Syntax Novinda Dian Puspito 2201409018 507-508

What Grammar Is and Is Not
1.1 Grammar and its role in language Grammar is used to the mechanism according to which language works when it is used to communicate with other people. When we studied Grammar of our native language, then we are trying to make explicit the knowledge of the language that we already have. Grammar is a mechanism for putting word together, but we have said little about sound or meaning. SEMANTICS (meaning) GRAMMAR PHONOLOGY (sound)



PHONOLOGY of writing system

1.2 Good and Bad Grammar Linguist who write grammar are concern with discribing how the language is used, rather than processing how it should be used. Prescriptive rules are clearly not grammatical rules in the same sense as descriptive rules, so it might be appropriate to call them rules of grammatical etiquette. Then we can see that what some people call “bad grammar” is asking to “bad manners” (it refers to something you might want to avoid doing). 1.3 Variation in Language A. Introduction There are many varieties of a language such as English. We can identify Americans as speaking in a different way from British people. So, language will vary according to certain characteristics of its user.

can be used when speaking standard English as well as when they speaking a regional dialect. B. has to do with how language varies according to the activity in which it plays a part. Social-class membership The social class of the speaker seems to effect the variety of the language used. has to do with the effect of the medion in which the language is transmited. and grammar. C. It means that each user has a whole range of language varieties which he or she learns by experience and knows how to use appropriately. vocabulary. a person’s speech will vary according the USE that speech is put to. Variation according the use While the term dialect is convented to refer to language variation according the user. and women are likely to use standard English than men.This is not meant to imply that each person as user speaks a uniform variety of language which never changes. since regional prunonciation. Register can be used to refer to variation according to use. speech may change as personal characteristics change. or a regional accent. Sex Certain grammatical features have been associated more with women than with men. In addition. Variation according to User Dialect (regional origin) can be identified on the levels of pronunciation. Age The way young speaks is of particular interest as it may be idicate of the direction in which the language is changing. and is often characterised by greater or lesser formality. Toner has relationship between speaker and the address in a given situation. - . Domain. Mode. it is imply used to mean a variety of language determined by the characteristics of its users. Dialect not imply an incorrect use of language. Vocabulary and grammar are the most basic levels for describing the dialect.

. the matching of one construction with another. 1. but for effective communication in a broader sense. particullarly through parallelism.6 Grammar in Prose style In literature. How grammar constribute to the effects. the resources of the language including grammar are used not only for efficient communication of ideas. 1.7 Grammar in Poetry Without the rules. People who can undrestand each other speak the same langauge. similar one.5 Grammar and effective communication Language should not be evaluated according to what type of grammatical rules it follows. but there are degrees of comprehension. Grammatical rules in English and other language It is important for English speakers of whatever variety of realise that other language may follow different grammatical rules. 1. the poet’s deviction from the rules would lose its communicative force.4 English and other language Language is mutual intelligibility. but according to whether it conveys its message affectively.1.

things. The students lead to classify the word into noun. substance) A verb is a doing verb (an action) An adjective is a word that describe a noun An adverb is a word which describes other types of words (verbs. C. person. and things. An Example JEBBERWOCKY – We can not rely on meaning in defining word classes. . and words.2 the hierarcy of Units A sentence is composed of smaller units. A test Its purpose is simply to start you thinking on the right lines.Sentences and Their Parts 2. animals. In this part we classify each word on the basis of its position. but also to formal aspects of definition. The concept of “fuzzy” category applies not just to meaning. phrases. ans substence (CONCRETE NOUNS >< ABSTRACT NOUNS) B. adjectives. and these happen indicentally. The typical verb is a “doing word”. 2. The fuzzy boundaries of grammatical classes The typical nouns are those which refer to people. verb. adjectives. clauses. adverbs) The most typical members of the class of nouns refers to people. to number amongs them the nouns which children learn first and the nouns which are most common in adult language as well. PHRASE are units intermediete between clause and word.1 Prologue A. or adverb     A noun is a naming word (thing. CLAUSE are the principal units of which sentences are composed. One sentence may consist of one or more clauses.

if we need to sparate the grammatical components of words. we can use a dash.function classes.3 Grammatical Notation A.Substraction Tests .function classes. . BRECKETING . elements of the clause .P Ph Ph Ph Ph Wo (Ourland - Wo lady) Wo (Keep-s) Wo Wo Wo Wo Wo Wo (a stuff . Example: [ (Our land-lady) (keep-s) (a stuff-ed moose) (in her attic) ] B.Movement Tests 2.5 Form and Function .4 Using Test .phrases are enclosed in round brackets ( ) .form classes .Sentences are marked with an initial capital letter and final full-stop. TREE DIAGRAM Se Ce VP NP Pp.Expansion Tests . elements of the phrase .words are sparated by space .clauses are enclosed in square brecketes [ ] .ed moose) (in her attic) 2.[(My uncle Olaf) (was munching) (his pench) (with relish)] NP 2.

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