AIR TICKET RESERVATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

TITLE ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES

PAGE NO iv viii ix

1.

INTRODUCTION

1

2.

PROBLEM DEFINITION

3 3 4

2.1 EXISTING SYSTEM 2.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM 3.

SYSTEM STUDY SYSTEM ANALYSIS

5 3.1 5 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 12 12 13 13 14 14 16 16 18

4. 5.

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION 5.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY

5.1.1 Operation Feasibility 5.1.2 Technical Feasibility 5.1.3 Economic Feasibility 5.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 5.3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 5.4 TECHNOLOGY SPECIFICATION
6. SYSTEM DESIGN

6.1 LOGICAL DESIGN 6.2 INPUT DESIGN 6.3 OUTPUT DESIGN 6.4 PHYSICAL DESIGN 6.5 MODULAR DESIGN
7. DATABASE DESIGN 7.1 NORMALIZATION 8. SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION

8.1 IMPLEMENTATION METHOD S 8.2 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

18 19

9.

EDUCATION & TRAINING 9.1 POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW

20 20 22 23 24 24 24

10.

SYSTEM TESTING

10.1 UNIT TESTING 10.2 MODULE LEVEL TESTING 10.3 INTEGRATION & SYSTEM TESTING 10.4 REGRESSION TESTING
11 12 MAINTENANCE TABLES FIGURES CONCLUSION APPENDIX 1 RESUME REFERENCES

25 26 29 47 48 52 53

13 14

LIST OF TABLES Table Page

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9

FLIGHT DETAILS FLIGHT TIME PASSENGER REGISTRATION RESERVATION PAYSPARE PAYMENT CONFIRM ROUTE

26 27 27 28 29 29 30 30 31

12 13.7 13.9 13.4 13.11 13.5 13.6 13.15 LEVEL 0 DFD LEVEL 1 DFD LEVEL 2 DFD LEVEL 3 DFD LEVEL 4 DFD LOGIN FORM REGISTRATION FORM ADMIN HOME USER HOME FLIGHT DETAILS FLIGHTTIMINGS ROUTE MAP FLIGHTS TICKET CANCELLATION CANCELLATION VIEW RESERVATION 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 .3 13.1 13.2 13.13 13.10 13.8 13.LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 13.14 13.

everyday. SEA Airlines is the first and only travel site with a seasoned Customer Care Team that monitors nationwide travel conditions for our travelers around the clock. they offer the widest range of flight options and fares. refunded or changed. Its mission is to offer flexible leisure travelers a quick and easy way to get better deals on airline tickets. The site was created to address the need for an unbiased. When customers prefer a specific travel itinerary. If you want. which helps the flight travelers. you can also receive your updates by calling Arabian Travels toll-free number and using your personalized PIN. comprehensive display of fares and rates in a single location for consumers. The project will be in any platform with Front End as JSP and MySQL as Back End. .ABSTRACT Airlines is a leading travel company offering leisure and business travelers the widest selection of low fares as well as deals on lodging and vacation packages. All purchases made on SEA Airlines are not final and can be cancelled. Airlines is a site. SEA Airlines search results are presented in an easy-to-use Matrix that displays a vast array of travel options for you.

Address.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Airlines is a site. Logout Link will help the user to logout from the site. The Home link contains several information about the site. Then goes to the payment or confirmation page. This PNR number can be used for cancellation. and then click the "Login" button. Postal Code. which helps the flight travelers. In that page user have to enter First name. The first page provides several links. City. Phone number. After registration user can reserve the seats in particular flights by using the flights date and time. About Us Link contains some information regarding SEA Airlines and its developers. Its mission is to offer flexible leisure travelers a quick and easy way to get better deals on airline tickets. it provides a link to the login page. It will display the total rate and a PNR number. The user can enter the number of seats required and the details of the passengers by specifying adult or child. But those visitors who are not registered have to go to the registration page before they login. Through partnerships with leading travel companies. Username and password. it can negotiate special prices that can't be found anywhere else. Last name. An already registered user can simply type in -his\her valid username and password. . In the Login link a user have to login before ordering for tickets. The working of the project is as follows.

It cannot be used for personal and quick reference. User Login module helps the user to login to the site. The new system is more personalized. 2. Most of the data are hidden from outside the world. Its working is that partners allow to access their empty seats on flights -. number of tickets. The aim of this project is to provide the users flexible leisure travelers an immediate and easy way to get better deals on airline tickets. The proposed system has got many advantages. which is very helpful to users. This requires quite a lot of time and wastage of money as it requires quite lot of manpower to do that.all at big savings. The site pass these savings on to those travelers who can be flexible about their plans. . Air Ticket Request module helps the user to make a request for Air Ticket. In this page the user enters the full details about his flight such as the start and destination place. 2. The limitations of existing system is that it is not all personalized. Even the other staff members can make quick entries if the responsible person is not present. Data's are stored globally and are retrieved in the same manner.CHAPTER 2 PROBLEM DEFINITION SEA Airlines is a site. And it is very difficult for each person to come to the office. For that he must type the username and password correctly. The information entered by the users is added into the table registration. People from different parts of the world can register very easily. SEA Airlines will continue to grow .1 EXISTING SYSTEM The existing system is manual entry of up keeping of the details of the persons who are registered already.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM The modern computerized system is developed with the aim to overcome the drawbacks of existing system. They can find attractive prices that can't be found anywhere else through partnerships with leading travel companies. Sea airline's founding organizations are industry leaders in their respective areas. It is very difficult for the user to remember all the details that they received through phones. With their backing. Users can also enquire about the tickets through phones. Member Registration module helps the new user to register into the site. cabin and the convenient date.ultimately providing a wide breadth of products and services at the best prices. And it is also very difficult to calculate how many peoples registered in a month by hand. Another factor that takes into account that is the possibility of errors and which requires verification and checking of data relating to various operations which is done manually. The login provision in this page helps the already registered user to directly access the site and there is a link for registration to a user who is new to this site. Air Ticket confirmation module helps the user to confirm the air ticket.

The advantages of proposed system are that security is maintained in the new system. . It is made in a quick and easy referential manner. Securities for all important data are maintained confidentially. Access to all important matters are not always locked and can be opened easily at the time of urgency. This system helps the user to go through the rates quoted by different travel agencies and select the convenient rate that is suitable for him.It is maze in such a manner that all the new users can understand all the options in it very easily. quick entries can be made in this system. As it is easily understandable and user friendly.

The major steps involved in this phase included defining the user requirements and studying the present system to verify the problem. The system analyst has to carry out a customary approach to use the computer for problem solving. It is the most essential part of the development of a project of a system analysis. The information gathered from various documents were analyzed and evaluated and the findings reviewed in order to establish specific system objectives. process and technology.CHAPTER 3 SYSTEM STUDY The system study phase involves the initial investigation of the structure of the System. System analysis includes the following basic concepts         Preliminary investigation Requirements Specification Feasibility study Detailed investigation Drawing up of strategies Design and coding Testing and training Implementation The above steps constitute the logical framework for the system analysis. followed by the training of the users. After the preliminary investigation and feasibility study. the scope of the defined and comparable items are set forth and hence detailed investigation is executed. before design the appropriate computer based system that will meet all the requirements of the existing system. Soon after the implementation of the newly developed system. which is currently in use. has to study the systems in details.1 SYSTEM ANALYSIS System analysis is the way of studying a system with an eye on solving its problem -using computer. The analyst has to understand the functioning and concept of the system in detail. the system analysis is included. The performance expected by the new system was also defined in this phase in order to meet the user requirements. To analyze a system. System analysis consists of system element. This allows the system analyst to comprehend the full scope of the project. with the objective of identifying the problem and difficulties with the existing system. 3. .

. the collection of data and determination of requirements can be started.some organization receive so many projects requests from employee that only a few of them can be pursued. Once the request is approved. After a project request is approved the cost priority. The activity has three parts > Request clarification: the request from employee may not be well stated. the first system activity preliminary investigation begins. but in case a manager. However those projects that are feasible and desirable should put into a schedule. Therefore before any system investigation can be considered. the project request must be examined to determine precisely the actual requirements of the organization.CHAPTER 4 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION A request to receive assistance from information system can be made for many reasons. When that request is made. the completion time and the personal required are estimated. Sometimes the request may not be well defined. The management decides request that are most important. > Feasibility study: the basic idea of feasibility study is to determine whether the requested project is feasible. > Request approval: all projects that are requested are not desirable or feasible . employee or system specialist initiates the request.

a preliminary survey of the existing system will be conducted. Three key factors are to be considered during the feasibility study. 5. Cost benefit analysis is usually performed for this purpose.1. It is very essential because the main goal of the proposed system is to have economically better result along with increased efficiency. Here the system analyst evaluates the technical merits of the system giving emphasis on the performance. maintainability and productivity.1. people are reluctant to changes that come in their progression. By taking the consideration before developing the proposed system. Hence an additional effort is to be made to train and educate the users on the new way of the system. For that the study of specification of the requirements is very essential. transfer and employee job status. This includes an identification description. The organization was immense computer facilities equipped with sophisticated machines and the software hence this technically feasible. Usually. It is then duty of the analyst to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed system to generate the above results. Investigation done whether the up gradation of the system into an application program could solve the problems and eradicate the inefficiency of the existing system.CHAPTER 5 REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION The primary goal of the system analyst is to improve the efficiency of the existing system.1 Operation Feasibility An estimate should be made to de4termine how much effort and care will go into the developing of the system including the training to be given to the user.2 Technical Feasibility The main consideration is to be given to the study of available resources of the organization where the software is to be implemented. the resources availability of the organization was studied. For the development of the new system. The computer initialization will certainly affected the turn over. . the project was found to be economically. Reliability. an evaluation of the proposed systems and selection of the best system for the job The requirements of the system are specified with a set of constraints such as system objectives and the description of the out puts. Since the organization is well equipped with the required hard ware.3 Economic Feasibility Economic feasibility is the most important and frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed system. 5. 5.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY The initial investigation points to the question whether the project is feasible. A feasibility is conducted to identify the best system that meets the all the requirements. 5. It is the comparative study of the cost verses the benefit and savings that are expected from the proposed system.1.

3. whereby there is a clear separation between the data and the presentation/business logic. with the application existing entirely on the client machine while the database server is deployed somewhere in the organization.3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS OPERATING SYSTEM BROWSER FRONT END DATABASE LAYER WEB SERVER : WINDOWS XP : INTERNET EXPLORER 5. □ 2-Tier Architecture In a traditional 2.Tier architecture an application is broken into three separate logical layers.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS PROCESSOR CLOCK SPEED SYSTEM BUS RAM HDD MONITOR KEY BOARD MODEM MOUSE FDD : : : : : : : : : : PENTIUM II 800 MHZ 32 BIT 128 MB 5GB SVGA COLOR 108 KEYS 56 KBPS LOGITECH 1.Tier Architecture In 3. As a result. each with a well . not only does the application performance suffer due to the limited resources of the PC. SMTP.44 MB 5.4 TECHNOLOGY SPECIFICATION □ Client-Server Architecture Typical client-server systems are based on the 2-tiered architecture.5 OR ANY HTTP BROWSER : MICROSOFT FRONTPAGE : ORACLE 8i : JBOSS SERVER SIDE SCRIPTING : JSP CLIENT SIDE SCRIPTING : JAVA SCRIPT CONNECTION PROTOCOL : TCP / IP : HTTP.WAP 5.5. but the network traffic tends increase as well. the processing load is given to the client PC while the server simply acts as a traffic controller between the application and data. The first tier is referred to as the presentation layer and typically consists .Tiered application. These are generally data driven.defined set of interfaces. POP3.

The third tier contains the data that is needed for the application. Interface services that provide additional functionality required by the application components. > > Business logic that models the application's business rules. . such as messaging.tier architecture the application logic is divided by function rather than physically. The presentation layer then receives the data and formats it for display. often through the interaction with the application's data. N Tier architecture then breaks down like this: > > A user interface that handle the user's interaction with the application.depending on what user interfaces are supported we need to have slightly different versions of the presentation logic to handle the client appropriately. consists of application or business layer and the third layer. > The Data layer where the enterprise's data resides. a heavier desktop application or even a wireless device Presentation logic that defines what the user interface displays and how a user's requests are handled.the data layer contains the data that is needed for the application.of graphical user interface of some kind. The middle tier is basically the code that the user calls upon to retrieve the desired data. □ n. The middle tier. or business layer.Tier Architecture In an n . this can be web browser running through a firewall. transactional support etc. This separation of application logic from the user interface adds enormous flexibility to the design of application.

out puts (destinations). 6.CHAPTER 6 SYSTEM DESIGN System design is the solution to the creation of a new system. This phase focuses on the detailed implementation of the feasible system. controlling errors. The programmers write the necessary programs that accept input from the user. databases (data sores) and procedures (data flows) all in a format that meats the uses requirements. perform necessary processing on accepted data through call and produce the required report on a hard copy or display it on the screen. Design of proposed system produces the details of the state how the system will meet the requirements identified during the system analysis that is. avoiding delay. It comprises the developing specification and procedures for data preparation and those steps are necessary to put transaction data into a usable form for processing data entry. The logical design includes input design. The first step of the system design is to design logical design elements. The analyst also specifies the user needs and at a level that virtually determines the information flow into and out of the system and the data resources. During logical design phase the analyst describes inputs (sources). output design. Physical design produces the working system by defining the design specifications.2 INPUT DESIGN The input design is the link between the information system and the user. and database design and physical design 6. in the design phase we have to find how to solve the difficulties faced by the existing system. This is the most creative and challenging phase and important too. The activity of putting data into the computer for processing can be achieved by inspecting the computer to read data from a written or printed document or it can occur by having people keying the data directly into the system. what kind of reports are to be created and what are the inputs to be given to the system. The physical design is followed by physical design or coding. It emphasis on translating design specifications to performance specification. This phase is composed of several systems. The design of input focuses on controlling the amount of input required. The logical design of the proposed system should include the details that contain how the solutions can be implemented. . Here the logical design is done through data flow diagrams and database design. It also specifies how the database is to be built for storing and retrieving data. System design has two phases of development logical and physical design. avoiding extra steps and keeping the process simple.1 LOGICAL DESIGN Logical design of an information system shows the major features and also how they are related to one another. which tell the programmers exactly what the candidate system must do.

which helps to raise error message while wrong entry of input is done. Output design is a process that involves designing necessary outputs in the form of reports that should be given to the users according to the requirements.5 MODULAR DESIGN A software system is always divided into several sub systems that makes it easier for the development. Proper software specification is also done in this step. So in input design the following things are considered. The options for the output reports are given in the appendix. The error raising method is also included in the software. 6. descriptive and clear to the user. . Since the reports are directing referred by the management for taking decisions and to draw conclusions they must be designed with almost care and the details in the reports must be simple. they can be displayed on the monitor for immediate need and for obtaining the hardcopy. So while designing output the following things are to be considered. Methods for preparing input validations and steps to follow when error occur The samples of screen layout are given in the appendix.3 OUTPUT DESIGN Computer output is the most important and direct information source to the user. physical verification for various validation.. A software system that is structured into several subsystems makes it easy for the development and testing. asset transfer. • • • Determine what information to present Arrange the presentation of information in an acceptable format Decide how to distribute the output to intended receipts Depending on the nature and future use of output required. We have to design the process by identifying reports and the other outputs the system will produce.The system needs the data regarding the asset items. 6. depreciation rates.4 PHYSICAL DESIGN The process of developing the program software is referred to as physical design. The different subsystems are known as the modules and the process of dividing an entire system into subsystems is known as modularization or decomposition. checking. 6. calculation and report generation. What data should be given as input? • • • • How the data should be arranged or coded? The dialogue to guide the operating personnel in providing input. Coding the program for each module with its logic is performed in this step. Efficient. intelligible output design should improve the system's relationship with the user and help in decision making.

The system under consideration has been divided into several modules taking in consideration the above-mentioned criteria.A system cannot be decomposed into several subsystems in any way. The separation must be simple but yet must be effective so that the development is not affected. There must some logical barrier. which facilitates the separation of each module. 1) Ticket Request Module. 3) Administrator module . 3) Ticket confirmation module. 2) Rate comparison Module. The different modules are 1) Customer registration Module 2) Travel agent registration Module.

The organization of data in database aims to achieve three major objectives: - • • • Data integration. Each piece of information in table is called a field or column. It is the process of designing database files. The proposed system stores the information relevant for processing in the MS SQL SERVER database. deletion and updating anomalies. which are the key source of information to the system. Data integrity. Data independence.1 NORMALIZATION Normalization is a technique of separating redundant fields and braking up a large table in to a smaller one. . Database is an integrated collection of data. It is also used to avoid insertion. The most significant form of data as seen by the programmers is data as stored on the direct access storage devices. • First normal form A relation is said to be in 1NF if all the under lying domain of attributes contain simple individual values. DBMS allow data to be protected and organized separately from other resources. which is a set of fields. Database files are the key source of information into the system. In short the rules for each of the three normal forms are as below. accumulation. The files should be properly designed and planned for collection. where each table corresponds to one particular type of information. This is the difference between logical and physical data. editing and retrieving the required information. This database contains tables. There are primary key fields that uniquely identify a record in a table.CHAPTER 7 DATABASE DESIGN The overall objective in the development of database technology has been to treat data as an organizational resource and as an integrated whole. There are also fields that contain primary key from another table called foreign keys. A table also contains records. All records in a table have the same set of fields with different information. 7. All the tables have been normalized up to the third normal form.

A relation in 2NF is said to be in 3NF if every non-key attribute is non-transitively. • Third normal form The 3NF is based on the concept of transitive dependency.• Second normal form The 2NF is based on the concept of full functional dependency. A relation said to be in 2NF if and only if it is in 1NF and every non-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on candidate key of the table. .

because even if there is a flaw in the computerized system.  List all files required for implementation. This outweighs its benefits. a person may operate in the manual older processing system as well as start operating the new computerized system. The most secure method for conversion from the old system to the new system is to run the old and new system in parallel. 8. In this approach. List all new documents and procedures that go into the new system. errors in data translation. we can depend upon the manual system. there is no remedy in case of a problem. which is operated in a very different manner from the proposed new system.CHAPTER 8 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION Implementation includes all those activities that take place to convert from the old system to the new. A proper implementation is essential to provide a reliable system to meet the requirements of the organizations. The implementation plan consists of the following steps. However. A working version of the system can also be implemented in one part of the organization and the personnel will be piloting the system and changes can be made as and when required. However. The change may be with in a week or with in a day.   Identify all data required to build new files during the implementation. The usual problems may be missing documents. There are no parallel activities. This method offers high security. The old system consists of manual operations. An improper installation may affect the success of the computerized system. The implementation plan should anticipate possible problems and must be able to deal with them. missing data etc. Another commonly method is a direct cut over from the existing manual system to the computerized system. the cost for maintaining two systems in parallel is very high. mixed data formats between current and files. This strategy requires careful planning.2 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN: The implementation plan includes a description of all the activities that must occur to implement the new system and to put it into operation. . 8. But this method is less preferable due to the loss of entirety of the system. It identifies the personnel responsible for the activities and prepares a time chart for implementing the system.1 IMPLEMENTATION METHODS: There are several methods for handling the implementation and the consequent conversion from the old to the new computerized system.

There are different types of training. the operators must also be provided with the knowledge of trouble shooting which involves the determination of the cause of the problem. Data entry jobs must be done utmost carefully to avoid errors. but also is a valuable source of information that can be applied to a critical evaluation of the system. The training must ensure that the person can handle all the possible operations. Training must also include data entry personnel. training will be comparatively easy than systems developed in a non-GUI. The review not only assesses how well the proposed system is designed and implemented. The proposed system requires trained personnel for operating the system. how to power the system. No training is complete without familiarizing users with simple system maintenance activities. We can select off-site to give depth knowledge to the system operators. how it has been accepted and whether adjustments are needed. a review should be conducted to determine whether the system is meeting expectations and where improvements are needed. Success of the system depends on the way in which it is operated and used. It is preferable to provide the person with some kind of operating manuals that will explain all the details of the system. The system can be considered successful only if information system has met it objectives.1 POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW After the system is implemented. Since the proposed system is developed in a GUI. user confidence and operating systems statistics are accessed through such technique event logging. Only when the merits and demerits of the implemented system are known. how to power it down. one can determine what all additional features it requires are. So proper training should be provided to the system operators. how to solve the problems etc. The reviews are conducted by the operating personals as well as the software developers in order to determine how well the system is working.CHAPTER 9 EDUCATIONS AND TRAINING The implementation of the proposed system includes the training of system operators. Training the system operators includes not only instructions in how to use the equipment. System quality. The review of the system is highly essential to determine the future enhancements required by the system. impact evaluation and attitude surveys. 9. terminals. Therefore the quality of training given to the operating person affects the successful implementation of the system. but also in how to diagnose malfunctions and in what steps to take when they occur. The following are the issues to be considered in the evaluation of the system. The review analyses the opinion of the employees and identifies the attitudes towards the new computerized system. This will reduce the data entry errors considerably. how to detect the malfunctions. . They must also be given training for the installation of new hardware.

The purpose of testing is to identify and correct bugs in the developed system. A good test is one that has a probability of finding an as yet undiscovered error. For this every module of the program is executed to find an error.. The system testing is performed to ensure that there are no errors in the implemented system. because of the use of a number of hard disks. Nothing is complete without testing. Storage Testing this determines the capacity of the new system to store transaction data on a disk or on other files. Testing is the vital to the success of the system. in order to find out the errors. Validation refers to the process of using the new software for the developed system in a live environment i. The primary concern is the compatibility of individual modules. the logic of the program can be examined. This enables to detect errors in the coding and logic that are contained within that module alone. Those resulting from the interaction between modules are initially avoided. . The software must be executed several times in order to find out the errors in the different modules of the system. Testing and validation are the most important steps after the implementation of the developed system. By testing the code of the implemented software. The proposed software has the required storage space available. It will be come to know about the practical difficulties the system faces when operated in the true environment. System testing does not test the software as a whole. In unit testing step each module has to be checked separately. The validation phase reveals the failures and the bugs in the developed system. design and coding. Unit testing focuses first on the modules in the proposed system to locate errors. To perform specification test.e. the examination of the specifications stating what the program should do and how it should perform under various conditions. there are some special tests conducted which are given below: Peak Load Tests: This determines whether the new system will handle the volume of activities when the system is at the peak of its processing demand. but rather than integration of each module in the system. In the code testing the logic of the developed system is tested. Apart from these tests. type and data element name. A specification test is conducted to check whether the specifications stating the program are performing under various conditions. new software inside the organization. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. The test has revealed that the new software for the agency is capable of handling the demands at the peak time. One has to find areas where modules have been designed with different specifications of data lengths.CHAPTER 10 SYSTEM TESTING System testing is a critical aspect of Software Quality Assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification.

3 INTEGRATION & SYSTEM TESTING Integration testing is used to verify the combining of the software modules. In this phase the software developed Testing is exercising the software to uncover errors and ensure the system meets defined requirements. interfaces. Installation and Delivery Installation and Delivery is the process of delivering the developed and tested software to the customer. PCD. This testing includes testing of control paths.1 UNIT TESTING A Unit corresponds to a screen /form in the package. local data structures. 10. and Test stubs. This includes metrics collection. 10.2 MODULE LEVEL TESTING Module Testing is done using the test cases prepared earlier. which results serious injuries to that software. Unit testing focuses on verification of the corresponding class or Screen. This will be done as per the Project Closure. . boundary conditions. Testing may be done at 4 levels • • • • Unit Level Module Level Integration & System Regression 10. and error handling. Refer the support procedures Acceptance and Project Closure Acceptance is the part of the project by which the customer accepts the product. whether the developed system meets the requirements. System testing is used to verify. closure of the project is started. which replace lowlevel modules. A stub is a dummy subprogram.4 REGRESSION TESTING Each modification in software impacts unmodified areas. 10. once the customer accepts the product.Performance Time Testing This test determines the length of the time used by the system to process transaction data. Module is defined during the time of design. Integration testing addresses the issues associated with the dual problems of verification and program construction. So the process of re-testing for rectification of errors due to modification is known as regression testing. Unit testing may use Test Drivers. which are control programs to co-ordinate test case inputs and outputs. etc. logical decisions.

Adaptive (Updates due to environment changes) 3. Perfective (Enhancements. . When changes are made during the maintenance phase all preceding steps of the model must be revisited.1 FLIGHTDETAILS Field flight id totseats busseats ecoseats av busseats av ecoseats atype flightname Type number number number number number number varchar2 varchar2 Constraints primary key The above table stores the available seat's details in the flight. There are three types of maintenance: 1.CHAPTER 11 MAINTENANCE Maintenance is making adaptation of the software for external changes (requirements changes or enhancements) and internal changes (fixing bugs). Corrective (Fixing bugs/errors) 2. requirements changes CHAPTER 12 TABLES Table 12.

3 PASSENGERFieldTypeConstraintspnr numbernumberForeign keypsg nonumbernot nulladdressvarchar2agenumbersexvarchar2ticket farenumbercontact nonumbernationalityvarchar2psg namevarchar2 The above table stores details of passengers.Table FLIGHTTIME 12. Table 12.2 FieldTypeConstraintsroute idnumberForeign keyflight idnumberForeign keydep datedatedep timevarchararr timevarchara typevarcharThe above table stores flight timings. .

Table 12. .4 REGISTRATION Field user id fname mname lname age designation address pincode phone email logid pwd sex Type number varchar2 varchar2 varchar2 number varchar2 varchar2 varchar2 number varchar2 varchar2 varchar2 varchar2 Constraints primary key unique The above table stores the details of each user.

Table RESERVATION 12.5 FieldTypeConstraintspnr numbernumberprimary keyuser idnumberforeign keynum passengernumbernum adultsnumbernum childrennumberroute idnumbercabin classvarchar2res datedateDefault sysdatetot farenumberstatusvarchar2The above table stores the reservation details Table 12.6 PAYSPAREFieldTypeConstraintspnrnumberamt numberbankvarcharacnovarcharactypevarchar The above table stores payment details for the administrator .

. Table ROUTE 12. Tables CONFIRM 12.9 FieldTypeConstraintsroute idnumberprimary keyroutevarchartktfarenumberch farenumber The above table stores the route details of flights.Table PAYMENT 12.7 FieldTypeConstraintspnrnumberprimary keyamtnumbernamevarcharbankvarcharacnovarcharactypevarchar The above table stores payment details.8 FieldTypeConstraintspnrnumberprimary keyidentifiernumberamountpaynumber The above table stores confirmation details of user.

1 LEVEL 0 DFD .CHAPTER 13 FIGURES Member Service Fig 13.

USER _______i_____ REGISTERED MEMBER ___________I________ SELECT CONVENIENT FLIGHT ___________I________ REQUEST FOR TICKETS Fig13.2 LEVEL 1 DFD .

Time T7i: rrv USER . Source.Dest.

Boarding Place Passenger Details TICKET »|~USER" Passenger Details Fig 13.Flight Details Time.3 LEVEL 2 DFD .

4 LEVEL 3 DFD .Flight Details Seat Availability Passenger Details Bank Details Fig 13.

Fig 13.5 LEVEL 4 DFD .

The entire system is secured. . Also provision is provided for future developments in the system.CHAPTER 14 CONCLUSION The project report entitled "AIR TICKET RESERVATION" has come to its final stage. The important thing is that the system is robust. The system has been developed with much care that it is free of errors and at the same time it is efficient and less time consuming. This online system will be approved and implemented soon.

Sun Microsystems added a new element to the collection of Enterprise Java tools: Java Server Pages (JSP). Enterprise Edition (J2EE ) technology provides a component-based approach to the design. integrated Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based data interchange. JAVA SERVER PAGES (JSP) The Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) has taken the once-chaotic task of building an Internet presence and transformed it to the point where developers can use Java to efficiently create multi-tier. JMS (Java Messaging Service) for message oriented middleware. server-side applications. information provided by the user. The combination of these technologies allows programmers to create distributed business solutions for a variety of tasks. Vendors and customers enjoy the freedom to choose the products and components that best meet their business and technological requirements. Unlike a plain HTML page. To reduce costs and fast-track enterprise application design and development. the ability to reuse components. . you know that in today's fast-moving and demanding world of e-commerce and information technology. can create web content. JAXP for XML processing. Java Server Pages are built on top of Java Servlets and are designed to increase the efficiency in which programmers. Today. more and more developers want to write distributed transactional applications for the enterprise and leverage the speed. built. JDBC for database interaction. an extremely popular Java substitute for CGI scripts. and with fewer resources than ever before.APPENDIX 1 OVERVIEW OF J2EE Today. and even nonprogrammers. and JTA (Java Transaction API) for performing atomic transactions. the user's browser type. and deployment of enterprise applications. JNDI for accessing naming and directory services. > Area of Java Server Pages Put succinctly. The J2EE platform offers a multitiered distributed application model. and produced for less money. a unified security model. the Java™ 2 Platform. including the identity of the user. as well as for personalized and internationalized content. assembly. and selections made by the user. In addition. with greater speed. Enterprise Java Beans for creating reusable business components. Java Server Pages is a technology for developing web pages that include dynamic content. but your platformindependent J2EE component-based solutions are not tied to the products and application programming interfaces (APIs) of any one vendor. a JSP page can change its content based on any number of variable items. J2EE also supports Servlets. and flexible transaction control. development. In late 1999. the Java Enterprise APIs have expanded to encompass a number of areas: RMI and CORBA for remote object handling. and reliability of server-side technology. This functionality is key to web applications such as online shopping and employee directories. which contains static content that always remains the same. If you are already working in this area. security. Not only can you deliver innovative customer solutions to market faster than ever. enterprise applications have to be designed.

a JSP page also contains special JSP elements that allow the server to insert dynamic content in the page. Numerous CGI alternatives and enhancements. JSP elements can be used for a variety of purposes. This is very taxing for the server and doesn't scale well when the amount of traffic increases. > Use of JSP In the early days of the Web. Typical processes include PMON (the process monitor) and SMON (the system monitor). NSAPI from Netscape. the web server has to create a new operating-system process.A JSP page contains standard markup language elements. and sends the dynamically composed page back to the browser. such as FastCGI. just like a regular web page. Index Segments etc. and then tear it all down again. the database consists of online redo logs (which hold transactional history). and generating HTML to present application-specific data. The SGA typically holds cache information like data-buffers. ISAPI from Microsoft. However. However. While these solutions offer better performance and scalability. however. One such set of commonly needed custom elements is defined by a specification related to the JSP specification: the JSP Standard Tag Library (JSTL) specification. which provide the basis (if necessary) for data recovery and for some forms of data replication. Tablespaces can contain various types of segments. all these technologies suffer from a common problem: they generate web pages by embedding HTML directly in programming language code. passing control between pages and sharing information Programmers can also extend the JSP syntax by implementing application-specific elements that perform tasks such as accessing databases and Enterprise Java Beans. When a user asks for a JSP page. and Java Servlets from Sun Microsystems. sending email. The instance comprises a set of operating system processes and memory structures that interact with the storage. Java Server Pages. load an interpreter and a script. such as accessing Java Beans components. Segments in turn comprise one or more extents. CGI is not an efficient solution. Processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs (offline redo logs). mod_perl from Apache. Extents comprise groups of contiguous . merges the results with the static parts of the page. the server executes the JSP elements. In addition to storage. The combination of standard elements and custom elements allows for the creation of powerful web applications. SQL commands and user information. changes all that. The Oracle RDBMS stores data logically in the form of tablespaces and physically in the form of data files. such as HTML tags. Data Segments. JSP defines a number of standard elements that are useful for any web application. This pushes the creation of dynamic web pages exclusively into the realm of programmers. Oracle users refer to the server-side memory-structure as the SGA (System Global Area). For every request that comes in. Oracle 8i An Oracle database comprises instance and data storage. execute the script. such as retrieving information from a database or registering user preferences. have been created over the years. the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) was the only tool for developing dynamic web content. for example.

The SYSTEM tablespace contains the data dictionary . which can store space management information in bitmaps in their own headers rather than in the SYSTEM tablespace (as happens with the default "dictionary-managed" tablespaces). The Oracle DBMS can store and execute stored procedures and functions within itself. . Since version 8i. PL/SQL (Oracle Corporation's proprietary procedural extension to SQL).and often (by default) indexes and clusters. Oracle keeps track of its data storage with the help of information stored in the SYSTEM tablespace. or the object-oriented language Java can invoke such code objects and/or provide the programming structures for writing them. (A data dictionary consists of a special collection of tables that contains information about all user objects in the database). Data blocks form the basic units of data storage. the Oracle RDBMS also supports "locally managed" tablespaces.data blocks.

Narosa Publications. directly from the administrator.WILEY Publications. The system is developed with an insight into the necessary modification that may be required in the future. Hence the system can be maintained successfully without much rework. 2. 3.RESUME The developed system is flexible and changes can be made easily.com .java. JSP: Java Server Pages. Barry Burd(2005). REFERENCES 1.sun.Javaworld. right time of flights etc. Pankaj Jalote(2004). One of the main future enhancements of our system is to add a mail response from the administrator to the user. www.An integrated approach to Software Engineering. www. So that the user can understand the availability of his tickets.com 4.

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