
_
2
+
_
2t
1 +t
2
_
2
=
1 −2t
2
+t
4
+4t
2
_
1 +t
2
_
2
=
1 +2t
2
+t
4
_
1 +t
2
_
2
=
_
1 +t
2
_
2
_
1 +t
2
_
2
= 1
It follows that the path r(t ) lies on the unit circle. We now show that the entire circle is indeed parametrized by r(t )
as t moves from −∞ to ∞. First, note that x
(t ) can be written as
_
−2t (1 + t
2
) − 2t (1 − t
2
)
_
/(1 + t
2
)
2
which is
−4t /(1 + t
2
)
2
. So, for t negative, x(t ) is an increasing function, y(t ) is negative, and since lim
t →−∞
x(t ) = −1 and
lim
t →0
x(t ) = 1, we conclude that r(t ) does indeed parametrize the lower half of the circle for negative t . A similar
argument proves that we get the upper half of the circle for positive t . We now compute r
(t ) and its length:
r
(t ) =
_
−2t (1 +t
2
) −2t (1 −t
2
)
(1 +t
2
)
2
,
2(1 +t
2
) −2t · 2t
(1 +t
2
)
2
_
=
_
−
4t
(1 +t
2
)
2
,
2 −2t
2
(1 +t
2
)
2
_
=
1
(1 +t
2
)
2
_
−4t, 2(1 −t
2
)
_
r
(t ) =
1
(1 +t
2
)
2
_
16t
2
+4(1 −t
2
)
2
=
2
(1 +t
2
)
2
_
t
4
+2t
2
+1
=
2
(1 +t
2
)
2
_
(t
2
+1)
2
=
2(t
2
+1)
(1 +t
2
)
2
=
2
1 +t
2
That is,
r
(t ) =
2
1 +t
2
We now use the Arc Length Formula to compute the length of the circle:
L =
_
∞
−∞
r
(t ) dt = 2
_
∞
−∞
dt
1 +t
2
= 2
_
lim
R→∞
tan
−1
R − lim
R→−∞
tan
−1
R
_
= 2
_
π
2
−
_
−
π
2
__
= 2π
S E C T I O N 14.3 Arc Length and Speed (ET Section 13.3) 267
The involute of a circle is the curve traced by a point at the end of a thread unwinding from a circular spool of
radius R. Parametrize the involute by ﬁnding the position vector r(t ) of the point P in Figure 7 as a function of t .
Determine the arc length function and the arc length parametrization.
29. The curve r(t ) = t −tanh t, sech t is called a tractrix.
(a) Show that the arc length function s(t ) =
_
t
0
r
(u) du is equal to s(t ) = ln(cosh t ).
(b) Show that t = ϕ(s) = ln(e
s
+
_
e
2s
−1) is an inverse of s(t ) and verify that
r
1
(s) =
_
tanh
−1
__
1 −e
−2s
_
−
_
1 −e
−2s
, e
−s
_
is an arc length parametrization of the tractrix.
(c) Plot the tractrix if you have a computer algebra system.
SOLUTION
(a) We compute the derivative vector and its length:
r
(t ) =
_
1 −sech
2
t, −sech t tanh t
_
r
(t ) =
_
(1 −sech
2
t ) +sech
2
t tanh
2
t =
_
1 −2 sech
2
t +sech
4
t +sech
2
t tanh
2
t
=
_
−sech
2
t (2 −tanh
2
t ) +1 +sech
4
t
We use the identity 1 −tanh
2
t = sech
2
t to write:
r
(t ) =
_
−sech
2
t (1 +sech
2
t ) +1 +sech
4
t =
_
−sech
2
t −sech
4
t +1 +sech
4
t
=
_
1 −sech
2
t =
_
tanh
2
t =  tanh t 
For t ≥ 0, tanh t ≥ 0 hence, r
(t ) = tanh t . We now apply the Arc Length Formula to obtain:
s(t ) =
_
t
0
r
(u) du =
_
t
0
(tanh u) du = ln(cosh u)
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
= ln(cosh t ) −ln(cosh 0) = ln(cosh t ) −ln 1 = ln(cosh t )
That is:
s(t ) = ln(cosh t )
(b) We show that the function t = ϕ(s) = ln
_
e
s
+
_
e
2s
−1
_
is an inverse of s(t ). First we note that s
(t ) = tanh t ,
hence s
(t ) > 0 for t > 0, which implies that s(t ) has an inverse function for t ≥ 0. Therefore, it sufﬁces to verify that
ϕ(s(t )) = t . We have:
ϕ(s(t )) = ln
_
e
ln(cosh t )
+
_
e
2 ln(cosh t )
−1
_
= ln
_
cosh t +
_
cosh
2
t −1
_
Since cosh
2
t −1 = sinh
2
t we obtain (for t ≥ 0):
ϕ (s(t )) = ln
_
cosh t +
_
sinh
2
t
_
= ln (cosh t +sinh t ) = ln
_
e
t
+e
−t
2
+
e
t
−e
−t
2
_
= ln
_
e
t
_
= t
We thus proved that t = ϕ(s) is an inverse of s(t ). Therefore, the arc length parametrization is obtained by substituting
t = ϕ(s) in r(t ) = t −tanh t, sech t . We compute t , tanh t and sech t in terms of s. We have:
s = ln (cosh t ) ⇒ e
s
= cosh t ⇒ sech t = e
−s
Also:
tanh
2
t = 1 −sech
2
t = 1 −e
−2s
⇒ tanh t =
_
1 −e
−2s
⇒ t = tanh
−1
_
1 −e
−2s
Substituting in r(t ) gives:
r
1
(s) = t −tanh t, sech t =
_
tanh
−1
_
1 −e
−2s
−
_
1 −e
−2s
, e
−s
_
(c) The tractrix is shown in the following ﬁgure:
2 4
y
x
1
268 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
14.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.4)
Preliminary Questions
1. What is the unit tangent vector of a line with direction vector v = 2, 1, −2?
SOLUTION A line with direction vector v has the parametrization:
r(t ) =
−−→
OP
0
+t v
hence, since
−−→
OP
0
and v are constant vectors, we have:
r
(t ) = v
Therefore, since v = 3, the unit tangent vector is:
T(t ) =
r
(t )
r
(t )
=
v
v
= 2/3, 1/3, −2/3
2. What is the curvature of a circle of radius 4?
SOLUTION The curvature of a circle of radius R is
1
R
, hence the curvature of a circle of radius 4 is
1
4
.
3. Which has larger curvature, a circle of radius 2 or a circle of radius 4?
SOLUTION The curvature of a circle of radius 2 is
1
2
, and it is larger than the curvature of a circle of radius 4, which is
1
4
.
4. What is the curvature of r(t ) = 2 +3t, 7t, 5 −t ?
SOLUTION r(t ) parametrizes the line 2, 0, 5 +t 3, 7, −1, and a line has zero curvature.
5. What is the curvature at a point where T
(s) = 1, 2, 3 in an arc length parametrization r(s)?
SOLUTION The curvature is given by the formula:
κ(t ) =
T
(t )
r
(t )
In an arc length parametrization, r
(t ) = 1 for all t , hence the curvature is κ(t ) = T
(t ). Using the given information
we obtain the following curvature:
κ = 1, 2, 3 =
_
1
2
+2
2
+3
2
=
√
14
6. What is the radius of curvature of a circle of radius 4?
SOLUTION The deﬁnition of the osculating circle implies that the osculating circles at the points of a circle, is the
circle itself. Therefore, the radius of curvature is the radius of the circle, that is, 4.
7. What is the radius of curvature at P if κ
P
= 9?
SOLUTION The radius of curvature is the reciprocal of the curvature, hence the radius of curvature at P is:
R =
1
κ
P
=
1
9
Exercises
In Exercises 1–6, calculate r
(t ) and T(t ), and evaluate T(1).
1. r(t ) =
_
12t
3
, 18t
2
, 9t
4
_
SOLUTION The derivative vector is:
r
(t ) =
_
36t
2
, 36t, 36t
3
_
= 36
_
t
2
, t, t
3
_
⇒ r
(t ) = 36
_
t
4
+t
2
+t
6
The unit vector is thus:
T(t ) =
r
(t )
r
(t )
=
36t
2
, t, t
3
36
_
t
4
+t
2
+t
6
=
t t, 1, t
2
t 
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
=
t
t 
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
t, 1, t
2
At t = 1 we have:
T(1) =
1
_
1 +1
2
+1
4
1, 1, 1
2
=
1
√
3
1, 1, 1 =
_
1
√
3
,
1
√
3
,
1
√
3
_
.
S E C T I O N 14.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.4) 269
r(t ) =
_
cos πt, sin πt, t
_ 3. r(t ) =
_
3 +4t, 3 −5t, 9t
_
SOLUTION We ﬁrst ﬁnd the vector r
(t ) and its length:
r
(t ) = 4, −5, 9 ⇒ r
(t ) =
_
4
2
+(−5)
2
+9
2
=
√
122
The unit tangent vector is therefore:
T(t ) =
r
(t )
r
(t )
=
1
√
122
4, −5, 9 =
_
4
√
122
, −
5
√
122
,
9
√
122
_
We see that the unit tangent vector is constant, since the curve is a straight line.
r(t ) =
_
1 +2t, t
2
, 3 −t
2
_ 5. r(t ) =
_
4t
2
, 9t
_
SOLUTION We differentiate r(t ) to obtain:
r
(t ) = 8t, 9 ⇒ r
(t ) =
_
(8t )
2
+9
2
=
_
64t
2
+81
We now ﬁnd the unit tangent vector:
T(t ) =
r
(t )
r
(t )
=
1
_
64t
2
+81
8t, 9
For t = 1 we obtain the vector:
T(t ) =
1
√
64 +81
8, 9 =
_
8
√
145
,
9
√
145
_
.
r(t ) =
_
e
t
, t
2
_
In Exercises 7–12, use Eq. (3) to calculate κ(t ).
7. r(t ) =
_
1, e
t
, t
_
SOLUTION We compute the ﬁrst and the second derivatives of r(t ):
r
(t ) =
_
0, e
t
, 1
_
, r
(t ) =
_
0, e
t
, 0
_
.
Next, we ﬁnd the cross product r
(t ) ×r
(t ):
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
0 e
t
1
0 e
t
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
t
1
e
t
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
i −
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 1
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
j +
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 e
t
0 e
t
¸
¸
¸
¸
k = −e
t
i =
_
−e
t
, 0, 0
_
We need to ﬁnd the lengths of the following vectors:
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) =
¸
¸
_
−e
t
, 0, 0
_¸
¸
= e
t
r
(t ) =
_
0
2
+(e
t
)
2
+1
2
=
_
1 +e
2t
We now use the formula for curvature to calculate κ(t ):
κ(t ) =
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
r
(t )
3
=
e
t
__
1 +e
2t
_
3
=
e
t
_
1 +e
2t
_
3/2
r(t ) =
_
cos t, t sin t, t
_ 9. r(t ) =
_
4 cos t, t, 4 sin t
_
SOLUTION By the formula for curvature we have:
κ(t ) =
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
r
(t )
3
(1)
First we ﬁnd r
(t ) and r
(t ):
r
(t ) = −4 sin t, 1, 4 cos t
r
(t ) = −4 cos t, 0, −4 sin t
We compute the cross product:
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
−4 sin t 1 4 cos t
−4 cos t 0 −4 sin t
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
270 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 4 cos t
0 −4 sin t
¸
¸
¸
¸
i −
¸
¸
¸
¸
−4 sin t 4 cos t
−4 cos t −4 sin t
¸
¸
¸
¸
j +
¸
¸
¸
¸
−4 sin t 1
−4 cos t 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
k
= −4 sin t i −
_
16 sin
2
t +16 cos
2
t
_
j +4 cos t k
= −4 sin t i −16j +4 cos t k = 4 −sin t, −4, cos t
We compute the lengths of the following vectors:
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) = 4
_
(−sin t )
2
+(−4)
2
+cos
2
t = 4
_
sin
2
t +16 +cos
2
t = 4
√
17r
(t )
=
_
(−4 sin t )
2
+1
2
+(4 cos t )
2
=
_
16 sin
2
t +1 +16 cos
2
t =
√
17
Substituting in (1) gives the following curvature:
κ(t ) =
4
√
17
_√
17
_
3
=
4
√
17
17
√
17
=
4
17
We see that this curve has constant curvature.
r(t ) =
_
4t +1, 4t −3, 2t
_
11. r(t ) =
_
t
−1
, 1, t
_
SOLUTION By the formula for curvature we have:
κ(t ) =
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
r
(t )
3
(1)
We now ﬁnd r
(t ), r
(t ) and their cross product. This gives:
r
(t ) =
_
−t
−2
, 0, 1
_
, r
(t ) =
_
2t
−3
, 0, 0
_
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) =
_
−t
−2
i +k
_
×2t
−3
i = 2t
−3
k ×i = 2t
−3
j
We compute the lengths of the vector in (1):
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) = 2t
−3
j = 2t
−3

r
(t ) =
_
_
(−t )
−2
_
2
+0
2
+1
2
=
_
t
−4
+1
Substituting in (1) we obtain the following curvature:
κ(t ) =
2t 
−3
__
t
−4
+1
_
3
=
2t 
−3
_
t
−4
+1
_
3/2
We multiply through by t 
4·3/2
= t 
6
to obtain:
κ(t ) =
2t 
3
_
1 +t 
4
_
3/2
r(t ) =
_
cosh t, sinh t, t
_
In Exercises 13–16, ﬁnd the curvature of the plane curve at the point indicated.
13. y = e
t
, t = 3
SOLUTION We use the curvature of a graph in the plane:
κ(t ) =
 f
(t )
_
1 + f
(t )
2
_
3/2
In our case f (t ) = e
t
, hence f
(t ) = f
(t ) = e
t
and we obtain:
κ(t ) =
e
t
_
1 +e
2t
_
3/2
⇒ κ(3) =
e
3
_
1 +e
6
_
3/2
≈ 0.0025
y = cos x, x = 0
15. y = t
4
, t = 2
S E C T I O N 14.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.4) 271
SOLUTION By the curvature of a graph in the plane, we have:
κ(t ) =
 f
(t )
_
1 + f
(t )
2
_
3/2
In this case f (t ) = t
4
, f
(t ) = 4t
3
, f
(t ) = 12t
2
. Hence,
κ(t ) =
12t
2
_
1 +
_
4t
3
_
2
_
3/2
=
12t
2
_
1 +16t
6
_
3/2
At t = 2 we obtain the following curvature:
κ(2) =
12 · 2
2
(1 +16 · 2
6
)
3/2
=
48
(1,025)
3/2
≈ 0.0015.
y = t
n
, t = 1
17. Find the curvature of r(t ) = 2 sin t, cos 3t, t at t =
π
3
and t =
π
2
(Figure 15).
y
x
z
3
t =
FIGURE 15 The curve r(t ) = 2 sin t, cos 3t, t .
SOLUTION By the formula for curvature we have:
κ(t ) =
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
r
(t )
3
(1)
We compute the ﬁrst and second derivatives:
r
(t ) = 2 cos t, −3 sin 3t, 1 , r
(t ) = −2 sin t, −9 cos 3t, 0
At the points t =
π
3
and t =
π
2
we have:
r
_
π
3
_
=
_
2 cos
π
3
, −3 sin
3π
3
, 1
_
=
_
2 cos
π
3
, −3 sin π, 1
_
= 1, 0, 1
r
_
π
3
_
=
_
−2 sin
π
3
, −9 cos
3π
3
, 0
_
=
_
−
√
3, 9, 0
_
r
_
π
2
_
=
_
2 cos
π
2
, −3 sin
3π
2
, 1
_
= 0, 3, 1
r
_
π
2
_
=
_
−2 sin
π
2
, −9 cos
3π
2
, 0
_
= −2, 0, 0
We compute the cross products required to use (1):
r
_
π
3
_
×r
_
π
3
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
1 0 1
−
√
3 9 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 1
9 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
i −
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1
−
√
3 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
j +
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 0
−
√
3 9
¸
¸
¸
¸
k = −9i −
√
3j +9k
r
_
π
2
_
×r
_
π
2
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
0 3 1
−2 0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
3 1
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
i −
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 1
−2 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
j +
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 3
−2 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
k = −2j +6k
Hence,
_
_
_r
_
π
3
_
×r
_
π
3
__
_
_ =
_
(−9)
2
+
_
−
√
3
_
2
+9
2
=
√
165
_
_
_r
_
π
3
__
_
_ =
_
1
2
+0
2
+1
2
=
√
2
272 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
At t =
π
2
we have:
_
_
_r
_
π
2
_
×r
_
π
2
__
_
_ =
_
(−2)
2
+6
2
=
√
40 = 2
√
10
_
_
_r
_
π
2
__
_
_ =
_
0
2
+3
2
+1
2
=
√
10
Substituting the values for t =
π
3
and t =
π
2
in (1) we obtain the following curvatures:
κ
_
π
3
_
=
√
165
_√
2
_
3
=
√
165
2
√
2
≈ 4.54
κ
_
π
2
_
=
2
√
10
_√
10
_
3
=
2
√
10
10
√
10
= 0.2
Find the curvature function κ(x) for y = sin x. Use a computer algebra system to plot κ(x) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.
Prove that the curvature takes its maximum at x =
π
2
and
3π
2
. Hint: To simplify the calculation, ﬁnd the maximum
of κ(x)
2
.
19. Show that curvature at an inﬂection point of a plane curve y = f (x) is zero.
SOLUTION The curvature of the graph y = f (x) in the plane is the following function:
κ(x) =
 f
(x)
_
1 + f
(x)
2
_
3/2
(1)
At an inﬂection point the second derivative changes its sign. Therefore, if f
is continuous at the inﬂection point, it is
zero at this point, hence by (1) the curvature at this point is zero.
Show that the tractrix r(t ) = t −tanh t, sech t has the curvature function κ(t ) = sech t .
21. Find the value of α such that the curvature of y = e
αx
at x = 0 is as large as possible.
SOLUTION Using the curvature of a graph in the plane we have:
κ(x) =
y
(x)
_
1 + y
(x)
2
_
3/2
(1)
In our case y
(x) = αe
αx
, y
(x) = α
2
e
αx
. Substituting in (1) we obtain
κ(x) =
α
2
e
αx
_
1 +α
2
e
2αx
_
3/2
The curvature at the origin is thus
κ(0) =
α
2
e
α·0
_
1 +α
2
e
2α·0
_
3/2
=
α
2
_
1 +α
2
_
3/2
Since κ(0) and κ
2
(0) have their maximum values at the same values of α, we may maximize the function:
g(α) = κ
2
(0) =
α
4
(1 +α
2
)
3
We ﬁnd the stationary points:
g
(α) =
4α
3
(1 +α
2
)
3
−α
4
(3)(1 +α
2
)
2
2α
(1 +α
2
)
6
=
2α
3
(1 +α
2
)
2
(2 −α
2
)
(1 +α
2
)
6
= 0
The stationary points are the solutions of the following equation:
2α
3
(1 +α
2
)
2
(2 −α
2
) = 0
α
3
= 0 or 2 −α
2
= 0
α = 0 α = ±
√
2
Since g(α) ≥ 0 and g(0) = 0, α = 0 is a minimum point. Also, g
(α) is positive immediately to the left of
√
2 and
negative to the right. Hence, α =
√
2 is a maximum point. Since g(α) is an even function, α = −
√
2 is a maximum
point as well. Conclusion: κ(x) takes its maximum value at the origin when α = ±
√
2.
Find the point of maximum curvature on y = e
x
. 23. Show that the curvature function of the parametrization r(t ) = a cos t, b sin t of the ellipse
_
x
a
_
2
+
_
y
b
_
2
= 1 is
κ(t ) =
ab
(b
2
cos
2
t +a
2
sin
2
t )
3/2
8
S E C T I O N 14.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.4) 273
SOLUTION The curvature is the following function:
κ(t ) =
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
r
(t )
3
(1)
We compute the derivatives and their cross product:
r
(t ) = −a sin t, b cos t , r
(t ) = −a cos t, −b sin t
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) = (−a sin t i +b cos t j) ×(−a cos t i −b sin t j)
= ab sin
2
t k +ab cos
2
t k = ab
_
sin
2
t +cos
2
t
_
k = abk
Thus,
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) = abk = ab
r
(t ) =
_
(−a sin t )
2
+(b cos t )
2
=
_
a
2
sin
2
t +b
2
cos
2
t
Substituting in (1) we obtain the following curvature:
κ(t ) =
ab
__
a
2
sin
2
t +b
2
cos
2
t
_
3
=
ab
_
a
2
sin
2
t +b
2
cos
2
t
_
3/2
Use a sketch to predict where the points of minimal and maximal curvature occur on an ellipse. Then use Eq. (8)
to conﬁrm or refute your prediction.
25. In the notation of Exercise 23, assume that a ≥ b. Show that b/a
2
≤ κ(t ) ≤ a/b
2
for all t .
SOLUTION In Exercise 23 we showed that the curvature of the ellipse r(t ) = a cos t, b sin t is the following function:
κ(t ) =
ab
_
b
2
cos
2
t +a
2
sin
2
t
_
3/2
Since a ≥ b > 0 the quotient becomes greater if we replace a by b in the denominator, and it becomes smaller if we
replace b by a in the denominator. We use the identity cos
2
t +sin
2
t = 1 to obtain:
ab
_
a
2
cos
2
t +a
2
sin
2
t
_
3/2
≤ κ(t ) ≤
ab
_
b
2
cos
2
t +b
2
sin
2
t
_
3/2
ab
_
a
2
_
cos
2
t +sin
2
t
__
3/2
≤ κ(t ) ≤
ab
_
b
2
_
cos
2
t +sin
2
t
__
3/2
ab
a
3
=
ab
(a
2
)
3/2
≤ κ(t ) ≤
ab
(b
2
)
3/2
=
ab
b
3
b
a
2
≤ κ(t ) ≤
a
b
2
Use Eq. (3) to prove that for a plane curve r(t ) = x(t ), y(t ),
κ(t ) =
x
(t )y
(t ) − x
(t )y
(t )
(x
(t )
2
+ y
(t )
2
)
3/2
In Exercises 27–30, use Eq. (9) to compute the curvature at the given point.
27.
_
t
2
, t
3
_
, t = 2
SOLUTION For the given parametrization, x(t ) = t
2
, y(t ) = t
3
, hence
x
(t ) = 2t
x
(t ) = 2
y
(t ) = 3t
2
y
(t ) = 6t
At the point t = 2 we have
x
(2) = 4, x
(2) = 2, y
(2) = 3 · 2
2
= 12, y
(2) = 12
Substituting in Eq. (9) we get
κ(2) =
x
(2)y
(2) − x
(2)y
(2)
_
x
(2)
2
+ y
(2)
2
_
3/2
=
4 · 12 −2 · 12
_
4
2
+12
2
_
3/2
=
24
160
3/2
≈ 0.012
_
cosh s, s
_
, s = 0
274 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
29.
_
t cos t, sin t
_
, t = π
SOLUTION We have x(t ) = t cos t and y(t ) = sin t , hence:
x
(t ) = cos t −t sin t ⇒ x
(π) = cos π −π sin π = −1
x
(t ) = −sin t −(sin t +t cos t ) = −2 sin t −t cos t ⇒ x
(π) = −2 sin π −π cos π = π
y
(t ) = cos t ⇒ y
(π) = cos π = −1
y
(t ) = −sin t ⇒ y
(π) = −sin π = 0
Substituting in Eq. (9) gives the following curvature:
κ(π) =
x
(π)y
(π) − x
(π)y
(π)
_
x
(π)
2
+ y
(π)
2
_
3/2
=
 −1 · 0 −π · (−1)
_
(−1)
2
+(−1)
2
_
3/2
=
π
2
√
2
≈ 1.11
_
sin 3s, 2 sin 4s
_
, s =
π
2
31. Let s(t ) =
_
t
−∞
r
(u) du for the Bernoulli spiral r(t ) =
_
e
t
cos 4t, e
t
sin 4t
_
(see Exercise 25 in Section 14.3).
Show that the radius of curvature is proportional to s(t ).
SOLUTION The radius of curvature is the reciprocal of the curvature:
R(t ) =
1
κ(t )
We compute the curvature using the equality given in Exercise 25 in Section 3:
κ(t ) =
x
(t )y
(t ) − x
(t )y
(t )
_
x
(t )
2
+ y
(t )
2
_
3/2
(1)
In our case, x(t ) = e
t
cos 4t and y(t ) = e
t
sin 4t . Hence:
x
(t ) = e
t
cos 4t −4e
t
sin 4t = e
t
(cos 4t −4 sin 4t )
x
(t ) = e
t
(cos 4t −4 sin 4t ) +e
t
(−4 sin 4t −16 cos 4t ) = −e
t
(15 cos 4t +8 sin 4t )
y
(t ) = e
t
sin 4t +4e
t
cos 4t = e
t
(sin 4t +4 cos 4t )
y
(t ) = e
t
(sin 4t +4 cos 4t ) +e
t
(4 cos 4t −16 sin 4t ) = e
t
(8 cos 4t −15 sin 4t )
We compute the numerator in (1):
x
(t )y
(t ) − x
(t )y
(t ) = e
2t
(cos 4t −4 sin 4t ) · (8 cos 4t −15 sin 4t ) +e
2t
(15 cos 4t +8 sin 4t ) · (sin 4t +4 cos 4t )
= e
2t
_
68 cos
2
4t +68 sin
2
4t
_
= 68e
2t
We compute the denominator in (1):
x
(t )
2
+ y
(t )
2
= e
2t
(cos 4t −4 sin 4t )
2
+e
2t
(sin 4t +4 cos 4t )
2
= e
2t
_
cos
2
4t −8 cos 4t sin 4t +16 sin
2
4t +sin
2
4t +8 sin 4t cos 4t +16 cos
2
4t
_
= e
2t
_
cos
2
4t +sin
2
4t +16
_
sin
2
4t +cos
2
4t
__
= e
2t
(1 +16 · 1) = 17e
2t
(2)
Hence
_
x
(t )
2
+ y
(t )
2
_
3/2
= 17
3/2
e
3t
Substituting in (2) we have
κ(t ) =
68e
2t
17
3/2
e
3t
=
4
√
17
e
−t
⇒ R =
√
17
4
e
t
(3)
On the other hand, by the Fundamental Theorem and (2) we have
s
(t ) = r
(t ) =
_
x
(t )
2
+ y
(t )
2
=
_
17e
2t
=
√
17e
t
We integrate to obtain
s(t ) =
_
√
17 e
t
dt =
√
17 e
t
+C (4)
S E C T I O N 14.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.4) 275
Since s(t ) =
_
t
−∞
r
(u) du, we have lim
t →−∞
s(t ) = 0, hence by (4):
0 = lim
t →−∞
_
√
17e
t
+C
_
= 0 +C = C.
Substituting C = 0 in (4) we get:
s(t ) =
√
17e
t
(5)
Combining (3) and (5) gives:
R(t ) =
1
4
s(t )
which means that the radius of curvature is proportional to s(t ).
The Cornu spiral is the plane curve r(t ) = x(t ), y(t ), where
x(t ) =
_
t
0
sin
u
2
2
du, y(t ) =
_
t
0
cos
u
2
2
du
Verify that κ(t ) = t . Since the curvature increases linearly, the Cornu spiral is used in highway design to create
transitions between straight and curved road segments (Figure 16).
33. Plot and compute the curvature κ(t ) of the clothoid r(t ) = x(t ), y(t ), where
x(t ) =
_
t
0
sin
u
3
3
du, y(t ) =
_
t
0
cos
u
3
3
du
SOLUTION We use the following formula for the curvature (given earlier):
κ(t ) =
x
(t )y
(t ) − x
(t )y
(t )
_
x
(t )
2
+ y
(t )
2
_
3/2
(1)
We compute the ﬁrst and second derivatives of x(t ) and y(t ). Using the Fundamental Theorem and the Chain Rule we
get:
x
(t ) = sin
t
3
3
x
(t ) =
3t
2
3
cos
t
3
3
= t
2
cos
t
3
3
y
(t ) = cos
t
3
3
y
(t ) =
3t
2
3
_
−sin
t
3
3
_
= −t
2
sin
t
3
3
Substituting in (1) gives the following curvature function:
κ(t ) =
¸
¸
¸sin
t
3
3
_
−t
2
sin
t
3
3
_
−t
2
cos
t
3
3
cos
t
3
3
¸
¸
¸
_
_
sin
t
3
3
_
2
+
_
cos
t
3
3
_
2
_
3/2
=
t
2
_
sin
2 t
3
3
+cos
2 t
3
3
_
1
3/2
= t
2
That is, κ(t ) = t
2
. Here is a plot of the curvature as a function of t :
κ
t
κ(t ) = t
2
Find the unit normal vector N(θ) to r(θ) = R cos θ, sin θ, the circle of radius R. Does N(θ) point inside or
outside the circle? Draw N(θ) at θ =
π
4
with R = 4.
35. Find the unit normal vector N(t ) to r(t ) = 4, sin 2t, cos 2t .
SOLUTION We ﬁrst ﬁnd the unit tangent vector:
T(t ) =
r
(t )
r
(t )
(1)
276 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
We have
r
(t ) =
d
dt
4, sin 2t, cos 2t = 0, 2 cos 2t, −2 sin 2t = 2 0, cos 2t, −sin 2t
r
(t ) = 2
_
0
2
+cos
2
2t +(−sin 2t )
2
= 2
√
0 +1 = 2
Substituting in (1) gives:
T(t ) =
2 0, cos 2t, −sin 2t
2
= 0, cos 2t, −sin 2t
The normal vector is the following vector:
N(t ) =
T
(t )
T
(t )
(2)
We compute the derivative of the unit tangent vector and its length:
T
(t ) =
d
dt
0, cos 2t, −sin 2t = 0, −2 sin 2t, −2 cos 2t = −2 0, sin 2t, cos 2t
T
(t ) = 2
_
0
2
+sin
2
2t +cos
2
2t = 2
√
0 +1 = 2
Substituting in (2) we obtain:
N(t ) =
−2 0, sin 2t, cos 2t
2
= 0, −sin 2t, −cos 2t
Sketch the graph of r(t ) =
_
t, t
3
_
. Since r
(t ) =
_
1, 3t
2
_
, the unit normal N(t ) points in one of the two directions
±
_
−3t
2
, 1
_
. Which sign is correct at t = 1? Which is correct at t = −1?
37. Find the normal vectors to r(t ) = t, cos t at t =
π
4
and t =
3π
4
.
SOLUTION The normal vector to r(t ) = t, cos t is T
(t ), where T(t ) =
r
(t )
r
(t )
is the unit tangent vector. We have
r
(t ) = 1, −sin t ⇒ r
(t ) =
_
1
2
+(sin t )
2
=
_
1 +sin
2
t
Hence,
T(t ) =
1
_
1 +sin
2
t
1, −sin t
We compute the derivative of T(t ) to ﬁnd the normal vector.We use the Product Rule and the Chain Rule to obtain:
T
(t ) =
1
_
1 +sin
2
t
d
dt
1, −sin t +
_
1
_
1 +sin
2
t
_
1, −sin t
=
1
_
1 +sin
2
t
0, −cos t −
1
1 +sin
2
t
·
2 sin t cos t
2
_
1 +sin
2
t
1, −sin t
=
1
_
1 +sin
2
t
0, −cos t −
sin 2t
2
_
1 +sin
2
t
_
3/2
1, −sin t
At t =
π
4
we obtain the normal vector:
T
_
π
4
_
=
1
_
1 +
1
2
_
0, −
1
√
2
_
−
1
2
_
1 +
1
2
_
3/2
_
1, −
1
√
2
_
=
_
0, −
1
√
3
_
−
_
√
2
3
√
3
,
−1
3
√
3
_
=
_
−
√
2
3
√
3
,
−2
3
√
3
_
At t =
3π
4
we obtain:
T
_
3π
4
_
=
1
_
1 +
1
2
_
0,
1
√
2
_
−
−1
2
_
1 +
1
2
_
3/2
_
1, −
1
√
2
_
=
_
0,
1
√
3
_
+
_
√
2
3
√
3
,
−1
3
√
3
_
=
_
√
2
3
√
3
,
2
3
√
3
_
Find the unit normal to the Cornu spiral (Exercise 32) at t =
√
π.
39. Find the unit normal to the clothoid (Exercise 33) at t = π
1/3
.
S E C T I O N 14.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.4) 277
SOLUTION The Clothoid is the plane curve r(t ) = x(t ), y(t ) with
x(t ) =
_
t
0
sin
u
3
3
du, y(t ) =
_
t
0
cos
u
3
3
du
The unit normal is the following vector:
N(t ) =
T
(t )
T
(t )
(1)
We ﬁrst ﬁnd the unit tangent vector T(t ) =
r
(t )
r
(t )
. By the Fundamental Theorem we have
r
(t ) =
_
sin
t
3
3
, cos
t
3
3
_
⇒ r
(t ) =
_
sin
2
t
3
3
+cos
2
t
3
3
=
√
1 = 1
Hence,
T(t ) =
_
sin
t
3
3
, cos
t
3
3
_
We now differentiate T(t ) using the Chain Rule to obtain:
T
(t ) =
_
3t
2
3
cos
t
3
3
,
−3t
2
3
sin
t
3
3
_
= t
2
_
cos
t
3
3
, −sin
t
3
3
_
Hence,
T
(t ) = t
2
_
cos
2
t
3
3
+
_
−sin
t
3
3
_
2
= t
2
Substituting in (1) we obtain the following unit normal:
N(t ) =
_
cos
t
3
3
, −sin
t
3
3
_
At the point T = π
1/3
the unit normal is
N(π
1/3
) =
_
cos
(π
1/3
)
3
3
, −sin
(π
1/3
)
3
3
_
=
_
cos
π
3
, −sin
π
3
_
=
_
1
2
, −
√
3
2
_
Method for Computing N Let v(t ) = r
(t ). Show that
N(t ) =
r
(t ) −v
(t )T(t )
r
(t ) −v
(t )T(t )
Hint: Differentiate r
(t ) = v(t )T(t ) and note that N is the unit vector in the direction T
.
In Exercises 41–46, use Eq. (10) to ﬁnd N at the point indicated.
41.
_
1 +t
2
, 2t, t
3
_
, t = 1
SOLUTION We compute the values in formula (10). In our case
r(t ) =
_
1 +t
2
, 2t, t
3
_
Hence,
r
(t ) =
_
2t, 2, 3t
2
_
r
(t ) = 2, 0, 6t
v(t ) = r
(t ) =
_
(2t )
2
+2
2
+(3t
2
)
2
=
_
4t
2
+4 +9t
4
=
_
4 +4t
2
+9t
4
v
(t ) =
8t +36t
3
2
_
4 +4t
2
+9t
4
=
4t +18t
3
_
4 +4t
2
+9t
4
At the point t = 1, we have
r
(1) = 2, 0, 6 , v
(1) =
22
√
17
, T(1) =
r
(1)
r
(1)
=
2, 2, 3
√
17
Hence,
r
(1) −v
(1)T(1) = 2, 0, 6 −
22
√
17
·
1
√
17
2, 2, 3 = 2, 0, 6 −
_
44
17
,
44
17
,
66
17
_
278 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
=
_
−
10
17
, −
44
17
,
36
17
_
=
1
17
−10, −44, 36
r
(1) −v
(1)T(1) =
1
17
_
(−10)
2
+(−44)
2
+36
2
=
1
17
_
3,332 =
14
√
17
17
=
14
√
17
Substituting in equation (10) we get
N(1) =
r
(1) −v
(1)T(1)
r
(1) −v
(1)T(1)
=
1
17
−10, −44, 36
14
√
17
=
1
7
√
17
−5, −22, 18
_
t, e
t
, t
_
, t = 2
43.
_
t −sin t, 1 −cos t
_
, t = π
SOLUTION We use the following equality:
N(t ) =
r
(t ) −v
(t )T(t )
r
(t ) −v
(t )T(t )
(1)
We compute the vectors in the above equality. For r(t ) = t −sin t, 1 −cos t we have
r
(t ) = 1 −cos t, sin t
r
(t ) = sin t, cos t
v(t ) = r
(t ) =
_
(1 −cos t )
2
+sin
2
t =
_
1 −2 cos t +cos
2
t +sin
2
t
=
√
1 −2 cos t +1 =
_
2(1 −cos t ) =
_
2 · 2 sin
2
t
2
= 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
sin
t
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
For 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π, sin
t
2
≥ 0, hence v(t ) = 2 sin
t
2
. Therefore,
v
(t ) = 2 ·
1
2
cos
t
2
= cos
t
2
, 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π
At the point t = π we have
r
(π) = sin π, cos π = 0, −1
v
(π) = cos
π
2
= 0
r
(π) = 1 −cos π, sin π = 2, 0
T(π) =
r
(π)
r
(π)
=
2, 0
2
= 1, 0
We now substitute these values in (1) to obtain the following unit normal:
N(π) =
0, −1 −0 1, 0
0, −1 −0 1, 0
=
0, −1
1
= 0, −1
_
t
2
, t
3
_
, t = 1
45.
_
t
−1
, t, t
2
_
, t = −1
SOLUTION We use the equality
N(t ) =
r
(t ) −v
(t )T(t )
r
(t ) −v
(t )T(t )
(1)
We compute the vectors in the above equality. For r(t ) =
_
t
−1
, t, t
2
_
we have
r
(t ) =
_
−t
−2
, 1, 2t
_
r
(t ) =
_
2t
−3
, 0, 2
_
v(t ) = r
(t ) =
_
t
−4
+1 +4t
2
v
(t ) =
−4t
−5
+8t
2
_
t
−4
+1 +4t
2
=
−2t
−5
+4t
_
t
−4
+1 +4t
2
At the point t = −1 we get
r
(−1) = −1, 1, −2 , r
(−1) = −2, 0, 2 , v
(−1) =
2 −4
√
1 +1 +4
=
−2
√
6
,
S E C T I O N 14.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.4) 279
T(−1) =
r
(−1)
r
(−1)
=
−1, 1, −2
√
6
Hence,
r
(−1) −v
(−1)T(−1) = −2, 0, 2 +
2
√
6
·
1
√
6
−1, 1, −2 =
_
−
7
3
,
1
3
,
4
3
_
=
1
3
−7, 1, 4
r
(−1) −v
(−1)T(−1) =
1
3
_
(−7)
2
+1
2
+4
2
=
1
3
√
66
Substituting in (1) gives the following unit normal:
N(−1) =
1
3
−7, 1, 4
1
3
√
66
=
1
√
66
−7, 1, 4
_
cosh t, sinh t, t
_
, t = 0
47. Let f (x) = x
2
. Show that the center of the osculating circle at (x
0
, x
2
0
) is given by
_
−4x
3
0
,
1
2
+3x
2
0
_
.
SOLUTION We parametrize the curve by r(x) =
_
x, x
2
_
. The center Q of the osculating circle at x = x
0
has the
position vector
−→
OQ = r(x
0
) +κ(x
0
)
−1
N(x
0
) (1)
We ﬁrst ﬁnd the curvature, using the formula for the curvature of a graph in the plane. We have f
(x) = 2x and
f
(x) = 2, hence,
κ(x) =
 f
(x)
(1 + f
(x)
2
)
3/2
=
2
(1 +4x
2
)
3/2
⇒ κ(x
0
)
−1
=
1
2
(1 +4x
2
0
)
3/2
To ﬁnd the unit normal vector N(x
0
) we use the following considerations:
• The tangent vector is r
(x
0
) = 1, 2x
0
, hence the vector −2x
0
, 1 is orthogonal to r
(x
0
) (since their dot product
is zero). Hence N(x
0
) is one of the two unit vectors ±
1
_
1+4x
2
0
−2x
0
, 1.
• The graph of f (x) = x
2
shows that the unit normal vector points in the positive ydirection, hence, the appropriate
choice is:
N(x
0
) =
1
_
1 +4x
2
0
−2x
0
, 1 (2)
y
x
f (x) = x
2
We now substitute (2), (3), and r(x
0
) =
_
x
0
, x
2
0
_
in (1) to obtain
−→
OQ =
_
x
0
, x
2
0
_
+
1
2
_
1 +4x
2
0
_
3/2
·
1
_
1 +4x
2
0
_
−2x
0
, 1
_
=
_
x
0
, x
2
0
_
+
1
2
_
1 +4x
2
0
_
−2x
0
, 1
=
_
x
0
, x
2
0
_
+
_
−x
0
−4x
3
0
,
1
2
_
1 +4x
2
0
_
_
=
_
−4x
3
0
,
1
2
+3x
2
0
_
The center of the osculating circle is the terminal point of
−→
OQ, that is,
Q =
_
−4x
3
0
,
1
2
+3x
2
0
_
Find a parametrization of the osculating circle to y = x
2
at x = 1.
49. Find a parametrization of the osculating circle to y = sin x at x =
π
2
.
280 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
SOLUTION We use the parametrization r(x) = x, sin x. The radius of the osculating circle is the radius of curvature
R =
1
κ
_
π
2
_
and the center is the terminal point of the following vector:
−→
OQ = r
_
π
2
_
+ RN
_
π
2
_
We ﬁrst compute the curvature. Since y
(x) = cos x and y
(x) = −sin x, we have:
κ(x) =
y
(x)
(1 + y
(x)
2
)
3/2
=
 −sin x
(1 +cos
2
x)
3/2
⇒ κ
_
π
2
_
=
sin
π
2
_
1 +cos
2
π
2
_
3/2
=
1
1
= 1
We compute the unit normal vector N(x). N(x) is a unit vector orthogonal to the tangent vector r
(x) = 1, cos x. We
observe that −cos x, 1 is orthogonal to r
(x), since their dot product is zero. Therefore, N(x) is the unit vector in the
direction of either −cos x, 1 or −−cos x, 1, depending on the graph. Considering the accompanying ﬁgure, we see
that the unit normal vector at x = π/2 points to the negative ydirection. Thus,
N(x) =
cos x, −1
cos x, −1
=
cos x, −1
_
cos
2
x +(−1)
2
⇒ N
_
π
2
_
= 0, −1
y
x
P
(
, 1
)
Q
(
, 0
)
We now ﬁnd the center of the osculating circle. We substitute R =
1
κ
_
π
2
_
= 1, N
_
π
2
_
= 0, −1, and r
_
π
2
_
=
_
π
2
, sin
π
2
_
=
_
π
2
, 1
_
into (1) to obtain
−→
OQ =
_
π
2
, 1
_
+1 · 0, −1 =
_
π
2
, 0
_
The osculating circle is the circle with center at the point
_
π
2
, 0
_
and radius 1, so it has the following parametrization:
c(t ) =
_
π
2
, 0
_
+1 · cos t, sin t =
_
π
2
, 0
_
+cos t, sin t
Use Eq. (7) to ﬁnd the center of curvature to r(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
3
_
at t = 1.
In Exercises 51–55, ﬁnd a parametrization of the osculating circle at the point indicated.
51.
_
cos t, sin t
_
, t =
π
4
SOLUTION The curve r(t ) = cos t, sin t is the unit circle. By the deﬁnition of the osculating circle, it follows that the
osculating circle at each point of the circle is the circle itself. Therefore the osculating circle to the unit circle at t =
π
4
is
the unit circle itself.
_
sin t, cos t
_
, t = 0
53.
_
t −sin t, 1 −cos t
_
, t = π (use Exercise 43)
SOLUTION
Step 1. Find κ and N. In Exercise 43 we found that:
N(π) = 0, −1 (1)
To ﬁnd κ we use the formula for curvature:
κ(π) =
r
(π) ×r
(π)
r
(π)
3
(2)
For r(t ) = t −sin t, 1 −cos t we have:
r
(t ) = 1 −cos t, sin t ⇒ r
(π) = 1 −cos π, sin π = 2, 0
r
(t ) = sin t, cos t ⇒ r
(π) = sin π, cos π = 0, −1
Hence,
r
(π) ×r
(π) = 2i ×(−j) = −2k
S E C T I O N 14.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.4) 281
r
(π) ×r
(π) = −2k = 2 and r
(π) = 2, 0 = 2
Substituting in (2) we get:
κ (π) =
2
2
3
=
1
4
(3)
Step 2. Find the center of the osculating circle. The center Q of the osculating circle at r (π) = π, 2 has position vector
−→
OQ = r (π) +κ(π)
−1
N (π)
Substituting (1), (3) and r (π) = π, 2 we get:
−→
OQ = π, 2 +
_
1
4
_
−1
0, −1 = π, 2 +0, −4 = π, −2
Step 3. Parametrize the osculating circle. The osculating circle has radius R =
1
κ(π)
and it is centered at (π, −2), hence
it has the following parametrization:
c(t ) = π, −2 +4 cos t, sin t
_
1 +t
2
, 2t, t
3
_
, t = 1 (use Exercise 41)
55. r(t ) =
_
cosh t, sinh t, t
_
, t = 0 (use Exercise 12)
SOLUTION
Step 1. Find κ and N. In Exercise 12 we found that:
κ(t ) =
1
2 cosh
2
t
⇒ κ(0) =
1
2 cosh
2
0
=
1
2
(1)
We now must ﬁnd the unit normal N. We have:
r
(t ) = sinh t, cosh t, 1
r
(t ) =
_
sinh
2
t +cosh
2
t +1 =
_
cosh
2
t −1 +cosh
2
t +1 =
_
2 cosh
2
t =
√
2 cosh t
T(t ) =
r
(t )
r
(t )
=
1
√
2 cosh t
sinh t, cosh t, 1 =
1
√
2
tanh t, 1, sech t
T
(t ) =
1
√
2
_
sech
2
t, 0, −sech t tanh t
_
We compute the length of T
(t ). Using the identity tanh
2
t +sech
2
t = 1 we get:
T
(t ) =
1
√
2
_
sech
4
t +0 +sech
2
t tanh
2
t =
1
√
2
_
sech
2
t
_
tanh
2
t +sech
2
t
_
=
1
√
2
_
sech
2
t · 1 =
sech t
√
2
Hence,
N(t ) =
T
(t )
T
(t )
=
√
2
sech t
1
√
2
·
_
sech
2
t, 0, −sech t tanh t
_
=
1
2
sech t, 0, −tanh t
At the point t = 0 we have sech 0 = 1, tanh 0 = 0, hence
N(0) = 1, 0, 0 (2)
Step 2. Find the center of the osculating circle. The center Q of the osculating circle at r(0) = 1, 0, 0 has position
vector:
−→
OQ = r(0) +κ(0)
−1
N(0)
Substituting (1), (2) and r(0) = 1, 0, 0 we get:
−→
OQ = 1, 0, 0 +2 · 1, 0, 0 = 3, 0, 0
Step 3. Parametrize the osculating circle. The osculating circle is centered at Q = (3, 0, 0) and has radius R =
1
κ(0)
= 2,
hence it has the following parametrization:
c(t ) = 3, 0, 0 +2Ncos t +2Tsin t = 3, 0, 0 +21, 0, 0 cos t +
2
√
2
0, 1, 1 sin t
Find the curvature and unit normal vector to the helix r(t ) =
_
cos t, sin t, t
_
at t = 0. Then use Eq. (7) to ﬁnd the
center of curvature and a parametrization of the osculating circle at t = 0.
282 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
57. Figure 17 shows the graph of the halfellipse y = ±
_
2r x − px
2
, where r and p are positive constants. Show that
the radius of curvature at the origin is equal to r. Hint: One way of proceeding is to write the ellipse in the form of
Exercise 23 and apply Eq. (8).
x
y
r
r
FIGURE 17 The curve y =
_
2r x − px
2
and the osculating circle at the origin.
SOLUTION The radius of curvature is the reciprocal of the curvature. We thus must ﬁnd the curvature at the origin. We
use the following simple variant of the formula for the curvature of a graph in the plane:
κ(y) =
x
(y)
_
1 + x
(y)
2
_
3/2
(1)
(The traditional formula of κ(x) =
y
(x)
_
1+y
(x)
2
_
3/2
is inappropriate for this problem, as y
(x) is undeﬁned at x = 0.) We
ﬁnd x in terms of y:
y =
_
2r x − px
2
y
2
= 2r x − px
2
px
2
−2r x + y
2
= 0
We solve for x and obtain:
x = ±
1
p
_
r
2
− py
2
+
r
p
, y ≥ 0.
We ﬁnd x
and x
:
x
= ±
−2py
2p
_
r
2
− py
2
= ±
y
_
r
2
− py
2
x
= ±
1 ·
_
r
2
− py
2
− y ·
−py
√
r
2
−py
2
r
2
− py
2
= ±
r
2
− py
2
+ py
2
_
r
2
− py
2
_
3/2
= ±
r
2
_
r
2
− py
2
_
3/2
At the origin we get:
x
(0) = 0, x
(0) =
±r
2
(r
2
)
3/2
=
±1
r
Substituting in (1) gives the following curvature at the origin:
κ(0) =
x
(0)
(1 + x
(0)
2
)
3/2
=

±1
r

(1 +0)
3/2
=
1
r
=
1
r
We conclude that the radius of curvature at the origin is
R =
1
κ(0)
= r
In a recent study of laser eye surgery by Gatinel, HoangXuan, and Azar, a vertical cross section of the cornea is
modeled by the halfellipse of Exercise 57. Show that the halfellipse can be written in the form x = f (y), where
f (y) = p
−1
_
r −
_
r
2
− py
2
_
. During surgery, tissue is removed to a depth t (y) at height y for −S ≤ y ≤ S, where
t (y) is given by Munnerlyn’s equation (for some R > r):
t (y) =
_
R
2
− S
2
−
_
R
2
− y
2
−
_
r
2
− S
2
+
_
r
2
− y
2
After surgery, the cross section of the cornea has the shape x = f (y) + t (y) (Figure 18). Show that after surgery,
the radius of curvature at the point P (where y = 0) is R.
59. The angle of inclination of a plane curve with parametrization r(t ) is deﬁned as the angle θ(t ) between the unit
tangent vector T(t ) and the xaxis (Figure 19). Show that T
(t ) = θ
(t ) and conclude that if r(s) is a parametrization
by arc length, then
κ(s) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
dθ
ds
¸
¸
¸
¸
11
Hint: Observe that T(t ) = cos θ(t ), sin θ(t ).
S E C T I O N 14.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.4) 283
y
x
r(t)
(t)
T(t) = 〈cos (t), sin (t)〉
FIGURE 19 The curvature is the rate of change of θ(t ).
SOLUTION Since T(t ) is a unit vector that makes an angle θ(t ) with the positive xaxis, we have
T(t ) = cos θ(t ), sin θ(t ) .
Differentiating this vector using the Chain Rule gives:
T
(t ) =
_
−θ
(t ) sin θ(t ), θ
(t ) cos θ(t )
_
= θ
(t ) −sin θ(t ), cos θ(t )
We compute the norm of the vector T
(t ):
T
(t ) = θ
(t ) −sin θ(t ), cos θ(t ) = θ
(t )
_
(−sin θ(t ))
2
+(cos θ(t ))
2
= θ
(t ) · 1 = θ
(t )
When r(s) is a parametrization by arc length we have:
κ(s) =
_
_
_
_
dT
ds
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
dT
dt
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
dt
dθ
dθ
ds
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
θ
(t )
¸
¸
1
θ
(t )
¸
¸
¸
¸
dθ
ds
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
dθ
ds
¸
¸
¸
¸
as desired.
A particle moves along the path y = x
3
with unit speed. How fast is the tangent turning (i.e., how fast is the
angle of inclination changing) when the particle passes through the point (2, 8)?
61. Verify Eq. (11) for a circle of radius R. Suppose that a particle traverses the circle at unit speed. Show that the change
in the angle during an interval of length t is θ = t /R and conclude that θ
(s) = 1/R.
SOLUTION The particle traverses the circle at unit speed hence the parametrization is the arc length parametrization of
the circle. That is,
r(s) = R
_
cos
s
R
, sin
s
R
_
The angle is θ(s) =
s
R
, hence the change in the angle during an interval of length s is:
θ = θ (s +s) −θ(s) =
s +s
R
−
s
R
=
s
R
Therefore,
θ
s
=
1
R
and we obtain the following derivative:
θ
(s) = lim
s→0
θ
s
= lim
s→0
1
R
=
1
R
The curvature of a circle of radius R is
1
R
, therefore, we have:
dθ
ds
=
1
R
.
This equality veriﬁes Eq. (11), for this case.
Let θ(x) be the angle of inclination at a point on the graph y = f (x) (see Exercise 59).
(a) Use the relation f
(x) = tan θ to prove that
dθ
dx
=
f
(x)
(1 + f
(x)
2
)
.
(b) Use the arc length integral to show that
ds
dx
=
_
1 + f
(x)
2
.
(c) Now give a proof of Eq. (5) using Eq. (11).
63. Use the parametrization r(θ) = f (θ) cos θ, f (θ) sin θ to show that a curve r = f (θ) in polar coordinates has
curvature
κ(θ) =
 f (θ)
2
+2 f
(θ)
2
−2 f (θ) f
(θ)
( f (θ)
2
+ f
(θ)
2
)
3/2
12
SOLUTION By the formula for curvature we have
κ(θ) =
r
(θ) ×r
(θ)
r
(θ)
3
(1)
We differentiate r(θ) and r
(θ):
r
(θ) =
_
f
(θ) cos θ − f (θ) sin θ, f
(θ) sin θ + f (θ) cos θ
_
r
(θ) =
_
f
(θ) cos θ − f
(θ) sin θ − f
(θ) sin θ − f (θ) cos θ,
f
(θ) sin θ + f
(θ) cos θ + f
(θ) cos θ − f (θ) sin θ
_
=
__
f
(θ) − f (θ)
_
cos θ −2 f
(θ) sin θ,
_
f
(θ) − f (θ)
_
sin θ +2 f
(θ) cos θ
_
284 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
Hence,
r
(θ) ×r
(θ) =
_
f
(θ) cos θ − f (θ) sin θ
_
·
__
f
(θ) − f (θ)
_
sin θ +2 f
(θ) cos θ
_
k
−
_
f
(θ) sin θ + f (θ) cos θ
_
·
__
f
(θ) − f (θ)
_
cos θ −2 f
(θ) sin θ
_
k
=
_
f
(θ)
_
f
(θ) − f (θ)
_
cos θ sin θ − f (θ)
_
f
(θ) − f (θ)
_
sin
2
θ +2 f
2
(θ) cos
2
θ
−2 f (θ) f
(θ) sin θ cos θ
_
−f
(θ)
_
f
(θ) − f (θ)
_
sin θ cos θ − f (θ)
_
f
(θ) − f (θ)
_
cos
2
θ
+2 f
(θ)
2
sin
2
θ +2 f (θ) f
(θ) cos θ sin θ
__
k
=
_
−f (θ)
_
f
(θ) − f (θ)
_ _
sin
2
θ +cos
2
θ
_
+2 f
2
(θ)
_
cos
2
θ +sin
2
θ
_
_
k
=
_
−f (θ)
_
f
(θ) − f (θ)
_
+2 f
2
(θ)
_
k
=
_
−f (θ) f
(θ) + f
2
(θ) +2 f
2
(θ)
_
k
The length of the cross product is:
r
(θ) ×r
(θ) =  f
2
(θ) +2 f
2
(θ) − f (θ) f
(θ) (2)
We compute the length of r
(θ):
r
(θ)
2
=
_
f
(θ) cos θ − f (θ) sin θ
_
2
+
_
f
(θ) sin θ + f (θ) cos θ
_
2
= f
2
(θ) cos
2
θ −2 f
(θ) f (θ) cos θ sin θ + f
2
(θ) sin
2
θ + f
2
(θ) sin
2
θ
+2 f
(θ) f (θ) sin θ cos θ + f
2
(θ) cos
2
θ
= f
2
(θ)
_
cos
2
θ +sin
2
θ
_
+ f
2
(θ)
_
sin
2
θ +cos
2
θ
_
= f
2
(θ) + f
2
(θ)
Hence,
r
(θ) =
_
f
2
(θ) + f
2
(θ) (3)
Substituting (2) and (3) in (1) gives:
κ(θ) =
 f
2
(θ) +2 f
2
(θ) − f (θ) f
(θ)
_
f
2
(θ) + f
2
(θ)
_
3/2
In Exercises 64–66, use Eq. (12) to ﬁnd the curvature of the curve given in polar form.
f (θ) = 2 cos θ
65. f (θ) = θ
SOLUTION We have f
(θ) = 1, f
(θ) = 0. The numerator and denominator in Eq. (12) are thus:
f (θ)
2
+2 f
(θ) − f (θ) f
(θ) = θ
2
+2 · 1 −0 = θ
2
+2
_
f (θ)
2
+ f
(θ)
2
_
3/2
=
_
θ
2
+1
_
3/2
Hence,
κ(θ) =
θ
2
+2
_
θ
2
+1
_
3/2
f (θ) = e
θ
67. Use Eq. (12) to ﬁnd the curvature of the general Bernoulli spiral r = ae
bθ
in polar form (a and b are constants).
SOLUTION By Eq. (12):
κ(θ) =
 f (θ)
2
+2 f
(θ)
2
− f (θ) f
(θ)
_
f (θ)
2
+ f
2
(θ)
_
3/2
In our case f (θ) = ae
bθ
hence f
(θ) = abe
bθ
and f
(θ) = ab
2
e
bθ
. We compute the numerator of κ(θ):
f (θ)
2
+2 f
(θ)
2
− f (θ) f
(θ) = a
2
e
2bθ
+2a
2
b
2
e
2bθ
−ae
bθ
· ab
2
e
bθ
= a
2
e
2bθ
+2a
2
b
2
e
2bθ
−a
2
b
2
e
2bθ
S E C T I O N 14.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.4) 285
= a
2
e
2bθ
+a
2
b
2
e
2bθ
= a
2
(1 +b
2
)e
2bθ
We compute the denominator of κ(θ):
_
f (θ)
2
+ f
(θ)
2
_
3/2
=
_
a
2
e
2bθ
+a
2
b
2
e
2bθ
_
3/2
=
_
a
2
e
2bθ
_
1 +b
2
__
3/2
= a
3
e
3bθ
_
1 +b
2
_
3/2
Therefore:
κ(θ) =
a
2
(1 +b
2
)e
2bθ
a
3
(1 +b
2
)
3/2
e
3bθ
=
1
a
_
1 +b
2
e
−bθ
Show that both r
(t ) and r
(t ) lie in the osculating plane for a vector function r(t ). Hint: Differentiate r
(t ) =
v(t )T(t ).
69. Show that
γ (s) =
1
κ
N +
1
κ
_
(sin κs)T −(cos κs)N
_
is an arc length parametrization of the osculating circle.
SOLUTION Let P be a ﬁxed point on the curve C, T and N are the unit tangent and the unit normal to the curve at
P. We place the xycoordinate system so that the origin is at P and the x and y axes are in the directions of T and N,
respectively. We next show that γ (s) is an arc length parametrization of the osculating circle at P.
P
T
N
We compute the following expression:
_
_
_
_
γ (s) −
1
κ
N
_
_
_
_
2
=
1
κ
2
(sin κs) T −(cos κs) N
2
=
1
κ
2
((sin κs) T −(cos κs) N) · ((sin κs) T −(cos κs) N)
=
1
κ
2
_
sin
2
κsT · T −(sin κs cos κs) T · N −(cos κs sin κs) N · T +
_
cos
2
κs
_
N · N
_
The vectors T and N are orthogonal unit vectors, hence T · N = N · T = 0 and T · T = T
2
= 1, N · N = N
2
= 1.
We use the identity sin
2
(κs) +cos
2
(κs) = 1 to obtain
_
_
_
_
γ (s) −
1
κ
N
_
_
_
_
2
=
1
κ
2
_
sin
2
κs +cos
2
κs
_
=
1
κ
2
That is,
_
_
_
_
γ (s) −
1
κ
N
_
_
_
_
=
1
κ
(1)
Notice that κ, N, and T are ﬁxed and only s is changing in γ (s). It follows by (1) that γ (s) is a circle of radius
1
κ
centered
at
1
κ
N. The curvature of the circle is the reciprocal of the radius, which is κ (the curvature of C at the point P). We thus
showed that the circle γ (s) satisﬁes the second condition in the deﬁnition of the osculating circle. We now show that the
ﬁrst condition is satisﬁed as well.
The center of the circle is the terminal point of the vector
1
κ
N, which is in the direction of N and orthogonal to T. This
shows that Tand N are the unit tangent and unit normal to the circle at P. Finally, we verify that the given parametrization
is the arc length parametrization, by showing that γ
(s) = 1. Differentiating γ (s) with respect to s gives (notice that
κ, T, and N are ﬁxed):
γ
(s) =
1
κ
_
(κ cos κs) T +(κ sin κs) N
_
= (cos κs)T +(sin κs)N
Hence, since T · T = N · N = 1 and T · N = N · T = 0 we get:
γ
(s)
2
=
_
(cos κs)T +(sin κs)N
_
·
_
(cos κs)T +(sin κs)N
_
=
_
cos
2
κs
_
T · T +(cos κs)(sin κs)T · N +(sin κs cos κs)N · T +
_
sin
2
κs
_
N · N
= cos
2
κs +sin
2
κs = 1
Hence
γ
(s) = 1
286 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
Two vectorvalued functions r
1
(s) and r
2
(s) are said to agree to order 2 at s
0
if
r
1
(s
0
) = r
2
(s
0
), r
1
(s
0
) = r
2
(s
0
), r
1
(s
0
) = r
2
(s
0
)
Let r(s) be an arc length parametrization of a path C and let P be the terminal point of r(0). Let γ (s) be the arc
length parametrization of the osculating circle given in Exercise 69. Show that r(s) and γ (s) agree to order 2 at s = 0
(in fact, the osculating circle is the unique circle that approximates C to order 2 at P).
71. Let r(t ) = x(t ), y(t ), z(t ) be a path with curvature κ(t ) and deﬁne the scaled path r
1
(t ) = λx(t ), λ y(t ), λz(t ),
where λ = 0 is a constant. Prove that curvature varies inversely with the scale factor, that is, the curvature κ
1
(t ) of r
1
(t )
is κ
1
(t ) = λ
−1
κ(t ). This explains why the curvature of a circle of radius R is proportional to 1/R (in fact, it is equal to
1/R). Hint: Use Eq. (3).
SOLUTION The resulting curvature k
1
and the original curvature κ are:
κ
1
(t ) =
r
1
(t ) ×r
1
(t )
r
1
(t )
3
, κ(t ) =
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
r
(t )
3
We have
r
1
(t ) =
d
dt
(λr(t )) = λr
(t )
r
1
(t ) =
d
dt
_
r
1
(t )
_
=
d
dt
_
λr
(t )
_
= λr
(t )
Hence,
r
1
(t ) ×r
1
(t ) = λr
(t ) ×λr
(t ) = λ
2
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
r
1
(t ) = λr
(t ) = λr
(t )
Substituting in (1) we get:
κ
1
(t ) =
λ
2
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
λ
3
r
(t )
3
=
1
λ
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
r
(t )
3
=
1
λ
κ(t )
We conclude that the resulting curvature is:
κ
1
(t ) =
1
λ
κ(t )
Multiplying the vector by λ causes the curvature to be divided by λ.
Further Insights and Challenges
Show that the curvature of Viviani’s curve, given by r(t ) = 1 +cos t, sin t, 2 sin(t /2), is
κ(t ) =
√
13 +3 cos t
(3 +cos t )
3/2
73. Let r(s) be an arc length parametrization of a closed curve C of length L. We call C an oval if dθ/ds > 0 (see
Exercise 59). Observe that −N points to the outside of C. For k > 0, the curve C
1
deﬁned by r
1
(s) = r(s) −kN is called
the expansion of c(s) in the normal direction.
(a) Show that r
1
(s) = r
(s) +kκ(s).
(b) As P moves around the oval counterclockwise, θ increases by 2π [Figure 20(A)]. Use this and a change of variables
to prove that
_
L
0
κ(s) ds = 2π.
(c) Show that C
1
has length L +2πk.
(A) An oval
T
N
C
1
is the expansion of C
in normal direction.
(B)
C
1
C
x
y
P P
FIGURE 20 As P moves around the oval, θ increases by 2π.
SOLUTION
(a) Since r
1
(s) = r(s) −kN we have
r
1
(s) = r
(s) −k
dN
ds
(1)
We compute
dN
ds
using the Chain Rule:
dN
ds
=
dN
dθ
·
dθ
ds
(2)
By Exercise 59 and since C is oval we have:
κ(s) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
dθ
ds
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
dθ
ds
(3)
S E C T I O N 14.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.4) 287
T
N
Also, as illustrated in the ﬁgure, the following holds:
N =
_
cos
_
π
2
+θ
_
, sin
_
π
2
+θ
__
= −sin θ, cos θ
Hence:
dN
dθ
= −cos θ, −sin θ = −cos θ, sin θ = −T (4)
Substituting (3) and (4) in (2) yields:
dN
ds
= −κ(s)T(s)
Substituting in (1) we obtain:
r
1
(s) = r
(s) +kκ(s)T(s)
In the arc length parametrization, T(s) = r
(s), therefore:
r
1
(s) = r
(s) +kκ(s)r
(s) = r
(s) (1 +kκ(s))
Computing the length and using r
(s) = 1 we obtain:
r
1
(s) = r
(s) (1 +kκ(s)) = r
(s) +r
(s) · kκ(s) = r
(s) +kκ(s)
(b) In Exercise 59 we showed that:
κ(s) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
dθ
ds
¸
¸
¸
¸
Since
dθ
ds
> 0 we have κ(s) =
dθ
ds
. As P moves around the oval, θ increases by 2π, hence θ (s = L) −θ (s = 0) = 2π.
Using these considerations we get:
_
L
0
κ(s) ds =
_
θ(L)
θ(0)
dθ
ds
ds =
_
θ(L)
θ(0)
dθ = θ(L) −θ(0) = 2π.
(c) We use the Arc Length Formula and the equality in part (a) to write the length L
1
of C
1
as the following integral:
L
1
=
_
L
0
r
1
(s) ds =
_
L
0
r
(s) ds +k
_
L
0
κ(s) ds
By the Arc Length Formula, the ﬁrst integral is the length L of C. The second integral was computed in part (b). Therefore
we get:
L
1
= L +k · 2π = L +2πk.
In Exercises 74–81, let B denote the binormal vector at a point on a space curve C, deﬁned by B = T ×N.
Show that B is a unit vector.
75. Follow steps (a)–(c) to prove that there is a number τ (lowercase Greek tau) called the torsion such that
dB
ds
= −τN 13
(a) Show that
dB
ds
= T ×
dN
ds
and conclude that dB/ds is orthogonal to T.
(b) Differentiate B · B = 1 with respect to s to show that dB/ds is orthogonal to B.
(c) Conclude that dB/ds is a multiple of N.
SOLUTION
288 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
(a) Using the Product Rule for cross product we have:
dB
ds
=
d
ds
(T ×N) =
dT
ds
×N +T ×
dN
ds
N is a unit vector in the direction of
dT
ds
, hence
dT
ds
×N = 0, so we obtain:
dB
ds
= T ×
dN
ds
By properties of cross products we conclude that
dB
ds
is orthogonal to T.
(b) We differentiate B · B = 1 using the Product Rule for dot products:
B ·
dB
ds
+
dB
ds
· B = 0
2B ·
dB
ds
= 0 ⇒ B ·
dB
ds
= 0
Since the dot product of B and
dB
ds
is zero, the two vectors are orthogonal.
(c) In parts (a) and (b) we showed that
dB
ds
is orthogonal to B and T. It follows that
dB
ds
is parallel to any other vector
that is orthogonal to B and T. We show that N is such a vector.
Since B = T ×N, the vectors N and B are orthogonal. The unit normal N is also orthogonal to the unit tangent T. We
conclude that
dB
ds
and N are parallel, hence there exists a number (−τ) such that:
dB
ds
= −τN.
Show that if C is contained in a plane P, then B is a unit vector normal to P. Conclude that τ = 0 for a plane
curve.
77. Torsion means “twisting.” Is this an appropriate name for τ? Explain by interpreting τ geometrically.
SOLUTION B is the unit normal to the osculating plane at a point P on the curve. As P moves along the curve, the
unit normal B is changing by
dB
ds
= −τN. Geometrically the osculating plane is “twisted” and τ is a measure for this
twisting.
Use the identity
a ×(b ×c) = (a · c)b −(a · b)c
to prove
N ×B = T, B ×T = N
79. Follow steps (a)–(b) to prove
dN
ds
= −κT +τB 15
(a) Show that dN/ds is orthogonal to N. Conclude that dN/ds lies in the plane spanned by T and B, and hence,
dN/ds = aT +bB for some scalars a, b.
(b) Use N · T = 0 to show that T ·
dN
ds
= −N ·
dT
ds
and compute a. Compute b similarly.
Equations (13) and (15) together with dT/dt = κN are called the Frenet formulas and were discovered by the French
geometer Jean Frenet (1816–1900).
SOLUTION
(a) We ﬁrst show that
dN
ds
is orthogonal to N. Earlier we showed that
dB
ds
= T ×
dN
ds
and
dB
ds
= −τN, hence:
−τN = T ×
dN
ds
By properties of the cross product, this equality implies that
dN
ds
is orthogonal to −τN, hence it is orthogonal to N. Now,
N is orthogonal to T and B, hence N is normal to the plane spanned by T and B. Therefore, since N is orthogonal to
dN
ds
,
this last vector lies in the plane spanned by T and B, that is, there exist scalars a and b such that:
dN
ds
= aT +bB
(b) By the orthogonality of N and T we have:
N · T = 0
Differentiating this equality, using the product rule for dot product we get:
N ·
dT
ds
+
dN
ds
· T = 0 ⇒ T ·
dN
ds
= −N ·
dT
ds
To compute a, we substitute
dN
ds
= aT +bB and use T · T = T
2
= 1 and T · B = 0. This gives:
T · (aT +bB) = −N ·
dT
ds
S E C T I O N 14.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.4) 289
aT · T +bT · B = −N ·
dT
ds
a · 1 +b · 0 = −N ·
dT
ds
⇒ a = −N ·
dT
ds
(1)
To ﬁnd b we differentiate the equality N · B = 0 (notice that by B = T × N follows the orthogonality of N and B). We
get:
N ·
dB
ds
+
dN
ds
· B = 0 ⇒
dN
ds
· B = −N ·
dB
ds
We now substitute
dN
ds
= aT +bB and we use B · B = B
2
= 1 and T · B = 0 to obtain:
(aT +bB) · B = −N ·
dB
ds
aT · B +bB · B = −N ·
dB
ds
a · 0 +b · 1 = −N ·
dB
ds
⇒ b = −N ·
dB
ds
Since
dB
ds
= −τN we may write:
b = −N · (−τN) = τN · N = τN
2
= τ (2)
Also for the arc length parametrization
dT
ds
= κ(s)N, hence by (1):
a = −N · κ(s)N = −κ(s)N · N = −κ(s)N
2
= −κ(s) (3)
We combine (2), (3), and part (a) to conclude:
dN
ds
= −κT +τB.
Show that r
×r
is a multiple of B. Conclude that
B =
r
×r
r
×r
81. The vector N can be computed using N = B ×T [Eq. (14)] with B, as in Eq. (16). Use this method to ﬁnd N in the
following cases:
(a) r(t ) =
_
cos t, t, t
2
_
at t = 0
(b) r(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
−1
, t
_
at t = 1
SOLUTION
(a) We ﬁrst compute the vector B using Eq. (16):
B =
r
×r
r
×r
(1)
Differentiating r(t ) =
_
cos t, t, t
2
_
gives
r
(t ) = −sin t, 1, 2t
r
(t ) = −cos t, 0, 2
⇒
r
(0) = 0, 1, 0
r
(0) = −1, 0, 2
We compute the cross product:
r
(0) ×r
(0) = j ×(−i +2k) = −j ×i +2j ×k = k +2i = 2, 0, 1
r
(0) ×r
(0) =
_
2
2
+0
2
+1
2
=
√
5
Substituting in (1) we obtain:
B(0) =
2, 0, 1
√
5
=
1
√
5
2, 0, 1
We now compute T(0):
T(0) =
r
(0)
r
(0)
=
0, 1, 0
0, 1, 0
= 0, 1, 0
Finally we ﬁnd N = B ×T:
N(0) =
1
√
5
2, 0, 1 ×0, 1, 0 =
1
√
5
(2i +k) ×j =
1
√
5
(2i ×j +k ×j) =
1
√
5
(2k −i) =
1
√
5
−1, 0, 2
290 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
(b) Differentiating r(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
−1
, t
_
gives
r
(t ) =
_
2t, −t
−2
, 1
_
r
(t ) =
_
2, 2t
−3
, 0
_ ⇒
r
(1) = 2, −1, 1
r
(1) = 2, 2, 0
We compute the cross product:
r
(1) ×r
(1) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
2 −1 1
2 2 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
−1 1
2 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
i −
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 1
2 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
j +
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 −1
2 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
k = −2i +2j +6k = −2, 2, 6
r
(1) ×r
(1) =
_
(−2)
2
+2
2
+6
2
=
√
44 = 2
√
11
Substituting in (1) gives:
B(1) =
−2, 2, 6
2
√
11
=
1
√
11
−1, 1, 3
We now ﬁnd T(1):
T(1) =
r
(1)
r
(1)
=
2, −1, 1
√
4 +1 +1
=
1
√
6
2, −1, 1
Finally we ﬁnd N(1) by computing the following cross product:
N(1) = B(1) ×T(1) =
1
√
11
−1, 1, 3 ×
1
√
6
2, −1, 1 =
1
√
66
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
−1 1 3
2 −1 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
1
√
66
_¸
¸
¸
¸
1 3
−1 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
i −
¸
¸
¸
¸
−1 3
2 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
j +
¸
¸
¸
¸
−1 1
2 −1
¸
¸
¸
¸
k
_
=
1
√
66
(4i +7j −k) =
1
√
66
4, 7, −1
14.5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13.5)
Preliminary Questions
1. If a particle travels with constant speed, must its acceleration vector be zero? Explain.
SOLUTION If the speed of the particle is constant, the tangential component, a
T
(t ) = v
(t ), of the acceleration is zero.
However, the normal component, a
N
(t ) = κ(t )v(t )
2
is not necessarily zero, since the particle may change its direction.
2. For a particle in uniform circular motion around a circle, which of the vectors v(t ) or a(t ) always points toward the
center of the circle?
SOLUTION For a particle in uniform circular motion around a circle, the acceleration vector a(t ) points towards the
center of the circle, whereas v(t ) is tangent to the circle.
3. Two objects travel to the right along the parabola y = x
2
with nonzero speed. Which of the following must be true?
(a) Their velocity vectors point in the same direction.
(b) Their velocity vectors have the same length.
(c) Their acceleration vectors point in the same direction.
SOLUTION
(a) The velocity vector points in the direction of motion, hence the velocities of the two objects point in the same
direction.
(b) The length of the velocity vector is the speed. Since the speeds are not necessarily equal, the velocity vectors may
have different lengths.
(c) The acceleration is determined by the tangential component v
(t ) and the normal component κ(t )v(t )
2
. Since v and
v
may be different for the two objects, the acceleration vectors may have different directions.
4. Use the decomposition of acceleration into tangential and normal components to explain the following statement: If
the speed is constant, then the acceleration and velocity vectors are orthogonal.
SOLUTION If the speed is constant, v
(t ) = 0. Therefore, the acceleration vector has only the normal component:
a(t ) = a
N
(t )N(t )
The velocity vector always points in the direction of motion. Since the vector N(t ) is orthogonal to the direction of
motion, the vectors a(t ) and v(t ) are orthogonal.
S E C T I O N 14.5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13.5) 291
5. If a particle travels along a straight line, then the acceleration and velocity vectors are (choose the correct statement):
(a) Orthogonal (b) Parallel
SOLUTION Since a line has zero curvature, the normal component of the acceleration is zero, hence a(t ) has only the
tangential component. The velocity vector is always in the direction of motion, hence the acceleration and the velocity
vectors are parallel to the line. We conclude that (b) is the correct statement.
6. What is the length of the acceleration vector of a particle traveling around a circle of radius 2 cm with constant
velocity 4 cm/s?
SOLUTION The acceleration vector is given by the following decomposition:
a(t ) = v
(t )T(t ) +κ(t )v(t )
2
N(t ) (1)
In our case v(t ) = 4 is constant hence v
(t ) = 0. In addition, the curvature of a circle of radius 2 is κ(t ) =
1
2
. Substituting
v(t ) = 4, v
(t ) = 0 and κ(t ) =
1
2
in (1) gives:
a(t ) =
1
2
· 4
2
N(t ) = 8N(t )
The length of the acceleration vector is, thus,
a(t ) = 8 cm/s
2
7. Two cars are racing around a circular track. If, at a certain moment, both of their speedometers read 110 mph. then
the two cars have the same (choose one):
(a) a
T
(b) a
N
SOLUTION The tangential acceleration a
T
and the normal acceleration a
N
are the following values:
a
T
(t ) = v
(t ); a
N
(t ) = κ(t )v(t )
2
At the moment where both speedometers read 110 mph, the speeds of the two cars are v = 110 mph. Since the track is
circular, the curvature κ(t ) is constant, hence the normal accelerations of the two cars are equal at this moment. Statement
(b) is correct.
Exercises
1. Use the table here to calculate the difference quotients
r(1 +h) −r(1)
h
for h = −0.2, −0.1, 0.1, 0.2. Then estimate
the velocity and speed at t = 1.
r(0.8) 1.557, 2.459, −1.970
r(0.9) 1.559, 2.634, −1.740
r(1) 1.540, 2.841, −1.443
r(1.1) 1.499, 3.078, −1.035
r(1.2) 1.435, 3.342, −0.428
SOLUTION
(h = −0.2)
r(1 −0.2) −r(1)
−0.2
=
r(0.8) −r(1)
−0.2
=
1.557, 2.459, −1.970 −1.540, 2.841, −1.443
−0.2
=
0.017, −0.382, −0.527
−0.2
= −0.085, 1.91, 2.635
(h = −0.1)
r(1 −0.1) −r(1)
−0.1
=
r(0.9) −r(1)
−0.1
=
1.559, 2.634, −1.740 −1.540, 2.841, −1.443
−0.1
=
0.019, −0.207, −0.297
−0.1
= −0.19, 2.07, 2.97
(h = 0.1)
r(1 +0.1) −r(1)
0.1
=
r(1.1) −r(1)
0.1
=
1.499, 3.078, −1.035 −1.540, 2.841, −1.443
0.1
=
−0.041, 0.237, 0.408
0.1
= −0.41, 2.37, 4.08
292 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
(h = 0.2)
r(1 +0.2) −r(1)
0.2
=
r(1.2) −r(1)
0.2
=
1.435, 3.342, −0.428 −1.540, 2.841, −1.443
0.2
=
−0.105, 0.501, 1.015
0.2
= −0.525, 2.505, 5.075
The velocity vector is deﬁned by:
v(t ) = r
(t ) = lim
h→0
r(t +h) −r(t )
h
We may estimate the velocity at t = 1 by:
v(1) ≈ −0.3, 2.2, 3.5
and the speed by:
v(1) = v(1) ≈
_
0.3
2
+2.2
2
+3.5
2 ∼
= 4.1
Draw the vectors r(2 + h) − r(2) and
r(2 +h) −r(2)
h
for h = 0.5 for the path in Figure 9. Draw v(2) (using a
rough estimate for its length).
In Exercises 3–6, calculate the velocity and acceleration vectors and the speed at the time indicated.
3. r(t ) =
_
t
3
, 1 −t, 4t
2
_
, t = 1
SOLUTION In this case r(t ) =
_
t
3
, 1 −t, 4t
2
_
hence:
v(t ) = r
(t ) =
_
3t
2
, −1, 8t
_
⇒ v(1) = 3, −1, 8
a(t ) = r
(t ) = 6t, 0, 8 ⇒ a(1) = 6, 0, 8
The speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector, that is,
v(1) = v(1) =
_
3
2
+(−1)
2
+8
2
=
√
74
r(t ) = e
t
j −cos(2t )k, t = 0
5. r(θ) = sin θ, cos θ, cos 3θ, θ =
π
3
SOLUTION Differentiating r(θ) = sin θ, cos θ, cos 3θ gives:
v(θ) = r
(θ) = cos θ, −sin θ, −3 sin 3θ
⇒ v
_
π
3
_
=
_
cos
π
3
, −sin
π
3
, −3 sin π
_
=
_
1
2
, −
√
3
2
, 0
_
a(θ) = r
(θ) = −sin θ, −cos θ, −9 cos 3θ
⇒ a
_
π
3
_
=
_
−sin
π
3
, −cos
π
3
, −9 cos π
_
=
_
−
√
3
2
, −
1
2
, 9
_
The speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector, that is:
v
_
π
3
_
=
_
_
_v
_
π
3
__
_
_ =
¸
¸
¸
_
_
1
2
_
2
+
_
−
√
3
2
_
2
+0
2
= 1
r(s) =
_
1
1 +s
2
,
s
1 +s
2
_
, s = 2
7. Find a(t ) for a particle moving around a circle of radius 8 cm at a constant speed of v = 4 cm/s (see Example 2).
Draw the path and acceleration vector at t =
π
4
.
SOLUTION The position vector is:
r(t ) = 8 cos ωt, sin ωt
Hence,
v(t ) = r
(t ) = 8 −ω sin ωt, ω cos ωt = 8ω −sin ωt, cos ωt (1)
We are given that the speed of the particle is v = 4cm/s. The speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector, hence:
v = 8ω
_
(−sin ωt)
2
+cos
2
ωt = 8ω = 4 ⇒ ω =
1
2
rad/s
S E C T I O N 14.5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13.5) 293
Substituting in (2) we get:
v(t ) = 4
_
−sin
t
2
, cos
t
2
_
We now ﬁnd a(t ) by differentiating the velocity vector. This gives
a(t ) = v
(t ) = 4
_
−
1
2
cos
t
2
, −
1
2
sin
t
2
_
= −2
_
cos
t
2
, sin
t
2
_
The path of the particle is r(t ) = 8
_
cos
t
2
, sin
t
2
_
and the acceleration vector at t =
π
4
is:
a
_
π
4
_
= −2
_
cos
π
8
, sin
π
8
_
≈ −1.85, −0.77
The path r(t ) and the acceleration vector at t =
π
4
are shown in the following ﬁgure:
8
r(t ) = 8
_
cos
t
2
, sin
t
2
_
Sketch the path r(t ) =
_
1 −t
2
, 1 −t
_
for −2 ≤ t ≤ 2, indicating the direction of motion. Draw the velocity and
acceleration vectors at t = 0 and t = 1.
9. Sketch the path r(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
3
_
together with the velocity and acceleration vectors at t = 1.
SOLUTION We compute the velocity and acceleration vectors at t = 1:
v(t ) = r
(t ) =
_
2t, 3t
2
_
⇒ v(1) = 2, 3
a(t ) = v
(t ) = 2, 6t ⇒ a(1) = 2, 6
The following ﬁgure shows the path r(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
3
_
and the vectors v(1) and a(1):
x
y
a(1)
r(t) = (t
2
, t
3
)
v(1)
t = 1
The paths r(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
3
_
and r
1
(t ) =
_
t
4
, t
6
_
trace the same curve and r
1
(1) = r(1). Do you expect either the
velocity or acceleration vectors of these paths at t = 1 to point in the same direction? Compute these vectors and
draw them on a single plot of the path.
In Exercises 11–14, ﬁnd v(t ) given a(t ) and the initial velocity.
11. a(t ) =
_
t, 4
_
, v(0) =
_
1
3
, −2
_
SOLUTION We ﬁnd v(t ) by integrating a(t ):
v(t ) =
_
t
0
a(u)du =
_
t
0
u, 4 du =
_
1
2
u
2
, 4u
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
+v
0
=
_
t
2
2
, 4t
_
+v
0
The initial condition gives:
v(0) = 0, 0 +v
0
=
_
1
3
, −2
_
⇒ v
0
=
_
1
3
, −2
_
Hence,
v(t ) =
_
t
2
2
, 4t
_
+
_
1
3
, −2
_
=
_
3t
2
+2
6
, 4t −2
_
294 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
a(t ) =
_
e
t
, 0, t +1
_
, v(0) =
_
1, −3,
√
2
_
13. a(t ) = k, v(0) = i
SOLUTION We compute v(t ) by integrating the acceleration vector:
v(t ) =
_
t
0
a(u) du =
_
t
0
k du = ku
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
+v
0
= t k +v
0
(1)
Substituting the initial condition gives:
v(0) = 0k +v
0
= i ⇒ v
0
= i
Combining with (1) we obtain:
v(t ) = i +t k
a(t ) = t
2
k, v(0) = i −j
In Exercises 15–18, ﬁnd r(t ) and v(t ) given a(t ) and the initial velocity and position.
15. a(t ) = t, 4, v(0) = 3, −2, r(0) = 0, 0
SOLUTION We ﬁrst integrate a(t ) to ﬁnd the velocity vector:
v(t ) =
_
t
0
u, 4 du =
_
u
2
2
, 4u
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
+v
0
=
_
t
2
2
, 4t
_
+v
0
(1)
The initial condition v(0) = 3, −2 gives:
v(0) = 0, 0 +v
0
= 3, −2 ⇒ v
0
= 3, −2
Substituting in (1) we get:
v(t ) =
_
t
2
2
, 4t
_
+3, −2 =
_
t
2
2
+3, 4t −2
_
We now integrate the velocity vector to ﬁnd r(t ):
r(t ) =
_
t
0
_
u
2
2
+3, 4u −2
_
du =
_
u
3
6
+3u, 2u
2
−2u
_¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
+r
0
=
_
t
3
6
+3t, 2t
2
−2t
_
+r
0
The initial condition r(0) = 0, 0 gives:
r(0) = 0, 0 +r
0
= 0, 0 ⇒ r
0
= 0, 0
Hence,
r(t ) =
_
t
3
6
+3t, 2t
2
−2t
_
a(t ) =
_
e
t
, 2t, t +1
_
, v(0) = 1, 0, 1, r(0) = 2, 1, 1
17. a(t ) = t k, v(0) = i, r(0) = j
SOLUTION Integrating the acceleration vector gives:
v(t ) =
_
t
0
uk du =
u
2
2
k
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
+v
0
=
t
2
2
k +v
0
(1)
The initial condition for v(t ) gives:
v(0) =
0
2
2
k +v
0
= i ⇒ v
0
= i
We substitute in (1):
v(t ) =
t
2
2
k +i = i +
t
2
2
k
We now integrate v(t ) to ﬁnd r(t ):
r(t ) =
_
t
0
_
i +
u
2
2
k
_
du = ui +
u
3
6
k
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
+r
0
= t i +
t
3
6
k +r
0
(2)
S E C T I O N 14.5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13.5) 295
The initial condition for r(t ) gives:
r(0) = 0i +0k +r
0
= j ⇒ r
0
= j
Combining with (2) gives the position vector:
r(t ) = t i +j +
t
3
6
k
a(t ) = cos t k, v(0) = i −j, r(0) = i
19. A bullet is ﬁred from the ground at an angle of 45
◦
. What initial speed must the bullet have in order to hit the top of
a 400ft tower located 600 ft away?
SOLUTION We place the gun at the origin and let r(t ) be the bullet’s position vector.
Step 1. Use Newton’s Law. The net force vector acting on the bullet is the force of gravity F = 0, −gm = m 0, −g.
By Newton’s Second Law, F = mr
(t ), hence:
m 0, −g = mr
(t ) ⇒ r
(t ) = 0, −g
We compute the position vector by integrating twice:
r
(t ) =
_
t
0
r
(u) du =
_
t
0
0, −g du = 0, −gt +v
0
r(t ) =
_
t
0
r
(u) du =
_
t
0
(0, −gu +v
0
) du =
_
0, −g
t
2
2
_
+v
0
t +r
0
That is,
r(t ) =
_
0,
−g
2
t
2
_
+v
0
t +r
0
(1)
Since the gun is at the origin, r
0
= 0. The bullet is ﬁred at an angle of 45
◦
, hence the initial velocity v
0
points in the
direction of the unit vector
_
cos 45
◦
, sin 45
◦
_
=
_ √
2
2
,
√
2
2
_
therefore, v
0
= v
0
_ √
2
2
,
√
2
2
_
. Substituting these initial values
in (1) gives:
r(t ) =
_
0,
−g
2
t
2
_
+t v
0
_
√
2
2
,
√
2
2
_
Step 2. Solve for v
0
. The position vector of the top of the tower is 600, 400, hence at the moment of hitting the tower
we have,
r(t ) =
_
0,
−g
2
t
2
_
+t v
0
_
√
2
2
,
√
2
2
_
= 600, 400
_
t v
0
√
2
2
,
−g
2
t
2
+
√
2
2
t v
0
_
= 600, 400
Equating components, we get the equations:
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
t v
0
√
2
2
= 600
−
g
2
t
2
+
√
2
2
t v
0
= 400
The ﬁrst equation implies that t =
1,200
√
2v
0
. We substitute in the second equation and solve for v
0
(we use g = 32 ft/s
2
):
−16
_
1,200
√
2v
0
_
2
+
√
2
2
_
1,200
√
2v
0
_
v
0
= 400
−8
_
1,200
v
0
_
2
+600 = 400
_
1,200
v
0
_
2
= 25 ⇒
1,200
v
0
= 5 ⇒ v
0
= 240 ft/s
The initial speed of the bullet must be v
0
= 240 ft/s.
A bullet is ﬁred from the ground at an angle of 60
◦
with initial speed v
0
= 30 ft/s. How far does the bullet travel?
What is the bullet’s velocity vector and speed when it hits the ground?
296 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
21. A projectile ﬁred at an angle of 60
◦
lands 1,200 ft away. What was its initial speed?
SOLUTION We place the gun at the origin and let r(t ) be the projectile’s position vector. The net force acting on the
projectile is:
F = 0, −mg = −m 0, g = −m 0, 32
By Newton’s Second Law, F = mr
(t ), hence:
−m 0, 32 = mr
(t ) ⇒ r
(t ) = −0, 32
We integrate twice to obtain:
v(t ) =
_
t
0
r
(u) du =
_
t
0
0, −32 du = 0, −32t +v
0
r(t ) =
_
t
0
v(u) du =
_
t
0
(0, −32u +v
0
) du =
_
0, −16t
2
_
+v
0
t +r
0
(1)
Since the gun is at the origin, r
0
= 0. The ﬁring is at an angle of 60
◦
, hence the initial velocity points in the direction of
the unit vector
_
cos 60
◦
, sin 60
◦
_
=
_
1
2
,
√
3
2
_
. Hence,
v
0
= v
0
_
1
2
,
√
3
2
_
=
_
v
0
2
,
√
3v
0
2
_
Substituting the initial vectors in (1) we get:
r(t ) =
_
0, −16t
2
_
+
_
v
0
2
,
√
3v
0
2
_
t =
_
v
0
t
2
, −16t
2
+
√
3v
0
2
t
_
At the moment of landing, the xcomponent of r(t ) is 1200, and the ycomponent is zero. The corresponding equations
are:
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
v
0
2
t = 1,200
−16t
2
+
√
3v
0
2
t = 0
The ﬁrst equation implies that v
0
t = 2,400. We substitute in the second equation and solve for t :
−16t
2
+
√
3
2
· 2,400 = 0
16t
2
= 1,200
√
3
t
2
≈ 129.9 ⇒ t ≈ 11.4 s
By v
0
t = 2,400 we get v
0
=
2,400
11.4
≈ 210.53 ft/s.
Show that a projectile ﬁred at an angle θ with initial speed v
0
travels a total distance (v
2
0
/g) sin 2θ before hitting
the ground. Conclude that the maximum distance (for a given v
0
) is attained for θ = 45
◦
.
23. A baseball is thrown to another player standing 80 ft away with initial speed 60 ft/s. Use the result of Exercise 22 to
ﬁnd two angles θ at which the ball can be released. Which angle gets the ball there faster?
SOLUTION We suppose that the baseball is thrown from the origin, and that r(t ) is the baseball’s position vector. By
Exercise 22 the total distance travelled by the ball is
v
2
0
g
sin 2θ. Using the given information we obtain the following
equation:
60
2
32
sin 2θ = 80
sin 2θ =
32 · 80
60
2
≈ 0.711
The solutions for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 90
◦
are:
2θ ≈ 45.32
◦
θ ≈ 22.66
◦
or
2θ ≈ 134.68
◦
θ ≈ 67.34
◦
By Newton’s Second Law we have:
F = m 0, −g = mr
(t ) ⇒ r
(t ) = 0, −g = 0, −32
S E C T I O N 14.5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13.5) 297
Integrating gives:
v(t ) =
_
t
0
r
(u) du =
_
t
0
0, −32 du = 0, −32t +v
0
(1)
The initial velocity points in the direction of the unit vector cos θ, sin θ and its magnitude is the initial speed v
0
= 60.
Hence, v
0
= 60 cos θ, sin θ. Substituting in (1) we get:
v(t ) = 0, −32t +60 cos θ, sin θ (2)
Integrating this vector with respect to t and using r
0
= 0 we obtain:
r(t ) =
_
t
0
v(u) du =
_
t
0
(0, −32u +60 cos θ, sin θ) du =
_
0, −16t
2
_
+60t cos θ, sin θ
At the ﬁnal time x(t ) = 80. This gives:
x(t ) = 60t cos θ = 80 ⇒ t =
4
3 cos θ
Since we want to minimize t we need to maximize cos θ, hence, to minimize θ. Therefore, θ = 22.66
◦
will get the ball
faster to the other player.
Show that a bullet ﬁred at an angle θ will hit the top of an hft tower located d ft away if its initial speed is
v
0
=
4d sec θ
√
d tan θ −h
25. At a certain moment, a moving particle has velocity v = 2, 2, −1 and a = 0, 4, 3. Find T, N, and the decompo
sition of a into tangential and normal components.
SOLUTION We go through the following steps:
Step 1. Compute T and a
T
. The unit tangent is the following vector:
T =
v
v
=
2, 2, −1
_
2
2
+2
2
+(−1)
2
=
1
3
2, 2, −1 (1)
The tangential component of a = 0, 4, 3 is:
a
T
= a · T = 0, 4, 3 ·
1
3
2, 2, −1 =
1
3
(0 +8 −3) =
5
3
Step 2. Compute a
N
and N. Since a
N
N = a −a
T
T, we have:
a
N
N = 0, 4, 3 −
5
3
·
1
3
2, 2, −1 = 0, 4, 3 −
_
10
9
,
10
9
, −
5
9
_
=
1
9
−10, 26, 32 (2)
The unit normal N is a unit vector, therefore:
a
N
= a
N
N =
1
9
_
(−10)
2
+26
2
+32
2
=
1
9
· 30
√
2 =
10
√
2
3
(3)
We compute N, using (3) and (4):
N =
a
N
N
a
N
=
1
9
−10, 26, 32
10
√
2
3
=
1
15
√
2
−5, 13, 16
Step 3. Write the decomposition. Using (1)–(4) we obtain the following decomposition:
a = a
T
T +a
N
N
0, 4, 3 =
5
3
T +
10
√
2
3
N,
where T =
_
2
3
,
2
3
, −
1
3
_
and N =
1
15
√
2
−5, 13, 16.
At a certain moment, a moving particle has velocity v = 12, 20, 20 and acceleration a = 2, 1, −3. Is the
particle speeding up or slowing down?
27. A particle follows a path r(t ) for 0 ≤ t ≤ T, beginning at the origin O. The vector v =
1
T
_
T
0
r
(t ) dt is called the
average velocity vector. Suppose that v = 0. Answer and explain the following:
(a) Where is the particle located at time T if v = 0?
(b) Is the particle’s average speed necessarily equal to zero?
SOLUTION
(a) If the average velocity is 0, then the particle must be back at its original position at time t = T. This is perhaps best
seen by noting that v =
1
T
_
T
0
r
(t ) dt = r(t )
¸
¸
¸
¸
T
0
.
298 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
(b) The average speed need not be zero! Consider a particle moving at constant speed around a circle, with position
vector r(t ) = cos t, sin t . From 0 to 2π, this has average velocity of 0, but constant average speed of 1.
One consequence of Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion is that a planet moves faster when it is closer to the
sun. Which of Figure 10(A) or 10(B) represents a planetary orbit (with the velocity vectors as shown)?
29. A space shuttle orbits the earth at an altitude 200 miles above the earth’s surface, with constant speed v =
17,000 mph. Find the magnitude of the shuttle’s acceleration (in ft/s
2
), assuming that the radius of the earth is 4,000
miles (Figure 11).
FIGURE 11 Space shuttle orbit.
SOLUTION The shuttle is in a uniform circular motion, therefore the tangential component of its acceleration is zero,
and the acceleration can be written as:
a = κv
2
N (1)
The radius of motion is 4000 + 200 = 4200 miles hence the curvature is κ =
1
4200
. Also by the given information the
constant speed is v = 17,000 mph. Substituting these values in (1) we get:
a =
1
4200
· 17,000
2
N = 6.88 · 10
4
miles/h
2
The magnitude of the shuttle’s acceleration is thus:
a = 6.88 · 10
4
miles/h
2
In units of ft/s
2
we obtain
a =
6.88 · 10
4
· 5.28 · 10
3
3600
2
= 28.03 ft/s
2
In Exercises 30–33, use (4) and (5) to ﬁnd a
T
and a
N
as a function of t or at the point indicated.
r(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
3
_
31. r(t ) =
_
t, cos t, sin t
_
SOLUTION We ﬁnd a
T
and a
N
using the following equalities:
a
T
= a · T, a
N
=
a ×v
v
.
We compute v and a by differentiating r twice:
v(t ) = r
(t ) = 1, −sin t, cos t ⇒ v(t ) =
_
1 +(−sin t )
2
+cos
2
t =
√
2
a(t ) = r
(t ) = 0, −cos t, −sin t
The unit tangent vector T is, thus:
T(t ) =
v(t )
v(t )
=
1
√
2
1, −sin t, cos t
Since the speed is constant (v = v(t ) =
√
2), the tangential component of the acceleration is zero, that is:
a
T
= 0
To ﬁnd a
N
we ﬁrst compute the following cross product:
a ×v =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
0 −cos t −sin t
1 −sin t cos t
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
−cos t −sin t
−sin t cos t
¸
¸
¸
¸
i −
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 −sin t
1 cos t
¸
¸
¸
¸
j +
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 −cos t
1 −sin t
¸
¸
¸
¸
k
= −
_
cos
2
t +sin
2
t
_
i −sin t j +cos t k = −i −sin t j +cos t k = −1, −sin t, cos t
S E C T I O N 14.5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13.5) 299
Hence,
a
N
=
a ×v
v
=
_
(−1)
2
+(−sin t )
2
+cos
2
t
√
2
=
√
2
√
2
= 1.
r(t ) =
_
t
−1
, ln t, t
2
_
, t = 1
33. r(t ) =
_
e
t
, t, e
−t
_
, t = 0
SOLUTION We use the following equalities:
a
T
= a · T, a
N
=
a ×v
v
We ﬁrst ﬁnd v and a by twice differentiating r. This gives:
v(t ) = r
(t ) =
_
e
t
, 1, −e
−t
_
⇒ v(0) = 1, 1, −1 , v(0) =
√
3
a(t ) = r
(t ) =
_
e
t
, 0, e
−t
_
⇒ a(0) = 1, 0, 1
The unit tangent at t = 0 is, thus:
T(0) =
v(0)
v(0)
=
1
√
3
1, 1, −1
We now ﬁnd a
T
at the point t = 0:
a
T
= a · T = 1, 0, 1 ·
1
√
3
1, 1, −1 =
1
√
3
(1 +0 −1) = 0
To ﬁnd a
N
we ﬁrst compute the cross product:
a ×v = 1, 0, 1 ×1, 1, −1 =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
1 0 1
1 1 −1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 1
1 −1
¸
¸
¸
¸
i −
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1
1 −1
¸
¸
¸
¸
j +
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 0
1 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
k
= −1i +2j +1k = −1, 2, 1
Hence,
a
N
=
a ×v
v
=
−1, 2, 1
√
3
=
√
6
√
3
=
√
2
In Exercise 34–41, use (4) and (6) to ﬁnd the decomposition of a(t ) into tangential and normal components at the point
indicated, as in Example 6.
r(t ) =
_
4 −t, t +1, t
2
_
, t = 1
35. r(t ) =
_
t, e
t
, t e
t
_
, t = 0
SOLUTION We have r(t ) =
_
t, e
t
, t e
t
_
. We ﬁnd the decomposition of a(t ) into tangential and normal components,
using the following steps.
Step 1. Compute T and a
T
. Differentiating r(t ) twice we obtain:
v(t ) = r
(t ) =
_
1, e
t
, e
t
+t e
t
_
=
_
1, e
t
, (1 +t )e
t
_
⇒ v(0) = 1, 1, 1 , v(0) =
_
1
2
+1
2
+1
2
=
√
3
a(t ) = r
(t ) =
_
0, e
t
, e
t
+(1 +t )e
t
_
=
_
0, e
t
, (2 +t )e
t
_
⇒ a(0) = 0, 1, 2
We compute the unit normal vector at t = 0:
T =
v
v
=
1, 1, 1
√
3
=
1
√
3
1, 1, 1
Using Eq. (4) we obtain:
a
T
= a · T = 0, 1, 2 ·
1
√
3
1, 1, 1 =
1
√
3
(0 +1 +2) =
3
√
3
=
√
3
Step 2. Compute a
N
and N. By Eq. (6) we have:
a
N
N = a −a
T
T = 0, 1, 2 −
√
3 ·
1
√
3
1, 1, 1 = −1, 0, 1
300 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
Since N is a unit vector, the following holds:
a
N
= a
N
N =
_
(−1)
2
+0
2
+1
2
=
√
2
N =
a
N
N
a
N
=
−1, 0, 1
√
2
=
_
−
1
√
2
, 0,
1
√
2
_
Step 3. Write the decomposition. Using the results obtained in the previous steps, we obtain the following decomposition
of a(0):
a(0) = a
T
(0)T(0) +a
N
(0)N(0) =
√
3T +
√
2N
where T = T(0) =
1
√
3
1, 1, 1 and N = N(0) =
_
−
1
√
2
, 0,
1
√
2
_
.
r(t ) =
_
t,
1
2
t
2
,
1
6
t
3
_
, t = 1
37. r(t ) =
_
t,
1
2
t
2
,
1
6
t
3
_
, t = 4
SOLUTION
(a) By Eq. (4) we have:
a
T
= a · T =
a · v
v
We compute v and a by differentiating r(t ) =
_
t,
1
2
t
2
,
1
6
t
3
_
twice. We obtain:
v(t ) = r
(t ) =
_
1, t,
1
2
t
2
_
⇒ v(4) = 1, 4, 8 ,
v(4) =
_
1
2
+4
2
+8
2
= 9
a(t ) = r
(t ) = 0, 1, t ⇒ a(4) = 0, 1, 4
Hence,
a
T
(4) =
a(4) · v(4)
v(4)
=
0, 1, 4 · 1, 4, 8
9
=
36
9
= 4
(b) By Eq. (6) we have:
a
N
N = a −a
T
T
Since T(4) =
v(4)
v(4)
=
1,4,8
9
=
_
1
9
,
4
9
,
8
9
_
and by part (a) a
T
(4) = 4, and a(4) = 0, 1, 4, we have:
a
N
N = 0, 1, 4 −4 ·
_
1
9
,
4
9
,
8
9
_
=
_
−
4
9
, −
7
9
,
4
9
_
We see that a
N
N is a unit vector and conclude that:
N(4) = a
N
N =
_
−
4
9
, −
7
9
,
4
9
_
and a
N
(4) = 1.
(c) The acceleration vector a(4) can be written as the following decomposition:
a(4) = a
T
(4)T(4) +a
N
(4)N(4)
In parts (a) and (b) we found that a
T
(4) = 4, T(4) =
_
1
9
,
4
9
,
8
9
_
, a
N
(4) = 1, and N(4) =
_
−
4
9
, −
7
9
,
4
9
_
. This gives the
following decomposition:
a(4) = 4T(4) +1N(4) = 4T(4) +N(4) =
_
4
9
,
16
9
,
32
9
_
+
_
−
4
9
, −
7
9
,
4
9
_
= 0, 1, 4
r(t ) =
_
e
t
, 1 −t
_
, t = 0
39. r(θ) = cos θ, sin θ, θ, θ = 0
SOLUTION We have r(t ) = cos t, sin t, t . We ﬁnd the decomposition of a(0), using the following steps:
Step 1. Compute T and a
T
. We differentiate r(t ) twice to obtain:
v(t ) = r
(t ) = −sin t, cos t, 1
a(t ) = r
(t ) = −cos t, −sin t, 0 ⇒ a(0) = −1, 0, 0
S E C T I O N 14.5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13.5) 301
Computing the magnitude of v(t ) (the speed) we obtain:
v(t ) = v(t ) =
_
(−sin t )
2
+(cos t )
2
+1
2
=
√
1 +1 =
√
2
Since the speed is constant, the tangential component of the acceleration a(t ) is zero. That is:
a
T
(t ) = 0
Step 2. Compute a
N
and N. Since a
T
(t ) = 0, we obtain the decomposition:
a(t ) = a
N
(t )N(t ) ⇒ a(0) = a
N
(0)N(0) (1)
Notice that the vector a(0) = −1, 0, 0 is already a unit vector, hence (1) implies that N(0) = a(0) and a
N
(0) = 1.
Hence the required decomposition reduces to:
a(0) = 1 · N(0) = 1 · N where N = a(0) = −1, 0, 0
r(t ) =
_
1
3
t
3
, 1 −3t
_
, t = −1
41. r(t ) = t, cos t, t sin t , t =
π
2
SOLUTION In this case, r(t ) = t, cos t, t sin t . We ﬁnd the decomposition of a
_
π
2
_
, using the following steps:
Step 1. Compute T and a
T
. We differentiate r(t ) twice to obtain:
v(t ) = r
(t ) = 1, −sin t, sin t +t cos t
⇒ v
_
π
2
_
= 1, −1, 1 ,
v
_
π
2
_
=
√
3
a(t ) = r
(t ) = 0, −cos t, cos t +cos t −t sin t = 0, −cos t, 2 cos t −t sin t
⇒ a
_
π
2
_
=
_
0, 0, −
π
2
_
The unit tangent at t =
π
2
is, thus:
T
_
π
2
_
=
v
_
π
2
_
_
_
v
_
π
2
__
_
=
1, −1, 1
√
3
=
1
√
3
1, −1, 1
Using Eq. (4) we get at t =
π
2
:
a
T
= a · T =
_
0, 0, −
π
2
_
·
1
√
3
1, −1, 1 =
1
√
3
·
_
−
π
2
_
= −
π
2
√
3
Step 2. Compute a
N
and N. By Eq. (6) we have at t =
π
2
:
a
N
N = a −a
T
T =
_
0, 0, −
π
2
_
−
_
−
π
2
√
3
_
·
1
√
3
1, −1, 1 =
_
0, 0, −
π
2
_
+
π
6
1, −1, 1
=
_
π
6
, −
π
6
, −
π
3
_
=
π
6
1, −1, −2
Since N is a unit vector we get:
a
N
= a
N
N =
π
6
_
1
2
+(−1)
2
+(−2)
2
=
π
√
6
N =
a
N
N
a
N
=
π
6
1, −1, −2
π
√
6
=
1
√
6
1, −1, −2
Step 3. Write the decomposition. Using the results obtained in the previous steps we obtain the following decomposition
of a
_
π
2
_
:
a = a
T
T +a
N
N = −
π
2
√
3
T +
π
√
6
N
where T =
1
√
3
1, −1, 1 and N =
1
√
6
1, −1, −2.
Let r(t ) =
_
t
2
, 4t − 3
_
. Find T(t ) and N(t ), and show that the decomposition of a(t ) into tangential and normal
components is
a(t ) =
_
2t
_
2
_
T +
_
4
2
+4
_
N
43. Find the components a
T
and a
N
of the acceleration vector of a particle moving along a circular path of radius
R = 100 cm with constant velocity v
0
= 5 cm/s.
302 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
SOLUTION Since the particle moves with constant speed, we have v
(t ) = 0, hence:
a
T
= v
(t ) = 0
The normal component of the acceleration is a
N
= κ(t )v(t )
2
. The curvature of a circular path of radius R = 100 is
κ(t ) =
1
R
=
1
100
, and the velocity is the constant value v(t ) = v
0
= 5. Hence,
a
N
=
1
R
v
2
0
=
25
100
= 0.25 cm/s
2
At time t
0
, a moving particle has velocity vector v = 2i and acceleration vector a = 3i + 18k. Determine the
curvature κ(t
0
) of the particle’s path at time t
0
.
45. A car proceeds along a circular path of radius R = 1,000 ft centered at the origin. Starting at rest, its speed increases
at a rate of t ft/s
2
. Find the acceleration vector a at time t = 3 s and determine its decomposition into normal and
tangential components.
SOLUTION The acceleration vector can be decomposed into tangential and normal directions as follows:
a(t ) = a
T
(t )T(t ) +a
N
(t )N(t ) (1)
where
a
T
(t ) = v
(t ) and a
N
(t ) = κ(t )v(t )
2
(2)
Since the speed v(t ) is increasing at a rate of t ft/s
2
, we have v
(t ) = t . The car starts at rest hence the initial speed is
v
0
= 0. We now integrate to ﬁnd v(t ):
v(t ) =
_
t
0
v
(u) du =
_
t
0
u du =
1
2
t
2
+v
0
=
1
2
t
2
+0 =
1
2
t
2
The curvature of the circular path is κ(t ) =
1
R
=
1
1000
. Substituting v
(t ) = t , κ =
1
1000
, and v(t ) =
1
2
t
2
in (2) gives:
a
T
(t ) = t, a
N
(t ) =
1
1000
_
1
2
t
2
_
2
=
1
4000
t
4
Combining with (1) gives the following decomposition:
a(t ) = t T(t ) +
1
4000
t
4
N(t ) (3)
We now ﬁnd the unit tangent T(t ) and the unit normal N(t ).
N
T
Q (starting
point)
P
O
We have (see ﬁgure):
T =
_
cos
_
π
2
+θ
_
, sin
_
π
2
+θ
__
= −sin θ, cos θ (4)
N = cos (π +θ) , sin (π +θ) = −cos θ, −sin θ (5)
We use the arc length formula to ﬁnd θ:
PQ=
_
t
0
r
(u) du =
_
t
0
v(u) du =
_
t
0
1
2
u
2
du =
t
3
6
In addition,
PQ= Rθ = 1000θ. Hence,
1,000θ =
t
3
6
⇒ θ =
t
3
6,000
Substituting in (4) and (5) yields:
T =
_
−sin
t
3
6,000
, cos
t
3
6,000
_
; N =
_
−cos
t
3
6,000
, −sin
t
3
6,000
_
(6)
S E C T I O N 14.5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13.5) 303
We now combine (3) and (6) to obtain the following decomposition:
a(t ) = t
_
−sin
t
3
6,000
, cos
t
3
6,000
_
+
1
4,000
t
4
_
−cos
t
3
6,000
, −sin
t
3
6,000
_
At t = 3 we get:
a
T
= 3a
N
=
3
4
4,000
≈ 0.02025
T =
_
−sin
3
3
6,000
, cos
3
3
6,000
_
≈ −0.0045, 0.9999
N =
_
−cos
3
3
6,000
, −sin
3
3
6,000
_
≈ −0.9999, −0.0045
In the notation of Example 5, ﬁnd the acceleration vector for a person seated in a car at (a) the highest point of
the ferris wheel and (b) the two points level with the center of the wheel.
47. Suppose that r = r(t ) lies on a sphere of radius R for all t . Let J = r × r
. Show that r
= (J × r)/r
2
. Hint:
Observe that r and r
are perpendicular.
SOLUTION
(a) Solution 1. Since r = r(t ) lies on the sphere, the vectors r = r(t ) and r
= r
(t ) are orthogonal, therefore:
r · r
= 0 (1)
We use the following wellknown equality:
a ×(b ×c) = (a · c) b −(a · b) · c
Using this equality and (1) we obtain:
J ×r =
_
r ×r
_
×r = −r ×
_
r ×r
_
= −
__
r · r
_
r −(r · r) r
_
= −
_
r · r
_
r +r
2
r
= 0r +r
2
r
= r
2
r
Divided by the scalar r
2
we obtain:
r
=
J ×r
r
2
(b) Solution 2. The cross product J = r ×r
is orthogonal to r and r
. Also, r and r
are orthogonal, hence the vectors r,
r
and J are mutually orthogonal. Now, since r
is orthogonal to r and J, the righthand rule implies that r
points in the
direction of J ×r. Therefore, for some α > 0 we have:
r
= αJ ×r = r
·
J ×r
J ×r
(2)
By properties of the cross product and since J, r, and r
are mutually orthogonal we have:
J ×r = Jr = r ×r
r = rr
r = r
2
r
Substituting in (2) we get:
r
= r
J ×r
r
2
r
=
J ×r
r
2
A particle moves counterclockwise around a circle. Which of the vectors in Figure 12 is not a possible acceler
ation vector? Explain. For the two possible acceleration vectors, state whether the particle is speeding up or slowing
down.
Further Insights and Challenges
49. The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. The sun’s gravitational force acts along the
radial line from the planet to the sun (the dashed lines in Figure 13), and by Newton’s Second Law, the acceleration
vector points in the same direction. Explain in words why the planet must slow down in the upper half of the orbit (as
it moves away from the sun) and speed up in the lower half. Kepler’s Second Law, discussed in the next section, gives
a more precise version of this qualitative conclusion. Hint: Consider the decomposition of a into normal and tangential
components.
304 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
Planetary motion
Sun
N
N
N
a
a
FIGURE 13 Elliptical orbit of a planet around the sun.
SOLUTION In the upper half of the orbit, as the planet moves away from the sun the acceleration vector has a negative
component in the tangential direction T, so the particle’s velocity is decreasing (since a
T
(t ) = v
(t ) < 0).
T
T
a
a
Sun
However, in the lower half of the orbit, as the planet gets closer to the sun, the acceleration has a positive component in
the tangential direction, that is, a
T
(t ) = v
(t ) > 0. Therefore the velocity v(t ) is increasing.
In Exercises 50–54, consider a car of mass m traveling along a curved but level road. To avoid skidding, the road must
supply a frictional force F = ma, where a is the car’s acceleration vector. The maximum magnitude of the frictional
force is μmg, where μ is the coefﬁcient of friction and g = 32 ft/s
2
. Let v be the car’s speed in feet per second.
Show that the car will not skid if the curvature κ of the road is such that (with R = 1/κ)
(v
)
2
+
_
v
2
R
_
2
< (μg)
2
Note that braking (v
< 0) and speeding up (v
> 0) contribute equally to skidding.
51. Suppose that the maximum radius of curvature along a curved highway is R = 600 ft. How fast can a car travel (at
constant speed) along the highway without skidding if the coefﬁcient of friction is μ = 0.5?
SOLUTION In Exercise 50 we showed that the car will not skid if the following inequality is satisﬁed:
_
v
_
2
+
v
4
R
2
< μ
2
g
2
We compute the constant speed v for which the car can travel without skidding. In case of constant speed, v
= 0. We
substitute R = 600, μ = 0.5 and g = 32 and solve for v. This gives:
v
4
600
2
< 0.5
2
· 32
2
v
4
< 9,600
2
⇒ v < 98 ft/s
The maximum speed (in case of constant speed) is about 98 ft/s.
Beginning at rest, a car drives around a circular track of radius R = 1,000 ft, accelerating at a rate of 1 ft/s
2
.
After how many seconds will the car begin to skid if the coefﬁcient of friction is μ = 0.6?
53. You want to reverse your direction in the shortest possible time by driving around a semicircular bend (Figure 14).
If you travel at the maximum possible constant speed v that will not cause skidding, is it faster to hug the inside curve
(radius r) or the outside curb (radius R)? Hint: Use Eq. (7) to show that at maximum speed, the time required to drive
around the semicircle is proportional to the square root of the radius.
r
R
FIGURE 14 Car going around the bend.
SOLUTION In Exercise 50 we showed that the car will not skid if the following inequality is satisﬁed:
_
v
_
2
+
v
4
R
2
< μ
2
g
2
In case of constant speed, v
= 0, so the inequality becomes:
v
4
R
2
< μ
2
g
2
S E C T I O N 14.6 Planetary Motion According to Kepler and Newton (ET Section 13.6) 305
We solve for v:
v
4
<
_
μgR
_
2
⇒ v <
_
μgR
The maximum speed in which skidding does not occur is, thus,
v ≈
_
μgR (1)
If T is the time required to drive around the semicircle of radius R at the constant speed v, then the length of the semicircle
can be written as:
πR =
_
T
0
r
(t ) dt =
_
T
0
v dt = vT
Hence,
T =
πR
v
(2)
Combining (1) and (2) gives:
T ≈
πR
_
μgR
≈
π
√
μg
√
R
We conclude that it is faster to hug the inside curve of radius r (r < R), rather than the outside curve of radius R.
What is the smallest radius R about which a car can turn without skidding at 60 mph if μ = 0.75 (a typical
value)?
14.6 Planetary Motion According to Kepler and Newton (ET Section 13.6)
Preliminary Questions
1. Describe the relation between the vector J = r ×r
and the rate at which the radial vector sweeps out area.
SOLUTION The rate at which the radial vector sweeps out area equals half the magnitude of the vector J. This relation
is expressed in the formula:
d A
dt
=
1
2
J.
2. Equation (1) shows that r
is proportional to r. Explain how this fact is used to prove Kepler’s Second Law.
SOLUTION In the proof of Kepler’s Second Law it is shown that the rate at which area is swept out is
d A
dt
=
1
2
J, where J = r(t ) ×r
(t )
To show that J is constant, show that J is constant. This is done using the proportionality of r
and r which implies
that r(t ) ×r
(t ) = 0. Using this we get:
dJ
dt
=
d
dt
_
r ×r
_
= r ×r
+r
×r
= 0 +0 = 0 ⇒ J = const
3. How is the period T affected if the semimajor axis a is increased fourfold?
SOLUTION Kepler’s Third Law states that the period T of the orbit is given by:
T
2
=
_
4π
2
GM
_
a
3
or
T =
2π
√
GM
a
3/2
If a is increased fourfold the period becomes:
2π
√
GM
(4a)
3/2
= 8 ·
2π
√
GM
a
3/2
That is, the period is increased eightfold.
306 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
Exercises
1. Kepler’s Third Law states that T
2
/a
3
has the same value for each planetary orbit. Do the data in the following table
support this conclusion? Estimate the length of Jupiter’s period, assuming that a = 77.8 ×10
10
m.
Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars
a (10
10
m) 5.79 10.8 15.0 22.8
T (years) 0.241 0.615 1.00 1.88
SOLUTION Using the given data we obtain the following values of T
2
/a
3
, where a, as always, is measured not in
meters but in 10
10
m:
Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars
T
2
/a
3
2.99 · 10
−4
3 · 10
−4
2.96 · 10
−4
2.98 · 10
−4
The data on the planets supports Kepler’s prediction. We estimate Jupiter’s period (using the given a) as T ≈
√
a
3
· 3 · 10
−4
≈ 11.9 years.
A satellite has initial position r = 1,000, 2,000, 0 and initial velocity r
= 1, 2, 2 (units of kilometers and
seconds). Find the equation of the plane containing the satellite’s orbit. Hint: This plane is orthogonal to J.
3. The earth’s orbit is nearly circular with radius R = 93 × 10
6
miles (the eccentricity is e = 0.017). Find the rate at
which the earth’s radial vector sweeps out area in units of ft
2
/s. What is the magnitude of the vector J = r × r
for the
earth (in units of squared feet per second)?
SOLUTION The rate at which the earth’s radial vector sweeps out area is
d A
dt
=
1
2
J; J = r(t ) ×r
(t ) (1)
Since J is a constant vector, its length is constant. Moreover, if we assume that the orbit is circular then r(t ) lies on a
circle, and therefore r(t ) and r
(t ) are orthogonal. Using properties of the cross product we get:
J = r(t ) ×r
(t ) = r(t )r
(t ) = Rr
(t ) = const
We conclude that the speed v = r
(t ) is constant. We ﬁnd the speed using the following equality:
2πR = vT ⇒ v =
2πR
T
.
Therefore,
J = R ·
2πR
T
=
2πR
2
T
.
Substituting in (1) we get:
d A
dt
=
1
2
·
2πR
2
T
=
πR
2
T
.
For R = 93 ×10
6
miles = 4.9 ×10
11
ft and T = 365 ×24 ×3,600 = 31,536,000 s we obtain:
J =
2π · (4.9 · 10
11
)
2
31,536,000
= 4.78 ×10
16
ft
2
/s
d A
dt
= 2.39 ×10
16
ft
2
/s
Finding the Mass of a Star Using Kepler’s Third Law, show that if a planet revolves around a star with period
T and semimajor axis a, then the mass of the star is M =
_
4π
2
G
__
a
3
T
2
_
.
5. Ganymede, one of Jupiter’s moons discovered by Galileo, has an orbital period of 7.154 days and a semimajor axis
of 1.07 ×10
9
m. Use Exercise 4 to estimate the mass of Jupiter.
SOLUTION By Exercise 4, the mass of Jupiter can be computed using the following equality:
M =
4π
2
G
a
3
T
2
We substitute the given data T = 7.154 · 24 · 60
2
= 618,105.6 a = 1.07 × 10
9
m and G = 6.67300 ×
10
−11
m
3
kg
−1
s
−1
, to obtain:
M =
4π
2
·
_
1.07 ×10
9
_
3
6.67300 ×10
−11
· (618,105.6)
2
≈ 1.897 ×10
27
kg.
An astronomer observes a planet orbiting a star with a period of 9.5 years and a semimajor axis of 3 × 10
8
km.
Find the mass of the star.
S E C T I O N 14.6 Planetary Motion According to Kepler and Newton (ET Section 13.6) 307
7. Use the fact that J is constant to show that a planet in a circular orbit travels at constant speed.
SOLUTION It is shown in the proof of Kepler’s Second Law that the vector J = r(t ) × r
(t ) is constant, hence its
length is constant:
J = r(t ) ×r
(t ) = const (1)
We consider the orbit as a circle of radius R, therefore, r(t ) and r
(t ) are orthogonal and r(t ) = R. By (1) and using
properties of the cross product we obtain:
r(t ) ×r
(t ) = r(t )r
(t ) sin
π
2
= R · r
(t ) = const
We conclude that r
(t ) is constant, that is the speed v = r
(t ) of the planet is constant.
Prove that if a planetary orbit is circular, then vT = 2πR, where v is the planet’s speed (constant by Exercise 7)
and T is the period. Then use Kepler’s Third Law to prove that v =
_
GM
R
.
9. Show directly that the circular orbit
r(t ) = R cos ωt, R sin ωt
satisﬁes the differential equation, Eq. (2), provided that ω
2
= k R
−3
. Then deduce Kepler’s Third Law T
2
=
_
4π
2
k
_
R
3
for this orbit.
SOLUTION Note that r = R, and note that
r
= −Rω sin ωt, Rω cos ωt and r
=
_
−Rω
2
cos ωt, −Rω
2
sin ωt
_
We rewrite this as:
r
= −ω
2
R cos ωt, R sin ωt = −ω
2
r
Since ω
2
= k/R
3
and R = r, we get r
=
−k
r
3
r, as desired. Since T =
2π
ω
then T
2
=
4π
2
ω
2
=
4π
2
R
3
k
, as desired.
The orbit of a satellite orbiting above the equator of the earth is called geosynchronous if the period is T = 24
hours (in this case, the satellite stays over a ﬁxed point on the equator). Use Kepler’s Third Law to ﬁnd the altitude
h above the earth’s surface of a geosynchronous orbit. The earth has mass M ≈ 5.974 × 10
24
kg and radius
R ≈ 6,371 km.
11. Use the results of Exercises 8 and 10 to ﬁnd the velocity of a satellite in geosynchronous orbit.
SOLUTION In Exercise 8 we showed that the velocity of a planet in a circular orbit of radius a is:
v =
2πa
T
(1)
A geosynchronous orbit has period T = 24 hours and in Exercise 10 we found that a = 42,246 km. Substituting in (1)
we get:
v =
2π · 42,246
24
= 11,060 km/h
Show that if a planet revolves around a star of mass M in a circular orbit of radius R with speed v, then
M =
Rv
2
G
.
13. Mass of the Milky Way The sun revolves around the center of mass of the Milky Way galaxy in an orbit that
is approximately circular, of radius a ≈ 2.8 × 10
17
km and velocity v ≈ 250 km/s. Use the result of Exercise 12 to
estimate the mass of the portion of the Milky Way inside the sun’s orbit (place all of this mass at the center of the orbit).
SOLUTION Let M be the mass of the portion of the Milky Way inside the sun’s orbit, assuming that all this mass is at
the center of the sun’s orbit. By Exercise 12, the following equality holds:
M =
av
2
G
.
We substitute the values a = 2.8 ×10
20
m, v = 250 ×10
3
m/s and G = 6.673 ×10
−11
m
3
kg
−1
s
−1
and compute the
mass M. This gives:
M =
2.8 · 10
20
· (250 · 10
3
)
2
6.673 · 10
−11
= 2.6225 ×10
41
kg.
The mass of the sun is 1.989 ×10
30
kg, hence M is 1.32 ×10
11
times the mass of the sun (132 billions times the mass
of the sun).
Conservation of Energy The total mechanical energy (kinetic plus potential) of a planet of mass m orbiting a
sun of mass M with position r and speed v = r
is
E =
1
2
mv
2
−
GMm
r
Use (2) and (9) to show that E is conserved, that is,
dE
dt
= 0.
15. Show that the total energy (11) of a planet in a circular orbit of radius R is E = −GMm/(2R). Hint: Use Exercise
8.
308 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
SOLUTION The total energy of a planet in a circular orbit of radius R is
E =
1
2
mv
2
−
GMm
r
=
1
2
mv
2
−
GMm
R
(1)
In Exercise 8 we showed that
v
2
=
GM
R
(2)
Substituting (2) in (1) we obtain:
E =
1
2
m
GM
R
−
GMm
R
= −
1
2
GMm
R
= −
GMm
2R
.
In Exercises 16–20, we consider a planetary orbit with orbital parameters p and e. The perihelion and aphelion of the
orbits are the points on the orbit closest to and farthest from the sun (Figure 7). Denote the distances from the sun at the
perihelion and aphelion by r
per
and r
ap
and the speeds of the planet at the perihelion and aphelion by v
per
and v
ap
.
F
2
F
1
y
x
O
Semimajor axis
Aphelion
Perihelion
v
per
r
v
ap
a
FIGURE 7 r and r
are perpendicular at the perihelion and aphelion.
Use the polar equation
r =
p
1 +e cos θ
to show that r
per
= a(1 −e) and r
ap
= a(1 +e).
17. Compute r
per
and r
ap
for the orbit of Mercury, which has eccentricity e = 0.244 (see the table in Exercise 1 for the
semimajor axis).
SOLUTION The length of the semimajor axis of the orbit of mercury is a = 5.79 · 10
7
km. We substitute a and e =
0.244 in the formulas for r
per
and r
ap
obtained in Exercise 16, to obtain the shortest and longest distances respectively.
This gives:
r
per
= a(1 −e) = 5.79 · 10
7
(1 −0.244) = 4.377 · 10
7
km
r
ap
= a(1 +e) = 5.79 · 10
7
(1 +0.244) = 7.203 · 10
7
km.
Prove the formulas
e =
r
ap
−r
per
r
ap
+r
per
, p =
2r
ap
r
per
r
ap
+r
per
19. Prove that v
per
(1 −e) = v
ap
(1 +e). Hint: r ×r
is constant by Eq. (5). Compute this cross product at the perihelion
and aphelion, noting that r is perpendicular to r
at these two points.
SOLUTION Since the vector J(t ) = r(t ) ×r
(t ) is constant, it is the same vector at the perigee and at the apogee, hence
we may equate the length of J(t ) at these two points. Since at the perigee and at the apogee r(t ) and r
(t ) are orthogonal
we have by properties of the cross product:
r
ap
×r
ap
= r
ap
r
ap
= r
ap
v
ap
r
per
×r
per
= r
per
r
per
= r
per
v
per
Equating the two values gives:
r
ap
v
ap
= r
per
v
per
(1)
In Exercise 16 we showed that r
per
= a(1 −e) and r
ap
= a(1 +e). Substituting in (1) we obtain:
a(1 +e)v
ap
= a(1 −e)v
per
(1 +e)v
ap
= (1 −e)v
per
Prove that v
per
=
_
_
GM
a
_
1 +e
1 −e
as follows:
(a) Use Conservation of Energy (see Exercise 14) to show that
v
2
per
−v
2
ap
= 2GM(r
−1
per
−r
−1
ap
)
(b) Show r
−1
per
−r
−1
ap
=
2e
a(1 −e
2
)
using Exercise 16.
(c) Show that v
2
per
−v
2
ap
= 4
e
(1 +e)
2
v
2
per
using Exercise 19. Then solve for v
per
using (a) and (b).
21. Show that the total mechanical energy E of a planet in an elliptical orbit with semimajor axis a is E = −
GMm
2a
.
Hint: Use Exercise 20 to compute the total energy at the perihelion.
SOLUTION The total energy of a planet of mass m orbiting a sun of mass M with position r and speed v = r
is
(given in Exercise 14):
E =
1
2
mv
2
−
GMm
r
(1)
S E C T I O N 14.6 Planetary Motion According to Kepler and Newton (ET Section 13.6) 309
The energy E is conserved, so we can compute it using any point on the elliptical orbit, for instance the perihelion. By
Exercise 16 and Exercise 20 we have:
r
per
= a(1 −e)
v
per
=
_
GM
a
1 +e
1 −e
(2)
Substituting (2) into (1) gives:
E =
1
2
m ·
GM
a
1 +e
1 −e
−
GMm
a(1 −e)
=
GMm
a(1 −e)
_
1 +e
2
−1
_
=
GMm
a(1 −e)
1 +e −2
2
=
GMm
a(1 −e)
e −1
2
= −
GMm
2a
Prove that v
2
= GM
_
2
r
−
1
a
_
at any point on an elliptical orbit with semimajor axis a, where r = r.
23. Two space shuttles A and B orbit the earth along the solid trajectory in Figure 8. Hoping to catch up to B,
the pilot of A applies a forward thrust to increase her shuttle’s kinetic energy. Use Exercise 21 to show that shuttle A will
move off into a larger orbit as shown in the ﬁgure. Then use Kepler’s Third Law to show that A’s orbital period T will
increase (and she will fall farther and farther behind B)!
B
Earth A
FIGURE 8
SOLUTION In Exercise 21 we showed that the total mechanical energy E of a planet in an elliptical orbit with semi
major axis a is
E =
−GMm
2a
(1)
Since E is increased, a is increased, resulting in moving to an elliptic orbit as the dashed orbit in the ﬁgure. Now, by
Kepler’s Third Law,
T
2
=
_
4π
2
GM
_
a
3
We conclude that the orbital period T of shuttle A is also increasing, which means that A will get further and further
behind B.
Further Insights and Challenges
In this exercise, we prove Eq. (3) in a rigorous fashion. Let r(t ) = r(t ) and let θ(t ) be the angle between r(t )
and the xaxis. Then r = r(t ) cos θ(t ), sin θ(t ).
(a) Prove that
d A
dt
=
1
2
r(t )
2
θ
(t ) by applying the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to the formula for area in
polar coordinates:
A(θ) =
1
2
_
θ
0
r(u)
2
du
(b) Show that J = r ×r
= r(t )
2
θ
(t ).
(c) Conclude that
d A
dt
=
1
2
J.
In Exercises 25–26, we prove Kepler’s Third Law. Figure 9 shows an elliptical orbit with polar equation
r =
p
1 +e cos θ
where p = J
2
/k. Let a and b be the semimajor and semiminor axes, respectively. The origin is located at F
1
.
F
2
F
1
B
A
Semimajor axis
Semiminor axis
a
a a
b
FIGURE 9
25. The goal of this exercise is to show that b =
√
pa.
(a) Show that F
1
A + F
2
A = 2a. Conclude that F
1
B + F
2
B = 2a and hence F
1
B = F
2
B = a.
(b) Show that F
1
A =
p
1 +e
and F
2
A =
p
1 −e
, and conclude that a =
p
1 −e
2
.
(c) Use the Pythagorean Theorem to prove that
b =
p
_
1 −e
2
=
√
pa
310 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
SOLUTION
(a) Since CF
2
= AF
1
, we have:
F
2
A = CA −CF
2
= 2a − F
1
A
Therefore,
F
1
A + F
2
A = 2a (1)
0
C A
B
F
2
F
1
The ellipse is the set of all points such that the sum of the distances to the two foci F
1
and F
2
is constant. Therefore,
F
1
A + F
2
A = F
1
B + F
2
B (2)
Combining (1) and (2), we obtain:
F
1
B + F
2
B = 2a (3)
The triangle F
2
BF
1
is isosceles, hence F
2
B = F
1
B and so we conclude that
F
1
B = F
2
B = a
(b) The polar equation of the ellipse, where the focus F
1
is at the origin is
r =
p
1 +e cos θ
0
C A
r
B
F
2
F
1
The point A corresponds to θ = 0, hence,
F
1
A =
p
1 +e cos 0
=
p
1 +e
(4)
The point C corresponds to θ = π hence,
F
1
C =
p
1 +e cos π
=
p
1 −e
We now ﬁnd F
2
A. Using the equality CF
2
= AF
1
we get:
F
2
A = F
2
F
1
+ F
1
A = F
2
F
1
+ F
2
C = F
1
C =
p
1 −e
That is,
F
2
A =
p
1 −e
(5)
Combining (1), (4), and (5) we obtain:
p
1 +e
+
p
1 −e
= 2a
Hence,
a =
1
2
_
p
1 +e
+
p
1 −e
_
=
p(1 −e) + p(1 +e)
2(1 +e)(1 −e)
=
2p
2
_
1 −e
2
_ =
p
1 −e
2
S E C T I O N 14.6 Planetary Motion According to Kepler and Newton (ET Section 13.6) 311
(c) We use Pythagoras’ Theorem for the triangle OBF
1
:
OB
2
+ OF
2
1
= BF
2
1
(6)
0
A
B
b
F
1
a
Using (4) we have
OF
1
= a − F
1
A = a −
p
1 +e
Also OB = b and BF
1
= a, hence (6) gives:
b
2
+
_
a −
p
1 +e
_
2
= a
2
We solve for b:
b
2
+a
2
−
2ap
1 +e
+
p
2
(1 +e)
2
= a
2
b
2
−
2ap
1 +e
+
p
2
(1 +e)
2
= 0
In part (b) we showed that a =
p
1−e
2
. We substitute to obtain:
b
2
−
2p
1 +e
·
p
1 −e
2
+
p
2
(1 +e)
2
= 0
b
2
=
2p
2
(1 +e)
2
(1 −e)
−
p
2
(1 +e)
2
=
2p
2
− p
2
(1 −e)
(1 +e)
2
(1 −e)
=
p
2
(1 +e)
(1 +e)
2
(1 −e)
=
p
2
1 −e
2
Hence,
b =
p
_
1 −e
2
Since 1 −e
2
=
p
a
we also have
b =
p
_
p
a
=
√
ap
We prove Kepler’s Third Law by computing the area A of the ellipse in two ways.
(a) Use Exercise 25 to show that A = (π
√
p)a
3/2
.
(b) Use Kepler’s First Law to show that A =
1
2
JT.
(c) Deduce that T
2
=
4π
2
GM
a
3
.
27. Let e
r
= cos θ, sin θ and e
θ
= −sin θ, cos θ. Write the position vector of a planet as r = re
r
, where r = r.
(a) Show that
de
θ
dθ
= −e
r
.
(b) Write Eq. (2) in the form
dv
dt
= −
k
r
2
e
r
and use the Chain Rule to show that
dv
dθ
dθ
dt
=
k
r
2
de
θ
dθ
(c) Show that
dv
dθ
=
k
J
de
θ
dθ
. Hint: Use Exercise 24 to show that
dθ
dt
= J/r
2
.
(d) Conclude that there is a constant vector w such that
v(θ) =
k
J
e
θ
+w
This shows that as θ varies from 0 to 2π, the velocity vector v traces out a circle of radius k/J with center at the
terminal point of w (Figure 10).
312 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
A D
w
C
B
v( ) v( )
D
Planetary orbit
A
C
Velocity circle
B
FIGURE 10 The terminal point of the velocity vector traces out the circle as the planet travels along its orbit.
SOLUTION
(a) Differentiating the vector e
θ
= −sin θ, cos θ with respect to θ gives:
de
θ
dθ
=
d
dθ
−sin θ, cos θ = −cos θ, −sin θ = −cos θ, sin θ = −e
r
(b) Eq. (2) is the following equality:
r
(t ) =
−k
r
3
r(t ) =
−GM
r
3
r(t )
Writing r = re
r
and r
(t ) =
d
dt
r
(t ) =
dv
dt
we get:
dv
dt
=
−GM
r
3
re
r
=
−GM
r
2
e
r
=
−GM
r
2
e
r
That is,
dv
dt
= −
GM
r
2
e
r
(1)
By the Chain Rule,
dv
dt
=
dv
dθ
·
dθ
dt
and by part (a)
de
θ
dθ
= −e
r
. Substituting in (1), we get:
dv
dθ
dθ
dt
=
GM
r
2
de
θ
dθ
(c) In Exercise 24 we showed that
2
d A
dt
= r ×r
= J ⇒
d A
dt
=
1
2
J
and
d A
dt
=
1
2
r
2
dθ
dt
Combining the two equalities we get:
1
2
r
2
dθ
dt
=
1
2
J ⇒
dθ
dt
=
J
r
2
Substituting in the equality obtained in part (b) we obtain:
dv
dθ
J
r
2
=
GM
r
2
de
θ
dθ
Denoting C =
GM
J
we obtain:
dv
dθ
=
GM
J
de
θ
dθ
= C
de
θ
dθ
(d) Integrating the two sides of
dv
dθ
= C
de
θ
dθ
we have
v(θ) =
_
dv
dθ
dθ = C
_
de
θ
dθ
dθ = Ce
θ
+u
where u is a constant vector. Notice that v(θ) − u = Ce
θ
= C, which is the equation of a circle of radius C
(recall, C = GM/J = k/J) centered at the terminal point of u.
Chapter Review Exercises 313
CHAPTER REVIEW EXERCISES
1. Determine the domains of the vectorvalued functions.
(a) r
1
(t ) =
_
t
−1
, (t +1)
−1
, sin
−1
t
_
(b) r
2
(t ) =
_
_
8 −t
3
, ln t, e
√
t
_
SOLUTION
(a) We ﬁnd the domain of r
1
(t ) =
_
t
−1
, (t +1)
−1
, sin
−1
t
_
. The function t
−1
is deﬁned for t = 0. (t +1)
−1
is deﬁned
for t = −1 and sin
−1
t is deﬁned for −1 ≤ t ≤ 1. Hence, the domain of r
1
(t ) is deﬁned by the following inequalities:
t = 0
t = −1 ⇒ −1 < t < 0
−1 ≤ t ≤ 1
or 0 < t ≤ 1
(b) We ﬁnd the domain of r
2
(t ) =
_
_
8 −t
3
, ln t, e
√
t
_
. The domain of
_
8 −t
3
is 8 − t
3
≥ 0. The domain of ln t is
t > 0 and e
√
t
is deﬁned for t ≥ 0. Hence, the domain of r
2
(t ) is deﬁned by the following inequalities:
8 −t
3
≥ 0
t > 0
t ≥ 0
⇒
t
3
≤ 8
t > 0
⇒ 0 < t ≤ 2
Sketch the paths r
1
(θ) = θ, cos θ and r
2
(θ) = cos θ, θ in the xyplane.
3. Find a vector parametrization of the intersection of the surfaces x
2
+ y
4
+2z
3
= 6 and x = y
2
in R
3
.
SOLUTION We need to ﬁnd a vector parametrization r(t ) = x(t ), y(t ), z(t ) for the intersection curve. Using t = y
as a parameter, we have x = t
2
and y = t . We substitute in the equation of the surface x
2
+ y
4
+2z
3
= 6 and solve for
z in terms of t . This gives:
t
4
+t
4
+2z
3
= 6
2t
4
+2z
3
= 6
z
3
= 3 −t
4
⇒ z =
3
_
3 −t
4
We obtain the following parametrization of the intersection curve:
r(t ) =
_
t
2
, t,
3
_
3 −t
4
_
.
Find a vector parametrization using trigonometric functions of the intersection of the plane x + y + z = 1 and
the elliptical cylinder
_
y
3
_
2
+
_
z
8
_
2
= 1 in R
3
.
In Exercises 5–10, calculate the derivative indicated.
5. r
(t ), where r(t ) =
_
1 −t, t
−2
, ln t
_
SOLUTION We use the Theorem on Componentwise Differentiation to compute the derivative r
(t ). We get
r
(t ) =
_
(1 −t )
, (t
−2
)
, (ln t )
_
=
_
−1, −2t
−3
,
1
t
_
r
(1), where r(t ) =
_
t
3
, 4t
2
, 7t
_
7. r
(0), where r(t ) =
_
e
2t
, e
−4t
2
, e
6t
_
SOLUTION We differentiate r(t ) componentwise to ﬁnd r
(t ):
r
(t ) =
_
(e
2t
)
, (e
−4t
2
)
, (e
6t
)
_
=
_
2e
2t
, −8t e
−4t
2
, 6e
6t
_
The derivative r
(0) is obtained by setting t = 0 in r
(t ). This gives
r
(0) =
_
2e
2·0
, −8 · 0e
−4·0
2
, 6e
6·0
_
= 2, 0, 6
r
(2), where r(t ) =
_
e
2t
, e
−4t
2
, e
6t
_
9.
d
dt
e
t
_
1, t, t
2
_
SOLUTION Using the Product Rule for differentiation gives
d
dt
e
t
_
1, t, t
2
_
= e
t
d
dt
_
1, t, t
2
_
+
_
e
t
_
_
1, t, t
2
_
= e
t
0, 1, 2t +e
t
_
1, t, t
2
_
= e
t
_
0, 1, 2t +
_
1, t, t
2
_
_
= e
t
_
1, 1 +t, 2t +t
2
_
314 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
d
dθ
r(cos θ), where r(s) =
_
s, 2s, s
2
_
In Exercises 11–14, calculate the derivative at t = 3 assuming that
r
1
(3) = 1, 1, 0 , r
2
(3) = 1, 1, 0
r
1
(3) = 0, 0, 1 , r
2
(3) = 0, 2, 4
11.
d
dt
(6r
1
(t ) −4 · r
2
(t ))
SOLUTION Using Differentiation Rules we obtain:
d
dt
(6r
1
(t ) −4r
2
(t ))
¸
¸
¸
¸
t =3
= 6r
1
(3) −4r
2
(3) = 6 · 0, 0, 1 −4 · 0, 2, 4
= 0, 0, 6 −0, 8, 16 = 0, −8, −10
d
dt
_
e
t
r
2
(t )
_ 13.
d
dt
_
r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t )
_
SOLUTION Using Product Rule for Dot Products we obtain:
d
dt
r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t ) = r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t ) +r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t )
Setting t = 3 gives:
d
dt
r
1
(t ) · r
2
(t )
¸
¸
¸
¸
t =3
= r
1
(3) · r
2
(3) +r
1
(3) · r
2
(3) = 1, 1, 0 · 0, 2, 4 +0, 0, 1 · 1, 1, 0 = 2 +0 = 2
d
dt
_
r
1
(t ) ×r
2
(t )
_
15. Calculate
_
3
0
_
4t +3, t
2
, −4t
3
_
dt .
SOLUTION By the deﬁnition of vectorvalued integration, we have
_
3
0
_
4t +3, t
2
, −4t
3
_
dt =
_
_
3
0
(4t +3) dt,
_
3
0
t
2
dt,
_
3
0
−4t
3
dt
_
(1)
We compute the integrals on the righthand side:
_
3
0
(4t +3) dt = 2t
2
+3t
¸
¸
¸
¸
3
0
= 2 · 9 +3 · 3 −0 = 27
_
3
0
t
2
dt =
t
3
3
¸
¸
¸
¸
3
0
=
3
3
3
= 9
_
3
0
−4t
3
dt = −t
4
¸
¸
¸
¸
3
0
= −3
4
= −81
Substituting in (1) gives the following integral:
_
3
0
_
4t +3, t
2
, −4t
3
_
dt = 27, 9, −81
Calculate
_
π
0
_
sin θ, θ, cos 2θ
_
dθ.
17. Find the unit tangent vector to r(t ) =
_
sin t, t, cos t
_
at t = π.
SOLUTION The unit tangent vector at t = π is
T(π) =
r
(π)
r
(π)
(1)
We differentiate r(t ) componentwise to obtain:
r
(t ) = cos t, 1, −sin t
Therefore,
r
(π) = cos π, 1, −sin π = −1, 1, 0
We compute the length of r
(π):
r
(π) =
_
(−1)
2
+1
2
+0
2
=
√
2
Chapter Review Exercises 315
Substituting in (1) gives:
T(π) =
_
−1
√
2
,
1
√
2
, 0
_
Find the unit tangent vector to r(t ) =
_
t
2
, tan
−1
t, t
_
at t = 1.
19. A particle located at (1, 1, 0) at time t = 0 follows a path whose velocity vector is v(t ) =
_
1, t, 2t
2
_
. Find the
particle’s location at t = 2.
SOLUTION We ﬁrst ﬁnd the path r(t ) by integrating the velocity vector v(t ):
r(t ) =
_
_
1, t, 2t
2
_
dt =
__
1 dt,
_
t dt,
_
2t
2
dt
_
=
_
t +c
1
,
1
2
t
2
+c
2
,
2
3
t
3
+c
3
_
Denoting by c = c
1
, c
2
, c
3
the constant vector, we obtain:
r(t ) =
_
t,
1
2
t
2
,
2
3
t
3
_
+c (1)
To ﬁnd the constant vector c, we use the given information on the initial position of the particle. At time t = 0 it is at
the point (1, 1, 0). That is, by (1):
r(0) = 0, 0, 0 +c = 1, 1, 0
or,
c = 1, 1, 0
We substitute in (1) to obtain:
r(t ) =
_
t,
1
2
t
2
,
2
3
t
3
_
+1, 1, 0 =
_
t +1,
1
2
t
2
+1,
2
3
t
3
_
Finally, we substitute t = 2 to obtain the particle’s location at t = 2:
r(2) =
_
2 +1,
1
2
· 2
2
+1,
2
3
· 2
3
_
=
_
3, 3,
16
3
_
At time t = 2 the particle is located at the point
_
3, 3,
16
3
_
Find the vectorvalued function r(t ) =
_
x(t ), y(t )
_
in R
2
satisfying r
(t ) = −r(t ) with initial conditions r(0) =
1, 2.
21. Compute the length of the path r(t ) =
_
sin 2t, cos 2t, 3t −1
_
for 1 ≤ t ≤ 3.
SOLUTION We use the formula for the arc length:
L =
_
3
1
r
(t ) dt (1)
We compute the derivative vector r
(t ) and its length:
r
(t ) = 2 cos 2t, −2 sin 2t, 3
r
(t ) =
_
(2 cos 2t )
2
+(−2 sin 2t )
2
+3
2
=
_
4 cos
2
2t +4 sin
2
2t +9
=
_
4
_
cos
2
2t +sin
2
2t
_
+9 =
√
4 · 1 +9 =
√
13
We substitute in (1) and compute the integral to obtain the following length:
L =
_
3
1
√
13 dt =
√
13t
¸
¸
¸
¸
3
1
= 2
√
13.
Express the length of the path r(t ) =
_
ln t, t, e
t
_
for 1 ≤ t ≤ 2 as a deﬁnite integral and use a computer algebra
system to ﬁnd its value to two decimal places.
23. A string in the shape of a helix has a height of 20 cm and makes four full rotations over a circle of radius 5 cm. Find
a parametrization r(t ) of the string and compute its length.
316 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
SOLUTION Since the radius is 5 cm and the height is 20 cm, the helix is traced by a parametrization of the form:
r(t ) = 5 cos at, 5 sin at, t , 0 ≤ t ≤ 20
Since the helix makes exactly 4 full rotations, we have:
a · 20 = 4 · 2π ⇒ a =
2π
5
The parametrization of the helix is, thus:
r(t ) =
_
5 cos
2πt
5
, 5 sin
2πt
5
, t
_
, 0 ≤ t ≤ 20
The helix is shown in the following ﬁgure:
0
5
5
0
20
15
10
5
0
5
5
To ﬁnd the length of the helix, we use the arc length formula:
L =
_
20
0
r
(t ) dt (1)
We ﬁnd r
(t ) and its length:
r
(t ) =
_
−5 ·
2π
5
sin
2πt
5
, 5 ·
2π
5
cos
2πt
5
, 1
_
=
_
−2π sin
2πt
5
, 2π cos
2πt
5
, 1
_
r
(t ) =
_
4π
2
sin
2
2πt
5
+4π
2
cos
2
2πt
5
+1 =
_
4π
2
_
sin
2
2πt
5
+cos
2
2πt
5
_
+1 =
_
1 +4π
2
Substituting in (1) we get:
L =
_
20
0
_
1 +4π
2
dt = 20
_
1 +4π
2
≈ 127.2
Find the minimum speed of a particle with trajectory r(t ) =
_
t, e
t −3
, e
4−t
_
.
25. Calculate the curvature κ(t ) for r(t ) =
_
t
−1
, ln t, t
_
and ﬁnd the unit tangent and normal vectors at t = 1.
SOLUTION The unit normal vector is deﬁned by:
N(t ) =
T
(t )
T
(t )
(1)
Since T(t ) =
r
(t )
r
(t )
, we must ﬁnd r
(t ) and its length:
r
(t ) =
d
dt
_
t
−1
, ln t, t
_
=
_
−t
−2
,
1
t
, 1
_
=
1
t
2
_
−1, t, t
2
_
r
(t ) =
1
t
2
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
(2)
Hence:
T(t ) =
r
(t )
r
(t )
=
_
−1
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
,
t
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
,
t
2
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
_
Chapter Review Exercises 317
Setting t = 1 gives:
T(1) =
_
−
1
√
3
,
1
√
3
,
1
√
3
_
We now compute T
(t ) and its length:
T
(t ) =
d
dt
_
−1
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
,
t
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
,
t
2
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
_
=
_ 2t +4t
3
2
√
1+t
2
+t
4
1 +t
2
+t
4
,
1 ·
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
−t ·
2t +4t
3
2
√
1+t
2
+t
4
1 +t
2
+t
4
,
2t
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
−t
2
·
2t +4t
3
2
√
1+t
2
+t
4
1 +t
2
+t
4
_
=
_
t +2t
3
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
_
3/2
,
1 −t
4
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
_
3/2
,
2t +t
3
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
_
3/2
_
T
(t ) =
1
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
_
3/2
_
_
t +2t
3
_
2
+
_
1 −t
4
_
2
+
_
2t +t
3
_
2
=
_
t
8
+5t
6
+6t
4
+5t
2
+1
_
1 +t
2
+t
4
_
3/2
Substituting in (1) we get:
N(t ) =
1
_
t
8
+5t
6
+6t
4
+5t
2
+1
_
t +2t
3
, 1 −t
4
, 2t +t
3
_
⇒ N(1) =
3
√
18
1, 0, 1
To ﬁnd the curvature we use the following formula:
κ(t ) =
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
r
(t )
3
(3)
We ﬁrst ﬁnd r
(t ):
r
(t ) =
d
dt
_
−t
−2
, t
−1
, 1
_
=
_
2t
−3
, −t
−2
, 0
_
=
_
2
t
3
, −
1
t
2
, 0
_
We compute the cross product:
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
−
1
t
2
1
t
1
2
t
3
−
1
t
2
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
1
t
2
i +
2
t
3
j +
_
1
t
4
−
2
t
4
_
k =
1
t
2
i +
2
t
3
j −
1
t
4
k
Hence:
_
_
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
_
_
=
_
_
1
t
2
_
2
+
_
2
t
3
_
2
+
_
−
1
t
4
_
2
=
_
1
t
4
+
4
t
6
+
1
t
8
=
1
t
4
_
t
4
+4t
2
+1 (4)
We now substitute (2) and (4) in (3) to obtain the following curvature:
κ(t ) =
t
2
_
t
4
+4t
2
+1
__
t
4
+t
2
+1
_
3
Setting t = 1 we get:
κ(1) =
√
2
3
A specially trained mouse runs counterclockwise in a circle of radius 2 ft on the ﬂoor of an elevator with speed
1 ft/s while the elevator ascends from ground level (along the zaxis) at a speed of 40 ft/s. Find the mouse’s accel
eration vector as a function of time. Assume that the circle is centered at the origin of the xyplane and the mouse is
at (2, 0, 0) at t = 0.
In Exercises 27–30, let r(t ) =
_
t, e
−t
2 _
.
27. Compute the curvature function κ(t ).
SOLUTION The curvature is the following function:
κ(t ) =
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
r
(t )
3
(1)
318 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
We ﬁnd the derivatives of r(t ):
r
(t ) =
_
1, −2t e
−t
2 _
r
(t ) =
_
0, −2e
−t
2
−2t · (−2t )e
−t
2 _
=
_
0, (4t
2
−2)e
−t
2 _
Therefore:
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) =
_
i −2t e
−t
2
j
_
×(4t
2
−2)e
−t
2
j = (4t
2
−2)e
−t
2
k =
_
0, 0, (4t
2
−2)e
−t
2 _
We compute the lengths of the vectors in (1):
r
(t ) =
_
1
2
+
_
−2t e
−t
2
_
2
=
_
1 +4t
2
e
−2t
2
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) = 4t
2
−2e
−t
2
Substituting in (1) gives the following curvature:
κ(t ) =
4t
2
−2e
−t
2
_
1 +4t
2
e
−2t
2
_
3/2
Plot r(t ) and κ(t ) on the same set of axes and estimate the values of t where the curvature has a maximum
value.
29. Find the unit tangent and normal vectors at t = 0 and t = 1.
SOLUTION The unit tangent vector is deﬁned by:
T(t ) =
r
(t )
r
(t )
(1)
The derivative of r(t ) =
_
t, e
−t
2
_
is:
r
(t ) =
_
1, −2t e
−t
2 _
At t = 0 and t = 1 we have:
r
(0) =
_
1, −2 · 0 · e
−0
2 _
= 1, 0
r
(0) =
_
1
2
+0
2
= 1
r
(1) =
_
1, −2 · 1 · e
−1
2 _
=
_
1, −
2
e
_
r
(1) =
_
1
2
+
_
−
2
e
_
2
=
_
1 +
4
e
2
=
1
e
_
e
2
+4
Substituting in (1) we obtain:
T(0) =
r
(0)
r
(0)
= 1, 0
T(1) =
r
(1)
r
(1)
=
_
1, −
2
e
_
1
e
_
e
2
+4
=
_
e
_
e
2
+4
,
−2
_
e
2
+4
_
The unit normal vector is a unit vector orthogonal to r
(t ) =
_
1, −2t e
−t
2
_
. We observe that
_
2t e
−t
2
, 1
_
is orthogonal to
r
(t ), since their dot product is zero, hence N(t ) is a unit vector in the direction of
_
2t e
−t
2
, 1
_
or −
_
2t e
−t
2
, 1
_
.
Recall that N(t ) points in the direction of bending. A graph of r(t ) (which is also the graph of y = e
−x
2
) helps us
ﬁnd the appropriate direction. It is easy to show (by taking y
and y
) that the inﬂection points occur at x = ±1/
√
2.
Thus, we get the following picture:
xx
NN
NN
y
1
0 1
2
1
2
Chapter Review Exercises 319
We conclude that:
N(t ) =
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
_
−2t e
−t
2
, −1
_
_
1 +4t
2
e
−2t
2
, t  <
1
√
2
_
2t e
−t
2
, 1
_
_
1 +4t
2
e
−2t
2
, t  >
1
√
2
For t = 0 and t = 1 we get:
N(0) = 0, −1 , N(1) =
_
2e
−1
, 1
_
_
1 +4e
−2
=
_
2
_
e
2
+4
,
e
_
e
2
+4
_
Write the acceleration vector at t = 1 as a sum of tangential and normal components.
31. Find the curvature κ(t ) and unit normal vector N(t ) for r(t ) =
_
sin t, sin t, cos t
_
.
SOLUTION The curvature is the following function:
κ(t ) =
r
(t ) ×r
(t )
r
(t )
3
(1)
We compute the derivatives of r(t ) = sin t, sin t, cos t :
r
(t ) = cos t, cos t, −sin t ,
r
(t ) = −sin t, −sin t, −cos t
We calculate the cross product:
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
cos t cos t −sin t
−sin t −sin t −cos t
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
_
−cos
2
t −sin
2
t
_
i −
_
−cos
2
t −sin
2
t
_
j +(−cos t sin t +cos t sin t )k
= −i +j = −1, 1, 0
We ﬁnd the lengths of the vectors in (1):
r
(t ) ×r
(t ) = −1, 1, 0 =
√
2
_
_
r
(t )
_
_
=
_
cos
2
t +cos
2
t +sin
2
t =
_
1 +cos
2
t
Substituting in (1) gives the following curvature:
κ(t ) =
√
2
_
1 +cos
2
t
_
3/2
The unit normal is the following vector:
N(t ) =
T
(t )
T
(t )
(2)
We ﬁnd the unit tangent vector:
T(t ) =
r
(t )
r
(t )
=
1
_
1 +cos
2
t
cos t, cos t, −sin t
We differentiate T(t ) using the Product Rule:
T
(t ) =
1
_
1 +cos
2
t
−sin t, −sin t, −cos t +
2 cos t sin t
2
√
1+cos
2
t
1 +cos
2
t
cos t, cos t, −sin t
=
1
_
1 +cos
2
t
−sin t, −sin t, −cos t +
cos t sin t
_
1 +cos
2
t
_
3/2
cos t, cos t, −sin t
=
1
_
1 +cos
2
t
_
3/2
_
(1 +cos
2
t )−sin t, −sin t, −cos t +sin t cos t cos t, cos t, −sin t
_
=
1
_
1 +cos
2
t
_
3/2
·
_
−sin t, −sin t, −cos t −cos
3
t −sin
2
t cos t
_
320 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
=
1
_
1 +cos
2
t
_
3/2
· −sin t, −sin t, −2 cos t
Hence:
T
(t ) =
1
_
1 +cos
2
t
_
3/2
_
2 sin
2
+4 cos
2
t =
√
2
_
1 +cos
2
t
_
1 +cos
2
t
_
3/2
=
√
2
1 +cos
2
t
Thus,
N(t ) =
−1
√
2
·
1
_
1 +cos
2
t
· sin t, sin t, 2 cos t
Find the curvature κ(t ) and unit normal vector N(t ) for r(t ) =
_
ln t, t
−1
, t
−2
_
.
In Exercises 33–34, write the acceleration vector a at the point indicated as a sum of tangential and normal components.
33. r(θ) =
_
cos θ, sin 2θ
_
, θ =
π
4
SOLUTION
Step 1. Compute T and a
T
. Since r(θ) = cos θ, sin 2θ, we have r
(θ) = −sin θ, 2 cos 2θ and r
(θ) =
−cos θ, −4 sin 2θ. Thus, at θ =
π
4
,
v = r
_
π
4
_
=
_
−sin
π
4
, 2 cos
π
2
_
=
_
−
1
√
2
, 0
_
T =
v
v
=
_
−
1
√
2
, 0
_
_
_
1
√
2
_
2
+0
=
√
2
_
−
1
√
2
, 0
_
= −1, 0
a = r
_
π
4
_
=
_
−cos
π
4
, −4 sin
π
2
_
=
_
−
1
√
2
, −4
_
a
T
= a · T =
_
−
1
√
2
, −4
_
· −1, 0 =
1
√
2
Step 2. Compute a
N
and N. We have
a
N
N = a −a
T
T =
_
−
1
√
2
, −4
_
−
1
√
2
−1, 0 = 0, −4
Since N is a unit vector, we can ﬁnd a
N
by:
a
N
= a
N
N = 0, −4 = 4
Therefore,
N =
a
N
N
a
N
=
0, −4
4
= 0, −1
Step 3. Write the decomposition. We found that a
T
=
1
√
2
and a
N
= 4, hence the decomposition of a is
a = a
T
T +a
N
N =
1
√
2
T +4N
where T = −1, 0 and N = 0, −1.
r(t ) =
_
t
2
, t
3
_
, t = 2
35. Find the osculating circle to the curve y = e
−x
2
at x = 0.
SOLUTION We ﬁrst ﬁnd the curvature, using the formula for the curvature of a graph in the plane:
κ(x) =
y
(x)
_
1 + y
(x)
2
_
3/2
(1)
Since y = e
−x
2
, we have:
y
(x) = −2xe
−x
2
,
y
(x) = −2e
−x
2
+4x
2
e
−x
2
= 2
_
2x
2
−1
_
e
−x
2
Chapter Review Exercises 321
Substituting in (1) we obtain the following curvature at x = 0:
κ(x) =
y
(0)
_
1 + y
(0)
2
_
3/2
=
 −2
(1 +0)
3/2
= 2 (2)
We now ﬁnd the osculating circle at x = 0. The radius of the osculating circle is R =
1
κ(0)
=
1
2
, and since the graph of
y = e
−x
2
is symmetric about the yaxis, so also must be the osculating circle (at x = 0). The circle touches the graph at
(0, 1), is symmetric about the yaxis, and has radius
1
2
, so it must be centered at
_
0,
1
2
_
. Therefore it is parametrized by,
c(t ) =
_
0,
1
2
_
+
1
2
cos t, sin t , 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π
Find the osculating circle to the curve y = ln x at x = 1.
37. If a planet is in “orbit” around a sun whose mass is zero, Newton’s Laws imply that the position vector of the plane
satisﬁes r
(t ) = 0. Show that in this case, the orbit is the straight line with parametrization r(t ) = r +t v, where r = r(0)
and v = r
(0) (Figure 1).
Sun
Planet
r(0)
v
r(t) = r(0) + t v
FIGURE 1
SOLUTION Integrating r
(t ) = 0 gives:
r
(t ) = c
The constant c is r
(0) = v(0). That is,
r
(t ) = v
We integrate again:
r(t ) = vt +d
The constant d is r = r(0). Hence, r(t ) = r +t v, where r = r(0) and v = r
(0).
Continuing with Exercise 37, show that the area A swept out by the radial vector r(t ) over the time interval [0, t ]
is equal to A =
1
2
r(0) ×vt . Thus, Kepler’s Second Law continues to hold since area is swept out at the constant
rate
1
2
r(0) ×v.
39. Suppose that the planetary orbit in Figure 2 is an ellipse with eccentricity e (by deﬁnition, e = c/a). Use Kepler’s
Second Law to show that if the period of the orbit is T, the time it takes for a planet to travel from A
to B
is equal to
_
1
4
+
e
2π
_
T
(c, 0)
Sun
y
x
O
B
b
B′
a A′ A
FIGURE 2
SOLUTION By the Law of Equal Areas, the position vector pointing from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas
in equal times. We denote by S
1
the area swept by the position vector when the planet moves from A
to B
, and t is the
desired time. Since the position vector sweeps out the whole area of the ellipse (πab) in time T, the Law of Equal Areas
implies that:
S
1
πab
=
t
T
⇒ t =
T S
1
πab
(1)
We now ﬁnd the area S
1
as the sum of the area of a quarter of the ellipse and the area of the triangle ODB. That is,
S
1
=
πab
4
+
OD · OB
2
=
πab
4
+
cb
2
=
b
4
(πa +2c)
322 C HA P T E R 14 CALCULUS OF VECTOR VALUED FUNCTI ONS (ET CHAPTER 13)
Substituting in (1) we get:
t =
Tb(πa +2c)
4πab
=
T(πa +2c)
4πa
= T
_
1
4
+
1
2π
c
a
_
= T
_
1
4
+
e
2π
_
D(c, 0)
Sun
y
x
O
S
1
b
B′
a A′
The period of Mercury is approximately 88 days and its orbit has eccentricity 0.205. How much longer does it
take Mercury to travel from A
to B
than from B
to A (Figure 2)?
242
C H A P T E R 14
C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R  VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S
(ET CHAPTER 13)
5. How do the paths r1 (t) = cos t, sin t and r2 (t) = sin t, cos t around the unit circle differ?
SOLUTION The two paths describe the unit circle. However, as t increases from 0 to 2π , the point on the path sin ti + cos tj moves in a clockwise direction, whereas the point on the path cos ti + sin tj moves in a counterclockwise direction.
6. (a) (c) (e)
Which three of the following vectorvalued functions parametrize the same space curve? (−2 + cos t)i + 9j + (3 − sin t)k (b) (2 + cos t)i − 9j + (−3 − sin t)k (−2 + cos 3t)i + 9j + (3 − sin 3t)k (d) (−2 − cos t)i + 9j + (3 + sin t)k (2 + cos t)i + 9j + (3 + sin t)k
SOLUTION All the curves except for (b) lie in the vertical plane y = 9. We identify each one of the curves (a), (c), (d) and (e). (a) The parametric equations are:
x = −2 + cos t, Hence,
y = 9,
z = 3 − sin t
(x + 2)2 + (z − 3)2 = (cos t)2 + (− sin t)2 = 1 This is the circle of radius 1 in the plane y = 9, centered at (−2, 9, 3). (c) The parametric equations are: x = −2 + cos 3t, Hence, (x + 2)2 + (z − 3)2 = (cos 3t)2 + (− sin 3t)2 = 1 This is the circle of radius 1 in the plane y = 9, centered at (−2, 9, 3). (d) In this curve we have: x = −2 − cos t, Hence, (x + 2)2 + (z − 3)2 = (− cos t)2 + (sin t)2 = 1 Again, the circle of radius 1 in the plane y = 9, centered at (−2, 9, 3). (e) In this parametrization we have: x = 2 + cos t, Hence, (x − 2)2 + (z − 3)2 = (cos t)2 + (sin t)2 = 1 This is the circle of radius 1 in the plane y = 9, centered at (2, 9, 3). We conclude that (a), (c) and (d) parametrize the same circle whereas (b) and (e) are different curves. y = 9, z = 3 + sin t y = 9, z = 3 + sin t y = 9, z = 3 − sin 3t
Exercises
1 1. What is the domain of r(t) = et i + j + (t + 1)−3 k? t
SOLUTION
r(t) is deﬁned for t = 0 and t = −1, hence the domain of r(t) is: D = {t ∈ R : t = 0, t = −1}
3. Find a vector parametrization of the line through P = (3, −5, 7) in the direction v = 3, 0, 1 . √ What is the domain of r(s) = es i + sj + cos sk? SOLUTION We use the vector parametrization of the line to obtain: − → r(t) = O P + tv = 3, −5, 7 + t 3, 0, 1 = 3 + 3t, −5, 7 + t or in the form: r(t) = (3 + 3t)i − 5j + (7 + t)k Find a direction vector for the line with parametrization r(t) = (4 − t)i + (2 + 5t)j + 1 tk. 2
S E C T I O N 14.1
VectorValued Functions
(ET Section 13.1)
243
5. Match the space curves in Figure 8 with their projections onto the x yplane in Figure 9.
z y z y z y x x
(A) (B)
x
(C)
FIGURE 8
y y y
x
x
x
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
FIGURE 9
SOLUTION The projection of curve (C) onto the x yplane is neither a segment nor a periodic wave. Hence, the correct projection is (iii), rather than the two other graphs. The projection of curve (A) onto the x yplane is a vertical line, hence the corresponding projection is (ii). The projection of curve (B) onto the x yplane is a periodic wave as illustrated in (i).
7. Match the vectorvalued functions (a)–(f) with the space curves (i)–(vi) in Figure 10. Match the space curves in Figure 8 with the following vectorvalued functions: (b) r(t) = cos t, sin t, sin 12t (a) r(t) = t + 15, e0.08t cos t, e0.08t sin t (a) r1 (t) = cos 2t, cos t, sin t 25t (c) r(t) r2 (t) = t, cos 2t, sin 2t (d) r(t) = cos3 t, sin3 t, sin 2t (b) = t, t, 1 + t2 (c) = t, = 1, (f) r(t) = cos t, sin t, cos t sin 12t (e) r(t) r3 (t) t 2 , 2t t, t
z y y x x x z z y
(i) z
(ii) z y
(iii) z
x
y
x x
y
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
FIGURE 10
SOLUTION
(a) (v) (d) (vi)
(b) (i) (e) (iv)
(c) (ii) (f) (iii)
9. Match the space curves (A)–(C) in Figure 11 with their projections (i)–(iii) onto the x yplane. Which of the following curves have the same projection onto the x yplane? z z z (a) r1 (t) = t, t 2 , et (b) r2 (t) = et , t 2 , t (c) r3 (t) = t, t 2 , cos t
y y x x (A) z y (B) z y y x x x (i) (ii) (iii) (C) z x y
FIGURE 11
244
C H A P T E R 14
C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R  VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S
(ET CHAPTER 13)
SOLUTION Observing the curves and the projections onto the x yplane we conclude that: Projection (i) corresponds to curve (C); Projection (ii) corresponds to curve (A); Projection (iii) corresponds to curve (B).
In Exercises 10–13, the function r(t) traces a circle. Determine the radius, center, and plane containing the circle. 11. r(t) = 7i + (12 cos t)j + (12 sin t)k r(t) = (9 cos t)i + (9 sin t)j SOLUTION We have: x(t) = 7, Hence, y(t)2 + z(t)2 = 144 cos2 t + 144 sin2 t = 144 cos2 t + sin2 t = 144 This √ is the equation of a circle in the vertical plane x = 7. The circle is centered at the point (7, 0, 0) and its radius is 144 = 12. 13. r(t) = 6 + 3 sin t, 9, 4 + 3 cos t r(t) = sin t, 0, 4 + cos t SOLUTION Since y(t) = 9 the curve is contained in the vertical plane y = 9. By the given equations, x(t) = 6 + 3 sin t and z = 4 + 3 cos t, hence: x −6 2 + 3 z−4 2 = sin2 t + cos2 t = 1 3 y(t) = 12 cos t, z(t) = 12 sin t
We conclude that the function traces a circle in the vertical plane y = 9, centered at the point (6, 9, 4) and with radius 3. 15. Do Describe the projections of the circle r(t) 16) sin t, 0, 4 + cos tr(t) = the+ t, 2 + t 2 , planes. either of P = (4, 11, 20) or Q = (−1, 6, = lie on the curve onto 1 coordinate t 4 ? SOLUTION The point P = (4, 11, 20) lies on the curve r(t) = 1 + t, 2 + t 2 , t 4 if there exists a value of t such that − → O P = r(t). That is, 4, 11, 20 = 1 + t, 2 + t 2 , t 4 Equating like components we get: 1+t =4 2 + t 2 = 11 t 4 = 20 The ﬁrst equation implies that t = 3, but this value does not satisfy the third equation. We conclude that P does not lie on the curve. The point Q = (−1, 6, 16) lies on the curve if there exists a value of t such that: −1, 6, 16 = 1 + t, 2 + t 2 , t 4 or equivalently: 1 + t = −1 2 + t2 = 6 t 4 = 16 These equations have the solution t = −2, hence Q = (−1, 6, 16) lies on the curve. 17. Find the points where the path r(t) = sin t, cos t, sin t cos 2t intersects the x yplane. (a) Describe the curve r(t) = t cos t, t sin t, t and its projections onto the x y and x zplanes. SOLUTION The curve intersects the x yplane at the points where z = 0. That is, sin t cos 2t = 0 and so either sin t = 0 (b) Plot r(t) with a computer algebra system if you have one. or cos 2t = 0. The solutions are, thus: t = π k or t =
π πk + , 4 2
k = 0, ±1, ±2, . . .
The values t = π k yield the points: (sin π k, cos π k, 0) = 0, (−1)k , 0 . The values t = π + π k yield the points: 4 2 k = 0 : sin k = 1 : sin k = 2 : sin
π π , cos , 0 = 4 4
1 1 √ , √ ,0 2 2 1 1 √ ,−√ ,0 2 2
3π 3π , cos ,0 = 4 4
1 5π 1 5π , cos ,0 = −√ ,−√ ,0 4 4 2 2
and plot this Use a CAS (Figure 13). y 2 + z 2 = 9. then there exists a value of θ such that x = z cos θ . 1 sin 2θ . We conclude that the curve intersects the x yplane at the following points: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (0. z y x FIGURE 13 Intersection of the surfaces x 2 + y 2 = 1 and z = 4x 2 . y. SOLUTION We ﬁrst verify that x = z cos θ . z) (1) The points (x. The points on these surfaces are of the form: x 2 + y2 = z2: x = z2: (z cos θ . z) (z 2 . That is. Parametrize the intersection of the surfaces SOLUTION The curve in Exercise 18 is the intersection of the surfaces y 2 − z 2 = x − 2. − √ . parametrize the intersection of the cylinders x 2 + y 2 = 1 and x 2 + z 2 = 1 (use two sine and cosine to curve using vectorvalued functions). √ . − √ . and z = z satisfy the equation of the surface: 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a) Parametrize each of x + y parts of C corresponding = z ≥cos θ + ≤ 0 taking z = z as parameter. gives: cos using t = y as the parameter (two vector functions are needed as in Example 2). 0 . Find a parametrization of the curve in Exercise 18 using trigonometric functions. √ .S E C T I O N 14. The second equation implies that y = 0 or y = cos θ sin θ = 1 sin 2θ . x = y = looks like a ﬁgure eight lying on a Since x 2Show that 2 .0 = −√ . z sin θ . hence there exists θ such that x = cos θ . z) for some θ . − √ . lies have x ≤ z of radius 1z. If x < 0 and y < 0 we choose θ such that π < θ < 3π .1 VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13. Substituting in the ﬁrst equation and using the identity 2 t − sin2 t = cos 2t. √ . we choose θ0 such that 0 < θ0 < π . z z 0 z 0 y z2 − x 2 =± =± 1− z z2 x 2 = ± 1 − cos2 θ0 = ± sin θ0 z If x and y are both positive. y2 + z2 = 9 y 2 + z 2 = 9 is parametrized by y = 3 cos t. x = cos2 θ . then 0). 3 cos t. Then describe the projections of this curve on the three coordinate planes. z 2= 3 sin 2.alsoThis curve0 and any value of θ is adequate. Use this to ﬁnd a 2 2 2 Viviani’s Curve C is the intersection of the θ as parameter. x = 2 + y 2 − z 2 = 2 + (3 cos t)2 − (3 sin t)2 = 2 + 9 cos2 t − sin2 t = 2 + 9 cos 2t We obtain the following trigonometric parametrization: r(t) = 2 + 9 cos 2t. We now show that if (x. y = z (Figure 12). Show that any point on x 2 + y 2 = z 2 can be written in the form (z cos θ . 2 The x coordinate is obtained by substituting z = cos θ in x = z cos θ (or in x = z 2 ). z) satisﬁes x 2 + y 2 = z 2 . 0). Viviani’s curve is the intersection 2 of the surfaces x 2 + y 2 = z 2 and x = z 2 . If sphere [Figure1 and y ≤ 1. The circle y 2 − z = x − t. y = z sin θ . the two = z cos θ + z sin θ to x 0 and x sin θ = t (b) Describe the projection of C onto the x yplane. 3 sin t 21. z) on the intersection curve must satisfy the following equations: z 2 = z cos θ y = z sin θ The ﬁrst equation implies that z = 0 or z = cos θ . 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 19. y. In either case we can represent the points on the surface as required. y. (0. Hence. − √ . and if x < 0 and y > 0 we choose θ such 0 0 0 0 z z z z 2 2 that π < θ0 < π . (c) + y 2 = z C we on the sphere and y ≤ with z = 0. If x > 0 and y < 0 we choose θ0 such that z z z z 2 3π < θ < 2π . z sin θ . 0 . y = z sin θ . cos θ 2 23. 2 parametrization of Viviani’s curve (Exercise 20) with surfaces x + y = z . 0). 0 . We obtain the following vector parametrization of the curve: r(t) = cos2 θ . If center (0. Use sine and cosine to parametrize the intersection of the surfaces x 2 + y 2 = 1 and z = 4x 2 . cos . √ . √ . 1. 1.1) 245 k = 3 : sin 7π 1 1 7π . −1.0 4 4 2 2 (Other values of k do not provide new points). z = 0 then x ≤ 12(B)]. .
Using x = t as parameter we obtain the following parametrization: r(t) = t. sin t.e. 29. y. z). The vertical line passing through the point (3. 25. Use hyperbolic functions to parametrize the intersection of the surfaces x 2 − y 2 = 4. 0) SOLUTION The points of the vertical line passing through the point (3. 15x). 1. −4. 0) 2 3 .. 2. hence the xcoordinates of the points on the circle are x = 1. y. 3t. 4 cos2 t Using the CAS we obtain the following curve: z x = cos t. ﬁnd a parametrization of the curve. The projection of the circle on the yzplane is a circle of radius 2 centered at (2. The intersection x the plane 2 = 1 with the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 of 2 2 y y The ellipse + = 1 in the x yplane. that is the line z = 5y. z) on the intersection curve must satisfy the following equations: x = cos t y = sin t ⇒ z = 4x 2 We obtain the vector parametrization: r(t) = cos t. t . 2. 2. z = x y. The projection of the line on the x yplane is the line through the origin having slope 3. 31. 5). 2 + 2 cos t. 2. 4x 2 ) The points (x. z = 5 + 2 sin t We conclude that the points on the required circle can be written as (1. translated to have center (9. z = 4 cos2 t 4 2 –1 –1 –2 1 1 2 y x r(t) = cos t. Thus. that is the line y = 3x in the x yplane. 4 cos2 t In Exercises 25–34. z) (x. sin t. the points on the desired line satisfy the following equalities: y = 3x ⇒ z = 5y y = 3x.246 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . y/ z = 5) SOLUTION We denote by (x. 2. y = sin t. 2 + 2 cos t. 2) slope 5 (i. The projection of the line on the yzplane is the line through the origin with slope 5. 5). The line through the origin whose projection on the x yplane is a line of slope 3 and on the yzplane is a line of The line passing through (1. 5) in a plane parallel to the yzplane The horizontal circle of radius 1 with center (2. z = 5 · 3x = 15x We conclude that the points on the line are all the points in the form (x. −∞ < t < ∞ 27. z) the points on the line. 4) and (4. 0. This circle is parametrized by: y = 2 + 2 cos t. 0) can be written as (3. The circle of radius 2 with center (1. −1. 15t . This gives the following parametrization: r(t) = 1. 5 + 2 sin t . y. 2. 4) SOLUTION The circle is parallel to the yzplane and centered at (1.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S SOLUTION (ET CHAPTER 13) The points on the cylinder x 2 + y 2 = 1 and on the parabolic cylinder z = 4x 2 can be written in the form: x 2 + y 2 = 1: z = 4x 2 : (cos t. 5 + 2 sin t). 3x. Using z = t as parameter we get the following parametrization: r(t) = 3. sin t.
sin t . 2 2 yielding the following parametrization: √ √ 1 3 3 cos t. hence the ycoordinate of the points on this ellipse is y = 1. 23 sin t . 5 + 3 sin t). 3 This ellipse is parametrized by the following equations: x = 3 + 2 cos t. Therefore. 1. z = 5 + 3 sin t. (b) If r1 and r2 collide. as illustrated in the following example: r1 (t) = cos t. The ellipse + = 1 in The intersection of the surfacesthe x zplane. then they collide. We say that z 2 y 2 = 1. Which of the following are true? (a) If r1 and r2 intersect.1 SOLUTION VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13. Therefore. translated to have center (3. In Exercises 35–37. r1 (t) and r2 (t) may intersect but the point of intersection may correspond to different values of the parameters in the two curves. assume that two paths r1 (t) and r2 (t) intersect if there is a point P lying on both curves. 5) [Figure 14(B)] 1 ) 35. SOLUTION (a) This statement is wrong. z = 23 sin t. 1 (the horizontal line y = 1) y (0. The x and z coordinates satisfy the equation of the ellipse: x −3 2 + 2 z−5 2 = 1. 1. 1. 5 + 3 sin t . then they intersect. 1. . sin t (the unit circle) r2 (s) = s.S E C T I O N 14. (c) Intersection depends only on the underlying curves traced by r1 and r2 but collision depends on the actual parametrizations. the points on 2 √ √ the intersection of the plane y = 1 and the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1. SOLUTION The translated ellipse is in the vertical plane y = 1.1) 247 Substituting y = 1 in the equation of the sphere gives: 2 x2 + 1 2 + z2 = 1 2 ⇒ x 2 + z2 = √ 3 4 √ This circle in the horizontal plane y = 1 has the parametrization x = 23 cos t. center (3. 1 . This gives the following parametrization: r(t) = 3 + 2 cos t. the points on the translated ellipse can be written as (3 + 2 cos t. r(t) = 2 2 2 x 2 z 2 33. translated to have The (t) collide r1 (t) and r2ellipse 2 if r+(t03 = r2 (t0 ) at some time t0 . 1) x . can be written in the form 23 cos t. 5) [Figure 14(A)] 2 3 z = x 2 − y2 and z = zx 2 + x y − 1 z 1 x 3 (A) y x 3 (B) 1 y FIGURE 14 The ellipses described in Exercise 33 and 34.
248
C H A P T E R 14
C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R  VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S
(ET CHAPTER 13)
The point of intersection (0, 1) corresponds to t = π and s = 0. 2 (b) This statement is true. If r1 (t0 ) = r2 (t0 ), then the head of the vector r1 (t0 ) (or r2 (t0 )) is a point of intersection of the two curves. (c) The statement is true. Intersection is a geometric property of the curves and it is independent of the parametrization we choose for the curves. Collision depends on the actual parametrization. Notice that if we parametrize the line y = 1 in the example given in part (a) by r3 (s) = s − π , 1 , then r1 π = r3 π hence the two paths collide. 2 2 2 37. Determine whether r1 and r2 collide or intersect: Determine whether r1 and r2 collide or intersect: r1 (t) = t, t 2 , t 3 , r (t) = 4t + 6, 4t 2 , 7 − t r1 (t) = t 2 2 3, t + 1, 6t −1 + SOLUTION The two paths collide if there exists a value of t such that: r2 (t) = 4t, 2t − 2, t 2 − 7 t, t 2 , t 3 = 4t + 6, 4t 2 , 7 − t Equating corresponding components we obtain the following equations: t = 4t + 6 t 2 = 4t 2 t3 = 7 − t The second equation implies that t = 0, but this value does not satisfy the other equations. Therefore, the equations have no solution, which means that the paths do not collide. The two paths intersect if there exist values of t and s such that: t, t 2 , t 3 = 4s + 6, 4s 2 , 7 − s Or equivalently: t = 4s + 6 t 2 = 4s 2 t3 = 7 − s The second equation implies that t1 = 2s or t2 = −2s. Substituting t1 = 2s and t2 = −2s in the ﬁrst equation gives: t1 = 2s : 2s = 4s + 6 t2 = −2s : −2s = 4s + 6 The solutions of the ﬁrst two equations are thus (t1 , s1 ) = (−6, −3); (t2 , s2 ) = (2, −1) ⇒ ⇒ 2s = −6 6s = −6 ⇒ ⇒ s1 = −3 s2 = −1 (1)
(t1 , s1 ) does not satisfy the third equation whereas (t2 , s2 ) does. We conclude that the equations in (1) have a solution t = 2, s = −1, hence the two paths intersect.
Further Insights and Challenges
39. Find the maximum height above the x yplane of a point on r(t) = et , sin t, t (4 − t) . Sketch the curve parametrized by r(t) = t + t, t − t . SOLUTION The height of a point is the value of the zcoordinate of the point. Therefore we need to maximize the function z = t (4 − t). z(t) is a quadratic function having the roots t = 0 and t = 4, hence the maximum value is obtained at the midpoint of the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 4, that is at t = 2. The corresponding value of z is: z max = z(2) = 2 (4 − 2) = 4 The point of maximum height is, thus, (e2 , sin 2, 4) ≈ (7.39, 0.91, 4) 41. Now reprove the result of Exercise 40 using vector geometry. Assume that the cylinder has equation x 2 + Let C be the curve obtained by intersecting a cylinder of radius r and a plane. Insert two spheres of radius r y 2 = r 2 the cylinder aboveequation z = ax + by. let F and F be the points where the plane is tangent to the sphere into and the plane has and below the plane, and 1 2 (a) Show that the upper and lowervertical distance between the equators of the two spheres. Rediscover Archimedes’s [Figure 15(A)]. Let K be the spheres in Figure 15 have centers proof that C is an ellipse by showing that every point P on C satisﬁes C1 = 0, 0, r a 2 + b2 + 1 P F1 + P F2 = K C2 = 0, 0, −r a 2 + b2 + 1 Hint: If two lines through a point P are tangent to a sphere and intersect the sphere at Q 1 and Q 2 as in Figure 15(B), then the segments P Q 1 and P Q 2 have equal length. Use this to show that P F1 = P R1 and P F2 = P R2 .
S E C T I O N 14.2
Calculus of VectorValued Functions
(ET Section 13.2)
249
(b) Show that the points where the plane is tangent to the sphere are F1 = F2 = r a 2 + b2 + 1 −r a 2 + b2 + 1 a, b, a 2 + b2 a, b, a 2 + b2
Hint: Show that C1 F1 and C2 F2 have length r and are orthogonal to the plane. (c) Verify, with the aid of a computer algebra system, that Eq. (2) holds with K = 2r a 2 + b2 + 1. To simplify the algebra, observe that since a and b are arbitrary, it sufﬁces to verify Eq. (2) for the point P = (r, 0, ar ).
SOLUTION
(a) and (b) Since F1 is the tangency point of the sphere and the plane, the radius to F1 is orthogonal to the plane. Therefore to show that the center of the sphere is at C1 and the tangency point is the given point we must show that: −−→ C1 F1 = r −−→ C1 F1 is orthogonal to the plane. −−→ We compute the vector C1 F1 : −−→ C1 F1 = Hence, −−→ C1 F1 = r a 2 + b2 + 1 a, b, −1 = r a 2 + b2 + 1 a 2 + b2 + (−1)2 = r ra a 2 + b2 + 1 , rb a 2 + b2 + 1 , r (a 2 + b2 ) a 2 + b2 + 1 − r a 2 + b2 + 1 = r a 2 + b2 + 1 a, b, −1 (1) (2)
−−→ We, thus, proved that (1) is satisﬁed. To show (2) we must show that C1 F1 is parallel to the normal vector a, b, −1 to −−→ the plane z = ax + by (i.e., ax + by − z = 0). The two vectors are parallel since by (1) C1 F1 is a constant multiple of −−→ a, b, −1 . In a similar manner one can show (1) and (2) for the vector C2 F2 . (c) This is an extremely challenging problem. As suggested in the book, we use P = (r, 0, ar ), and we also use the expressions for F1 and F2 as given above. This gives us: P F1 = P F2 = Their sum is not very inspiring: P F1 + P F2 = 1 + 2 a 2 + b2 − 2 a 1 + a 2 + b2 r 2 + 1 + 2 a 2 + b2 + 2 a 1 + a 2 + b2 r 2 1 + 2 a 2 + b2 − 2 a 1 + 2 a 2 + b2 + 2 a 1 + a 2 + b2 r 2 1 + a 2 + b2 r 2
Let us look, instead, at (P F1 + P F2 )2 , and show that this is equal to K 2 . Since everything is positive, this will imply that P F1 + P F2 = K , as desired. (P F1 + P F2 )2 = 2 r 2 + 4 a 2 r 2 + 2 b2 r 2 + 2 r 4 + 2b2 r 4 + b4 r 4 = 2 r 2 + 4 a 2 r 2 + 2 b2 r 2 + 2 (1 + b2 )r 2 = 4r 2 (1 + a 2 + b2 ) = K 2
14.2 Calculus of VectorValued Functions
Preliminary Questions
(ET Section 13.2)
1. State the three forms of the Product Rule for vectorvalued functions.
SOLUTION
The Product Rule for scalar multiple f (t) of a vectorvalued function r(t) states that: d f (t)r(t) = f (t)r (t) + f (t)r(t) dt
The Product Rule for dot products states that: d r1 (t) · r2 (t) = r1 (t) · r2 (t) + r1 (t) · r2 (t) dt
250
C H A P T E R 14
C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R  VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S
(ET CHAPTER 13)
Finally, the Product Rule for cross product is d r1 (t) × r2 (t) = r1 (t) × r2 (t) + r1 (t) × r2 (t). dt In Questions 2–6, indicate whether true or false and if false, provide a correct statement. 2. The derivative of a vectorvalued function is deﬁned as the limit of the difference quotient, just as in the scalarvalued case.
SOLUTION
The statement is true. The derivative of a vectorvalued function r(t) is deﬁned a limit of the difference r (t + h) − r(t) h
quotient: r (t) = lim in the same way as in the scalarvalued case. 3. There are two Chain Rules for vectorvalued functions, one for the composite of two vectorvalued functions and one for the composite of a vectorvalued and scalarvalued function.
SOLUTION This statement is false. A vectorvalued function r(t) is a function whose domain is a set of real numbers and whose range consists of position vectors. Therefore, if r1 (t) and r2 (t) are vectorvalued functions, the composition “(r1 · r2 )(t) = r1 (r2 (t))” has no meaning since r2 (t) is a vector and not a real number. However, for a scalarvalued function f (t), the composition r( f (t)) has a meaning, and there is a Chain Rule for differentiability of this vectorvalued function.
t→0
4. The terms “velocity vector” and “tangent vector” for a path r(t) mean one and the same thing.
SOLUTION
This statement is true.
5. The derivative of a vectorvalued function is the slope of the tangent line, just as in the scalar case.
SOLUTION The statement is false. The derivative of a vectorvalued function is again a vectorvalued function, hence it cannot be the slope of the tangent line (which is a scalar). However, the derivative, r (t0 ) is the direction vector of the tangent line to the curve traced by r(t), at r(t0 ).
6. The derivative of the cross product is the cross product of the derivatives.
SOLUTION
The statement is false, since usually, d r (t) × r2 (t) = r1 (t) × r2 (t) dt 1
The correct statement is the Product Rule for Cross Products. That is, d r1 (t) × r2 (t) = r1 (t) × r2 (t) + r1 (t) × r2 (t) dt 7. State whether the following derivatives of vectorvalued functions r1 (t) and r2 (t) are scalars or vectors: d d r1 (t) r1 (t) · r2 (t) (a) (b) dt dt d r (t) × r2 (t) (c) dt 1
SOLUTION
(a) vector, (b) scalar, (c) vector.
Exercises
In Exercises 1–4, evaluate the limit. 1. lim t 2 , 4t,
t→3
SOLUTION
1 t
By the theorem on vectorvalued limits we have: lim t 2 , 4t, 1 1 1 = lim t 2 , lim 4t, lim = 9, 12, . t 3 t→3 t→3 t→3 t
t→3
3. lim lim isin ln(t+ cos tj + tan 4tk e2t + 2ti + 1)j + 4k t→0
t→π
S E C T I O N 14.2
SOLUTION
Calculus of VectorValued Functions
(ET Section 13.2)
251
Computing the limit of each component, we obtain: lim e2t i + lim ln(t + 1) j + lim 4 k = e0 i + (ln 1)j + 4k = i + 4k
t→0
lim e2t i + ln (t + 1) j + 4k =
t→0
t→0
t→0
r(t + h) − r(t) for r(t) = t −1 , sin t, 4 . 5. Evaluate lim et − 1 1 h , 4t lim h→0 , t t→0 t + 1 dr SOLUTION This limit is the derivative dt . Using componentwise differentiation yields: d −1 r (t + h) − r(t) dr d 1 d = = t , (sin t) , (4) = − 2 , cos t, 0 . h dt dt dt dt h→0 t lim In Exercises 7–14, compute the derivative. r(t) for r(t) = sin t, 1 − cos t, −2t . Evaluate lim 2 ,t→0 t 3 7. r(t) = t, t t
SOLUTION
Using componentwise differentiation we get: d d dr d = (t), (t 2 ), (t 3 ) = 1, 2t, 3t 2 dt dt dt dt
9. w(s) = es , e−2s v(t) = sin 3t, cos 3t SOLUTION Componentwise differentiation gives: w (s) = es , e−2s = es , −2e−2s
11. r(t) = t − t −1 , 4t 2 , 8 r(θ ) = tan θ , 4θ − 2, sin θ SOLUTION We compute the derivative of each component to obtain: r (t) = (t − t −1 ) , (4t 2 ) , (8) = 1 + t −2 , 8t, 0 13. a(θ ) = (cos 2θ )i + (sin 2θ )j + (sin 4θ )k c(t) = t −1 i − e2t k SOLUTION Using componentwise differentiation yields: a (θ ) = (cos 2θ ) i + (sin 2θ ) j + (sin 4θ ) k = (−2 sin 2θ ) i + (2 cos 2θ ) j + (4 cos 4θ ) k 15. Calculate r (t) and r (t) for r(t) =−1 t 2 , t 3 . t, b(t) = e4t−3 , sin(t 2 ), (4t + 3) SOLUTION We perform the differentiation componentwise to obtain: r (t) = (t) , (t 2 ) , (t 3 ) = 1, 2t, 3t 2 We now differentiate the derivative vector to ﬁnd the second derivative: r (t) = d 1, 2t, 3t 2 = 0, 2, 6t . dt
17. Sketch the curve r1 (t) = t, t 2 together with its tangent vector at t = 1. Then do the same for r2 (t) = t 3 , t 6 . Sketch the curve r(t) = 1 − t 2 , t for −1 ≤ t ≤ 1. Compute the tangent vector at t = 1 and add it to the sketch. SOLUTION Note that r1 (t) = 1, 2t and so r1 (1) = 1, 2 . The graph of r1 (t) satisﬁes y = x 2 . Likewise, r2 (t) = 3t 2 , 6t 5 and so r2 (1) = 3, 6 . The graph of r2 (t) also satisﬁes y = x 2 . Both graphs and tangent vectors are given here.
1
2
r 1(t)
r 2(t)
In Exercises 19–22, use the appropriate Product Rule to evaluate the derivative, where π Sketch the cycloid r(t) = t − sin t, 1 − cos t together with its tangent vectors at t = π and 34 . 3 r1 (t) = 8t, 4, −t 3 , r2 (t) = 0, et , −6
0. SOLUTION (a) By the Product Rule for dot products we have: F (t) = r1 (t) · r2 (t) + r1 (t) · r2 (t) We compute the derivatives of r1 (t) and r2 (t): r1 (t) = d dt d r2 (t) = dt t 2 . −3t 2 dt d 0. 1. et . et . 0. as expected. d r (t) × r2 (t) d dt 1 t 4 r1 (t) dt SOLUTION We use the Product Rule for cross products: d r × r2 = r1 × r2 + r1 × r2 = 8t. Let F(t) = r1 (t) · r2 (t). 2. 0 r2 = dt r1 = By (1) we have: d r (t) · r2 (t) = 8t. 0 Thus. 4t . −6 dt 1 = i 8t 0 j 4 et k −t 3 0 + i 8 0 j 0 et k −3t 2 −6 = t 3 et i + 8tet k + 3t 2 et i + 48j + 8et k = t 2 et (t + 3)i + 48j + 8et (t + 1)k = t 2 et (t + 3). 2 r (t) = t 2 . assuming that r3 (5) = 3. t 3 . 4 · t −1 . et . 1. Compare with part (a). F (t) = 4t 3 + 3t 2 + 9 (b) We now ﬁrst compute the product r1 (t) · r2 (t) and then differentiate the resulting function. 0 + 8. 2 = t + t 3 (1 + t) + 8t = t 4 + t 3 + 9t Differentiating F(t) gives: F (t) = 4t 3 + 3t 2 + 9 The derivatives in (1) and (2) are the same. t 3 . 4. −t 3 × 0. et . 1 + t. −t 3 · 0. et . let d r (t) · r3 (t) . 1. This gives: F(t) = r1 (t) · r2 (t) = t 2 . −t 3 = 8. 4. 0. 1 + t. 4 t −1 . 0 + 8. et . 1 2 23. 4t · t −1 . 4t = 2t. −6 = 4et + 18t 2 dt 1 21. (2) (1) . −3t 2 · 0. (a) Calculate F (t) using the Product Rule. d r1 (t) · r2 (t) dt SOLUTION By the Product Rule for dot products we have: d r · r = r1 · r2 + r1 · r2 dt 1 2 We compute the derivatives of r1 and r2 : d 8t.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) 19. 3t 2 . 7 .252 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . 8et (t + 1) In Exercises 23–25. −6 = 0. 4t · −t −2 . t 3 . 1 + t. 2 = −t −2 . F (t) = t 2 . t 3 . −3t 2 × 0. (b) Expand the product r1 (t) · r2 (t) and differentiate. 1 + t. 4. 0 + 2t. 48. 3t 2 . 2 = −1 + t 3 + 0 + 2 + 3t 2 + 3t 3 + 8 = 4t 3 + 3t 2 + 9 That is. 2 and r3 (5) = −1. t=5 dt 1 r (t) = t −1 .
we have that d d 1 cos θ θ= dt − sin θ dt Thus. g(t) = t 2 . 8e8t+18 . r (t) coswith part (a). 4 = et . From above. we get (after a lot of work) d 50 cos θ = √ dt 159 53 t=2 On the other hand. at t = 2. Let G(t) = r1 (t) × r2 (t). 6 cos 2t . We can now conclude that √ d 50 −25 − 53 · θ = √ = dt t=2 2 159 159 53 In Exercises 26–29. g(t) = sin t r(t) = 4 sin 2t. Since sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1. 4 . we ﬁnd that (after a lot of work) d 144 + 48 t 2 − 80 t 3 − 36 t 4 + 264 t 5 − 6 t 6 − 24 t 8 + 5 t 9 cos θ = 3 dt 16 + t 2 + t 4 1 + 5 t 2 + 2 t 3 + t 4 2 So. 2e2t . 0 = 4e4t+9 . we get that sin θ = √2 . cos θ = √7 . r(t) = 3t . 2t. g(t) = 4t + 9 r(t) = t . 0 dt 29. 0 dt d g (t) = (4t + 9) = 4 dt r (t) = Using the Chain Rule we get: d r (g(t)) = g (t)r (g(t)) = 4 e4t+9 . tan−1 t . Find the rate of change of the angle θ between r1 (t) and r2 (t) at t = 2. evaluate d r(g(t)) using the Chain Rule. assuming that t is measured in seconds. we know that cos θ = (t 4 + t 3 + 9t) (t 2 + t 4 + 16)(1 + 5t 2 + 2t 3 + t 4 ) 53 53 −1/2 so at t = 2. (t) r (t) = r (t) Compare θ 1 2 1 2 Thus. SOLUTION Recall the formula for the dot product: (a) Calculate G (t) using the Product Rule. at t = 2. e . dt 2t 27. cos θ = = r1 (t) · r2 (t) = r1 (t) r2 (t) t + t 3 + t 4 + 8t t 4 + t 6 + 16t 2 t −2 + 5 + 2t + t 2 t 4 + t 3 + 9t t 2 + t 4 + 16 1 + 5t 2 + 2t 3 + t 4 −1/2 = (t 4 + t 3 + 9t) (t 2 + t 4 + 16)(1 + 5t 2 + 2t 3 + t 4 ) Taking the derivative.S E C T I O N 14.2 Calculus of VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13. 2e2(4t+9) . g(t) = et SOLUTION We ﬁrst differentiate the two functions: d t 2t e . d d 1 cos θ θ = dt t=2 − sin θ dt t=2 We need only calculate sin θ at t = 2. d d cos θ = − sin θ θ dt dt So. r(t) = et . e2 . 4 .2) 253 25. (b) Expand the cross product r1 (t) ×rr2 (t)· and differentiate. using the chain rule.
4. 4t = 2t. Let r(t) = t 2 . −1. r(t) = 1 − t 2 . 2 · 23 = −3. 5. t = 2 SOLUTION The tangent line is parametrized by: (t) = r(2) + tr (2) (1) We compute the vectors in the above parametrization: r(2) = 1 − 22 . 3 = (−4 − 4 + 8) + (4 − 3 + 12) = 13 dt t=2 The derivative of r(t) · a(t) at t = 2 is 13. 10 + 5t. 3. In Exercises 33–37. 2t 3 = −2t. assuming that a(2) = 1.254 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . 24 Substituting the vectors in (1) we obtain the following parametrization: (t) = −3. sin 3t. Substituting the vectors in the equation above. Use Example 4 to calculate (r × r ). assuming that g(4) = 3 and g (4) = −9. et . we obtain: d r(t) · a(t) = 4. sin 4t . 4 · 2 = 4. 6t 2 dt ⇒ r (2) = −4. 2t 3 . dt 1 + t2 g (t) = cos t We now differentiate the composition function r(g(t)) using the Chain Rule: d 1 cos t r(g(t)) = g (t)r (g(t)) = cos t 3sin t ln 3. tan−1 t = 3t ln 3. −1. 3 and d v(g(s)) at s = 4. 4 · 1. = ds SOLUTION By the Product Rule for dot products we have d r(t) · a(t) = r(t) · a (t) + r (t) · a(t) dt At t = 2 we have d r(t) · a(t) = r(2) · a (2) + r (2) · a(2) dt t=2 We compute the derivative r (2): r (t) = d 2 t . 1 − 2. 4. a (2) =Let v(s) 1 . Evaluate −1. s 2 i + 2sj + 9s −2 k. 4t . 1 − t. 4 (2) (1) Also. 3. ﬁnd a parametrization of the tangent line at the point indicated. 16 + t −4. 16 r (t) = d 1 − t 2 . −1. 4 dt ⇒ r (2) = 4. 10. 1 − t. r(2) = 22 . 5t. s = 2 r(t) = cos 2t. 10. 8 · −1. t = π 4 SOLUTION The tangent line has the following parametrization: (s) = r(2) + sr (2) We compute the vectors r(2) and r (2): r(2) = 4 · 2−1 i − 8 · 2−3 k = 2i − k r (s) = d 4s −1 i − 8s −3 k = −4s −2 i + 24s −4 k ds 3 ⇒ r (2) = −4 · 2−2 i + 24 · 2−4 k = −i + k 2 (1) . d Let r(t) = t 2 . 5t. = 3sin t cos t ln 3.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S SOLUTION (ET CHAPTER 13) We ﬁrst compute the derivatives of the two functions: r (t) = d t 1 3 . 5 · 2. Calculate the derivative of r(t) · a(t) at t = 2. 16 + 24t 35. 5. r(s) = 4s −1 i − 8s −3 k. −1. 8 . −1. 5. 24 = −3 − 4t. 2t dt 1 + sin 1 + sin2 t 31. t 3 . dt 33. 1 + 4.
u 5 and u 7 are all odd functions. Then compute r = 1 + 12 directly 2 + 2 hence: SOLUTION are orthogonal. z= 3 s − 1. Let r(t) = sin 2t cos t. r(s) = ln si 2 s4 j + 9sk. t . Show. s = 1 + −1 r(t) = t .1. 0. t = 1 SOLUTION The tangent line has the following parametrization: (s) = r(1) + sr (1) We compute the vectors r(1) and r (1): r(1) = ln 1i + 1−1 j + 9 · 1k = j + 9k r (s) = d 1 (ln si + s −1 j + 9sk) = i − s −2 j + 9k ds s ⇒ r (1) = i − j + 9k (1) We substitute the vectors in (1) to obtain the following parametrization: (s) = j + 9k + s(i − j + 9k) = si + (1 − s)j + (9 + 9s)k or in scalar form: x = s. 1 .S E C T I O N 14. 4t. z = 9 + 9s. by ﬁnding a counterexample. sin 2t sin t. Show that r(t) is constant and conclude using Example 6 that r(t) and r (t) Let r(t) = 1.2) 255 Substituting in (1) gives the following parametrization: 3 (t) = 2i − k + s −i + k = (2 − s) i + 2 or in scalar form: x = 2 − s. that in general r (t) need not equal r(t) . 4 02 + 02 + 12 = 1. Then r(t) (t) and2verify + t 2 = that ittis. 4 1 2 √ 496 56 k t −1 i + 4 tj − 8t 3/2 k dt = (ln 4) i + j − 3 5 43. t . orthogonal to r(t). r(t) = d dt 2 + t2 = 2t 2 2 + t2 = t 2 + t2 On the other hand. but before doing so we notice that u 3 .2 Calculus of VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13. y = 0. 41. SOLUTION 0 1 u 3 i + u25 j + u 7 k du te−t . 1 0 √ −1 t1 i + 4 t j − 8t 3/2 k dt 2t. cos 2t . hence: r (t) = We see that r (t) = r(t) . so their integrals over this symmetric region will all be zero! Thus. y = 1 − s. Computing the integral of each component we get: 4 1 SOLUTION t −1 dt = ln t 4 1 = ln 4 − ln 1 = ln 4 4 2 8 3/2 56 4 t dt = 4 · t 3/2 = −1 = 4 3 3 3 1 1 4 1 4 √ −8t 3/2 dt = − 16 5/2 4 16 5/2 496 t 4 =− −1 =− 5 5 5 1 Hence. evaluate the integrals. s 2 ds . 2 3 s −1 k 2 37. the answer is 0i + 0j + 0k. − cos 3t dt We perform the integration componentwise. 39. we have r (t) = 0. t ln(t 2 + 1) dt 1 1 2 . In Exercises 40–45. −2 We perform componentwise integration.
1 1 1 t dt = − cos 3t. 0 = . r (t) = 16k. 8 = (1 − cos 3t) . . 1. r(0) = 0i − 0j + c = c The solution with the initial condition r(0) = 2i + 3k must satisfy: r(0) = c = 2i + 3k Substituting in (1) yields the solution: r(t) = ti − tj + 2i + 3k = (t + 2) i − tj + 3k 49. t 0 3si + 6s 2 j + 9k dt = t 0 3s ds i + t 0 6s 2 ds j + t 0 9 ds k = 3 2 t i + 2t 3 j + (9t)k 2 In Exercises 46–53. r (0) = 0. r(0) = 1. −2.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S t (ET CHAPTER 13) 45. t dt = sin 3t dt. 1. r(0) = 2i + 3k dr = 1 − 2t. − cos 0. 8 = − . r(0) = j + 2k SOLUTION We ﬁrst integrate the vector r (t) to ﬁnd the general solution: r(t) = sin 3t. r (t) = sin 3t. r(0) = 4. − . sin 3t. ﬁnd the general solution r(t) of the differential equation and the solution with the given initial condition. − . 0. 8 r (t) = t 2 i + 5tj + k. r (t) = i − j. 1.256 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . 8 3 3 3 3 Substituting in (1) we obtain the solution: 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 r(t) = − cos 3t. t 2 + c 3 3 2 (1) (i − j) dt = 1 dt i − 1 dt j = ti − tj + c (1) Substituting the initial condition we obtain: 1 1 1 1 1 r(0) = − cos 0. r(0) = 3. 0 3si + 6s 2 j + 9k ds We ﬁrst compute the integral of each component: t 0 t 0 SOLUTION 3s ds = 3 2t 3 s = t2 2 0 2 6 3t s = 2t 3 3 0 t 6s 2 ds = t 0 9 ds = 9s 0 = 9t Hence. t . 3 SOLUTION To ﬁnd the general solution we ﬁrst ﬁnd r (t) by integrating r (t): dt r (t) = r (t) dt = 16k dt = (16t) k + c1 (1) . 1. 0 dr = e2t . 1 4 1 1 c = 0. 0 + c = 0. (4 − cos 3t) . 4t . 8 + t 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 51. 1 SOLUTION The general solution is obtained by integrating r (t): dt r(t) = Hence. 0 . e−2t . · 02 + c = 0. − cos 3t. 1. r(0) = 0. . et . sin 3t dt. − cos 3t. sin 3t. t 2 + . 8 3 3 2 3 3 Hence. 8 − − . 47.
v2 . t solution. 2 c2 = 0. − cos t + 2t + 2 dr 55. r(0) = 1. 6 + 5 · 4 − 256 3 2 4 3 · 4 . 3. 0 + c1 = 0. . 2. r (0) = 3. v2 dt. 2. where v is a constant vector in R3 . This gives: r (0) = c1 = 0. 0 Combining with (2) we obtain the following solution: r(t) = (8t 2 )k + tj + i = i + tj + (8t 2 )k 53. 2 t + 0. Where is differential equation t (t) if r(0) = Show that w(t) = sin(3t + 4). 0. 2 r (t) = 0. 2 The initial condition r(0) = 1. v2 . 6. 1 and r (0) = 0. 1. c3 and obtain: r(t) = tv + c = c + tv Notice that the solutions are the vector parametrizations of all the lines with direction vector v. 1. 5 − 3t. The path r(t) of a particle satisﬁes sin(3t − 2). 5t − t 2 . −1. 2 into (1) and (2) and solve for the vectors c1 and c2 . sin t + c1 dt = et . 0 = 1 + 8t. − sin t. − cos t.2 Calculus of VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13. 6. r(0) = 2. v3 and integrate to ﬁnd the general 3 /27 . Show that there is precisely one time t at which the pilot can hit a target located at the origin. 0. r (0) = 0. c2 . 6. sin t + c1 (1) ⇒ c2 = 1. 1 . travels along the path r(t) = 5 − t. cos 3t 2satisﬁes the the particle located atw = 4 = −9w(t). 6. v2 . 3. v3 dt = v1 t + c1 .2) 257 We now integrate r (t) to ﬁnd the general solution r(t): r(t) = r (t) dt = ((16t) k + c1 ) dt = 16(t) dt k + c1 t + c2 = (8t 2 )k + c1 t + c2 (2) We substitute the initial conditions in (1) and (2). 0. 0. sin t. v3 dt = v1 dt. c2 . v3 + c1 . Find all solutions to r (t) = v. we substitute the initial conditions r(0) = 1. This gives: r(t) = Substituting t = 0 we get: r(0) = 8 · 0.S E C T I O N 14. v2 t + c2 . A ﬁghter plane. 5 · 0 − 3 2 4 3 ·0 . 6 + 5t − t 2 . 1 . 2 3 3 57. 1. 1 . 3 − SOLUTION We denote the components of the constant vector v by v = v1 . 1 Finally we combine the above to obtain the solution: r(t) = et . 0. 0. 4t . 0 = i We now integrate r (t) to obtain the general solution: r(t) = et . t 3 + c 2 3 (1) ⇒ ⇒ c1 = −1. − cos t. 0. −1 + c2 = 1. 2. 2 r(0) = 1. 1. sin t. 5 − 3t. − cos t + c1 t + c2 (2) Now. 4t 2 dt = 8t. 0. which can only shoot bullets straight ahead. 0 = j r(0) = 0k + c1 · 0 + c2 = 1. 2 = et − t. − cos t + −1. This gives: r(t) = v dt = v1 . − sin t. 0 gives c = 1. cos t dt = et . v3 t + c3 = t v1 . 0 ? = 8. 5t − t 2 . t 3 2 3 2 3 To ﬁnd the particle’s position at t = 4. we substitute t = 4 in r(t) obtaining: r(4) = 1 + 8 · 4. t 3 + 1. 1 SOLUTION We perform integration componentwise on r (t) to obtain: r (t) = et . − sin t + 3t. dt dr SOLUTION We ﬁrst ﬁnd the general solution by integrating the vector dt componentwise. c3 We let c = c1 . ·0 +c=c 2 3 3 4 8. 0. We obtain: r (0) = 1. cos t . 21 − t 2 . · 4 = 33. Combining with (1) we obtain the following solution: 3 4 4 3 r(t) = 8t. r (t) = et . 2. 0 .
Hence. z r′(t0) r(t0) r(t) y x FIGURE 7 Suppose that r(t) takes on a minimum or maximum value at t = t0 . SOLUTION We denote the components of r(t) by r(t) = x(t). b). b) at t = 0. Find all solutions to r (t) = 2r(t) where r(t) is a vectorvalued function in threespace. Therefore. r(t0 ) is a minimum and the path intersects the sphere of radius r(t0 ) at a single point. (a. y(t) traces a plane dJ the curve C. the point of intersection is a tangency point which implies that r (t0 ) is tangent to the sphere at t0 . c2 . r(t0 ) is a minimum and the path dt r(t) intersects the sphere of radius r(t0 ) in a single point (and hence is tangent at that point). c2 e2t .VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) 59. maximum value. y(t). c3 and obtain the following solutions: r(t) = c1 e2t . dp where F is the force acting on an object of dt 63. z(t) . = at any point such that x (t) = 0. which implies the orthogonality of r(t0 ) and r (t0 ). (b) Show that if x (t0 ) = 0.258 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . therefore the slope of the line is x (t0 ) which is equal to d x by part (a). b) is the terminal point of the vector (0). hence the line passes through (a. therefore dt r(t) 2 t=t = 0. b That is. y (t). y(t). = . y (t). b + 0r (t0 ) = a. Using the Product Rule for dot products we get SOLUTION 0 d d r(t) 2 = r(t) · r(t) = r(t0 ) · r (t0 ) + r (t0 ) · r(t0 ) = 2r(t0 ) · r (t0 ) = 0 dt dt t=t0 t=t0 Thus r(t0 ) · r (t0 ) = 0. In Figure 7. r(t) 2 also takes on a d minimum or maximum value at t = t0 . This is y of dy dx y dy a rotationaldversion (t)the Second Law. mass mexercise. Find the solution of r (t) = (sin t)u satisfying r (0) = 0. we verify that the deﬁnition of the tangent line using vectorvalued functions agrees with the usual In this and p = mr (t) is the object’s momentum. The analogs of force and momentum for rotational motion are deﬁnition in terms of the scalar derivative in the case of a plane curve. Let u be a constant vector in R3 . Hint: In the ﬁgure. We conclude that r(t0 ) and r (t0 ) are orthogonal. r (t) = x (t). z (t) = 2 x(t). It holds that: (0) = a. Show that (a × r) = a × r for any constant vector a. z(t) Equating corresponding components gives: x (t) = 2x(t) z (t) = 2z(t) x(t) = c1 e2t z(t) = c3 e2t y (t) = 2y(t) ⇒ y(t) = c2 e2t We denote the constant vector by c = c1 . c3 e2t = e2t c1 . Use the Second Law to prove that τ = dt . (a) Show that dx x (t) dt d x dt dy . at the points where d x = 0 we have: dt y (t) dy dt = dx = dx x (t) dt dy (b) The line (t) = a. Substituting in the differential equation we get: x (t). Explain how this result is related to Figure 7. Suppose that r(t) = x(t). Hint: By the Chain Rule. z (t) .torque τ = r × F and angular momentum J = r(t) × p(t). c3 = e2t c Prove d that r(t0 ) and r (t0 ) are orthogonal at values t = t0 where r(t) takes on a local minimum or 61. (t ) 0 t=t0 . then the line L(t) = r(t0 ) + tr (t0 ) passes through r(t0 ) and has slope d x t=t0 Further Insights and Challenges vector form states that F = Newton’s Second Law of Motion in SOLUTION (a) By the Chain Rule we have dy dx dy = · dt d x dt Hence. The line has the direction y dy vector r (t0 ) = x (t0 ). c2 . b + tr (t0 ) passes through (a. Then. y (t0 ) .
g −1 (b) g −1 (a) y (g(t)) g (t) dt. g −1 (b) g −1 (a) z (g(t)) g (t) dt = = x (g(t)) g (t). g (t)z (g(t)) dt dt dt dt = g (t) x (g(t)) . (z (g(t))) = g (t)x (g(t)) . a a y(t) dt. The substitution gives us x(g(t))g (t) dt. Let s = g(t). Prove the Substitution Rule [where g(t) is a differentiable scalar function]: Prove the linearity properties b a SOLUTION r(g(t))g (t) dt = r(t) dt cr(t) dt = c −1 g g −1 (b) (a) r(u) du constant) (c any (Note that an early edition of+ r2 (t) dt = had 1 (t)integral limits dt g(a) and g(b). dt We have r (g(t)) = x (g(t)) . (6)].2) 259 65. z (g(t)) g (t) dt = g −1 (b) g −1 (a) r (g(t)) g (t) dt Formulate and verify a version of Integration by Parts for vectorvalued integrals.2 Calculus of VectorValued Functions (ET Section 13. using the Chain Rule for scalar functions. y (g(t)) . a z(t) dt g −1 (b) g −1 (a) Write a x(t) dt as a x(s) ds. y (g(t)) . y(t).) We denote the components of the vectorvalued function by r(t) dt = x(t). Verify the Chain Rule for vectorvalued functions. y (g(t)) g (t). z(t) . the dot product r · r × r d r· r ×r dt = 0. Verify Product Rule = cross × r ) dt SOLUTION We use the Product Rule for dot products to obtain: d r· r ×r dt =r· d r ×r dt +r · r ×r (1) By the Product Rule for cross products and properties of cross products. A similar procedure for the other two integrals gives us: b a r(t) dt = g −1 (b) g −1 (a) g −1 (b) g −1 (a) g −1 (b) g −1 (a) x (g(t)) g (t) dt. Using be g componentwise integration we have: b a b b b b b r(t) dt = x(t) dt. This gives: d d d d r (g(t)) = (x (g(t))) . they should actually r1 (t) the textbook r the dt + r2 (t) as −1 (a) and g −1 (b). Prove thatthe (r · (r × r ))for r · (r products [Eq. z (g(t)) g (t) dt x (g(t)) . We must show that: d r (g(t)) = g (t)r (g(t)) . z (g(t)) = g (t)r (g(t)) d 67.S E C T I O N 14. z(t) be differentiable scalar and vector valued functions respectively. Assume that all functions are integrable. y(t). SOLUTION Let g(t) and r(t) = x(t). we have: d r ×r dt Substituting (2) into (1) yields: d r· r ×r dt =r· r ×r +r · r ×r (3) =r ×r +r ×r =r ×r +0=r ×r (2) Since r × r is orthogonal to r . (y (g(t))) . So (3) gives: +0=r· r ×r =r· r ×r Exercises 68–71 establish additional properties of vectorvalued integrals. y (g(t)) . . 69. so ds = g (t) dt. z (g(t)) We differentiate the vector componentwise. Verify the Sum and Product Rules for derivatives of vectorvalued functions. g (t)y (g(t)) .
20 . t t0 r (t) dt = t t0 v(t) dt . −70. the length of the displacement vector is ≤ K (b − a). The statement is false. then b a r(t) dt ≤ K (b − a) b SOLUTION Think of r(t) as a velocity vector. 10 (in miles per hour). hence the new velocity vector has the form: λ r = λ 25. which gives us desired.260 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . Let L(t) be the total distance traveled at time t. Thus.3 Arc Length and Speed Preliminary Questions (ET Section 13. we have: L(t) = Therefore. Two cars travel in the same direction along the same roller coaster (at different times).VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) 71. then in the interval a ≤ t ≤ b. 2. (c) The velocity vectors may point in opposite directions. At a given instant. If the direction is reversed but the speed is unchanged. the object can move a total distance not more than K (b − a). −35. SOLUTION (a) The length of the velocity vector is the speed of the particle. −35. the velocity vectors point in the same direction. since speed is r(t) a b a which is less than or equal to K . (c) Since the cars travel in the same direction. Show that if r(t) ≤ K for t ∈ [a. Which of the following statements about their velocity vectors at a given point P on the roller coaster are true? (a) The velocity vectors are identical. a car on a roller coaster has velocity vector r = 25. The statement is true. r(t) dt ≤ K (b − a). 10 for λ > 0 We use λ = 2. (a) How fast is L(t) changing at t = 2? (b) Is L(t) equal to the mosquito’s distance from the origin? SOLUTION (a) By the Arc Length Formula. L (2) = v(2) = 22 = 4 (b) L(t) is the distance along the path traveled by the mosquito. This distance is usually different from the mosquito’s distance from the origin. The statement is false. the new velocity vector is: −r = −25. their velocity vectors point in the same direction. A mosquito ﬂies along a parabola with speed v(t) = t 2 . 35. Since the cars travel in the same direction. 3. that is. if the speeds of the cars are different the velocities are not identical. Therefore. −10 .3) 1. and so the new velocity vector is 50. What would the velocity vector be if the speed were doubled? What would it be if the car’s direction were reversed but its speed remained unchanged? SOLUTION The speed is doubled but the direction is unchanged. which is the length of r(t). as 14. But. (b) The velocity vector is tangent to the curve. a b r(t) dt gives the displacement vector from the location at time t = a to the time t = b. b]. and so r(t) dt gives the length of this displacement vector. (b) The velocity vectors point in the same direction but may have different lengths. Then. L (t) = v(t) To ﬁnd the rate of change of L(t) at t = 2 we compute the derivative of L(t) at t = 2.
3t 2 . Compute s(t) = t. 4t. SOLUTION The derivative of r(t) is r (t) = 2.S E C T I O N 14. z (t) = 6. 6t + 1 . 0 ≤ t ≤ 4 1 1 t 2 + a 2 dt = t t 2 + a 2 + a 2 ln t + 2 2 SOLUTION t 2 + a2 The derivative of r(t) is r (t) = i + 2j + 2tk. r (t) = (2t)2 + (4t)2 + (3t 2 ) = 2 4t 2 + 16t 2 + 9t 4 = 20 + 9t 2 t . 4t − 3. r(t) = 2t. which is 6. SOLUTION 0≤t ≤3 We have x(t) = 3t. 1 11 t ≤ 4 15 r(t) = ln − . t 3 . Hence. We use the Arc Length Formula to obtain: L= 3 0 r (t) dt = 3 0 x (t)2 + y (t)2 + z (t)2 dt = 3 0 √ 32 + 42 + 62 dt = 3 61 2 ≤≤t≤ 3. Using the Arc Length Formula we get: L= 2 0 r (t) dt = 2 0 12 + (2)2 + (2t)2 dt = 2 0 4t 2 + 5 dt We substitute u = 2t. What is the length of the path traced by r(t) for 4 ≤ t ≤ 10 if r(t) is an arc length parametrization? SOLUTION Since r(t) is an arc length parametrization. Exercises In Exercises 1–6. y(t) = 4t − 3. t3tk. Hint: r(t) = 2t 2 + 1. r (u) for t ≤ 2π 0 SOLUTION The derivative of r(t) is r (t) = 2t. This gives: L= = 1 4 2 0 u 2 + 5 du = 1 1 u u 2 + 5 + · 5 ln u + 4 4 u2 + 5 4 0 1 5 · 4 42 + 5 + ln 4 + 4 4 √ √ 5 4 + 21 ≈ 6. We use the Arc Length Formula to obtain: t 4 1 4 1 L= = r (t) dt = 2t + 1 t 4 1 22 + 4 1 2 + (2t)2 dt = t 1 4 1 4 1 4t 2 + 4 + 2 dt = t 1 2t + 1 2 dt t dt = t 2 + ln t = (16 + ln 4) − (1 + ln 1) = 15 + ln 4 5. 1. 2t 2 .du 0 ≤ r(t) = t 2 . r(t) = 3t. t sin t. 2t 2 − 1.3 t Distance L(t) r(t) Arc Length and Speed (ET Section 13.2ti t. the length of the path for 4 ≤ t ≤ 10 is equal to the length of the time interval 4 ≤ t ≤ 10. y (t) = 4. du = 2 dt and use the given integration formula.3) 261 Distance from the origin t0 4. t . 2t . 30 ≤ t ≤ 2. z(t) = 6t + 1 hence x (t) = 3. 1 .26 = 21 + ln √ 4 5 t √ √ 5 √ 5 5 √ 42 + 5 − ln 5 = 21 + ln 4 + 21 − ln 5 4 4 4 r(t) = t cos 7. r(t) = ti + 2tj + (t 2 − 3)k. compute the length of the curve over the given interval. 3t .
t = 4 r(t) = 2t + 3. dv = 18u du. (a) (b) Let r(t) = 3t + 1. 4 cos 4 (a) We differentiate r(t) componentwise and then compute the norm of the derivative vector. We obtain: ⇒ s t = ϕ (s) = √ 29 3s 4s 2s = √ + 1. sinh t. (a) r1 (t) = 4 sin t. cosh(0). 13. Which of the following is an arc length parametrization of a circle of radius 4 centered at the origin? t Calculate s(t) = 0 r (u) du as a function of t. r(t) = et−3 . hence by the given information r(T ) = r(0). 0. 4. 1 . (b) r2 (t) = 4 sin 4t. cos 5t . The T integral 0 r (u) du is the length of the path traveled by the bee in the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ T . 9. 1 r1 (s) = √ 29 3. 2 r (t) = We compute s(t): s(t) = t 0 32 + 42 + 22 = √ 29 r (u) du = √ t√ 0 29 du = √ t 29 u 0 = √ 29t (b) We ﬁnd the inverse ϕ (s) = t (s) by solving s = √ s = 29t We obtain the following arc length parametrization: s r1 (s) = r √ 29 29t for t. 2 √ 1 1 32 + 42 + 22 = √ · 29 = 1 = √ 29 29 3 3s d 4s 2s 4 2 1 3. 1. ﬁnd the speed at the given value of t. t .05 9 11. that is.√ .t5= 3 .262 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . √ ds 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 . Notice that there is a difference between the displacement and the actual length traveled. 4 cos t Find the inverse ϕ (s) = t (s) and show that r1 (s) = r(ϕ (s)) is an arc length parametrization. −t 1 SOLUTION The velocity vector is r (t) = et−3 . 0. r(t) = cosh t. − 3 . 4 cos 4t SOLUTION t t (c) r3 (t) = 4 sin 4 . s(t) = t 0 r (u) du = t 0 20 + 9u 2 u du We compute the integral using the substitution v = 20 + 9u 2 . At t = 0 the velocity is r (0) = sinh(0). √ 29 29 29 To verify that r1 (s) is an arc length parametrization we must show that r1 (s) = 1. The speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector. √ − 5. cosh t. 3t4t − 3. −3t −2 and at t = 3. 4. 12. v 1/2 dv = = 18 20 18 3 27 20 2 2 In Exercises 8–11.√ = √ √ + 1. This gives: r (t) = 3. 1 = 0. cos 4t. It follows that at time T the bee is located at the starting point which is at the origin. 0 r (u) du = r(T ) − r(0). −1 . A bee with velocity vector r (t) starts out at the origin at t = 0 and ﬂies around for T seconds. 2 = √ . 4t − 5.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) Hence. This gives: s(t) = 20+9t 1 2 3/2 20+9t 1 1 · v (20 + 9t 2 )3/2 − 203/2 . hence the speed is √ v(0) = r (0) = 02 + 12 + 12 = 2. 1 . 4. 2t . 0. t = 0 r(t) = sin 3t. We compute r1 (s): r1 (s) = Thus. r (3) = e3−3 . v(3) = r (3) = 12 + 02 + − 1 2 = 3 10 ≈ 1. Where is the bee T T What is the velocity vector of a particle traveling to the right along the hyperbola y = x −1 with constant speed r (u) du represent? located at time T if particle’s locationWhat does the quantity 5 cm/s when the r (u) du = 0? is (2. −3 · 3−2 = 1. 15. √ − 5. 1 )? 2 0 0 T SOLUTION By the Fundamental Theorem for vectorvalued functions. t = π SOLUTION The velocity vector is r (t) = 2 sinh t.
10. −3 + 4 sin t We need to reparametrize the curve by making a substitution t = ϕ (s). r1 (s) = 4ϕ (s) sin ϕ (s) 2 + − cos ϕ (s) 2 = 4ϕ (s) To satisfy r1 (s) = 8 for all s. We obtain: √ s = 3(et − 1) s √ = et − 1 3 s et = 1 + √ 3 ⇒ s t = ϕ (s) = ln 1 + √ 3 An arc length parametrization for r1 (s) = r ϕ (s) is: √ s eln(1+s/( 3)) sin ln 1 + √ √ s . with constant speed 8. −3 + 4 sin(2s) . cos ln 1 + √ 3 . Show that one arch of the cycloid r(t) = t − sin t. 0. 2π ] where SOLUTION An arc maximum. 4. 10. − cos ϕ (s) Hence. Find the value of t in [0. Find an arc length parametrization of r(t) = et sin t. cos t − sin t. Find an arc length parametrization of the circle in the plane z = 9 with radius 4 and center (1. sin t = 2 + 4 cos t. 4 cos ϕ (s) = −4ϕ (s) sin ϕ (s). we choose ϕ (s) = 2. 0. 10. Find a path that traces the circle in the plane y = 10 with radius 4 and center (2. we differentiate r(t) and then replace t by ϕ (s): r (t) = −4 sin t.3 Arc Length and Speed (ET Section 13. SOLUTION We start with the following parametrization of the circle: r(t) = 2. 9). et . et cos t − et sin t. This is a parametrization of the given circle. We compute the arc length function: s(t) = t 0 r (u) du (1) Differentiating r(t) and computing the norm of r (t) gives: r (t) = et sin t + et cos t. eln(1+s/( 3)) cos ln 1 + √ 3 3 . 4 cos t r ϕ (s) = −4 sin ϕ (s). 10. 19. 1 r (t) = et (sin t + cos t)2 + (cos t − sin t)2 + 12 = et (sin2 t + 2 sin t cos t + cos2 t + cos2 t − 2 sin t cos t + sin2 t + 1)1/2 √ √ = et 2(sin2 t + cos2 t) + 1 = et 2 · 1 + 1 = 3 et Substituting (2) into (1) gives: s(t) = t√ 0 (2) 3 eu du = √ 3 eu t = 0 √ 3(et − e0 ) = √ 3(et − 1) √ We ﬁnd the inverse function of s(t) by solving s = 3 et − 1 for t. We ﬁnd r1 (s) using the Chain Rule: r1 (s) = d r ϕ (s) = ϕ (s)r ϕ (s) ds (1) Next. and obtain the following parametrization: r1 (s) = r ϕ (s) = r(2s) = 2 + 4 cos(2s). −3) with constant speed 8.3) 263 17. −3 + 4 cos t. 4 cos ϕ (s) Substituting in (1) we get: r1 (s) = ϕ (s) −4 sin ϕ (s). We may take the antiderivative ϕ (s) = 2 · s. 1 − cos t has length 8. et cos t.S E C T I O N 14. 0. 0. eln(1+s/( 3)) √ s = 1+ √ 3 s sin ln 1 + √ 3 s .1 . 0. so that the new parametrization r1 (s) = r ϕ (s) satisﬁes r1 (s) = 8 for all s. the speed is at a length parametrization is r1 (s) = r ϕ (s) where t = ϕ (s) is the inverse of the arc length function. et = et sin t + cos t.
t . t = 5 cos . R sin . in accordance with the well known property: the arc length is independent of the parametrization we choose for the curve. 3 3 3 3 0≤t ≤3 We ﬁnd the derivatives of the two vectors and their lengths: r1 (t) = − r2 (t) = − 3π t 15π 3π t 15π sin . t 9 .1 3 3 3 3 ⇒ r1 (t) = r2 (t) = 225π 2 1 +1= 225π 2 + 4 4 2 1 1. radius 4 cm. and makes ﬁve complete turns. Express the arc length L of y = x 3 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 28 as an integral in two ways. and makes three complete turns. use substitution to show that they yield the same result. t = 4 cos .600π 2 +1= 1. (a) Take a guess as to which spring uses more N t 2π N t 2π wire.600π 2 + 9 ≈ 125. The length L may be computed using the two parametrizations by r2 (t) = 3t 2 the following integrals (notice that in the second parametrization 0 ≤ t 3 ≤ 8 hence 0 ≤ t ≤ 2). Then: t . 4 4 2 2 0≤t ≤4 Setting R = 4. h = 3 and N = 5 in this parametrization we get: r2 (t) = 4 cos 2π · 5t 10π t 10π t 2π · 5t .7 We see that the second spring uses more wire than the ﬁrst one. Use Exercise r (u) du for the Bernoulli spiral r(t) = e of radius t and (Figure 6). height 4 cm. but. h h 4 cm 3 cm 3 turns. 0≤t ≤h R cos (b) Compute the lengths of the two springs (use Exercise 22) and compare. take −∞ as the lower limit since s(−∞) = 0. The other Show that a helix of radius R and height h making N complete turns has the parametrization has height 3 cm.3 1. radius 4 cm FIGURE 5 Which spring uses more wire? SOLUTION (a) The second wire seems to use more wire than the ﬁrst one. t 3 and r2 (t) arc t 3 . One has radius 5 cm.264 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . 5 sin . 23. t 3 t. eRsin 4theight h that makes N complete −∞ turns. For r2 (t) = t 3 . .VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) 21.1 2 2 2 2 10π t 40π 10π t 40π sin . 5 sin . t 9 we have 2 . For r1 (t) = t. radius 5 cm 5 turns. 4 sin . t 3 we have r1 (t) = 1. (b) Setting R = 5. 3t 2 hence r1 (t) = 1 + 9t 4 .t . Consider the two springs in Figure 5. using the parametrizations r1 (t) = Find an = length Do not evaluate the integrals. SOLUTION L= L= 8 0 2 0 r1 (t) dt = r2 (t) dt = 8 0 2 0 1 + 9t 4 dt 1 + 9t 12 3t 2 dt (1) (2) We use the substitution u = t 3 . It is convenient to 25. du = 3t 2 dt in the second integral to obtain: 2 0 1 + 9t 12 3t 2 dt = 8 0 1 + 9u 4 du This integral is the same as the integral in (1).t .600π 2 + 9 9 3 ⇒ Using the Arc Length Formula we obtain the following lengths: L1 = L2 = 4 1 0 2 3 1 0 3 225π 2 + 4 dt = 2 225π 2 + 4 ≈ 94. cos . 4 sin . h = 4 and N = 3 in the parametrization in Exercise 22 gives: r1 (t) = 5 cos 2π · 3t 3π t 3π t 2π · 3t . cos . parametrization of r(t) = t . Evaluate s(t) = 22 to ﬁnd a general formula for the length of a helix t cos 4t. 9t 8 hence r (t) = 9t 4 + 81t 16 .600π 2 + 9 dt = 1.
This gives: r (t) = et cos 4t − 4et sin 4t. et sin 4t + 4et cos 4t = et cos 4t − 4 sin 4t. cos 4 ln √ 17 17 17 s + 4 cos 4 ln √ 17 s s − 4 sin 4 ln √ .3 Arc Length and Speed (ET Section 13. sin 4t + 4 cos 4t r (t) = et (cos 4t − 4 sin 4t)2 + (sin 4t + 4 cos 4t)2 = et cos2 4t − 8 cos 4t sin 4t + 16 sin2 4t + sin2 4t + 8 sin 4t cos 4t + 16 cos2 4t √ √ = et cos2 4t + sin2 4t + 16 sin2 4t + cos2 4t = et 1 + 16 · 1 = 17et We now evaluate the improper integral: s(t) = = t 1/2 √ −∞ r (u) du = √ R→−∞ R lim t√ 17eu du = R→−∞ lim √ u t 17e = R R→−∞ lim √ 17(et − e R ) 17(et − 0) = 17et An arc length parametrization of r(t) is r1 (s) = r ϕ (s) where t = ϕ (s) is the inverse function of s(t). SOLUTION (a) We differentiate r(t) and compute the norm of the derivative vector. sin 4 ln √ 17 17 17 s 1 cos 4 ln √ = √ 17 17 √ 1 4 17 ·√ · s 17 4 s s +√ − sin 4 ln √ . (b) Prove that the angle between the position vector and the tangent vector is constant. we obtain: cos θ = r1 (s) · r1 (s) r1 (s) (2) We compute the dot product in (2).S E C T I O N 14. eln(s/( 17)) sin 4 ln √ 17 17 s s s cos 4 ln √ . We ﬁnd t = ϕ (s) √ by solving s = 17et for t: s= √ t 17e ⇒ s s et = √ ⇒ t = ϕ (s) = ln √ 17 17 An arc length parametrization of r(t) is: √ √ s s r1 (s) = r ϕ (s) = eln(s/( 17)) cos 4 ln √ . sin 4 ln √ = √ 17 17 17 (b) The cosine of the angle θ between the position vector r1 (s) and the tangent vector r1 (s) is: cos θ = r1 (s) · r1 (s) r1 (s) r1 (s) (1) Since for the arc length parametrization r1 (s) = 1. sin 4 ln √ 17 17 17 √ s s 1 4 17 s − sin 4 ln √ · √ . cos 4 ln √ · +√ s 17 17 17 17 1 s s = √ cos 4 ln √ .3) 265 (a) Use s to obtain an arc length parametrization of r(t). sin 4 ln √ 17 17 . y t=2 x 10 t=0 20 FIGURE 6 Bernoulli spiral. We ﬁrst compute r1 (s) from (1): 1 s s r1 (s) = √ cos 4 ln √ .
SOLUTION 2 We have x(t) = 1−t 2 . s s + sin2 4 ln √ 17 s s = √ ·1= √ 17 17 (4) Further Insights and Challenges 2t 1 − t2 a as parametrizes the unit circle with the point (−1. y(t) = 2t 2 .dt = r (t) 1+t 1+t b d a c r1 (s) ds 2 x 2 (t) + y 2 (t) = 1 − t2 1 + t2 2 + 2 1 + t2 2t 1 − 2t 2 + t 4 + 4t 2 1 + 2t 2 + t 4 = = = =1 2 2 2 1 + t2 1 + t2 1 + t2 1 + t2 It follows that the path r(t) lies on the unit circle. Use this parametrization = a and ϕ (d) =length ofrthe unit r(ϕ (s)) parametrizes Cintegral. (1 + t 2 )2 (1 + t 2 )2 2 − 2t 2 4t . So. y(t) is negative. 2(1 − t 2 ) t 4 + 2t 2 + 1 1 (1 + t 2 )2 2 (1 + t 2 )2 16t 2 + 4(1 − t 2 )2 = (t 2 + 1)2 = 2 (1 + t 2 )2 = 2 1 + t2 2(t 2 + 1) 2 (1 + t 2 ) r (t) = 2 1 + t2 We now use the Arc Length Formula to compute the length of the circle: L= ∞ −∞ r (t) dt = 2 ∞ dt −∞ 1 + t 2 =2 R→∞ lim tan−1 R − R→−∞ lim tan−1 R =2 π π − − 2 2 = 2π . s ≤ d. A similar t→−∞ = − r (t) = = That is. 1 s s r1 (s) · r1 (s) = √ · √ cos 4 ln √ 17 17 17 s + sin 4 ln √ 17 = s s cos2 4 ln √ 17 17 s + sin2 4 ln √ 17 = s s cos2 4 ln √ 17 17 s cos 4 ln √ 17 s − 4 sin 4 ln √ 17 s sin 4 ln √ 17 s + 4 cos 4 ln √ 17 s s − 4 cos 4 ln √ sin 4 ln √ 17 17 s s + 4 sin 4 ln √ cos 4 ln √ 17 17 s + sin2 4 ln √ 17 = s s ·1= 17 17 (3) We now compute r1 (s) from (1) (Notice that s(t) > 0 for all t): s s cos2 4 ln √ r1 (s) = √ 17 17 Combining (2). and since lim x(t) = −1 and argument proves that we get the upper half of the circle for positive t. (3) and (4) yields: 1 cos θ = 17 = √ √s 17 17 The solution for 0 ≤ θ ≤ π is θ = 1.266 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . Then 1 (s) = circle as an improper for c ≤ Hint: Verify that r (t) simpliﬁes. −4t. More precisely. we conclude that r(t) does indeed parametrize the lower half of the circle for negative t. Thus.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) Thus. depend on for −∞ < t < 27. the angle between r1 (s) and r1 (s) is constant.The expression for ϕ (s) > 0 and that ϕ (c) to compute the b. 2 )2 (1 + t 2 )2 (1 + t = 1 (1 + t 2 ) 2 t→0 lim x(t) = 1. Let ϕ (s) be a differentiable function such that +t tion.curve 2 computed using the arc length integral does not 0) excludedits parametriza1 + t the1curve traced by r(t) for a ≤ t ≤ b. We now show that the entire circle is indeed parametrized by r(t) as t moves from −∞ to ∞. note that x (t) can be written as −2t (1 + t 2 ) − 2t (1 − t 2 ) /(1 + t 2 )2 which is −4t/(1 + t 2 )2 . Show Prove that the = that path r(t) length of 2 . x(t) is an increasing function. We now compute r (t) and its length: r (t) = −2t (1 + t 2 ) − 2t (1 − t 2 ) 2(1 + t 2 ) − 2t · 2t . for t negative. let C be ∞.326 rad. First. Hence.
tanh t and sech t in terms of s. tanh t ≥ 0 hence. We compute t. The involute of a circle is the curve traced by a point at the end of a thread unwinding from a circular spool of t radius R. r (t) = tanh t. the position vector r(t) of ln(cosh P (a) Show that Parametrize the involute by = 0 Determine the arc length function and the arc length parametrization. which implies that s(t) has an inverse function for t ≥ 0. sech t = tanh−1 1 − e−2s − (c) The tractrix is shown in the following ﬁgure: y 1 ⇒ es = cosh t ⇒ 1 − e−2s sech t = e−s t = tanh−1 1 − e−2s ⇒ tanh t = ⇒ 1 − e−2s . in Figure 7 as a function of t. sech t . − sech t tanh t r (t) = = (1 − sech2 t) + sech2 t tanh2 t = 1 − 2 sech2 t + sech4 t + sech2 t tanh2 t − sech2 t (2 − tanh2 t) + 1 + sech4 t We use the identity 1 − tanh2 t = sech2 t to write: r (t) = = − sech2 t (1 + sech2 t) + 1 + sech4 t = 1 − sech2 t = tanh2 t =  tanh t − sech2 t − sech4 t + 1 + sech4 t For t ≥ 0. The curve r(t) = t − tanh t. (c) Plot the tractrix if you have a computer algebra system. e−s is an arc length parametrization of the tractrix.3) 267 29. Therefore.3 Arc Length and Speed (ET Section 13. hence s (t) > 0 for t > 0. sech t is called a tractrix. First we note that s (t) = tanh t. We have: t 0 r (u) du = t 0 t (tanh u) du = ln(cosh u) 0 = ln(cosh t) − ln(cosh 0) = ln(cosh t) − ln 1 = ln(cosh t) ϕ (s(t)) = ln eln(cosh t) + Since cosh2 t − 1 = sinh2 t we obtain (for t ≥ 0): e2 ln(cosh t) − 1 = ln cosh t + cosh2 t − 1 ϕ (s(t)) = ln cosh t + sinh2 t = ln (cosh t + sinh t) = ln et + e−t et − e−t + 2 2 = ln et = t We thus proved that t = ϕ (s) is an inverse of s(t). We now apply the Arc Length Formula to obtain: s(t) = That is: s(t) = ln(cosh t) (b) We show that the function t = ϕ (s) = ln es + e2s − 1 is an inverse of s(t). SOLUTION (a) We compute the derivative vector and its length: r (t) = 1 − sech2 t.S E C T I O N 14. (b) Show that t = ϕ (s) = ln(es + e2s − 1) is an inverse of s(t) and verify that r1 (s) = tanh−1 1 − e−2s − 1 − e−2s . We have: s = ln (cosh t) Also: tanh2 t = 1 − sech2 t = 1 − e−2s Substituting in r(t) gives: r1 (s) = t − tanh t. e−s 2 4 x . Therefore. it sufﬁces to verify that ϕ (s(t)) = t. the arc length parametrization is obtained by substituting t = ϕ (s) in r(t) = t − tanh t. the arc length function s(t) ﬁnding r (u) du is equal to s(t) =the pointt).
2. 4 3. −2 ? SOLUTION A line with direction vector v has the parametrization: −→ − r(t) = O P0 + tv −→ − hence. and evaluate T(1). What is the curvature at a point where T (s) = 1. What is the radius of curvature at P if κ P = 9? SOLUTION The radius of curvature is the reciprocal of the curvature. t. 1. √ . a circle of radius 2 or a circle of radius 4? SOLUTION 1. The curvature is given by the formula: 5. t. 9t 4 SOLUTION The derivative vector is: r (t) = 36t 2 . hence the radius of curvature at P is: R= 1 1 = κP 9 Exercises In Exercises 1–6. Which has larger curvature. 4. 7t. is the circle itself. 5 + t 3. 1. 12 = √ 1. 1 = √ . and it is larger than the curvature of a circle of radius 4. which is 2 4. 7.4 Curvature (ET Section 13. 3 in an arc length parametrization r(s)? SOLUTION κ (t) = T (t) r (t) In an arc length parametrization. 1. t 2 r (t) 36 t 4 + t 2 + t 6 t 1 + t 2 + t 4 t 1 + t 2 + t 4 . Using the given information we obtain the following curvature: √ κ = 1. 4 SOLUTION The curvature of a circle of radius 2 is 1 .4) Preliminary Questions 1. we have: r (t) = v Therefore. and a line has zero curvature. 18t 2 . the unit tangent vector is: T(t) = v r (t) = = 2/3. 1/3. 36t. −2/3 r (t) v 2. t 2 t r (t) = = = t. since O P0 and v are constant vectors. hence the curvature is κ (t) = T (t) . Therefore. −1 . r(t) = 12t 3 . the radius of curvature is the radius of the circle. SOLUTION 7. 0. 2. √ . 1. 1. hence the curvature of a circle of radius 4 is 1 . 5 − t ? r(t) parametrizes the line 2. 3 = 12 + 22 + 32 = 14 6.268 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . t 3 ⇒ r (t) = 36 t 4 + t 2 + t 6 The unit vector is thus: T(t) = At t = 1 we have: T(1) = 1 1 1 1 1. 36t 3 = 36 t 2 . t 3 t t. What is the unit tangent vector of a line with direction vector v = 2. calculate r (t) and T(t). 3 3 3 3 1 + 12 + 14 1 36 t 2 .VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) 14. that is. What is the curvature of r(t) = 2 + 3t. 1. What is the curvature of a circle of radius 4? SOLUTION 1 The curvature of a circle of radius R is R . r (t) = 1 for all t. What is the radius of curvature of a circle of radius 4? The deﬁnition of the osculating circle implies that the osculating circles at the points of a circle. since v = 3.
0 = et r (t) = We now use the formula for curvature to calculate κ (t): 02 + (et )2 + 12 = 1 + e2t κ (t) = r (t) × r (t) r (t) 3 = et 1 + e2t 3 = et 1 + e2t 3/2 SOLUTION 9. −4 sin t We compute the cross product: r (t) × r (t) = i −4 sin t −4 cos t j 1 0 k 4 cos t −4 sin t . t By the formula for curvature we have: κ (t) = First we ﬁnd r (t) and r (t): r (t) × r (t) r (t) 3 (1) r (t) = −4 sin t. r(t) = 3 + 4t. 1 . 0 We need to ﬁnd the lengths of the following vectors: r (t) × r (t) = −et .−√ . r (t) = 0.4) 269 SOLUTION 3. et .√ 9 145 . 9 We now ﬁnd the unit tangent vector: T(t) = For t = 1 we obtain the vector: T(t) = √ 1 64 + 81 8. t SOLUTION We compute the ﬁrst and the second derivatives of r(t): r (t) = 0.S E C T I O N 14. 0. 9 = √ 8 145 .√ = √ r (t) 122 122 122 122 We see that the unit tangent vector is constant. we ﬁnd the cross product r (t) × r (t): r (t) × r (t) = i 0 0 j et et k 1 0 = et et 1 0 i− 0 0 1 0 j+ 0 0 et et k = −et i = −et . et . t sin t. t. 4 sin t r(t) = cos t. 0. use Eq. sin π t. 3 − 5t. 1. t We ﬁrst ﬁnd the vector r (t) and its length: r (t) = 4. 9t r(t) = 1 + 2t. r (t) = r (t) 1 64t 2 + 81 8t. r(t) = 4 cos t. 5. 9 = √ . 0 . −5. since the curve is a straight line. 3 − t 2 SOLUTION We differentiate r(t) to obtain: r (t) = 8t. r(t) = 1. t 2 7. 4 cos t r (t) = −4 cos t. Next. 9 ⇒ r (t) = 42 + (−5)2 + 92 = √ 122 The unit tangent vector is therefore: T(t) = 4 5 9 1 r (t) 4. (3) to calculate κ (t). r(t) = 4t 2 . r(t) = et .4 Curvature (ET Section 13. 9 ⇒ r (t) = (8t)2 + 92 = 64t 2 + 81 In Exercises 7–12. t 2 . 9t r(t) = cos π t. et . 0. −5.
hence f (t) = f (t) = et and we obtain: κ (t) = et 3/2 1 + e2t ⇒ κ (3) = e3 1 + e6 3/2 ≈ 0. 1. cos t We compute the lengths of the following vectors: √ r (t) × r (t) = 4 (− sin t)2 + (−4)2 + cos2 t = 4 sin2 t + 16 + cos2 t = 4 17 r (t) = (−4 sin t)2 + 12 + (4 cos t)2 = 16 sin2 t + 1 + 16 cos2 t = √ 17 Substituting in (1) gives the following curvature: √ √ 4 4 17 4 17 κ (t) = √ 3 = √ = 17 17 17 17 We see that this curve has constant curvature. r(t) = t −1 . t 13. y = et .0025 4 15. 0. y = t= cos = 2 x = 0 y . 1 . 4t − 3. 11. ﬁnd the curvature of the plane curve at the point indicated. −4. r (t) = 2t −3 . This gives: r (t) = −t −2 . r (t) and their cross product. 0 r (t) × r (t) = −t −2 i + k × 2t −3 i = 2t −3 k × i = 2t −3 j We compute the lengths of the vector in (1): r (t) × r (t) = 2t −3 j = 2t −3  r (t) = Substituting in (1) we obtain the following curvature: (−t)−2 2 + 02 + 12 = t −4 + 1 κ (t) = 2t−3 t −4 + 1 3 = 2t−3 t −4 + 1 3/2 We multiply through by t4·3/2 = t6 to obtain: κ (t) = 2t3 1 + t4 3/2 In Exercises 13–16. 0. . t r(t) = 4t + 1. sinh t. t x. r(t) = cosh t.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) = 1 0 4 cos t −4 sin t i− −4 sin t −4 cos t 4 cos t −4 sin t j+ −4 sin t −4 cos t 1 0 k = −4 sin ti − 16 sin2 t + 16 cos2 t j + 4 cos tk = −4 sin ti − 16j + 4 cos tk = 4 − sin t.270 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . 2t SOLUTION By the formula for curvature we have: κ (t) = r (t) × r (t) r (t) 3 (1) We now ﬁnd r (t). SOLUTION t =3 We use the curvature of a graph in the plane: κ (t) =  f (t) 1 + f (t)2 3/2 In our case f (t) = et .
3.4) 271 By the curvature of a graph in the plane. −3 sin . Hence.S E C T I O N 14. −3 sin 3t. −3 sin π . 1 = 1. 0 π π π 3π = 2 cos . −9 cos . −9 cos 3t. 0. f (t) = 12t 2 . SOLUTION By the formula for curvature we have: κ (t) = We compute the ﬁrst and second derivatives: r (t) × r (t) r (t) 3 (1) r (t) = 2 cos t. 3 2 y = tn. 1 2 2 2 3π π π = −2 sin . 0 3 3 3 3π π π = 2 cos . (1 + 16 · 26 )3/2 (1. Find the curvature of r(t) = 2 sin t. we have: κ (t) =  f (t) 1 + f (t)2 3/2 In this case f (t) = t 4 . 1 3 3 3 3 √ 3π π π = −2 sin . −9 cos . t = 1 z t= 3 y x FIGURE 15 The curve r(t) = 2 sin t. 1 = 2 cos .025)3/2 17. t . cos 3t. 0. 1 = 0. −3 sin . 0 2 2 2 We compute the cross products required to use (1): r π ×r 3 π ×r 2 π = 3 π = 2 i 1 √ − 3 i 0 −2 j 3 0 j 0 9 k 1 0 k 1 0 = = 0 9 3 0 1 0 1 0 i− 1 √ − 3 0 −2 1 0 1 0 j+ 1 √ − 3 3 0 0 9 k = −9i − √ 3j + 9k r Hence. 9. 0 = −2.4 SOLUTION Curvature (ET Section 13. 0 = − 3. t at t = π and t = π (Figure 15). 1 . κ (t) = At t = 2 we obtain the following curvature: 12t 2 2 3/2 1 + 4t 3 = 12t 2 1 + 16t 6 3/2 κ (2) = 12 · 22 48 = ≈ 0. At the points t = π and t = π we have: 3 2 r r r r r (t) = −2 sin t. i− j+ 0 −2 k = −2j + 6k r π ×r 3 r π 3 π 3 = = √ 2 √ (−9)2 + − 3 + 92 = 165 12 + 02 + 12 = √ 2 . f (t) = 4t 3 .0015. cos 3t.
α = − 2 is a maximum point as well. hence by (1) the curvature at this point is zero. b sin t of the ellipse Find the point of maximum curvature on y = e x . SOLUTION The curvature of the graph y = f (x) in the plane3π the following function: is Prove that the curvature takes its maximum at x = π and 2 . Substituting in (1) we obtain κ (x) = The curvature at the origin is thus α 2 eα x 1 + α 2 e 2α x 3/2 κ (0) = α2 = 3/2 3/2 1 + α 2 e2α ·0 1 + α2 α 2 eα ·0 Since κ (0) and κ 2 (0) have their maximum values at the same values of α . Show that curvature at an inﬂection point of a plane curve y = f (x) is zero.54 κ 3 2 2 2 √ √ 2 10 π 2 10 = √ 3 = √ = 0. Find the curvature function κ (x) for y = sin x. y (x) = α 2 eα x .  f (x) κ (x) = (1) 3/2 1 + f (x)2 At an inﬂection point the second derivative changes its sign. sech t has the curvature function κ (t) = sech t.2 κ 2 10 10 10 19. y 2 x 2 + = 1 is a b 8 κ (t) = ab (b2 cos2 t + a 2 sin2 t)3/2 . Also.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) At t = π we have: 2 r π ×r 2 r π 2 π 2 = = (−2)2 + 62 = √ √ 40 = 2 10 √ 10 02 + 32 + 12 = Substituting the values for t = π and t = π in (1) we obtain the following curvatures: 3 2 √ √ π 165 165 = √ 3 = √ ≈ 4. if f zero at this point. Use a computer algebra system to plot κ (x) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π . 23. Find the value of α such that the curvature of y = eα x at x = 0 is as large as possible. Therefore. Since g(α ) is an even √ function. it is 21. Show that the curvature function of the parametrization r(t) = a cos t. Hint: To simplify the calculation. Conclusion: κ (x) takes its maximum value at the origin when α = ± 2. SOLUTION Using the curvature of a graph in the plane we have: κ (x) = y (x) 1 + y (x)2 3/2 (1) In our case y (x) = α eα x . we may maximize the function: g(α ) = κ 2 (0) = We ﬁnd the stationary points: g (α ) = 4α 3 (1 + α 2 ) − α 4 (3)(1 + α 2 ) 2α (1 + α 2 ) 6 3 2 α4 (1 + α 2 ) 3 = 2α 3 (1 + α 2 ) (2 − α 2 ) (1 + α 2 ) 6 2 =0 The stationary points are the solutions of the following equation: 2α 3 (1 + α 2 )2 (2 − α 2 ) = 0 α3 = 0 α=0 or 2 − α2 = 0 √ α=± 2 √ Since g(α ) ≥ 0 and g(0) = 0.272 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . Show that the tractrix r(t) = t − tanh t. is continuous at the inﬂection point. α √ 0 is a minimum point. α = 2 is a maximum point. g (α ) is positive immediately to √ left of 2 and = the negative to the right. Hence. ﬁnd the maximum 2 of κ (x)2 .
t 2 . SOLUTION In Exercise 23 we showed that the curvature of the ellipse r(t) = a cos t.point. r (t) × r (t) = abk = ab r (t) = (−a sin t)2 + (b cos t)2 = a 2 sin2 t + b2 cos2 t Substituting in (1) we obtain the following curvature: κ (t) = ab a 2 sin2 t + b2 cos2 t 3 = ab 3/2 a 2 sin2 t + b2 cos2 t 2 25. −b sin t r (t) × r (t) = (−a sin ti + b cos tj) × (−a cos ti − b sin tj) = ab sin2 tk + ab cos2 tk = ab sin2 t + cos2 t k = abk Thus. (3) to prove (9) to compute the curvature at the given. that for a plane curve r(t) = x(t). to conﬁrm or refute your prediction. Use 27–30. y(t) = t 3 . use Eq. (9) we get x (2) = 2.012 cosh s. Then use Eq. In the notation of Exercise where the pointsa ≥ b.S E C T I O N 14. t 3 . Show that b/a 2 ≤ curvature occur on an ellipse. b cos t . y (2) = 3 · 22 = 12. SOLUTION x (t)y (t) − x (t)y (t) κ (t) = 2 . s = 0 . We use the identity cos2 t + sin2 t = 1 to obtain: ab 3/2 a 2 cos2 t + a 2 sin2 t ≤ κ (t) ≤ ≤ κ (t) ≤ ab 3/2 b2 cos2 t + b2 sin2 t ab a 2 cos2 t + sin2 t 3/2 ab b2 cos2 t + sin2 t 3/2 ab ab ab ab = ≤ κ (t) ≤ = 3 3/2 3/2 a3 b (a 2 ) (b2 ) b a ≤ κ (t) ≤ 2 a2 b In ExercisesEq. Substituting in Eq. x(t) = t (x (t)2 + hence x (t) = 2t x (t) = 2 y (t) = 3t 2 y (t) = 6t t =2 At the point t = 2 we have x (2) = 4. y (t)2 )3/2 For the given parametrization. (8) Use a sketch to predict 23. s . r (t) = −a cos t.4 SOLUTION Curvature (ET Section 13. assume that of minimal and maximal κ (t) ≤ a/b for all t.4) 273 The curvature is the following function: κ (t) = We compute the derivatives and their cross product: r (t) × r (t) r (t) 3 (1) r (t) = −a sin t. b sin t is the following function: κ (t) = ab 3/2 b2 cos2 t + a 2 sin2 t Since a ≥ b > 0 the quotient becomes greater if we replace a by b in the denominator. and it becomes smaller if we replace b by a in the denominator. y(t) 27. y (2) = 12 κ (2) = x (2)y (2) − x (2)y (2) 3/2 x (2)2 + y (2)2 = 4 · 12 − 2 · 12 3/2 42 + 122 = 24 1603/2 ≈ 0.
274 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . t cos t. hence: x (t) = cos t − t sin t y (t) = cos t y (t) = − sin t ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ x (π ) = cos π − π sin π = −1 ⇒ x (π ) = −2 sin π − π cos π = π x (t) = − sin t − (sin t + t cos t) = −2 sin t − t cos t y (π ) = cos π = −1 y (π ) = − sin π = 0 Substituting in Eq. Hence: x (t) = et cos 4t − 4et sin 4t = et (cos 4t − 4 sin 4t) x (t) = et (cos 4t − 4 sin 4t) + et (−4 sin 4t − 16 cos 4t) = −et (15 cos 4t + 8 sin 4t) y (t) = et sin 4t + 4et cos 4t = et (sin 4t + 4 cos 4t) y (t) = et (sin 4t + 4 cos 4t) + et (4 cos 4t − 16 sin 4t) = et (8 cos 4t − 15 sin 4t) We compute the numerator in (1): x (t)y (t) − x (t)y (t) = e2t (cos 4t − 4 sin 4t) · (8 cos 4t − 15 sin 4t) + e2t (15 cos 4t + 8 sin 4t) · (sin 4t + 4 cos 4t) = e2t 68 cos2 4t + 68 sin2 4t = 68e2t We compute the denominator in (1): x (t)2 + y (t)2 = e2t (cos 4t − 4 sin 4t)2 + e2t (sin 4t + 4 cos 4t)2 = e2t cos2 4t − 8 cos 4t sin 4t + 16 sin2 4t + sin2 4t + 8 sin 4t cos 4t + 16 cos2 4t = e2t cos2 4t + sin2 4t + 16 sin2 4t + cos2 4t = e2t (1 + 16 · 1) = 17e2t Hence x (t)2 + y (t)2 Substituting in (2) we have 3/2 (2) = 173/2 e3t √ 17 t e 4 κ (t) = 68e2t 4 = √ e−t 173/2 e3t 17 ⇒ R= (3) On the other hand. SOLUTION t −∞ The radius of curvature is the reciprocal of the curvature: R(t) = 1 κ (t) We compute the curvature using the equality given in Exercise 25 in Section 3: κ (t) = x (t)y (t) − x (t)y (t) x (t)2 + y (t)2 3/2 (1) In our case. x(t) = et cos 4t and y(t) = et sin 4t. s(t) = . Let sin 3s.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) 29. s du 2 Show that the radius of curvature is proportional to s(t).11 2 2 31. t = π SOLUTION We have x(t) = t cos t and y(t) = sin t. sin t . 2 sin 4s r (u) = π for the Bernoulli spiral r(t) = et cos 4t. (9) gives the following curvature: κ (π ) = x (π )y (π ) − x (π )y (π ) 3/2 x (π )2 + y (π )2 =  − 1 · 0 − π · (−1) 3/2 (−1)2 + (−1)2 π = √ ≈ 1. et sin 4t (see Exercise 25 in Section 14. by the Fundamental Theorem and (2) we have s (t) = r (t) = We integrate to obtain s(t) = √ 17 et dt = √ 17 et + C (4) x (t)2 + y (t)2 = 17e2t = √ 17et .3).
where t t u3 2 x(t) = = sin udu. x(t) sin 3 2 du. κ (t) = t 2 .4 Curvature (ET Section 13. the Cornu spiral is used in highway design to create (1) transitions between straight and curved road segments (Figure 16).S E C T I O N 14. Find the unit normal vector N(t) to r(t) = 4. y(t) . Does N(θ ) point inside or SOLUTION the circle?ﬁnd the unit at θ = π with R = 4. y(t) . sin 2t. Plot and compute the curvature κ (t) of x(t). hence by (4): t→−∞ 0 = lim Substituting C = 0 in (4) we get: √ t→−∞ 17et + C = 0 + C = C.4) 275 Since s(t) = t −∞ r (u) du. vector: outside We ﬁrst Draw N(θ ) tangent 4 T(t) = r (t) r (t) (1) . 0 0 t t u3 2 y(t) = = cos ududu y(t) cos 32 0 0 SOLUTIONthat κ (t) = t. sin θ . Since the curvature the curvature (given earlier): Verify We use the following formula for increases linearly. 33. the circle of radius R. cos 2t . Here is a plot of the curvature as a function of t: κ t κ (t) = t 2 35. Using the Fundamental Theorem and the Chain Rule we get: x (t) = sin x (t) = t3 3 t3 3t 2 t3 cos = t 2 cos 3 3 3 t3 3 − sin t3 3 = −t 2 sin t3 3 y (t) = cos y (t) = 3t 2 3 Substituting in (1) gives the following curvature function: κ (t) = sin t3 −t 2 sin t3 sin 3 t3 2 3 3 3 3 − t 2 cos t3 cos t3 + cos 3 t3 2 3/2 3 3 t 2 sin2 t3 + cos2 t3 = 13/2 = t2 That is. s(t) = Combining (3) and (5) gives: √ t 17e (5) R(t) = 1 s(t) 4 which means that the radius of curvature is proportional to s(t). x (t)y (t) − x (t)y (t) κ (t) = 3/2 x (t)2 + y (t)2 We compute the ﬁrst and second derivatives of x(t) and y(t). r(t) = The Cornu spiral is the plane curve r(t) = the clothoidwhere x(t). we have lim s(t) = 0. Find the unit normal vector N(θ ) to r(θ ) = R cos θ .
sin 2t. 3t 2 . cos t is T (t). t . √ 3/2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 1+ 1 2 1+ 1 2 2 1 39. −2 sin 2t. √ = √ . cos 2t = 0. Which sign is correct at= = 1? Which is correct at T(t) −1? r (t) r (t) = 1. − √ = 0. cos 2t = 0. cos 2t dt √ T (t) = 2 02 + sin2 2t + cos2 2t = 2 0 + 1 = 2 T (t) = Substituting in (2) we obtain: N(t) = −2 0. cos 2t. ⇒ r (t) = 12 + (sin t)2 = 1 + sin2 t T(t) = 1 1 + sin2 t 1. − sin t Hence. − sin 2t. We have SOLUTION . − sin t We compute the derivative of T(t) to ﬁnd the normal vector. √ = √ . − √ − √ . sin 2t.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) We have d 4. 2 cos 2t. −2 sin 2t = 2 0. . Since r (t) =4 1. Sketch the graph of r(t) = t. cos 2t. √ + √ . √ Find the unit normal to the Cornu spiral (Exercise 32) at t = π . cos 2t. − sin t At t = π we obtain the normal vector: 4 T π = 4 √ √ − 2 −2 2 −1 1 1 1 1 0. − sin t 1. − sin 2t 2 The normal vector is the following vector: N(t) = T (t) T (t) (2) We compute the derivative of the unit tangent vector and its length: d 0. where t = = r (t) is the unit tangent vector. − sin 2t dt √ r (t) = 2 02 + cos2 2t + (− sin 2t)2 = 2 0 + 1 = 2 r (t) = Substituting in (1) gives: T(t) = 2 0. Find the normal vectors to r(t) = 3t. cos 2t. − sin 2t = 0. Find the unit normal to the clothoid (Exercise 33) at t = π 1/3 . − √ − 1.276 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . √ 3/2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 1+ 1 2 1+ 1 2 2 1 π At t = 34 we obtain: T 3π 4 = √ √ 2 2 −1 2 −1 1 1 1 0. −2 cos 2t = −2 0. − sin 2t = 0. − √ = 0. √ − 1.We use the Product Rule and the Chain Rule to obtain: T (t) = = = 1 1 1 + sin2 t 1 1 + sin2 t d 1. the unit normal N(t) points in one of the two directions ± −3t 2 The normal vector to r(t) t t. sin 2t. − sin t + 1 1 + sin2 t 1 1 + sin2 t · 1. − cos t − 2 sin t cos t 2 1 + sin2 t 3/2 sin 2t 2 1 + sin2 t 1. − cos 2t 2 π 37. cos t at t = π and t = 34 . 1 . − cos t − 0. − sin t 1 + sin2 t dt 0.
− = 3 3 2 2 In Exercises 41–46. In r (t) − t =1 Hint: Differentiate r (t) = v(t)T(t) and noter(t) = is + t 2 .4) 277 The Clothoid is the plane curve r(t) = x(t). we have r (1) = 2. that N 1 the unit t 3 Hence. 3t 2 r (t) = 2. 17 T (1) = 2. − sin .4 SOLUTION Curvature (ET Section 13. Method for Computing N Let at = r (t) . − sin 3 3 3 3 t3 t3 . 2. 3 r (1) = √ r (1) 17 (2t)2 + 22 + (3t 2 )2 = = 4t + 18t 3 4 + 4t 2 + 9t 4 4t 2 + 4 + 9t 4 = 4 + 4t 2 + 9t 4 8t + 36t 3 2 4 + 4t 2 + 9t 4 . 6t v(t) = r (t) = v (t) = At the point t = 1. sin 3 3 3 3 = t 2 cos t3 t3 . 0. . y(t) with x(t) = t sin 0 u3 du. use Eq. 0. cos 3 3 t 3 −3t 2 t3 3t 2 cos . SOLUTION r (t) − v (t)T(t) We compute the values in formulaN(t) = our case v (t)T(t) (10). 44 44 66 1 22 . − sin 3 3 = cos √ π π 3 1 . 6 . 2. (10) to ﬁnd Nv(t)the point indicated. By the Fundamental Theorem we have r (t) r (t) = sin Hence. cos 3 3 ⇒ r (t) = sin2 √ t3 t3 + cos2 = 1=1 3 3 t3 t3 . t 3 . Hence. 3 y(t) = t cos 0 u3 du 3 The unit normal is the following vector: N(t) = T (t) T (t) (1) We ﬁrst ﬁnd the unit tangent vector T(t) = r (t) . T (t) = t 2 cos2 Substituting in (1) we obtain the following unit normal: N(t) = cos At the point T = π 1/3 the unit normal is N(π 1/3 ) = cos (π 1/3 ) (π 1/3 ) . 2. Show that 41. 1 + t 2 . 6 − √ · √ 17 17 17 17 17 22 v (1) = √ . T(t) = sin We now differentiate T(t) using the Chain Rule to obtain: T (t) = Hence. 0. 2t. 2t. 6 − r (1) − v (1)T(1) = 2.vector in the direction T . r (t) = 2t.S E C T I O N 14. 3 = 2. 2. − sin 3 3 t3 t3 + − sin 3 3 2 = t2 t3 t3 . 0.
2 . t = 1 SOLUTION We use the equality 0. 0 r (π ) = = 1. 6 t −4 + 1 + 4t 2 = −2t −5 + 4t t −4 + 1 + 4t 2 −4t −5 + 8t 2 t −4 + 1 + 4t 2 . −2 .VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) = − √ 1 14 2 + (−44)2 + 362 = 1 3. −22.332 = 14 17 = √ (−10) r (1) − v (1)T(1) = 17 17 17 17 Substituting in equation (10) we get N(1) = 1 −10. For r (t) = t − sin t. 0 0. 2 2 2 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π r (π ) = sin π . 1 − cos t we have r (t) = 1 − cos t. −1 = 0. −44. t − sint t. 18 = 17 = √ 14 r (1) − v (1)T(1) √ 7 17 17 44 36 10 1 . t = π t. r (−1) = −2. t. 2 v(t) = r (t) = v (t) = At the point t = −1 we get r (−1) = −1. 1 − cos t . sin 2 ≥ 0. hence v(t) = 2 sin 2 . t = 2 SOLUTION We use the following equality: N(t) = r (t) − v (t)T(t) r (t) − v (t)T(t) (1) We compute the vectors in the above equality. t 2 we have r (t) = −t −2 .278 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . t −1 . −1 π v (π ) = cos = 0 2 r (π ) = 1 − cos π . t . −1 1 We now substitute these values in (1) to obtain the following unit normal: N(π ) = 2 45. t = −1 t . For r(t) = t −1 . 1. sin π = 2. −1 − 0 1. Therefore. 36 r (1) − v (1)T(1) 1 −5. sin t r (t) = sin t. 0 T(π ) = 2. 1. −1 − 0 1. e . cos π = 0. cos t v(t) = r (t) = = √ (1 − cos t)2 + sin2 t = 2(1 − cos t) = 1 − 2 cos t + cos2 t + sin2 t 2 · 2 sin2 t t = 2 sin 2 2 1 − 2 cos t + 1 = t t For 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π . 0 r (π ) 2 0. 0 = N(t) = r (t) − v (t)T(t) r (t) − v (t)T(t) (1) We compute the vectors in the above equality.t . 2t r (t) = 2t −3 . t3 .2t. 0. v (−1) = √ 2−4 1+1+4 −2 = √ .− . 0. −44. −10. 36 = 17 17 17 17 43. v (t) = 2 · At the point t = π we have t t 1 cos = cos .
f (x) = x 2 Show t = the 2 SOLUTION We parametrize the curve by r(x) = x. = 3 3 3 3 6 6 1 1√ r (−1) − v (−1)T(−1) = (−7)2 + 12 + 42 = 66 3 3 Substituting in (1) gives the following unit normal: 1 −7. 2 + √ · √ −1. 1 (2) x f(x) = x2 2 We now substitute (2). 1 2 1 + 4x 0 2 −2x 0 . hence. 1. 4 1 −7. 1 2 1 2 1 + 4x 0 2 3 1 2 = −4x 0 . 2 Find a parametrization of the osculating circle to y = x 2 at x = 1. −2 = − . that is. the appropriate choice is: N(x 0 ) = 1 2 1 + 4x 0 y −2x 0 . Let cosh t. 1 = x 0 . t . (3). 1 . x 0 + 1 + 4x 0 2 2 3 = x 0 . −1. Find a parametrization of the osculating circle to y = sin x at x = π . 4 = √ N(−1) = 3 1 √ 66 3 66 3 1 2 2 47. x 0 + −x 0 − 4x 0 . x 0 in (1) to obtain 1 −→ 2 2 3/2 · O Q = x 0 . x 0 + 1 2 1 + 4x 0 −2x 0 . that 0 center of the osculating circle at (x 0 . . t. 1. x 2 . sinh. 0. κ (x) =  f (x) 3/2 (1 + f (x)2 ) = 2 3/2 (1 + 4x 2 ) ⇒ κ (x0 )−1 = 1 2 3/2 (1 + 4x 0 ) 2 To ﬁnd the unit normal vector N(x 0 ) we use the following considerations: • The tangent vector is r (x 0 ) = 1. using the formula for the curvature of a graph in the plane. 1. 3 Q = −4x 0 . 4 r (−1) − v (−1)T(−1) = −2. We have f (x) = 2x and f (x) = 2.4) 279 T(−1) = Hence. 2x 0 . Hence N(x 0 ) is one of the two unit vectors ± 1 2 1+4x0 • The graph of f (x) = x 2 shows that the unit normal vector points in the positive ydirection. + 3x 0 . hence the vector −2x 0 . −2 r (−1) = √ r (−1) 6 1 7 1 4 2 1 −7. 1. hence. 1 is orthogonal to r (x 0 ) (since their dot product −2x 0 . x 0 ) is given by −4x 0 . 1. 1 2 + 3x 0 2 49. is zero). The center Q of the osculating circle at x = x 0 has the position vector −→ O Q = r(x 0 ) + κ (x 0 )−1 N(x 0 ) (1) We ﬁrst ﬁnd the curvature. .4 Curvature (ET Section 13. + 3x 0 2 −→ The center of the osculating circle is the terminal point of O Q. and r(x 0 ) = x 0 .S E C T I O N 14.
N π 2 = 0. it follows that the osculating circle at each point of the circle is the circle itself. cos t Hence. 51. −1 cos x. 1 − cos t . Find κ and N. 1) ( . Therefore the osculating circle to the unit circle at t = π is 4 the unit circle itself. In Exercise 43 we found that: N(π ) = 0. Considering the accompanying ﬁgure. t = 0 SOLUTION Step 1. 0 + 1 · cos t. Thus. −1 r (π ) × r (π ) = 2i × (−j) = −2k . t − sin t. sin t . sin t is the unit circle. since their dot product is zero. The radius of the osculating circle is the radius of curvature and the center is the terminal point of the following vector: π π −→ + RN OQ = r 2 2 We ﬁrst compute the curvature. Since y (x) = cos x and y (x) = − sin x. −1 cos2 x + (−1)2 ⇒ N π = 0.280 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . cos x . cos t. −1 y P = cos x. 0) x Q We now ﬁnd the center of the osculating circle. 1 . depending on the graph. N(x) is a unit vector orthogonal to the tangent vector r (x) = 1. 0 OQ = 2 2 The osculating circle is the circle with center at the point π . cos t . sin t 2 2 In Exercises 51–55. N(x) is the unit vector in the direction of either − cos x. we have: sin π π 1 2 = = =1 π 3/2 2 1 1 + cos2 2 κ (x) =  − sin x = 3/2 3/2 (1 + y (x)2 ) (1 + cos2 x) y (x) ⇒ κ We compute the unit normal vector N(x). cos π = 0. 53. t = π 4 SOLUTION The curve r(t) = cos t. ⇒ ⇒ r (π ) × r (π ) r (π ) 3 (2) r (π ) = 1 − cos π . −1 = . We observe that − cos x. 0 r (π ) = sin π . N(x) = cos x. sin t r (t) = sin t. 0 and radius 1. Use Eq. 0 + cos t. sin t = . ﬁnd a parametrization of the osculating circle at the point indicated. −1 To ﬁnd κ we use the formula for curvature: (1) κ (π ) = For r(t) = t − sin t. We substitute R = π . −1 2 ( . 1 into (1) to obtain 2 2 2 κ 1 π 2 = 1. and r π 2 = π π −→ . −1 . 1 is orthogonal to r (x). By the deﬁnition of the osculating circle. sin x . t 3 at t = 1. Therefore. we see that the unit normal vector at x = π /2 points to the negative ydirection. t = π (use Exercise 43) sin t. so it has the following parametrization: 2 c(t) = π π .VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S SOLUTION (ET CHAPTER 13) R= κ 1 π 2 We use the parametrization r(x) = x. 1 − cos t we have: r (t) = 1 − cos t. (7) to ﬁnd the center of curvature to r(t) = t 2 . 1 or − − cos x. sin π = π . sin π = 2. 1 + 1 · 0.
− tanh t √ · sech2 t. 0. Using the identity tanh2 t + sech2 t = 1 we get: 1 1 1 sech t T (t) = √ sech4 t + 0 + sech2 t tanh2 t = √ sech2 t tanh2 t + sech2 t = √ sech2 t · 1 = √ 2 2 2 2 Hence. 0. Then use Eq. The osculating circle has radius R = κ (π ) and it is centered at (π . sin t. Find κ and N.S E C T I O N 14. 0 =2 1 2 κ (π ) = 3 = 4 2 −→ O Q = r (π ) + κ (π )−1 N (π ) Substituting (1). cosh t. sech t = √ r (t) 2 cosh t 2 1 T (t) = √ sech2 t. 1 = √ tanh t. 0. hence it has the following parametrization: c(t) = π . −2 4 (3) Step 2. −2 + 4 cos t. 0. 0.4) 281 r (π ) × r (π ) = − 2k = 2 Substituting in (2) we get: and r (π ) = 2. 2 + 0. − sech t tanh t = T (t) sech t 2 2 At the point t = 0 we have sech 0 = 1.4 Curvature (ET Section 13. sinh t. 0. 0 + 2 1. 0. 1 sin t 2 Find the curvature and unit normal vector to the helix r(t) = cos t. The osculating circle is centered at Q = (3. t 3 . 2 + 1 −1 0. hence N(0) = 1. cosh t. 0 cos t + √ 0. (2) and r(0) = 1. 0. 1 r (t) = T(t) = sinh2 t + cosh2 t + 1 = cosh2 t − 1 + cosh2 t + 1 = 2 cosh2 t = √ 2 cosh t 1 1 r (t) sinh t. We have: r (t) = sinh t. 0. 1. N(t) = √ 2 1 1 T (t) = sech t. The center Q of the osculating circle at r (π ) = π . −2). 0 (2) Step 2. Find the center of the osculating circle. 2 we get: −→ O Q = π. t . t = 1 (use Exercise 41) SOLUTION Step 1. (3) and r (π ) = π . − sech t tanh t 2 We compute the length of T (t). hence it has the following parametrization: 2 c(t) = 3. tanh 0 = 0. r(t) = cosh t. 0 + 2N cos t + 2T sin t = 3. t = 0 (use Exercise 12) 1 + t 2 . 2t. 0. 0 has position vector: −→ O Q = r(0) + κ (0)−1 N(0) Substituting (1). 0 1 Step 3. 0 we get: −→ O Q = 1. 2 has position vector 1 Step 3. −4 = π . 0) and has radius R = κ (0) = 2. 0. Find the center of the osculating circle. The center Q of the osculating circle at r(0) = 1. Parametrize the osculating circle. 1. 0. t at t = 0. In Exercise 12 we found that: κ (t) = 1 2 cosh2 t ⇒ κ (0) = 1 2 cosh2 0 = 1 2 (1) We now must ﬁnd the unit normal N. 0. 0 = 3. (7) to ﬁnd the center of curvature and a parametrization of the osculating circle at t = 0. 0 + 2 · 1. sin t 55. . Parametrize the osculating circle. −1 = π .
tissue is removed to a depth t (y) at height y for −S ≤ y ≤ S. then f (y) = p −1 r − r 2 − py 2 . x (0) = ±r 2 3/2 (r 2 ) = ±1 r Substituting in (1) gives the following curvature at the origin: κ (0) =  ±1  1 x (0) 1 r = = = 2 )3/2 r  r (1 + x (0) (1 + 0)3/2 We conclude that the radius of curvature at the origin is R= 1 =r κ (0) 59. We use the following simple variant of the formula for the curvature of a graph in the plane: κ (y) = (The traditional formula of κ (x) = ﬁnd x in terms of y: y (x) 1+y (x)2 3/2 x (y) 1 + x (y)2 3/2 (1) is inappropriate for this problem. (8). the radius of curvature at the point P (where y = 0) is R. p p y ≥ 0. Figure 17 shows the graph of the halfellipse y = ± 2r x − px 2 . where r and p are positive constants. x =± At the origin we get: r 2 − py 2 − y · √ − py 2 r 2 − py 2 =± r 2 − py 2 + py 2 r2 =± 3/2 3/2 r 2 − py 2 r 2 − py 2 x (0) = 0.) We y= 2r x − px 2 y 2 = 2r x − px 2 px 2 − 2r x + y 2 = 0 We solve for x and obtain: x=± We ﬁnd x and x : x =± −2 py 2 p r 2 − py 2 1· =± y r 2 − py 2 r − py 2 r 1 r 2 − py 2 + . Show that T (t) = θ (t) and conclude that if r(s) is a parametrization modeled by the halfellipse of Exercise 57. y r r x FIGURE 17 The curve y = 2r x − px 2 and the osculating circle at the origin. where by arc length. HoangXuan. Show that the radius of curvature at the origin is equal to r .282 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . After surgery. During surgery. the cross section of the cornea has the shape x = f (y) + t (y) (Figure 18). sin θ (t) . where t (y) is given by Munnerlyn’s equation (for some R > r ): d θ κ (s) = 11 ds t (y) = R 2 − S 2 − R 2 − y 2 − r 2 − S 2 + r 2 − y 2 Hint: Observe that T(t) = cos θ (t). SOLUTION The radius of curvature is the reciprocal of the curvature. The angle of inclination of a plane curve with parametrization r(t) is deﬁned as the angle θ (t) between the unit In a recent study of laser eye surgery by Gatinel. Show that after surgery. as y (x) is undeﬁned at x = 0. and Azar. . Hint: One way of proceeding is to write the ellipse in the form of Exercise 23 and apply Eq. a vertical cross section of the cornea is tangent vector T(t) and the xaxis (Figure 19). We thus must ﬁnd the curvature at the origin. Show that the halfellipse can be written in the form x = f (y).VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) 57.
f (θ ) sin θ to show that a curve r = f (θ ) in polar coordinates has Let θ (x) be the angle of inclination at a point on the graph y = f (x) (see Exercise 59). how fast is the is = unit speed. (11) for a circle of radius R. = 1 + f (x) (b) Use the arc length integral to show that dx SOLUTION By the formula for curvature we have (c) Now give a proof of Eq. (11). Differentiating this vector using the Chain Rule gives: T (t) = −θ (t) sin θ (t). cos θ (t) We compute the norm of the vector T (t): T (t) = θ (t) − sin θ (t). angle of inclination changing) when the particle passes through the point (2. sin θ (t) . cos θ (t) = θ (t) (− sin θ (t))2 + (cos θ (t))2 = θ (t) · 1 = θ (t) When r(s) is a parametrization by arc length we have: κ (s) = as desired. That is. SOLUTION Since T(t) is a unit vector that makes an angle θ (t) with the positive xaxis. therefore. for this case. f (θ ) sin θ + f (θ ) cos θ r (θ ) = f (θ ) cos θ − f (θ ) sin θ − f (θ ) sin θ − f (θ ) cos θ . ds R This equality veriﬁes Eq. 63. Use the parametrization r(θ ) = f (θ ) cos θ . r(s) = R cos s s . f (θ ) sin θ + f (θ ) cos θ + f (θ ) cos θ − f (θ ) sin θ = f (θ ) − f (θ ) cos θ − 2 f (θ ) sin θ .4 y T(t) = 〈cos (t). κ (θ ) = We differentiate r(θ ) and r (θ ): r (θ ) × r ( θ ) r (θ ) 3 (1) r (θ ) = f (θ ) cos θ − f (θ ) sin θ . hence the change in the angle during an interval of length θ = θ (s + Therefore. θ (t) cos θ (t) = θ (t) − sin θ (t). we have: 1 dθ = .4) 283 x FIGURE 19 The curvature is the rate of change of θ (t)..e. sin (t)〉 r(t) (t) Curvature (ET Section 13. How that θ (s) = 1/R. sin R R s is: s The angle is θ (s) = R .S E C T I O N 14. dT dT = ds dt dt d θ dθ dθ 1 = θ (t) = d θ ds θ (t) ds ds 61. f (θ ) − f (θ ) sin θ + 2 f (θ ) cos θ . 8)? SOLUTION The particle traverses the circle at unit speed hence the parametrization is the arc length parametrization of the circle. Show that the change 3 A particle an interval of length in the angle duringmoves along the path yt = x θ with t/R and concludefast is the tangent turning (i. (11). s) − θ (s) = s s s+ s − = R R R θ = 1 and we obtain the following derivative: s R θ (s) = lim s→0 θ 1 1 = lim = s R s→0 R 1 The curvature of a circle of radius R is R . Verify Eq. κ (θ ) = 12 ds ( f (θ )2 + f (θ )2 )3/2 2. Suppose that a particle traverses the circle at unit speed. (5) using Eq. we have T(t) = cos θ (t). curvature f (x) dθ (a) Use the relation f (x) = tan θ to provefthat 2 + 2 f (θ )2 − 2 f (θ ) f (θ )  (θ ) d x = (1 + f (x)2 ) .
(12): κ (θ ) =  f (θ )2 + 2 f (θ )2 − f (θ ) f (θ ) 3/2 f (θ ) 2 + f 2 ( θ ) In our case f (θ ) = aebθ hence f (θ ) = abebθ and f (θ ) = ab2 ebθ . (12) to ﬁnd the curvature of the curve given in polar form. We compute the numerator of κ (θ ): f (θ )2 + 2 f (θ )2 − f (θ ) f (θ ) = a 2 e2bθ + 2a 2 b2 e2bθ − aebθ · ab2 ebθ = a 2 e2bθ + 2a 2 b2 e2bθ − a 2 b2 e2bθ . (12) are thus: f (θ )2 + 2 f (θ ) − f (θ ) f (θ ) = θ 2 + 2 · 1 − 0 = θ 2 + 2 f ( θ ) 2 + f (θ ) 2 Hence. f (θ ) = 0.284 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . The numerator and denominator in Eq.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) Hence. 3/2 = θ2 + 1 3/2 κ (θ ) = θ2 + 2 θ2 + 1 3/2 67. use Eq. Use Eq. f (θ ) = θ f (θ ) = 2 cos θ SOLUTION We have f (θ ) = 1. 65. to f (θ ) = e SOLUTION By Eq. r (θ ) = Substituting (2) and (3) in (1) gives: f 2 (θ ) + f 2 (θ ) (3) 2 2 κ (θ ) =  f 2 (θ ) + 2 f 2 (θ ) − f (θ ) f (θ ) 3/2 f 2 (θ ) + f 2 (θ ) In Exercises 64–66. (12) θ ﬁnd the curvature of the general Bernoulli spiral r = aebθ in polar form (a and b are constants). r (θ ) × r (θ ) = f (θ ) cos θ − f (θ ) sin θ · − f (θ ) sin θ + f (θ ) cos θ · = f (θ ) − f (θ ) sin θ + 2 f (θ ) cos θ k f (θ ) − f (θ ) cos θ − 2 f (θ ) sin θ k f (θ ) f (θ ) − f (θ ) cos θ sin θ − f (θ ) f (θ ) − f (θ ) sin2 θ + 2 f 2 (θ ) cos2 θ − 2 f (θ ) f (θ ) sin θ cos θ − f (θ ) f (θ ) − f (θ ) sin θ cos θ − f (θ ) f (θ ) − f (θ ) cos2 θ + 2 f (θ )2 sin2 θ + 2 f (θ ) f (θ ) cos θ sin θ k k = − f (θ ) f (θ ) − f (θ ) sin2 θ + cos2 θ + 2 f 2 (θ ) cos2 θ + sin2 θ = − f (θ ) f (θ ) − f (θ ) + 2 f 2 (θ ) k = − f (θ ) f ( θ ) + f 2 ( θ ) + 2 f 2 ( θ ) k The length of the cross product is: r (θ ) × r (θ ) =  f 2 (θ ) + 2 f (θ ) − f (θ ) f (θ ) We compute the length of r (θ ): r (θ ) 2 2 (2) = f (θ ) cos θ − f (θ ) sin θ 2 + f (θ ) sin θ + f (θ ) cos θ 2 2 2 = f (θ ) cos2 θ − 2 f (θ ) f (θ ) cos θ sin θ + f 2 (θ ) sin2 θ + f (θ ) sin2 θ + 2 f (θ ) f (θ ) sin θ cos θ + f 2 (θ ) cos2 θ = f (θ ) cos2 θ + sin2 θ + f 2 (θ ) sin2 θ + cos2 θ = f (θ ) + f 2 (θ ) Hence.
N. hence T · N = N · T = 0 and T · T = T 2 = 1. respectively. We now show that the ﬁrst condition is satisﬁed as well. Finally. We thus showed that the circle γ (s) satisﬁes the second condition in the deﬁnition of the osculating circle. We place the x ycoordinate system so that the origin is at P and the x and y axes are in the directions of T and N. It follows by (1) that γ (s) is a circle of radius κ centered 1 at κ N. we verify that the given parametrization is the arc length parametrization. since T · T = N · N = 1 and T · N = N · T = 0 we get: γ (s) 2 = (cos κ s)T + (sin κ s)N · (cos κ s)T + (sin κ s)N = cos2 κ s T · T + (cos κ s)(sin κ s)T · N + (sin κ s cos κ s)N · T + sin2 κ s N · N = cos2 κ s + sin2 κ s = 1 Hence γ (s) = 1 . We use the identity sin2 (κ s) + cos2 (κ s) = 1 to obtain γ (s) − That is. 1 The center of the circle is the terminal point of the vector κ N.4 Curvature (ET Section 13.S E C T I O N 14. Show that Show that both r (t) and r (t) lie in the osculating plane for a vector function r(t). T. and T are ﬁxed and only s is changing in γ (s). T and N are the unit tangent and the unit normal to the curve at P. The curvature of the circle is the reciprocal of the radius. SOLUTION P N T We compute the following expression: γ (s) − 1 2 1 1 N = 2 (sin κ s) T − (cos κ s) N 2 = 2 ((sin κ s) T − (cos κ s) N) · ((sin κ s) T − (cos κ s) N) κ κ κ = 1 sin2 κ sT · T − (sin κ s cos κ s) T · N − (cos κ s sin κ s) N · T + cos2 κ s N · N κ2 The vectors T and N are orthogonal unit vectors. Differentiating γ (s) with respect to s gives (notice that κ .4) 285 = a 2 e2bθ + a 2 b2 e2bθ = a 2 (1 + b2 )e2bθ We compute the denominator of κ (θ ): f ( θ ) 2 + f (θ ) 2 Therefore: 3/2 = a 2 e2bθ + a 2 b2 e2bθ 3/2 = a 2 e2bθ 1 + b2 3/2 = a 3 e3bθ 1 + b2 3/2 κ (θ ) = a 2 (1 + b2 )e2bθ 3/2 a 3 (1 + b2 ) e3bθ = 1 a 1 + b2 e−bθ 69. Hint: Differentiate r (t) = 1 1 v(t)T(t). N · N = N 2 = 1. γ (s) = N + (sin κ s)T − (cos κ s)N κ κ is an arc length parametrization of the osculating circle. We next show that γ (s) is an arc length parametrization of the osculating circle at P. and N are ﬁxed): γ (s) = 1 (κ cos κ s) T + (κ sin κ s) N = (cos κ s)T + (sin κ s)N κ Hence. by showing that γ (s) = 1. 1 2 1 1 N = 2 sin2 κ s + cos2 κ s = 2 κ κ κ 1 1 N = κ κ γ (s) − (1) 1 Notice that κ . which is κ (the curvature of C at the point P). Let P be a ﬁxed point on the curve C. This shows that T and N are the unit tangent and unit normal to the circle at P. which is in the direction of N and orthogonal to T.
y(t). Observe that −N points to the outside of C. r1 (t) × r1 (t) = λ r (t) × λ r (t) = λ 2 r (t) × r (t) r1 (t) = λ r (t) = λ  r (t) Substituting in (1) we get: κ1 (t) = λ 2 r (t) × r (t) λ 3 r (t) 3 = 1 r (t) × r (t) 1 = κ (t) λ  λ  r (t) 3 We conclude that the resulting curvature is: κ1 (t) = 1 κ (t) λ  Multiplying the vector by λ causes the curvature to be divided by λ . Two vectorvalued functions r (s) and r2 (s) are said to agree to order 2 at s0 if where λ = 0 is a constant. λ y(t). Show that r(s) and γ (s) agree to order 2 at s = 0 r circle 1 (t) r (t) × r 2 at (in fact. Use this and a change of variables L to prove that 0 κ (s) ds = 2π . y C1 T C P N x P (A) An oval (B) C1 is the expansion of C in normal direction. Let r(s) be an arc length parametrization of a closed curve C of length L. For k > 0. Let r(t) = x(t). Hint: Use Eq. κ1 (t) = 1 . (3). it is equal to the r (s ).286 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . κ (t) = 3 r (t) 3 r1 (t) We have d (λ r(t)) = λ r (t) dt d d r1 (t) = λ r (t) = λ r (t) r1 (t) = dt dt r1 (t) = Hence. 13 + 3 cos t κ (t) = (a) Show that r1 (s) = r (s) + k κ (s). θ increases by 2π .VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) 71. 2 sin(t/2) . We call C an oval if d θ /ds > 0 (see Show that the curvature of Viviani’s curve. Let r(s) The arc length parametrization of a path curvature P be SOLUTION be anresulting curvature k1 and the original C and let κ are:the terminal point of r(0). the osculating circle is the unique(t) × rthat approximates C to order (t) P). r a ) = (s ). (c) Show that C1 has length L + 2π k. sin t. SOLUTION (a) Since r1 (s) = r(s) − kN we have r1 (s) = r (s) − k We compute dN using the Chain Rule: ds dN dN d θ = · ds d θ ds By Exercise 59 and since C is oval we have: dθ dθ = ds ds (2) dN ds (1) κ (s) = (3) . that is. This explainsrwhy ) = curvature of (scirclerof radius r (s proportional to 1/R (in fact. Further Insights and Challenges 73. θ increases by 2π [Figure 20(A)]. (3 + cos t)3/2 (b) As P moves around the oval counterclockwise. z(t) be a path with curvature κ (t) and deﬁne the scaled path r1 (t) = λ x(t). λ z(t) . R is ) = r (s ) 1 (s0 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 1/R). the curve C1 deﬁned by r1 (s) = r(s) − kN is called √ the expansion of c(s) in the normal direction. Prove that 1 curvature varies inversely with the scale factor. FIGURE 20 As P moves around the oval. Let γ (s) be the arc length parametrization of the osculating circle given in Exercise 69. the curvature κ1 (t) of r1 (t) is κ1 (t) = λ −1 κ (t). is Exercise 59). given by r(t) = 1 + cos t.
sin θ = −T dθ Substituting (3) and (4) in (2) yields: dN = −κ (s)T(s) ds Substituting in (1) we obtain: r1 (s) = r (s) + k κ (s)T(s) In the arc length parametrization. as illustrated in the ﬁgure. As P moves around the oval.4) 287 N Also. hence θ (s = L) − θ (s = 0) = 2π . Therefore we get: L 1 = L + k · 2π = L + 2π k. the ﬁrst integral is the length L of C. T(s) = r (s). therefore: r1 (s) = r (s) + k κ (s)r (s) = r (s) (1 + k κ (s)) Computing the length and using r (s) = 1 we obtain: r1 (s) = r (s) (1 + k κ (s)) = r (s) + r (s) · k κ (s) = r (s) + k κ (s) (b) In Exercise 59 we showed that: (4) π π + θ . ds ds Using these considerations we get: L 0 κ (s) ds = θ (L) d θ θ (0) ds ds = θ (L) θ (0) d θ = θ (L) − θ (0) = 2π . θ increases by 2π .S E C T I O N 14. (a) Show that SOLUTION 13 .4 T Curvature (ET Section 13. Follow steps (a)–(c) to prove that there is a number τ (lowercase Greek tau) called the torsion such that Show that B is a unit vector. let B denote the binormal vector at a point on a space curve C. deﬁned by B = T × N. − sin θ = − cos θ . In Exercises 74–81. (c) We use the Arc Length Formula and the equality in part (a) to write the length L 1 of C1 as the following integral: L1 = L 0 r1 (s) ds = L 0 r (s) ds + k L 0 κ (s) ds By the Arc Length Formula. sin +θ 2 2 = − sin θ . the following holds: N = cos Hence: dN = − cos θ . cos θ κ (s) = dθ ds Since d θ > 0 we have κ (s) = d θ . ds ds (b) Differentiate B · B = 1 with respect to s to show that dB/ds is orthogonal to B. dB = −τ N ds dN dB =T× and conclude that dB/ds is orthogonal to T. The second integral was computed in part (b). 75. (c) Conclude that dB/ds is a multiple of N.
It follows that dB is parallel to any other vector ds ds that is orthogonal to B and T. so we obtain: ds ds dB dN =T× ds ds By properties of cross products we conclude that dB is orthogonal to T. This gives: ds T · (aT + bB) = −N · dT ds . We conclude that dB and N are parallel. Geometrically the osculating plane is “twisted” and τ is a measure for this ds twisting. there exist scalars a and b such that: dN = aT + bB ds (b) By the orthogonality of N and T we have: N·T=0 Differentiating this equality. ds (c) In parts (a) and (b) we showed that dB is orthogonal to B and T.” plane P.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) (a) Using the Product Rule for cross product we have: d dT dN dB = ×N+T× (T × N) = ds ds ds ds N is a unit vector in the direction of dT . we substitute dN = aT + bB and use T · T = T 2 = 1 and T · B = 0. Therefore. Now. the vectors N and B are orthogonal. Earlier we showed that dB = T × dN and dB = −τ N. Since B = T × N. The unit normal N is also orthogonal to the unit tangent T. hence: ds ds ds ds −τ N = T × dN ds By properties of the cross product. SOLUTION (a) We ﬁrst show that dN is orthogonal to N. this equality implies that dN is orthogonal to −τ N. hence there exists a number (−τ ) such that: ds dB = −τ N. and hence. ds this last vector lies in the plane spanned by T and B. B×T=N dT dN = −N · and compute a. N × B = T. using the product rule for dot product we get: N· dT dN + ·T=0 ds ds ⇒ T· dN dT = −N · ds ds To compute a. that is. ds (b) We differentiate B · B = 1 using the Product Rule for dot products: B· dB dB + ·B=0 ds ds dB =0 2B · ds ⇒ B· dB =0 ds Since the dot product of B and dB is zero. ds N is orthogonal to T and B. Torsion means “twisting. then B is unit for τ ? Explain by interpreting that τ = 0 for a Show that if C is contained in aIs this an appropriateanamevector normal to P.288 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . Follow steps (a)–(b) to prove Use the identity dN a × (b × = −κ T ·+ τ B− (a · b)c ds c) = (a c)b 15 curve. hence N is normal to the plane spanned by T and B. As P moves along the curve. Conclude that dN/ds lies in the plane spanned by T and B. hence it is orthogonal to N. Compute b similarly. hence dT × N = 0. the unit normal B is changing by dB = −τ N. b. Conclude τ geometrically. plane B is the unit normal to the osculating plane at a point P on the curve. We show that N is such a vector. SOLUTION (a) Show that dN/ds is orthogonal to N. to prove dN/ds = aT + bB for some scalars a. 79. the two vectors are orthogonal. since N is orthogonal to dN . ds 77. (b) Use N · T = 0 to show that T · ds ds Equations (13) and (15) together with dT/dt = κ N are called the Frenet formulas and were discovered by the French geometer Jean Frenet (1816–1900).
t. 1 √ r (0) × r (0) = 22 + 02 + 12 = 5 Substituting in (1) we obtain: B(0) = We now compute T(0): T(0) = Finally we ﬁnd N = B × T: 1 1 1 1 1 N(0) = √ 2.4 Curvature (ET Section 13. hence by (1): ds a = −N · κ (s)N = −κ (s)N · N = −κ (s) N 2 = −κ (s) We combine (2). 2 We compute the cross product: r (0) × r (0) = j × (−i + 2k) = −j × i + 2j × k = k + 2i = 2. (16).4) 289 aT · T + bT · B = −N · dT ds dT a · 1 + b · 0 = −N · ds ⇒ a = −N · dT ds (1) To ﬁnd b we differentiate the equality N · B = 0 (notice that by B = T × N follows the orthogonality of N and B). We get: N· dB dN + ·B=0 ds ds ⇒ dN dB · B = −N · ds ds We now substitute dN = aT + bB and we use B · B = B 2 = 1 and T · B = 0 to obtain: ds dB ds dB aT · B + bB · B = −N · ds dB a · 0 + b · 1 = −N · ds (aT + bB) · B = −N · Since dB = −τ N we may write: ds b = −N · (−τ N) = τ N · N = τ N 2 = τ Also for the arc length parametrization dT = κ (s)N. (3). The vector N can be computed using N = B × T [Eq. 1 × 0. 1.S E C T I O N 14. Conclude that (a) r(t) = cos t. 0. Use this method to ﬁnd N in the Show that following cases: r × r is a multiple of B. 1. 0. 2t r (t) = − cos t. 0. (16): B= Differentiating r(t) = cos t. (14)] with B. t 2 at t = 0 r ×r B= (b) r(t) = t 2 . 0. t. 1. and part (a) to conclude: dN = −κ T + τ B. t at t = 1 r ×r SOLUTION ⇒ b = −N · dB ds (2) (3) (a) We ﬁrst compute the vector B using Eq. t −1 . 1. 2 r ×r r ×r (1) . 1 √ 5 5 ⇒ r (0) = 0. 0 0. t 2 gives r (t) = − sin t. 1 1 = √ 2. 0. 1. 0 r (0) = −1. 1. 0 = √ (2i + k) × j = √ (2i × j + k × j) = √ (2k − i) = √ −1. as in Eq. 0. 0. 0 = 0. 0 2. 2 5 5 5 5 5 r (0) = r (0) 0. ds 81.
Use the decomposition of acceleration into tangential and normal components to explain the following statement: If the speed is constant. 1 r (1) 1 = √ = √ 2. −1.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) (b) Differentiating r(t) = t 2 . Since v and v may be different for the two objects. 1 r (1) 4+1+1 6 −2.5) 1. Therefore. the tangential component. Which of the following must be true? Their velocity vectors point in the same direction. 1 r (t) = 2. the velocity vectors may have different lengths.290 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . 7. 2. the vectors a(t) and v(t) are orthogonal. If a particle travels with constant speed. since the particle may change its direction. −1. 1 r (1) = 2. Their velocity vectors have the same length. For a particle in uniform circular motion around a circle. aT (t) = v (t). Since the speeds are not necessarily equal. hence the velocities of the two objects point in the same direction. the acceleration vectors may have different directions. whereas v(t) is tangent to the circle.5 Motion in ThreeSpace Preliminary Questions (ET Section 13. 2t −3 . −t −2 . 1. (c) The acceleration is determined by the tangential component v (t) and the normal component κ (t)v(t)2 . t −1 . must its acceleration vector be zero? Explain. SOLUTION If the speed of the particle is constant. 0 We compute the cross product: r (1) × r (1) = r (1) × r (1) = i 2 2 j −1 2 k 1 0 = −1 2 √ 1 0 i− 2 2 1 0 j+ 2 2 −1 2 k = −2i + 2j + 6k = −2. the acceleration vector a(t) points towards the center of the circle. 2. (a) (b) (c) Two objects travel to the right along the parabola y = x 2 with nonzero speed. 2. Since the vector N(t) is orthogonal to the direction of motion. of the acceleration is zero. 6 ⇒ r (1) = 2. then the acceleration and velocity vectors are orthogonal. the acceleration vector has only the normal component: a(t) = a N (t)N(t) The velocity vector always points in the direction of motion. 3 √ 2 11 11 Finally we ﬁnd N(1) by computing the following cross product: 1 1 1 N(1) = B(1) × T(1) = √ −1. 1 = √ 6 66 11 1 = √ 66 1 −1 3 1 i− −1 2 3 1 j+ −1 2 1 −1 i −1 2 j 1 −1 k 3 1 1 1 4. −1 k = √ (4i + 7j − k) = √ 66 66 14. the normal component. 3. −1. 4. Their acceleration vectors point in the same direction. 2. 0 (−2)2 + 22 + 62 = √ 44 = 2 11 Substituting in (1) gives: B(1) = We now ﬁnd T(1): T(1) = 2. However. 6 1 = √ −1. . a N (t) = κ (t)v(t)2 is not necessarily zero. −1. SOLUTION (a) The velocity vector points in the direction of motion. (b) The length of the velocity vector is the speed. 1. 3 × √ 2. which of the vectors v(t) or a(t) always points toward the center of the circle? SOLUTION For a particle in uniform circular motion around a circle. v (t) = 0. t gives r (t) = 2t. SOLUTION If the speed is constant.
019. −0. 0.435.540.2) SOLUTION r(1 + h) − r(1) for h = −0. 2. both of their speedometers read 110 mph.9) r(1) r(1.97 −0.540. Two cars are racing around a circular track. 0. −1.2.443 r(0.041.237.2) 1. 4.37.1) r(1.1. 2. −1. 2. Since the track is circular. −0.08 = 0.1 = 0. 3.1) − r(1) = = −0. v (t) = 0 and κ (t) = 1 in (1) gives: 2 a(t) = The length of the acceleration vector is.1 −0.035 − 1. r(0. 2.443 r(1. 6. The velocity vector is always in the direction of motion. If. hence the acceleration and the velocity vectors are parallel to the line.559.8) r(0.2 (h = −0.1) − r(1) r(1 + 0.557.559. We conclude that (b) is the correct statement.1) 1.035 1.740 1.207.382. What is the length of the acceleration vector of a particle traveling around a circle of radius 2 cm with constant velocity 4 cm/s? SOLUTION The acceleration vector is given by the following decomposition: a(t) = v (t)T(t) + κ (t)v(t)2 N(t) (1) In our case v(t) = 4 is constant hence v (t) = 0. −1.540. −1.1) − r(1) = = 0. 2.557. −0. hence the normal accelerations of the two cars are equal at this moment. 1.970 1.2 −0.5) 291 5.540.841. −0. −1.841.527 = −0.635 −0.07.499.1 (h = 0.2 −0.459.841.841.1. a N (t) = κ (t)v(t)2 At the moment where both speedometers read 110 mph. Substituting 2 v(t) = 4. 2. a(t) = 8 cm/s2 7.297 = −0.078.91.2) − r(1) r(0. the curvature κ (t) is constant.634. then the two cars have the same (choose one): (a) aT (b) aN SOLUTION 1 2 · 4 N (t) = 8N (t) 2 The tangential acceleration aT and the normal acceleration a N are the following values: aT (t) = v (t).1 −0.459. Exercises 1.970 − 1.1 0. 2. 2. 2. If a particle travels along a straight line.078.443 1. −0.443 r(1 − 0.41.634. 2.408 = −0. 3. 0. the curvature of a circle of radius 2 is κ (t) = 1 . thus. at a certain moment. 2. −1. the speeds of the two cars are v = 110 mph. −1.428 (h = −0. −1.2. hence a(t) has only the tangential component.1) 1.5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13. 3.2 = 0. then the acceleration and velocity vectors are (choose the correct statement): (a) Orthogonal (b) Parallel SOLUTION Since a line has zero curvature.017. 0.085. In addition.8) − r(1) = = −0. Statement (b) is correct.9) − r(1) r(1 − 0.1 0.499.S E C T I O N 14.1 −0.1 . −1. −1.342.19.740 − 1. 2. −0. Use the table here to calculate the difference quotients the velocity and speed at t = 1. the normal component of the acceleration is zero. Then estimate h 1.
t = 0 3 SOLUTION Differentiating r(θ ) = sin θ . − sin . 8 a(1) = 6. 8t a(t) = r (t) = 6t.435.2) − r(1) = = 0.075 = 0.1 = r(t + h) − r(t) h h→0 In Exercises 3–6. cos θ . 4t 2 hence: v(t) = r (t) = 3t 2 .VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) (h = 0. − sin θ . 1. 1 − t.2 0.− .52 ∼ 4.2) − r(1) r(1. −1. −1. −9 cos 3θ √ π π π 3 1 = − sin . v(t) = r (t) = 8 −ω sin ω t.292 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . cos θ . 3. −0.3. −1.015 = −0.9 ⇒a 3 3 3 2 2 The speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector.2 The velocity vector is deﬁned by: v(t) = r (t) = lim We may estimate the velocity at t = 1 by: v(1) ≈ −0.32 + 2.2 0. 0.428 − 1. that is. ω cos ω t = 8ω − sin ω t. 5.5 for the path in Figure 9. that is: v π π = v 3 3 = √ 2 3 1 2 + − + 02 = 1 2 2 7. r(t) =estimate for its . cos 3θ gives: v(θ ) = r (θ ) = cos θ . 4t SOLUTION In this case r(t) = t 3 .length). r(θ ) = sintθ .2. 2. − cos θ . 2. − cos . The speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector. cos 3θ .505. −9 cos π = − . Find a(t) for a particle moving around a circle of radius 8 cm at a constant speed of v = 4 cm/s (see Example 2). −3 sin 3θ ⇒v √ 1 π π π 3 = cos .0 3 3 3 2 2 a(θ ) = r (θ ) = − sin θ . 0. 1 − t. cos ω t We are given that the speed of the particle is v = 4cm/s. 3. Draw v(2) (using a Draw the vectors r(2 + h) − r(2) and 3 2 h 3.2 −0. . 2.2) 1.105.443 r(1 + 0. calculate the velocity and acceleration− r(2) and the speed at the time indicated.22 + 3.342. sin ω t Hence. 8 ⇒ ⇒ v(1) = 3. hence: v = 8ω (− sin ω t)2 + cos2 ω t = 8ω = 4 ⇒ (1) ω= 1 rad/s 2 .525.540. v(1) = v(1) = 32 + (−1)2 + 82 = √ 74 5.841.5 and the speed by: v(1) = v(1) ≈ 0. 8 The speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector.501. θ = π r(t) = e j − cos(2t)k. r(2 + h) vectors for h = 0. 1 s Draw the path and acceleration vector = 2 = π . r(s) = . 0.− . t =1 rough t . −3 sin π = . s at t 4 1 + s2 1 + s2 SOLUTION The position vector is: r(t) = 8 cos ω t.
0 + v0 = Hence. 4t + . 4t + v0 + v0 = 2 2 0 . 3 a(1) = 2. −2 = . 4 acceleration 1vectors of these paths at t = 1 to point in the same direction? Compute these vectors and 3 draw them on a single plot of the path.5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13. 3t 2 a(t) = v (t) = 2. −2 3 t 0 a(u)du = t 0 u. sin 2 9.77 a 4 8 8 The path r(t) and the acceleration vector at t = π are shown in the following ﬁgure: 4 8 t t r(t) = 8 cos 2 .S E C T I O N 14. − sin = −2 cos . t 3) In Exercises 11–14. 4u . Sketch the path r(t) = t 2 .85. Draw the velocity and SOLUTION Wevectors at the velocity = 1. t 6 trace the same curve and r1 (1) = r(1).5) 293 Substituting in (2) we get: t t v(t) = 4 − sin . This gives t 1 t t 1 t a(t) = v (t) = 4 − cos . 4t − 2 2 3 6 1 . v(t) = 1 t2 3t 2 + 2 . v(0) = . The paths r(t) = t 2 . t 3 and r1 (t) = t 4 . Do you expect either the velocity or . SOLUTION We ﬁnd v(t) by integrating a(t): v(t) = The initial condition gives: v(0) = 0. Sketch the path r(t) = 1 − t 2 . 4 du = t t2 1 2 u . ﬁnd v(t) given a(t) and the initial velocity. sin 2 and the acceleration vector at t = π is: 4 π π π = −2 cos . 6 The following ﬁgure shows the path r(t) = t 2 . 1 − t for −2 ≤ t ≤ 2.acceleration vectors at t = 1: acceleration compute t = 0 and t and v(t) = r (t) = 2t. sin ≈ −1. cos 2 2 We now ﬁnd a(t) by differentiating the velocity vector. −2 3 ⇒ v0 = 1 . sin 2 2 2 2 2 2 t t The path of the particle is r(t) = 8 cos 2 . −2 11. −0. 6t ⇒ ⇒ v(1) = 2. a(t) = t. indicating the direction of motion. t 3 and the vectors v(1) and a(1): y a(1) v(1) t=1 x r(t) = (t 2. t 3 together with the velocity and acceleration vectors at t = 1.
1 SOLUTION Integrating the acceleration vector gives: v(t) = The initial condition for v(t) gives: v(0) = We substitute in (1): v(t) = We now integrate v(t) to ﬁnd r(t): r(t) = t 0 t 0 uk du = u2 t t2 k + v0 = k + v0 2 0 2 (1) 02 k + v0 = i 2 ⇒ v0 = i t2 t2 k+i=i+ k 2 2 i+ u3 t t3 u2 k du = ui + k + r0 = ti + k + r0 2 6 0 6 (2) . 0 gives: r(0) = 0. 2t. 2u 2 − 2u 6 t + r0 = 0 t3 + 3t. −2 . ﬁnd r(t) and v(t) given a(t) and the initial velocity and position. 4t − 2 2 2 ⇒ v0 = 3. 0 + v0 = 3. r(0) = 2. t + 1 . v(0) = i √ a(t) = et . −2 = + 3. r(t) = t3 + 3t. 2 SOLUTION We compute v(t) by integrating the acceleration vector: v(t) = Substituting the initial condition gives: v(0) = 0k + v0 = i Combining with (1) we obtain: v(t) = i + tk In Exercises 15–18. 2t 2 − 2t 6 ⇒ r0 = 0.294 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . r(0) = j a(t) = e . 1. SOLUTION t 0 a(u) du = t 0 t k du = ku 0 + v0 = tk + v0 (1) ⇒ v0 = i r(0) = 0. 4t + 3. −2 Substituting in (1) we get: v(t) = t2 t2 . 4 du = u2 . 0 17. −2 gives: v(0) = 0. 0 + r0 = 0.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) 13. 0. a(t) = t 2 k. 0 We ﬁrst integrate a(t) to ﬁnd the velocity vector: v(t) = t 0 u. tv(0) = i. v(0) = i − j 15. −3. t + 1 . a(t) = t. 0. 4u − 2 du = 2 u3 + 3u. 4 . 1 . v(0) = 1. 4t + v0 2 (1) The initial condition v(0) = 3. v(0) = 3. a(t) = k. 0 Hence. v(0) = 1. 2t 2 − 2t + r0 6 The initial condition r(0) = 0. 4u 2 t + v0 = 0 t2 . a(t) = tk. −2 We now integrate the velocity vector to ﬁnd r(t): r(t) = t 0 u2 + 3.
200 2 2 −16 √ + 2 2v0 −8 √ 1. t 0 t 0 ⇒ r (t) = 0. −g 2 0 −g 2 t + v0 t + r0 2 (1) direction of the unit vector cos 45◦ . √ √ −g 2 2 2 r(t) = 0. r0 = 0. r(0) = i a 400ft tower located 600 ft away? SOLUTION We place the gun at the origin and let r(t) be the bullet’s position vector. = 600. −g r (u) du = r (u) du = t 0 t 0.200 =5 v0 ⇒ v0 = 240 ft/s The initial speed of the bullet must be v0 = 240 ft/s.200 2 = 25 v0 ⇒ 1. −g = mr (t) We compute the position vector by integrating twice: r (t) = r(t) = That is. Use Newton’s Law. By Newton’s Second Law. hence: m 0. t + tv0 . Substituting these initial values r(t) = 0. hence the initial velocity v0 points in the √ √ √ √ 2 2 2 .200 v0 = 400 √ 2v0 1. v(0) = i − j.200 . −gt + v0 t2 + v0 t + r0 ( 0.5) 295 The initial condition for r(t) gives: r(0) = 0i + 0k + r0 = j Combining with (2) gives the position vector: r(t) = ti + j + t3 k 6 ⇒ r0 = j 19. 2 . A bullet is ﬁred from the ground at an angle of 60◦ with initial speed v0 = 30 ft/s. The position vector of the top of the tower is 600. Solve for v0 . We substitute in the second equation and solve for v0 (we use g = 32 ft/s2 ): 2v0 √ 2 −g 2 2 . −gm = m 0. t + tv = 600. F = mr (t). 400 .5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13. Step 1. −g . sin 45◦ = in (1) gives: Since the gun is at the origin. hence at the moment of hitting the tower we have. A bullet is ﬁred from the ground at an angle of 45◦ . −g 2 t + tv0 2 √ √ 2 2 . −gu + v0 ) du = 0. The bullet is ﬁred at an angle of 45◦ . What initial speed must the bullet have in order to hit the top of a(t) = cos tk. 2 therefore.S E C T I O N 14. How far does the bullet travel? What is the bullet’s velocity vector and speed when it hits the ground? . v0 = v0 2 2 2 . 400 2 2 2 0 1. 2 2 Step 2. r(t) = 0. 400 2 2 2 √ tv0 Equating components.200 2 + 600 = 400 v0 1. we get the equations: ⎧ √ ⎪ ⎪ tv 2 = 600 ⎪ 0 ⎨ 2 √ ⎪ ⎪ g 2 ⎪ − t + 2 tv = 400 ⎩ 2 2 0 √ The ﬁrst equation implies that t = 1. −g du = 0. The net force vector acting on the bullet is the force of gravity F = 0.
hence: −m 0. A baseball is thrown to another player standing 80 ft away with initial speed 60 ft/s.66◦ By Newton’s Second Law we have: F = m 0. −g = 0. F = mr (t). v0 = v0 = 0. 23 . −mg = −m 0. Conclude that the maximum distance (for a given v0 ) is attained for θ = 45◦ . and that r(t) is the baseball’s position vector. Using the given information we obtain the following equation: ⇒ t ≈ 11. The ﬁring is at an angle of 60◦ . −16t 2 + v0 . What was its initial speed? SOLUTION We place the gun at the origin and let r(t) be the projectile’s position vector. −g = mr (t) or θ ≈ 67.32◦ 2θ ≈ 134.400 we get v0 = 2. 2 Since the gun is at the origin.34◦ ⇒ r (t) = 0.68◦ θ ≈ 22. −32t + v0 (1) ( 0.400. r0 = 0. −16t 2 2 2 At the moment of landing. −32 du = 0. The corresponding equations are: ⎧ v ⎪ 0 t = 1.400 = 0 −16t 2 √ 16t 2 = 1. 32 = mr (t) We integrate twice to obtain: v(t) = r(t) = t 0 t 0 ⇒ r (t) = − 0.53 ft/s. By 0 Exercise 22 the total distance travelled by the ball is g sin 2θ . 2 √ √ 3v0 v0 t 2 + 3v0 t t= .200 3 t 2 ≈ 129. 2 2 2 2 Substituting the initial vectors in (1) we get: r(t) = 0.200 ⎨ 2 √ ⎪ ⎩ −16t 2 + 3v0 t = 0 2 The ﬁrst equation implies that v0 t = 2.9 By v0 t = 2. Which angle gets travels athere faster? (v0 /g) sin 2θ before hitting the ground. the xcomponent of r(t) is 1200.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) 21. Use the result of Exercise 22 to Show that a which the ball at an angle θ with initial speed v0 the ball total distance 2 ﬁnd two angles θ at projectile ﬁred can be released. hence the initial velocity points in the direction of √ √ √ 1 v 3 3v0 . −32u + v0 ) du = 0. −32 .400 ≈ 210. −16t 2 + v0 t + r0 the unit vector cos 60◦ . 11. g = −m 0. and the ycomponent is zero. We substitute in the second equation and solve for t: √ 2 + 3 · 2.4 23.4 s v2 602 sin 2θ = 80 32 32 · 80 ≈ 0. 32 projectile is: By Newton’s Second Law. sin 60◦ = 1 .711 sin 2θ = 602 The solutions for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 90◦ are: 2θ ≈ 45. Hence. The net force acting on the F = 0.200 ft away. A projectile ﬁred at an angle of 60◦ lands 1. 32 r (u) du = v(u) du = t 0 t 0 0.296 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . SOLUTION We suppose that the baseball is thrown from the origin.
3 3 3 15 2 1 T At a certain moment.− = −10. therefore: √ √ 1 2 + 262 + 322 = 1 · 30 2 = 10 2 (−10) aN = aN N = 9 9 3 We compute N. −1 = (0 + 8 − 3) = 3 3 3 Step 2. 4. Hence. A particle follows a path r(t) for 0 ≤ t ≤ T . 16 N= N = 9 10 2 aN 15 2 3 (3) Step 3. 3 is: aT = a · T = 0. 20 and acceleration a r (t)2. This is perhaps best T 1 T r (t) dt = r(t) .5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13. N. −32 du = 0. 32 1 a N √ = √ −5. Find T. θ = 22. and the decompoShow that a bullet ﬁred at an angle θ will hit the top of an hft tower located d ft away if its initial speed is sition of a into tangential and normal components. Therefore. sin θ and its magnitude is the initial speed v0 = 60. −16t 2 + 60t cos θ . −1 and a = 0. The vector v = = dt −3 .S E C T I O N 14. −32t + 60 cos θ . −1 22 + 22 + (−1)2 = 1 2. sin θ Integrating this vector with respect to t and using r0 = 0 we obtain: r(t) = t 0 (2) v(u) du = t 0 ( 0. Answer and explain the following: (a) Where is the particle located at time T if v = 0? (b) Is the particle’s average speed necessarily equal to zero? SOLUTION (a) If the average velocity is 0. 2. Using (1)–(4) we obtain the following decomposition: a = aT T + aN N √ 10 2 5 N. 13. hence. −32u + 60 cos θ . 4. O. sin θ . 2. 0. 4. 32 3 3 9 9 9 9 (2) The unit normal N is a unit vector. 3 − . 4. −32t + v0 (1) The initial velocity points in the direction of the unit vector cos θ . 3 . Substituting in (1) we get: v(t) = 0. 13.is called the T 0 particle speeding up or slowing down? average velocity vector. 4. 26. 16 . 26. has velocity v =origin20. − 1 and N = 1 −5. 4d sec θ SOLUTION We go through the following steps: v0 = √ d vector: h Step 1. 2 . 2. we have: aN N = 0. 2.5) 297 Integrating gives: v(t) = t 0 r (u) du = t 0 0. sin θ ) du = 0. −1 3 (1) The tangential component of a = 0. sin θ At the ﬁnal time x(t) = 80. This gives: x(t) = 60t cos θ = 80 ⇒ t= 4 3 cos θ Since we want to minimize t we need to maximize cos θ . 3 = T + 3 3 √ where T = 2 . 3 · 1 5 1 2. then the particle must be back at its original position at time t = T . Compute T and aT . a moving particle beginning at the 12. . 3 − 10 10 5 5 1 1 · 2. 1. At a certain moment. 2. Write the decomposition. using (3) and (4): 1 −10. seen by noting that v = T 0 0 . to minimize θ . The unit tangent is the following tan θ − T= v = v 2. Compute aN and N. v0 = 60 cos θ . 4. a moving particle has velocity v = 2. Is 27. Since aN N = a − aT T. −1 = 0. Suppose that v = 0.66◦ will get the ball faster to the other player. 25.
Find the magnitude of the Laws of Planetary Motionft/sthatassuming moves faster whentheis closer to the sun. − cos t. with position vector r(t) = cos t. a planet that the radius of it earth is 4. 31. and the acceleration can be written as: a = κ v2 N (1) 1 The radius of motion is 4000 + 200 = 4200 miles hence the curvature is κ = 4200 .000 mph. cos t .000 mph.000 17. use (4) and (5) to ﬁnd aT and aN as a function of t or at the point indicated.88 · 104 miles/h2 In units of ft/s2 we obtain a = 6. A space shuttle orbits the earth at an altitude 200 miles above the earth’s surface.03 ft/s2 36002 In Exercises 30–33. Which of miles (Figure 11). cos t. − sin t The unit tangent vector T is. 29.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) (b) The average speed need not be zero! Consider a particle moving at constant speed around a circle. From 0 to 2π . aN = We compute v and a by differentiating r twice: v(t) = r (t) = 1. Substituting these values in (1) we get: a= 1 · 17. therefore the tangential component of its acceleration is zero. v 2). sin t . but constant average speed of 1.88 · 104 · 5.28 · 103 = 28. − sin t. the tangential component of the acceleration is zero. that is: aT = 0 To ﬁnd aN we ﬁrst compute the following cross product: a×v= i 0 1 j − cos t − sin t k − sin t cos t = − cos t − sin t − sin t cos t i− 0 1 − sin t cos t j+ 0 1 − cos t − sin t k = − cos2 t + sin2 t i − sin tj + cos tk = −i − sin tj + cos tk = −1. t 3 SOLUTION We ﬁnd aT and aN using the following equalities: aT = a · T. this has average velocity of 0. cos t v(t) 2 ⇒ v(t) = 1 + (− sin t)2 + cos2 t = √ 2 a×v . r(t) = t. SOLUTION The shuttle is in a uniform circular motion. − sin t.0002 N = 6.88 · 104 miles/h2 4200 The magnitude of the shuttle’s acceleration is thus: a = 6. sin t r(t) = t 2 . cos t a(t) = r (t) = 0. − sin t. thus: T(t) = Since the speed is constant (v = v(t) = √ 1 v(t) = √ 1. Figure 10(A) or 10(B) represents a planetary orbit (with the velocity vectors as shown)? FIGURE 11 Space shuttle orbit.298 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . with constant speed v = One consequence of Kepler’s shuttle’s acceleration (in is 2 ). Also by the given information the constant speed is v = 17.
1. et . a(0) = 1. Differentiating r(t) twice we obtain: v(t) = r (t) = 1. (2 + t)et We compute the unit normal vector at t = 0: T= Using Eq. 1. using the following steps. 1 = √ (0 + 1 + 2) = √ = 3 3 3 3 Step 2. 1. et + tet = 1. 1 × 1.S E C T I O N 14. 0. 1. (6) we have: aN N = a − aT T = 0. 2. t. et .5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13. tet . 0. Compute T and aT . t + 1. et + (1 + t)et = 0. tet . 1. r(t) = t. 1 3 . 1. t 2 . ln t. et . 1 Hence. 2 − √ 1 3 · √ 1. √ 2 2 33. t 2 . r(t) = et . −1 . 2. 1 1 v = √ 1. 1 √ 3 6 √ = √ = 2 3 √ In Exercise 34–41. et . 1. By Eq.5) 299 Hence. −1 = i 1 1 j 0 1 k 1 −1 = 0 1 1 −1 i− 1 1 1 −1 j+ 1 1 0 1 k 1 v(0) = √ 1. 1 v(0) = √ 3 aN = a×v v = −1i + 2j + 1k = −1. et . t = 1 SOLUTION We use the following equalities: aT = a · T. 1 . 1. 0. This gives: v(t) = r (t) = et . Compute aN and N. We ﬁrst ﬁnd v and a by twice differentiating r. e−t . 1 · √ 1. 1 = −1. −1 v(0) 3 ⇒ ⇒ v(0) = 1. e−t The unit tangent at t = 0 is. use (4) and (6) to ﬁnd the decomposition of a(t) into tangential and normal components at the point indicated. t = 0 r(t) = t −1 . 1. aN = a×v = v √ (−1)2 + (− sin t)2 + cos2 t 2 = √ = 1. 35. et . (4) we obtain: 1. (1 + t)et ⇒ v(0) = 1. 2 · √ 1. 0. −e−t a(t) = r (t) = et . as in Example 6. 0. Step 1. t = 0 r(t) = 4 − t. 1 = √ v 3 3 ⇒ √ 1 1 3 aT = a · T = 0. v(0) = 12 + 12 + 12 = √ 3 a(0) = 0. thus: T(0) = We now ﬁnd aT at the point t = 0: 1 1 aT = a · T = 1. 1. −1 = √ (1 + 0 − 1) = 0 3 3 To ﬁnd aN we ﬁrst compute the cross product: a × v = 1. 1. We ﬁnd the decomposition of a(t) into tangential and normal components. a×v = aN = v −1. 1. 2 a(t) = r (t) = 0. t = 1 SOLUTION We have r(t) = t. 1.
sin θ . 1 1 1 a N = − √ . and a(4) = 0. 3 t = 4 . 12 + 42 + 82 = 9 ⇒ a(4) = 0. = 0. − sin t. t = 0 SOLUTION We have r(t) = cos t. we have: 9 9 9 9 v(4) aN N = 0. 1 a(t) = r (t) = − cos t. 1 − t . θ .8 = 1 . t = 1 SOLUTION (a) By Eq. r(t) = t. We ﬁnd the decomposition of a(0).4. 1 t 3 twice. . 1. 4 9 9 9 9 9 9 39. Write the decomposition. 4 a(t) = r (t) = 0. t Hence. (6) we have: 0. and N(4) = − 4 . 0. 0 . This gives the 9 9 9 9 9 9 following decomposition: a(4) = 4T(4) + 1N(4) = 4T(4) + N(4) = 4 16 32 7 4 4 . 1. the following holds: aN = aN N = (−1)2 + 02 + 12 = √ 2 −1. 8 . 1 t 2 . Compute T and aT . 4. aN (4) = 1. 8 36 a(4) · v(4) = = =4 v(4) 9 9 aN N = a − aT T Since T(4) = v(4) = 1. θ = 0 r(t) = e . sin t. 8 . 9 9 9 and aN (4) = 1. 1. t . r(θ ) = cos tθ .VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) Since N is a unit vector. 1 t 21 1 t 31. 2 r(t) = 2t. + − . 4 . 6 t . = − .300 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . using the following steps: Step 1. 4 . 4. 1. t 2 2 v(4) = ⇒ v(4) = 1. . 0 ⇒ a(0) = −1. 1. √ . 4 · 1. 9 9 9 9 9 9 (c) The acceleration vector a(4) can be written as the following decomposition: a(4) = aT (4)T(4) + aN (4)N(4) In parts (a) and (b) we found that aT (4) = 4. − 7 . We obtain: 2 6 1 v(t) = r (t) = 1. √ N= N = √ aN 2 2 2 Step 3. 2 2 37. 0. 4 . 0.− . aT (4) = (b) By Eq. (4) we have: aT = a · T = a·v v We compute v and a by differentiating r(t) = t. 0. t. 1. 1 and N = N(0) = − √ . 4 . 2 t6 . cos t. − . T(4) = 1 . we obtain the following decomposition of a(0): √ √ a(0) = aT (0)T(0) + aN (0)N(0) = 3T + 2N 1 where T = T(0) = √ 3 1 1 1.− . 4 − 4 · We see that aN N is a unit vector and conclude that: 7 4 4 N(4) = aN N = − . We differentiate r(t) twice to obtain: v(t) = r (t) = − sin t. 8 and by part (a) aT (4) = 4. Using the results obtained in the previous steps. 1 4 8 7 4 4 . 1.
S E C T I O N 14. using the following steps: Step 1. 1 1 = √ 1. − cos t. −2 a N 1 N= N = 6 = √ 1. the tangential component of the acceleration a(t) is zero. − 1 1 π π · √ 1. sin t + t cos t π = 1. −1. − sin t. Compute aN and N. R = 100 cm with constant velocity vT(t) 5 cm/s. Using the results obtained in the previous steps we obtain the following decomposition of a π : 2 π π a = aT T + aN N = − √ T + √ N 2 3 6 1 where T = √ 3 1 1. − + 2 6 3 π π π π . 0. hence (1) implies that N(0) = a(0) and aN (0) = 1. Compute T and aT . −2 . we obtain the decomposition: a(t) = aN (t)N(t) ⇒ a(0) = aN (0)N(0) (1) Notice that the vector a(0) = −1.− = 1. (6) we have at t = π : 2 aN N = a − aT T = 0. −1. −2 π √ aN 6 6 Step 3. −1. thus: 2 T Using Eq. 43. t = −1 π 3 SOLUTION In this case. ⇒v 2 √ π v = 3 2 a(t) = r (t) = 0. − ⇒a 2 2 The unit tangent at t = π is. 0. (4) we get at t = π : 2 aT = a · T = 0. We ﬁnd the decomposition of a 2 . − cos t. − = π π − − √ 2 2 3 π π 1 1. t sin t . 1 √ 3 3 π =− √ 2 3 Step 2. t = π 2 r(t) = 1 t 3 . cos t. −1.5) 301 Computing the magnitude of v(t) (the speed) we obtain: v(t) = v(t) = (− sin t)2 + (cos t)2 + 12 = √ 1+1= √ 2 Since the speed is constant. 1 = 0. 1 . That is: aT (t) = 0 Step 2. 1 and N = √ 6 1. 2 cos t − t sin t π π = 0. Since aT (t) = 0. r(t) = t. 1 · √ 1. By Eq. Find 0 = and N(t). 0 is already a unit vector. −1. 0. 1 = √ · − 2 2 3 3 v π π 2 = 2 v π 2 = 1. Hence the required decomposition reduces to: a(0) = 1 · N(0) = 1 · N where N = a(0) = −1. and show that the decomposition of a(t) into tangential and normal components is a(t) = 2t T+ 4 N . cos t + cos t − t sin t = 0. −1. 1 − 3t . 4t − 3 . We differentiate r(t) twice to obtain: v(t) = r (t) = 1. −1.− . 0. −1. −1. Find the components aT and aN of the acceleration vector of a particle moving along a circular path of radius Let r(t) = t 2 . 0 41. 0. Compute aN and N. r(t) = t. Write the decomposition. −2 6 6 3 6 Since N is a unit vector we get: aN = aN N = π 6 π 12 + (−1)2 + (−2)2 = √ 6 π 1.5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13. −1. 0. −1. t sin t . cos t.
cos θ 2 2 N = cos (π + θ ) .000θ = Substituting in (4) and (5) yields: T = − sin t3 t3 . The car starts at rest hence the initial speed is v0 = 0. aN = 1 2 25 v = = 0. Starting at rest.000 N = − cos t3 t3 . Determine the at a rate of t ft/s2 . Find the acceleration vector a at time t = 3 s and determine its decomposition into normal and curvature κ (t0 ) of the particle’s path at time t0 .000 . and the velocity is the constant value v(t) = v0 = 5. P Q= Rθ = 1000θ . a moving particle has velocity vector v = 2i and acceleration vector a = 3i + 18k. − sin θ T = cos We use the arc length formula to ﬁnd θ : t (4) (5) P Q= 0 r (u) du = t 0 v(u) du = 0 2 t 1 t3 u 2 du = 6 In addition.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S SOLUTION (ET CHAPTER 13) Since the particle moves with constant speed. sin + θ = − sin θ . its speed increases At time t0 . tangential components. Hence. 1. We now integrate to ﬁnd v(t): v(t) = t 0 v (u) du = t 0 u du = 1 2 1 1 t + v0 = t 2 + 0 = t 2 2 2 2 1 κ = 1000 . we have v (t) = t. aN (t) = 1 1 4 1 2 2 t t = 1000 2 4000 Combining with (1) gives the following decomposition: a(t) = tT(t) + We now ﬁnd the unit tangent T(t) and the unit normal N(t).000 ft centered at the origin. cos .000 6.000 6. and v(t) = 1 t 2 in (2) gives: 2 1 1 The curvature of the circular path is κ (t) = R = 1000 . T P N O Q (starting point) 1 4 t N(t) 4000 (3) We have (see ﬁgure): π π + θ .25 cm/s2 R 0 100 45. we have v (t) = 0. hence: aT = v (t) = 0 The normal component of the acceleration is aN = κ (t)v(t)2 . The curvature of a circular path of radius R = 100 is 1 1 κ (t) = R = 100 .000 (6) t3 6 ⇒ θ= t3 6. aT (t) = t. Hence. A car proceeds along a circular path of radius R = 1. SOLUTION The acceleration vector can be decomposed into tangential and normal directions as follows: a(t) = aT (t)T(t) + aN (t)N(t) (1) where aT (t) = v (t) and aN (t) = κ (t)v(t)2 (2) Since the speed v(t) is increasing at a rate of t ft/s2 .302 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . sin (π + θ ) = − cos θ . 6. − sin 6. Substituting v (t) = t.
the vectors r = r(t) and r = r (t) are orthogonal.9999. cos ≈ −0. ﬁnd the radius R for all t. Further A particle moves counterclockwise around a circle. and by Newton’s Second Law. The cross product J = r × r is orthogonal to r and r . gives a more precise version of this qualitative conclusion. The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the sun at one focus.5 Motion in ThreeSpace (ET Section 13. Which of the vectors in Figure 12 is not a possible accelerInsights and Challenges . Show car at = the highest . Suppose that r = r(t) lies on a sphere ofacceleration vector Let a person seated in athat r (a) (J × r)/ r point of In the notation of Example 5. for J = r × r . Hint: Observeferrisrwheel and (b) the two points level with the center of the wheel. the righthand rule implies that r points in the direction of J × r.5) 303 We now combine (3) and (6) to obtain the following decomposition: a(t) = t − sin At t = 3 we get: aT = 3aN = T = − sin N = − cos 34 ≈ 0. Since r = r(t) lies on the sphere. cos + t − cos .000 t3 t3 1 4 t3 t3 . state whether the particle is speeding up or slowing 49. and r are mutually orthogonal we have: J×r = J r = r×r Substituting in (2) we get: r = r J×r r 2 r = J×r r 2 r = r r r = r 2 r ation vector? Explain. For the two possible acceleration vectors.0045 6. for some α > 0 we have: r = αJ × r = r · J×r J×r (2) By properties of the cross product and since J. The sun’s gravitational force acts along the radial line from the planet to the sun (the dashed lines in Figure 13). Hint: Consider the decomposition of a into normal and tangential components.000 4.000 33 33 . − sin 6. the acceleration vector points in the same direction.S E C T I O N 14. Kepler’s Second Law. that and r are perpendicular.000 6. Therefore. − sin ≈ −0. down.02025 4. −0. 0. r and J are mutually orthogonal. Also.0045. since r is orthogonal to r and J. Explain in words why the planet must slow down in the upper half of the orbit (as it moves away from the sun) and speed up in the lower half.9999 6.000 2 47.000 6.000 33 33 .000 6. discussed in the next section. r. hence the vectors r. r and r are orthogonal.000 6. Now.000 6. therefore: r·r =0 We use the following wellknown equality: a × (b × c) = (a · c) b − (a · b) · c Using this equality and (1) we obtain: J × r = r × r × r = −r × r × r = − r · r r − (r · r) r = − r · r r + r 2 r = 0r + r 2 r = r 2 r Divided by the scalar r 2 we obtain: r = J×r r 2 (1) (b) Solution 2. the SOLUTION (a) Solution 1.
where μ is the coefﬁcient of friction and g = 32 ft/s2 . acceleratinghugathe inside curve After or the outside curb (radius car Hint: Use Eq. so the particle’s velocity is decreasing (since aT (t) = v (t) < 0).304 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . T a Sun a T However. To avoid skidding. the acceleration has a positive component in the tangential direction. You want to reverse your direction in the shortest possible time by driving around a semicircular bend (Figure 14). as the planet gets closer to the sun.52 · 322 ⇒ v < 98 ft/s v 4 < 9. 53.5 and g = 32 and solve for v. aT (t) = v (t) > 0.6? (radius r ) how many seconds will the R)? begin to skid if (7) to show that at maximum speed. How fast can a car travel (at Show that the car will not skid if the curvature κ of the road is such that (with R = 1/κ ) constant speed) along the highway without skidding if the coefﬁcient of friction is μ = 0. Let v be the car’s speed in feet per second. the time required to drive around the semicircle is proportional to the square root of the radius. In case of constant speed. We substitute R = 600. In Exercises 50–54. v = 0. Suppose that the maximum radius of curvature along a curved highway is R = 600 ft. where a is the car’s acceleration vector. Beginning maximum possible constant circular track of not cause skidding. SOLUTION In Exercise 50 we showed that the car will not skid if the following inequality is satisﬁed: v 2 + v4 < μ 2 g2 R2 In case of constant speed.000 ft. We compute the constant speed v for which the car can travel without skidding. r R FIGURE 14 Car going around the bend. the coefﬁcient of friction is μ = 0. SOLUTION In the upper half of the orbit. v = 0. as the planet moves away from the sun the acceleration vector has a negative component in the tangential direction T.6002 The maximum speed (in case of constant speed) is about 98 ft/s. The maximum magnitude of the frictional force is μ mg.5? SOLUTION 2 In Exercise 50 we showed that the car will not skid if the following inequality is satisﬁed: v2 < (μ g)2 (v )2 + R v4 2 v + 2 < μ 2 g2 R Note that braking (v < 0) and speeding up (v > 0) contribute equally to skidding. is it faster to at rate of 1 ft/s2 . Therefore the velocity v(t) is increasing. 51.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) ry motion Planeta a N N Sun N a FIGURE 13 Elliptical orbit of a planet around the sun. so the inequality becomes: v4 < μ 2 g2 R2 . This gives: v4 6002 < 0. consider a car of mass m traveling along a curved but level road. in the lower half of the orbit. a car drives around a speed v that will radius R = 1. If you travel at the at rest. the road must supply a frictional force F = ma. that is. μ = 0.
rather than the outside curve of radius R. SOLUTION The rate at which the radial vector sweeps out area equals half the magnitude of the vector J. thus. SOLUTION In the proof of Kepler’s Second Law it is shown that the rate at which area is swept out is 1 dA = J . Describe the relation between the vector J = r × r and the rate at which the radial vector sweeps out area. What is the smallest radius R about which a car can turn without skidding at 60 mph if μ = 0. v≈ μgR (1) If T is the time required to drive around the semicircle of radius R at the constant speed v. This relation is expressed in the formula: 1 dA = J . show that J is constant.75 (a typical value)? 14.6) 1. Equation (1) shows that r is proportional to r. .6 Planetary Motion According to Kepler and Newton (ET Section 13. then the length of the semicircle can be written as: πR = Hence. dt 2 2. the period is increased eightfold. Using this we get: dJ d = r × r = r × r + r × r = 0 + 0 = 0 ⇒ J = const dt dt 3.6) 305 We solve for v: v4 < μ g R 2 ⇒ v< μgR The maximum speed in which skidding does not occur is. Explain how this fact is used to prove Kepler’s Second Law. dt 2 where J = r(t) × r (t) To show that J is constant. How is the period T affected if the semimajor axis a is increased fourfold? SOLUTION Kepler’s Third Law states that the period T of the orbit is given by: T2 = 4π 2 GM a3 or 2π 3/2 T = √ a GM If a is increased fourfold the period becomes: 2π 3/2 2π √ a (4a)3/2 = 8 · √ GM GM That is. T 0 r (t) dt = T 0 v dt = vT T = Combining (1) and (2) gives: T ≈ πR v (2) πR π √ R ≈ √ μg μgR We conclude that it is faster to hug the inside curve of radius r (r < R).6 Planetary Motion According to Kepler and Newton Preliminary Questions (ET Section 13.S E C T I O N 14. This is done using the proportionality of r and r which implies that r(t) × r (t) = 0.
if we assume that the orbit is circular then r(t) lies on a circle. 3. 2.105.600 = 31. .99 · 10−4 Venus 3 · 10−4 Earth 2.105.8 × 1010 m.00 Mars 22.241 Venus 10.536.8 0.9 · 1011 )2 = 4.000.39 × 1016 ft2 /s dt 5. J = R· Substituting in (1) we get: dA 1 2π R 2 π R2 = · = .the Mass of a Starestimate the mass Third Law.897 × 1027 kg. has an orbital period of 7. Moreover.9 × 1011 ft and T = 365 × 24 × 3. to obtain: 4π 2 · 1. G T2 4π 2 a 3 M= G T2 We substitute the given data T = 7.9 years. where a.615 Earth 15. 0 and initial velocity r = 1. as always.306 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R .017). its length is constant. Using properties of the cross product we get: J = r(t) × r (t) = r(t) r (t) = R r (t) = const We conclude that the speed v = r (t) is constant.88 Using the given data we obtain the following values of T 2 /a 3 . Find the equation of the plane containing the satellite’s orbit. dt 2 T T For R = 93 × 106 miles = 4. The earth’s orbit is nearly circular with radius R = 93 × 106 miles (the eccentricity is e = 0.536. one of Jupiter’s moons discovered by Galileo.07 × 109 3 M= 6.000 s we obtain: J = 2π · (4. Kepler’s Third Law states that T 2 /a 3 has the same value for each planetary orbit. T T 2π R .6)2 ≈ 1. Planet a (1010 m) T (years) SOLUTION Mercury 5. We estimate Jupiter’s period (using the given a) as T ≈ √ a 3 · 3 · 10−4 ≈ 11. dt 2 J = r(t) × r (t) (1) Since J is a constant vector.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) Exercises 1. T dA = 2. 2. is measured not in meters but in 1010 m: Planet T 2 /a 3 Mercury 2.154 · 24 · 602 = 618. Find the mass of the star. earth (in units of squared feet per second)? SOLUTION The rate at which the earth’s radial vector sweeps out area is 1 dA = J . What is the magnitude of the vector J = r × r for the seconds). Ganymede. We ﬁnd the speed using the following equality: 2π R = vT ⇒ v = Therefore. An astronomer observes a planet orbiting a star with a period of 9.07 × 109 m and G = 6.98 · 10−4 The data on the planets supports Kepler’s prediction. the mass mass of the star iscomputed using the following equality: T and By Exercise a. Do the data in the following table support this conclusion? Estimate the length of Jupiter’s period.8 1.000 2π R 2π R 2 = .78 × 1016 ft2 /s 31.96 · 10−4 Mars 2. 2 (units of kilometers and which the earth’s radial vector sweeps out area in units of ft2 /s. of 1.154 days and a semimajor axis Finding Use Exercise 4 to Using Kepler’s of Jupiter. then the of Jupiter can be M = . assuming that a = 77. Hint: This plane is orthogonal to J.67300 × 10−11 m3 kg−1 s−1 .5 years and a semimajor axis of 3 × 108 km.0 1.07 × 109 m.79 0.67300 × 10−11 · (618.000.6 a = 1. show that if a planet revolves around a star with period 4π 2 a3 SOLUTIONsemimajor axis 4. and therefore r(t) and r (t) are orthogonal. Find the rate at A satellite has initial position r = 1.
32 × 1011 times the mass of the sun (132 billions times the mass of the sun).246 km. as desired. (2). Substituting in (1) we get: v= 2π · 42.060 km/h 24 13. as desired. hence M is 1. R sin ω t G M . r(t) and r (t) are orthogonal and r(t) = R. Then deduce Kepler’s Third Law T 2 = k for this orbit.673 · 10−11 2 = 2. By Exercise 12. assuming that all this mass is at the center of the sun’s orbit. (1) v= T A geosynchronous orbit has period T = 24 hours and in Exercise 10 we found that a = 42. R sin ω t = −ω 2 r 2 2 3 Since ω 2 = k/R 3 and R = r . Since T = 2π then T 2 = 4π2 = 4π k R . the following equality holds: M= av 2 . of radius a ≈ 2. sun of mass M with position r and speed v = r is E= Use (2) and (9) to show that E is conserved. that is.S E C T I O N 14. Hint: Use Exercise Conservation of Energy The total mechanical energy (kinetic plus potential) of a planet of mass m orbiting a 8. The earth has mass M ≈ 5. Use Kepler’s Third Law to ﬁnd the altitude hours (in this case. Eq. −R ω 2 sin ω t We rewrite this as: r = −ω 2 R cos ω t.6225 × 1041 kg.673 × 10−11 m3 kg−1 s−1 and compute the mass M. then is approximately circular.246 = 11.989 × 1030 kg. the we showed that the ﬁxed point planet in a circular orbit of radius a is: h above the earth’s surface of a geosynchronous orbit.8 × 1020 m. This gives: M= 2. where v is the planet’s speed (constant by Exercise 7) r(t) = R cos ω t. R ω cos ω t and r = −R ω 2 cos ω t. . and T is the period. and note that r = −R ω sin ω t. dt . v = 250 × 103 m/s and G = 6. Use the results of Exercises 8 and 10 to ﬁnd the velocity of a satellite in geosynchronous orbit. Show that the total energy (11) of a planet in a circular orbit of radius R is E = −G Mm/(2R). 15.6) 307 7.6 Planetary Motion According to Kepler and Newton (ET Section 13.8 · 1020 · (250 · 103 ) 6.371 km. therefore. Mass of the Milky Way The sun revolves around the center of mass of the Milky Way galaxy in an orbit that Show that if a planet revolves around a star of mass M in a circular orbit of radius R with speed v. we get r = −k3 r. Then use Kepler’s Third Law to prove that v = R 4π 2 R3 satisﬁes the differential equation. Use the fact that J is constant to show that a planet in a circular orbit travels at constant speed. 1 2 G Mm mv − 2 r dE = 0. Show directly that the circular orbit Prove that if a planetary orbit is circular. The orbit of a satellite orbiting above the equator of the earth is called geosynchronous if the period is T = 24 SOLUTION In Exercise 8 satellite stays over avelocity of aon the equator). then vT = 2π R. ω r ω 11. By (1) and using properties of the cross product we obtain: r(t) × r (t) = r(t) r (t) sin π = R · r (t) = const 2 We conclude that r (t) is constant. 9. G We substitute the values a = 2. provided that ω 2 = k R −3 . M= G SOLUTION Let M be the mass of the portion of the Milky Way inside the sun’s orbit. SOLUTION Note that r = R. The mass of the sun is 1. SOLUTION It is shown in the proof of Kepler’s Second Law that the vector J = r(t) × r (t) is constant. Use the result of Exercise 12 to Rv 2 estimate the mass of the portion of the Milky Way inside the sun’s orbit (place all of this mass at the center of the orbit).974 × 1024 kg and radius 2π a R ≈ 6. hence its length is constant: J = r(t) × r (t) = const (1) We consider the orbit as a circle of radius R.8 × 1017 km and velocity v ≈ 250 km/s. that is the speed v = r (t) of the planet is constant.
noting that r is perpendicular to r at these two points. GM 1 + e 2a as follows: Prove that v20 to compute the total energy at the perihelion. Since we have by properties of the cross product: rap × rap = rap rper × rper = rper Equating the two values gives: rap vap = rper vper In Exercise 16 we showed that rper = a(1 − e) and rap = a(1 + e).244 in the formulas for r and r obtained in Exercise per ap Thisto show that rper = a(1 − e) and rap = a(1 + e). 2 R R 2 R 2R GM R (2) In Exercises 16–20. we consider a planetary orbit with orbital parameters p and e.79 · 107 (1 − 0. 19.244 (see the table in Exercise 1 for the Use the polar equation semimajor axis).308 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R .244) = 7. hence the .79 · 107 (1 + 0. gives: rper = a(1 − e) = 5.203 · 107 km. Substituting in (1) we obtain: a(1 + e)vap = a(1 − e)vper (1 + e)vap = (1 − e)vper G Mm 21. Denote the distances from the sun at the perihelion and aphelion by r per and rap and the speeds of the planet at the perihelion and aphelion by v per and vap . Prove that vper (1 − e) = vap (1 + e). which has eccentricity e = 0. The perihelion and aphelion of the orbits are the points on the orbit closest to and farthest from the sun (Figure 7). Hint: r × r is constant by Eq. p SOLUTION The length of the semimajor axis of the orbit of mercury is a = 5. y Aphelion r vper F2 vap O F1 x Perihelion a Semimajor axis FIGURE 7 r and r are perpendicular at the perihelion and aphelion. e cos θ the shortest and longest distances respectively.377 · 107 km rap = a(1 + e) = 5. We substitute a and e = r= 116. Compute this cross product at the perihelion Prove the formulas and aphelion. per = Hint: Use Exercise a 1−e SOLUTION Conservation of Energy (see Exercise 14)orbiting a sun of mass M with position r and speed v = r is (a) Use The total energy of a planet of mass m to show that (given in Exercise 14): 2 2 −1 −1 vper − vap = 2G M(rper − rap ) 1 2 G Mm (1) E = mv − 2e 2 r −1 −1 (b) Show rper − rap = using Exercise 16. + to obtain 0.79 · 107 km. Show that the total mechanical energy E of a planet in an elliptical orbit with semimajor axis a is E = − . it is p = same vector at the perigee and at the apogee. a(1 − e2 ) e 2 2 2 vper using Exercise 19. 17. (c) Show that vper − vap = 4 (1 + e)2 (1) rap = rap vap rper = rper vper . e (t) rap + rper at the perigee and perthe apogee r(t) and r (t) are orthogonal rap + r at we may equate the length of J(t) at these two points.244) = 4. Then solve for vper using (a) and (b). (5). 2rap rper rap − rper SOLUTION Since the vector J(t) = r(t) × r= is constant.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S SOLUTION (ET CHAPTER 13) The total energy of a planet in a circular orbit of radius R is E= 1 1 2 G Mm G Mm mv − = mv 2 − 2 r 2 R (1) In Exercise 8 we showed that v2 = Substituting (2) in (1) we obtain: E= 1 GM G Mm 1 G Mm G Mm m − =− =− . Compute rper and rap for the orbit of Mercury.
resulting in moving to an elliptic orbit as the dashed orbit in the ﬁgure. 1+e 1−e 1 − e2 (c) Use the Pythagorean Theorem to prove that b= p 1 − e2 = √ pa . where r shuttle the pilot of A applies a forward r − a to at any point on an elliptical orbit with semimajor axis to show that= r . respectively. The goal of this exercise is to show that b = pa. Use Exercise 21 a. (c) Conclude that dt 2 1 θB r (u)2 du 2 0 a a F1 A F2 b a Semimajor axis FIGURE 9 √ 25. Further Insights and Challenges In Exercises 25–26. Let r elliptical orbit with θ (t) equation and the xaxis. T2 = 4π 2 GM a3 We conclude that the orbital period T of shuttle A is also increasing. by Kepler’s Third Law. Now. By Exercise 16 and Exercise 20 we have: rper = a(1 − e) vper = Substituting (2) into (1) gives: E= GM 1 + e G Mm G Mm 1 m· − = 2 a 1−e a(1 − e) a(1 − e) 1+e G Mm 1 + e − 2 G Mm e − 1 G Mm −1 = = =− 2 a(1 − e) 2 a(1 − e) 2 2a GM 1 + e a 1−e (2) Two space shuttles2 A and B orbit the earth along the solid trajectory in Figure 8. A will move off into a larger orbit as shown in the ﬁgure. Figure 9 shows an(t) = r(t) and let polarbe the angle between r(t) In this exercise. we prove Kepler’s(3) in aLaw. Then r = r (t) cos θ (t). Third rigorous fashion. Let a and b be the semimajor and semiminor axes. Conclude that F1 B + F2 B = 2a and hence F1 B = F2 B = a. a is increased. for instance the perihelion. The origin is located at F .6) 309 The energy E is conserved. Then use Kepler’s Third Law to show that A’s orbital period T will increase (and she will fall farther and farther behind B)! B A Earth FIGURE 8 SOLUTION In Exercise 21 we showed that the total mechanical energy E of a planet in an elliptical orbit with semimajor axis a is E= −G Mm 2a (1) Since E is increased.S E C T I O N 14. and conclude that a = (b) Show that F1 A = . so we can compute it using any point on the elliptical orbit. p p p and F2 A = . 23. 1 Prove that v 2 = G M thrust increase her shuttle’s kinetic energy. polar coordinates: where p = J 1 A(θ ) = (b) Show that J = r × r = r (t)2 θ (t). we prove Eq. p r= 1 dA 2 θ (t) by applying the 1 + e cos θ = r (t) (a) Prove that Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to the formula for area in dt 2 2 /k. sin θ (t) . Hoping to catch up to B. which means that A will get further and further behind B. (a) Show that F1 A + F2 A = 2a.6 Planetary Motion According to Kepler and Newton (ET Section 13. 1 dA Semiminor axis = J .
F1 A = The point C corresponds to θ = π hence. Therefore.310 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . (4). hence F2 B = F1 B and so we conclude that F1 B = F2 B = a (b) The polar equation of the ellipse. Using the equality C F2 = AF1 we get: F2 A = F2 F1 + F1 A = F2 F1 + F2 C = F1 C = That is. F2 A = Combining (1). a= 1 2 p p + 1+e 1−e = 2p p p(1 − e) + p(1 + e) = = 2(1 + e)(1 − e) 2 1 − e2 1 − e2 p 1−e (5) . where the focus F1 is at the origin is r= p 1 + e cos θ B r (2) (3) C F2 0 F1 A The point A corresponds to θ = 0. F1 A + F2 A = F1 B + F2 B Combining (1) and (2). we have: F2 A = C A − C F2 = 2a − F1 A Therefore. hence.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S SOLUTION (ET CHAPTER 13) (a) Since C F2 = AF1 . F1 A + F2 A = 2a B (1) C F2 0 F1 A The ellipse is the set of all points such that the sum of the distances to the two foci F1 and F2 is constant. F1 C = p p = 1 + e cos π 1−e p 1−e p p = 1 + e cos 0 1+e (4) We now ﬁnd F2 A. and (5) we obtain: p p + = 2a 1+e 1−e Hence. we obtain: F1 B + F2 B = 2a The triangle F2 B F1 is isosceles.
6) 311 (c) We use Pythagoras’ Theorem for the triangle O B F1 : 2 2 O B 2 + O F1 = B F1 B b 0 a F1 A (6) Using (4) we have O F1 = a − F1 A = a − Also O B = b and B F1 = a. = . (2) in the form dt 2 r 2 = 4π a 3 . . (a) Use Exercise −er dθ k dv (b) Use Kepler’s First Law to show that A = 1 J T . 2 = − 2 er and use the Chain Rule to show that (b) Write Eq. b= p Since 1 − e2 = a we also have p 1 − e2 b= p p a = √ ap 27. Hint: Use Exercise 24 to show that dθ J dθ dt (d) Conclude that there is a constant vector w such that (c) Show that v(θ ) = k e +w J θ This shows that as θ varies from 0 to 2π . We substitute to obtain: 1−e2 p 2p p2 · + =0 1 + e 1 − e2 (1 + e)2 b2 = = 2 p2 2 p 2 − p 2 (1 − e) p2 = − 2 (1 − e) 2 (1 + e) (1 + e) (1 + e)2 (1 − e) p 2 (1 + e) p2 = (1 + e)2 (1 − e) 1 − e2 Hence. hence (6) gives: b2 + a − We solve for b: b2 + a 2 − b2 − In part (b) we showed that a = b2 − p2 2ap + = a2 1+e (1 + e)2 p2 2ap + =0 1+e (1 + e)2 2 p = a2 1+e p 1+e p . cos θ . Write the position vector of a planet as r = r er . We prove Kepler’s Third Law by computing the area A of the ellipse in two ways. where r = r . de (a) Show that θ = 25 to.S E C T I O N 14. show that A = (π √ p)a 3/2 . sin θ and eθ = − sin θ . Let er = cos θ . (c) Deduce that T GM k de dv d θ = 2 θ d θ dt r dθ dv k deθ dθ = J /r 2 . the velocity vector v traces out a circle of radius k/ J with center at the terminal point of w (Figure 10).6 Planetary Motion According to Kepler and Newton (ET Section 13.
sin θ = −er = dθ dθ (b) Eq. C = G M/ J = k/ J ) centered at the terminal point of u. cos θ = − cos θ . Substituting in (1). cos θ with respect to θ gives: deθ d − sin θ . SOLUTION (a) Differentiating the vector eθ = − sin θ . Notice that v(θ ) − u = Ceθ = C. which is the equation of a circle of radius C (recall. dv = d θ · d θ and by part (a) deθ = −er . − sin θ = − cos θ . (2) is the following equality: r (t) = d Writing r = r er and r (t) = dt r (t) = dv we get: dt −k r(t) = r 3 −G M r(t) r 3 −G M −G M −G M dv = r er = er = er dt r2 r 3 r 2 That is. we get: dt dt dθ (1) G M deθ dv d θ = 2 d θ dt r dθ (c) In Exercise 24 we showed that 2 and dA 1 dθ = r2 dt 2 dt Combining the two equalities we get: 1 dθ J 1 2 dθ r = J ⇒ = 2 2 dt 2 dt r Substituting in the equality obtained in part (b) we obtain: dv J G M deθ = 2 dθ r 2 r dθ M Denoting C = GJ we obtain: dA = r×r dt = J ⇒ 1 dA = J dt 2 dv G M deθ de = =C θ dθ J dθ dθ dv (d) Integrating the two sides of d θ = C deθ we have dθ v(θ ) = dv dθ = C dθ deθ d θ = Ceθ + u dθ where u is a constant vector. dv GM = − 2 er dt r dv By the Chain Rule. .VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) A v( ) B v( ) w C A B C D Planetary orbit Velocity circle D FIGURE 10 The terminal point of the velocity vector traces out the circle as the planet travels along its orbit.312 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R .
The domain of ln t is t > 0 and e t is deﬁned for t ≥ 0. We substitute in the equation of the surface x 2 + y 4 + 2z 3 = 6 and solve for z in terms of t. We get r (t) = (1 − t) . Using t = y as a parameter.Chapter Review Exercises 313 CHAPTER REVIEW EXERCISES 1. t −2 . r (0). t. The function t −1 is deﬁned for t = 0. (t −2 ) . t 2 = et 1. 2t + 1. the domain of r1 (t) is deﬁned by the following inequalities: t =0 t = −1 −1 ≤ t ≤ 1 (b) We ﬁnd the domain of r2 (t) = √ ⇒ −1 < t < 0 √ or 0 < t ≤ 1 8 − t 3 . 6 2 d t e 1. This gives: t 4 + t 4 + 2z 3 = 6 2t 4 + 2z 3 = 6 z3 = 3 − t 4 ⇒ z= 3 3 − t4 We obtain the following parametrization of the intersection curve: r(t) = t 2 . 2t + et 1. The domain of 8 − t3 ≥ 0 t >0 t ≥0 ⇒ 8 − t 3 is 8 − t 3 ≥ 0. where r(t) = t . where r(t) = e . t. In Exercises 5–10. 7t SOLUTION We differentiate r(t) componentwise to ﬁnd r (t): 2 1 t r (t) = (e2t ) . 3 3 − t4 . t 2 + et dt dt = et 1. r (t). where r(t) = e2t . Find a vector parametrization of. −4t . t. 1. −8te−4t . 6e6·0 = 2. Sketch the paths r1 (θ ) = θ cos θ and r2 (θ of the surfaces x + x yplane. t. z(t) for the intersection curve. + the elliptical cylinder 3 8 SOLUTION We use the Theorem on Componentwise Differentiation to compute the derivative r (t). θ in2the y 4 + 2z 3 = 6 and x = y 2 in R3 . 2t + t 2 0. (a) r1 (t) = t −1 . sin−1 t . e3 2 e6t r (1). e t √ (a) We ﬁnd the domain of r1 (t) = t −1 . Determine the domains of the vectorvalued functions. (t + 1)−1 . Hence. t 2 . 6e6t 2 2 The derivative r (0) is obtained by setting t = 0 in r (t). 1 + t. SOLUTION We need to ﬁnd a vector parametrization r(t) = x(t). (e−4t ) . (t + 1)−1 is deﬁned for t = −1 and sin−1 t is deﬁned for −1 ≤ t ≤ 1. ln t. d d t e 1. 4t . t. (e6t ) = 2e2t . 0. t. −8 · 0e−4·0 . ln t = 1 in R3 . we have x = t 2 and y = t. −2t −3 . t 2 2t −4t 2 . Hence. (ln t) = −1. e6t dt r (2). t. Find a vector parametrization using trigonometric functions of the intersection of the plane x + y + z = 1 and z 2 y 2 5. ln t. 1. calculate the derivative indicated. This gives r (0) = 2e2·0 . t 2 = et 0. sin−1 t (b) r2 (t) = SOLUTION 8 − t 3 . y(t). e SOLUTION Using the Product Rule for differentiation gives 9. the domain of r2 (t) is deﬁned by the following inequalities: t3 ≤ 8 t >0 ⇒ 0<t ≤2 3. e t . where r(t) = 1 − t. t 2 = et 1. 7. the intersection ) = cos θ . (t + 1)−1 .
314 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . r (π ) = cos π . 1 − 4 · 0. 0 We compute the length of r (π ): r (π ) = (−1)2 + 12 + 02 = √ 2 . π Calculate SOLUTION The unitsin θ . we have 3 0 3 r2 (3) = 0. 0 r1 (3) = 1. 0 . −8. − sin t Therefore. 1. 1. 2. 6 − 0. vector at θ . 2. 1. 2. d (6r1 (t) − 4 · r2 (t)) dt SOLUTION Using Differentiation Rules we obtain: d = 6r1 (3) − 4r2 (3) = 6 · 0. 0. 11. −4t 3 dt = 27. 0 = 2 + 0 = 2 dt t=3 d 4t + 3. Find the unit tangent vector to r(t) = sin t. 0. −4t 3 dt = 3 0 (4t + 3) dt. 0 3 −4t 3 dt (1) We compute the integrals on the righthand side: 3 0 (4t + 3) dt = 2t 2 + 3t 3 0 3 0 3 0 = 2 · 9 + 3 · 3 − 0 = 27 t 2 dt = t3 3 33 =9 = 3 0 3 3 0 −4t 3 dt = −t 4 = −34 = −81 Substituting in (1) gives the following integral: 3 0 4t + 3. 1. 4 + 0. 4 (6r1 (t) − 4r2 (t)) dt t=3 = 0. d r1 (t)t · r2 (t) d dt e r2 (t) dt SOLUTION Using Product Rule for Dot Products we obtain: d r (t) · r2 (t) = r1 (t) · r2 (t) + r1 (t) · r2 (t) dt 1 Setting t = 3 gives: d r1 (t) · r2 (t) = r1 (3) · r2 (3) + r1 (3) · r2 (3) = 1. 1 · 1. 0. 9. 8. 15. − sin π = −1. 1. r1 (3) = 0. 1 . 1. where r(s) = s. t 2 . 0 · 0. −81 17. 4 4t + 3. cos t at t = π . t 2 . calculate the derivative at t = 3 assuming that d r(cos θ ).= π is tangent cos 2θ d t 0 T(π ) = We differentiate r(t) componentwise to obtain: r (π ) r (π ) (1) r (t) = cos t.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) In Exercises 11–14. t. 16 = 0. 2s. s 2 dθ r2 (3) = 1. θ . 1. −4t 3 dt. −10 13. Calculate r1 (t) × r2 (t) 0 dt SOLUTION By the deﬁnition of vectorvalued integration. t 2 . 0. 3 0 t 2 dt.
2t 2 dt = 1 dt. 3 r (t) = = (2 cos 2t)2 + (−2 sin 2t)2 + 32 = 4 cos2 2t + sin2 2t + 9 = √ 4 cos2 2t + 4 sin2 2t + 9 √ 13 3 1 r (t) dt (1) 4·1+9= We substitute in (1) and compute the integral to obtain the following length: L= 3√ 1 13 dt = √ 3 13t 1 √ = 2 13.Chapter Review Exercises 315 Substituting in (1) gives: −1 1 T(π ) = √ . 3. 1. 2t 2 . Find the −1 Find the unit = 2. t 3 2 3 2 3 Finally. 3. c3 the constant vector. t 3 + 1. 0 = t + 1. we substitute t = 2 to obtain the particle’s location at t = 2: r(2) = 2 + 1. 0) at time t =2 0 follows a path whose velocity vector is v(t) = 1. t 2 . 1 2 2t 2 dt = t + c1 . SOLUTION We ﬁrst ﬁnd the path r(t) by integrating the velocity vector v(t): r(t) = 1. Compute the length of the path r(t) = sin 2t. we use the given information on the initial position of the particle. t 2 . a parametrization r(t) length string and compute ln t. 2 3 3 21. −2 sin 2t. t 2 + 1. 16 3 2 1 2 16 · 2 + 1. c2 . At time t = 2 the particle is located at the point 3. √ . 3t − 1 for 1 ≤ t ≤ 3. t 3 + c 2 3 (1) To ﬁnd the constant vector c. 0 + c = 1. 0 We substitute in (1) to obtain: 2 2 1 1 r(t) = t. we obtain: 1 2 r(t) = t. 1. particle’s location at ttangent vector to r(t) = t . A particle located at (1. c = 1. e for 1 ≤ t ≤ 2 as a deﬁnite integral and use a computer algebra system to ﬁnd its value to two decimal places. t dt. 2 . t 3 + c3 2 3 Denoting by c = c1 . That is. y(t) in R2 satisfying r (t) = −r(t) with initial conditions r(0) = SOLUTION We use the formula for the arc length: 1. t. A string in the shape of a helix has a height of 20 cm and makes four full rotations over a circle of radius 5 cm. 23. cos 2t. by (1): r(0) = 0. 1. . 0 2 2 19. 0 or. t 2 + c2 . 0). 1. 0. t. L= We compute the derivative vector r (t) and its length: r (t) = 2 cos 2t. 1. t at t = 1. At time t = 0 it is at the point (1. · 23 = 3. tan t. Find the vectorvalued function r(t) = x(t). t. Find t Express the of the of the path r(t) = its length.
5 5 0 ≤ t ≤ 20 15 10 5 0 To ﬁnd the length of the helix. 2π cos .1 5 5 5 5 5 5 2π t 2π t + 4π 2 cos2 +1= 5 5 4π 2 sin2 2π t 2π t + cos2 5 5 +1= 1 + 4π 2 20 0 r (t) dt (1) 4π 2 sin2 Substituting in (1) we get: L= 20 0 1 + 4π 2 dt = 20 1 + 4π 2 ≈ 127. t2 1 + t2 + t4 . we have: a · 20 = 4 · 2π The parametrization of the helix is.2 25. the helix is traced by a parametrization of the form: r(t) = 5 cos at. t 1 + t2 + t4 . t. t 2 dt t t 1 + t2 + t4 (2) T (t) T (t) (1) 1 r (t) = 2 t Hence: T(t) = r (t) = r (t) −1 1 + t2 + t4 . we use the arc length formula: L= We ﬁnd r (t) and its length: r (t) = −5 · r (t) = 2π t 2π 2π t 2π 2π t 2π t sin .VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S SOLUTION (ET CHAPTER 13) Since the radius is 5 cm and the height is 20 cm. t . ln t. t and ﬁnd the unitt−3 4−tand normal vectors at t = 1.t .5 · cos . e SOLUTION The unit normal vector is deﬁned by: N(t) = Since T(t) = r (t) . 5 sin .316 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . 1 = −2π sin . tangent . Find the minimum speed of a particle with trajectory r(t) = t. we must ﬁnd r (t) and its length: r (t) r (t) = 1 d −1 1 t . t = −t −2 . . e . 5 sin at. ln t. 0 ≤ t ≤ 20 Since the helix makes exactly 4 full rotations. thus: r(t) = 5 cos The helix is shown in the following ﬁgure: 5 0 5 20 5 0 5 ⇒ a= 2π 5 2π t 2π t . 1 = 2 −1. Calculate the curvature κ (t) for r(t) = t −1 .
2t + t 3 1 + t2 + t4 2 3/2 T (t) = 1 3/2 1 + t2 + t4 t + 2t 3 2 + 1 − t4 + 2t + t 3 2 = t 8 + 5t 6 + 6t 4 + 5t 2 + 1 1 + t2 + t4 3/2 Substituting in (1) we get: N(t) = 1 t 8 + 5t 6 + 6t 4 + 5t 2 + 1 t + 2t 3 . − 2 . 2t+4t 2t 1 + t 2 + t 4 − t 2 · √ 2 3 2 1+t +t 4 1 + t2 + t4 3/2 1 + t2 + t4 . counterclockwise in a circle of radius 2 ft on the ﬂoor of an elevator with speed 1 ft/s while the elevator ascends from ground level (along the zaxis) at a speed of 40 ft/s. The = 0. 0. t −1 . runs In Exercises 27–30. 0. Compute the curvature function κ (t). −t −2 . 1 − t4 3/2 1 + t2 + t4 . Find the mouse’s accel27. trained mousee−t . 2t + t 3 ⇒ 3 1. t 1 + t2 + t4 . 0 dt t t 2 1 = 2i+ 3j+ t t 1 2 − 4 t4 t 2 1 1 k = 2i+ 3j− 4k t t t Hence: r (t) × r (t) = 1 2 + t2 2 2 1 2 + − 4 = t3 t 1 4 1 1 + 6 + 8 = 4 4 t t t t t 4 + 4t 2 + 1 (4) We now substitute (2) and (4) in (3) to obtain the following curvature: κ (t) = Setting t = 1 we get: t 2 t 4 + 4t 2 + 1 t4 + t2 + 1 √ 3 κ (1) = 2 2 3 A specially let r(t) = t. eration vector as a function of time. 0 = 3 .Chapter Review Exercises 317 Setting t = 1 gives: 1 1 1 T(1) = − √ . Assume that the circle is centered at the origin of the x yplane and the mouse is at (2. √ . 1· 2t+4t 1 + t2 + t4 − t · √ 2 2 1+t +t 4 1 + t2 + t4 . SOLUTION 0) at tcurvature is the following function: κ (t) = r (t) × r (t) r (t) 3 (1) . 1 N(1) = √ 18 To ﬁnd the curvature we use the following formula: κ (t) = We ﬁrst ﬁnd r (t): r (t) = We compute the cross product: i r (t) × r (t) = 1 − 2 t 2 t3 j 1 t 1 − 2 t k 1 0 r (t) × r (t) r (t) 3 (3) 2 d 1 −t −2 . 1 = 2t −3 . √ 3 3 3 We now compute T (t) and its length: T (t) = d dt 2 −1 1 + t2 + t4 2t+4t √ 3 . 1 − t 4 . t2 1 + t2 + t4 3 = = 1+t 2 +t 4 1 + t2 + t4 t + 2t 3 .
Find the unit tangent and normal vectors at t = 0 and t = 1. (4t 2 − 2)e−t 2 2 r (t) × r (t) = i − 2te−t j × (4t 2 − 2)e−t j = (4t 2 − 2)e−t k = 0. r (t) (1) T(t) = r (t) The derivative of r(t) = t. 1 is orthogonal to r (t). 1 or − 2te−t . 0.318 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . We observe that 2te−t . −2 · 1 · e−1 = 1. −2 · 0 · e−0 = 1. 0 r (0) 1.VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) We ﬁnd the derivatives of r(t): r (t) = 1. e−t 2 is: r (t) = 1. hence N(t) is a unit vector in the direction of 2te−t . Thus. −2 e2 + 4 2 2 2 The unit normal vector is a unit vector orthogonal to r (t) = 1. − r (1) = Substituting in (1) we obtain: T(0) = r (0) = 1. 0 2 r (0) = 12 + 02 = 1 2 r (1) = 1. 1 . −2te−t 2 2 r (t) = 0. Recall that N(t) points in the direction of bending. since their dot product is zero. −2e−t − 2t · (−2t)e−t Therefore: 2 2 2 = 0. A graph of r(t) (which is also the graph of y = e−x ) helps us √ ﬁnd the appropriate direction. − 2 e r (1) = = 1 e2 + 4 r (1) e 12 + − 2 2 = e 2 e 4 1 2 1+ 2 = e +4 e e T(1) = e e2 + 4 2 . we get the following picture: 2 y N N 1 2 0 1 1 2 x . (4t 2 − 2)e−t We compute the lengths of the vectors in (1): r (t) = 12 + −2te−t 2 2 2 2 = 1 + 4t 2 e−2t 2 r (t) × r (t) = 4t 2 − 2e−t Substituting in (1) gives the following curvature: κ (t) = 4t 2 − 2e−t 1 + 4t 2 e−2t 2 2 3/2 29. −2te−t 2 At t = 0 and t = 1 we have: r (0) = 1. Plot r(t) and κ (t) on the same set of axes and estimate the values of t where the curvature has a maximum SOLUTION The unit tangent vector is deﬁned by: value. −2te−t . It is easy to show (by taking y and y ) that the inﬂection points occur at x = ±1/ 2.
cos t. SOLUTION The curvature is the following function: κ (t) = We compute the derivatives of r(t) = sin t. − sin t cos t sin t 1 + cos2 t 3/2 (1 + cos2 t) − sin t. − sin t · − sin t. cos t. e e2 + 4 31. −1 2 1 + 4t 2 e 2 −2t 2 . Write the acceleration vector at t = 1 as a sum of tangential and normal components. cos t. cos t. − cos t + − sin t. 0 = √ 2 1 + cos2 t cos2 t + cos2 t + sin2 t = κ (t) = The unit normal is the following vector: 2 3/2 1 + cos2 t N(t) = We ﬁnd the unit tangent vector: T(t) = r (t) = r (t) 1 T (t) T (t) (2) 1 + cos2 t cos t. − sin t We differentiate T(t) using the Product Rule: T (t) = = = = 1 1 + cos2 t 1 1 + cos2 t 1 1 + cos2 t 1 1 + cos2 t 3/2 3/2 − sin t. − sin t. cos t . cos t : r (t) × r (t) r (t) 3 (1) r (t) = cos t. − sin t. 0 We ﬁnd the lengths of the vectors in (1): r (t) × r (t) = r (t) = Substituting in (1) gives the following curvature: √ −1. −1 . − cos t + sin t cos t cos t. − cos t + 2 cos t sin t √ 2 1+cos2 t 1 + cos2 t cos t. . sin t. 1 1 + 4t 2 e −2t 2 For t = 0 and t = 1 we get: N(0) = 0. 1. − sin t. r (t) = − sin t. − sin t. 1. cos t. 1 t < √ 2 1 t > √ 2 2te−t . − sin t cos t.Chapter Review Exercises 319 We conclude that: N(t) = ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ −2te−t . − cos t − cos3 t − sin2 t cos t . 1 1 + 4e−2 = 2 e2 + 4 . N(1) = 2e−1 . − sin t. − sin t . sin t. Find the curvature κ (t) and unit normal vector N(t) for r(t) = sin t. − cos t We calculate the cross product: r (t) × r (t) = i cos t − sin t j cos t − sin t k − sin t − cos t = − cos2 t − sin2 t i − − cos2 t − sin2 t j + (− cos t sin t + cos t sin t)k = −i + j = −1.
0 2 a=r 1 π π π = − cos . t . We found that aT = √ and aN = 4. −1 . Write the decomposition. − sin t. Compute aN and N. −4 − √ −1. 2 cos t In Exercises 33–34. Since r(θ ) = − cos θ . 2 cos = −√ . −4 · −1. 35. Compute T and aT . using the formula for the curvature of a graph in the plane: 2 κ (x) = Since y = e−x . t = 2 SOLUTION We ﬁrst ﬁnd the curvature. 2 cos 2θ and r (θ ) = π π π 1 = − sin . 1 1 + cos2 t 3/2 √ 2 sin2 +4 cos2 t = √ 2 = 2 t 3/2 1 + cos2 t 1 + cos 2 1 + cos2 t −1 N(t) = √ · 2 1 1 + cos2 t · sin t. −1 N= N = aN 4 1 Step 3. at θ = π . −4 sin = − √ . we have: 2 y (x) 1 + y (x)2 3/2 (1) y (x) = −2xe−x . 4 v=r cos θ . We have 1 1 aN N = a − aT T = − √ . r(t) = t 2 . hence the decomposition of a is 2 0. −4 = 0. r(θ ) = cos θ .VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) = Hence: 1 1 + cos2 t 3/2 · − sin t.0 4 4 2 2 v = v 1 −√ . a N 0. Thus. −4 4 4 2 2 1 1 aT = a · T = − √ .320 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R . 2 2 2 2 y (x) = −2e−x + 4x 2 e−x = 2 2x 2 − 1 e−x . sin 2θ . 0 = 0. t . sum of Find the curvature κ (t) and unit normal vector N(t) for r(t) = ln t. −4 sin 2θ . −2 cos t T (t) = Thus. t 3 . −4 2 2 Since N is a unit vector. 0 = −1.0 2 1 √ 2 2 T= = √ +0 1 2 − √ . we can ﬁnd aN by: aN = aN N = Therefore. we have r (θ ) = − sin θ . write the acceleration vector a at the point indicated as a−1 −2tangential and normal components. θ = π 4 SOLUTION Step 1. 0 = √ 2 2 Step 2. 33. −4 =4 1 a = aT T + aN N = √ T + 4N 2 where T = −1. 0 and N = 0. Find the osculating circle to the curve y = e−x at x = 0. sin 2θ . sin t.
r(t) = r + tv. 1 1 cos t. the position vector pointing from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. satisﬁes r (t) = 0. so it must be centered at 0. Since the position vector sweeps out the whole area of the ellipse (π ab) in time T . and has radius 1 . where r = r(0) and v = r (0). Use Kepler’s Continuing with Exercise 37. That is. 0) A x B′ FIGURE 2 SOLUTION By the Law of Equal Areas. and t is the desired time. r (t) = v We integrate again: r(t) = vt + d The constant d is r = r(0). 1). so also must be the osculating circle (at x = 0). Kepler’s Second Law continues to hold since area is swept out at the constant 1 r(0) × v . Therefore it is parametrized by. Show that in this case. 2 2 c(t) = 0. where r = r(0) and v = r (0) (Figure 1). sin t . We denote by S1 the area swept by the position vector when the planet moves from A to B . e 1 rate 2 + T 4 2π y B b A′ a O Sun (c. The radius of the osculating circle is R = κ (0) = 1 . Planet r(0) r(t) = r(0) + tv Sun v FIGURE 1 SOLUTION Integrating r (t) = 0 gives: r (t) = c The constant c is r (0) = v(0). Thus. Newton’s Laws imply that the position vector of the plane Find the osculating circle to the curve y = ln x at x = 1.Chapter Review Exercises 321 Substituting in (1) we obtain the following curvature at x = 0: κ (x) = y (0) 3/2 1 + y (0)2 =  − 2 (1 + 0)3/2 =2 (2) 1 We now ﬁnd the osculating circle at x = 0. is symmetric about the yaxis. and since the graph of 2 2 −x is symmetric about the yaxis. t] Second Law to show 1 if the period of the orbit is T . The circle touches the graph at y=e (0. the time it takes for a planet to travel from A to B is equal to that is equal to A = 2 r(0) × v t. the Law of Equal Areas implies that: S1 t = π ab T ⇒ t= T S1 π ab (1) We now ﬁnd the area S1 as the sum of the area of a quarter of the ellipse and the area of the triangle O D B. 1 . Hence. + 2 2 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π 37. That is. 39. show that the area A swept out by the radial vector r(t) over the time interval [0. If a planet is in “orbit” around a sun whose mass is zero. e = c/a). the orbit is the straight line with parametrization r(t) = r + tv. S1 = b π ab OD · OB π ab cb + = + = (π a + 2c) 4 2 4 2 4 . Suppose that the planetary orbit in Figure 2 is an ellipse with eccentricity e (by deﬁnition.
0) Sun x B′ The period of Mercury is approximately 88 days and its orbit has eccentricity 0.205.322 C H A P T E R 14 C A L C U L U S O F VE C T O R .VA L U E D F U N C T I O N S (ET CHAPTER 13) Substituting in (1) we get: t= T (π a + 2c) T b(π a + 2c) = =T 4π ab 4π a y 1 1 c + 4 2π a =T 1 e + 4 2π b A′ a S1 O D(c. How much longer does it take Mercury to travel from A to B than from B to A (Figure 2)? .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.