Tropical Architecture




1.0 Climate 1.1. Climatic factors 1.2. Climatic elements 1.3. Microclimatic conditions 2.0 World Climates 2.1. Thermal Comforts 2.2. Microclimate 2.3. Tropical Climate 2.4. Tropical Design 2.5. Characteristics of Tropical Climate 3.0 Heat Transfer 3.1 Conduction 3.2 Convection 3.3 Radiation 3.4 Evaporation Condensation 4.0 Passive Cooling 4.1 Building Configuration 4.2 Building Orientation 4.3 Solar control devices (sun shading devices) 5.0 Wind and Natural Ventilation 5.1 Stack effect/ Chimney effect 5.2 Cross ventilation


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Climate Weather describes the variations which occur in the atmosphere on a daily basis Climate is a measure of the typical weather found at a place.

A diagram showing the earth’s climatic zones. <Philippines at the right side> Equable climate - This means 'lack of extremes' • Does not usually receive long periods of hot or cold weather, or long periods of prolonged drought or rainfall • Usually that of cool summers, steady rainfall and mild winters.


1.1 Climate of the Philippines • The Climate of the Philippines is tropical and maritime o Relatively high temperature o High humidity and o Abundant rainfall o Temperature, humidity, and rainfall are the most important elements of the country's weather and climate.

Temperature Philippines • Mean annual temperature is 26.6o C. • Coolest months - January (25.5oC) • Warmest month – May (28.3oC) • Latitude is an insignificant factor in the variation of temperature • Altitude shows greater contrast in temperature. o Baguio - altitude of 1,500 meters is 18.3oC. o Comparable with those in the temperate climate\ o Known as the summer capital of the Philippines. o There is essentially no difference in the mean annual temperature of places in Luzon, Visayas or Mindanao measured at or near sea level. Humidity Humidity - the moisture content of the atmosphere. • • • • Philippines has a high relative humidity. Average monthly relative humidty - 71 percent (March) and 85 percent (September) The combination of warm temperature and high relative and absolute humidities give rise to high sensible temperature March to May- Uncomfortable (temperature and humidity at maximum levels.)

Rainfall • • • Most important climatic element in the Philippines. Varies from one region to another, depending upon the direction of the moisture-bearing winds and the location of the mountain systems Mean annual rainfall of the Philippines varies from 965 to 4,064 millimeters annually. o Baguio City, eastern Samar, and eastern Surigao receive the greatest amount of rainfall


o the southern portion of Cotabato receives the least amount of rain. (978 millimeters.) Seasons Using temperature and rainfall as bases, the climate of the country can be divided into two major seasons (1) The rainy season (June to November) (2) The dry season (December to May) a. Cool dry season (December to February) b. Hot dry season (March to May) Prevailing Wind in the Philippines : Amihan (NE) – November to April Habagat (SW) - May to October Sky Conditions – Overcast Sky most of the time; a lot of reflected heat/ solar gain Precipitation – high during the year – average of 1000mm/yr


very desirable for agriculture and industrial development. sparing Mindanao from being directly hit by majority of the typhoons that cross the country o Southern Philippines .TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Climate Types Based on the distribution of rainfall. which are described as follows: Typhoons • Have a great influence on the climate and weather conditions of the Philippines • A great portion of the rainfall. humidity and cloudiness are due to the influence of typhoons • Originate in the region of the Marianas and Caroline Islands of the Pacific Ocean (same latitudinal location as Mindanao • Northwesterly direction. four climate types are recognized. 6 .

Ocean Currents . it has been accepted that human activity is also affecting climate Distance From The Sea (Continentality) • Coastal areas are cooler and wetter than inland areas • Clouds form when warm air from inland areas meets cool air from the sea • The centers of continents are subject to a large range of temperatures.Ocean currents can increase or reduce temperatures.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE 1. o In the summer. Direction of Prevailing Winds • Winds that blow from the sea often bring rain to the coast and dry weather to inland areas Relief • Climate can be affected by mountains • Mountains receive more rainfall than low lying areas because the temperature on top of mountains is lower than the temperature at sea level 7 . temperatures can be very hot and dry  Moisture from the sea evaporates before it reaches the centre of the continent.2 Climatic factors • • • • • • • Distance From The Sea Ocean Currents Direction of Prevailing Winds Relief Proximity To The Equator The El Nino Phenomenon Recently.

El Nino • A wind and rainfall patterns • Blamed for droughts and floods in countries around the Pacific Rim • Refers to the irregular warming of surface water in the Pacific. altering global wind and rainfall patterns. Proximity To The Equator The Earth's Position in Relation to the Sun • The equator receives the more sunlight than anywhere else on earth o Due to its position in relation to the sun o Equator is hotter because the sun has less area to heat o Cooler at the north and south poles as the sun has more area to heat up. air becomes thinner .TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE • o Snow on the top of mountains all year round The higher the place is above sea level the colder it will be o As altitude increases. It is cooler as the heat is spread over a wider area. 8 .less able to absorb and retain heat. The warmer water pumps energy and moisture into the atmosphere.

• Köppen climate classification system The Köppen climate classification system .Warm temperate climates D . Trees were cut down to provide wood for fires o Trees take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. Industrial Revolution (end of 19th Century) o Invention of the motor engine and the increased burning of fossil fuels have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere o The number of trees being cut down has also increased o The extra carbon dioxide produced cannot be changed into oxygen. • • • • • A .Polar climates The second letter relates to the seasonality of precipitation Third letter relates to an additional temperature qualifier. The five main groups of climates are designated by capital letters. C. • f . all but the dry climates being thermally defined. This letter usually accompanies the A.Subarctic climates (sometimes identified as "snow" or "boreal" climates) E .Moist with adequate precipitation in all months and no dry season.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Human Influence • • The factors above affect the climate of the most widely used systems for classifying climate • • • • Easy to understand Data requirements are minimal Empirical system Largely based on annual and monthly means of temperature and precipitation. 9 .Dry climates (sometimes identified as "arid" climates) C . o A reduction in trees will therefore have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.Tropical climates (sometimes identified as "equatorial" climates) B . There are three levels of letter coding except for the A-type climates. The Köppen system uses a letter coding scheme to classify climate. and D climates.

Dry-cold with a mean annual temperature less than 18°C (64°F) in B climates only For the B-type (dry) climates the first two letters are combined.There is a dry season in the summer of the respective hemisphere (high-sun season).Warm summer with the warmest month below 22°C (72°F). • h .Rainforest climate in spite of short. These can also be found in C and D climates. This letter only applies to A climates.affected by the abnormal heating of the Pacific which produces stormy climate.There is a dry season in the winter of the respective hemisphere (lowsun season). • c . • k . • • 10 . dry season in monsoon type cycle. • d .TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE • • • m .Cool. Typical Climatic Factors in Philippines • • Sun = The Sun emits heat which causes the Philippine Climate to go high in temperature or drop to 15 Degrees Celsius. short summers with less than four months over 10°C (50°F) in the C and D climates. BW for desert and BS for steppe • The third letter is used to subdivide these on the basis of temperature Additional Informations. • b . To further denote variations in climate. which cause two seasons: Wet and Dry Season. s .Dry-hot with a mean annual temperature over 18°C (64°F) in B climates only. Equator = Philippine Geographical Location is just few longitudes away from the equator o Suffer direct sunlight and heat. These can be found in C and D climates.Very cold winters with the coldest month below -38°C (-36°F) in the D climate only.Hot summers where the warmest month is over 22°C (72°F). w . a third letter was added to the code. Global Warming: Philippine Climate goes high or sometimes low El Nino . • a .

11 . The closer a place is to the poles. exist under these regions.3 Climatic elements Some facts about climate The sun's rays hit the equator at a direct angle between 23 ° N and 23 ° S latitude. clouds and rain develop. such as the Sahara of Africa and the Sonoran of Mexico. surface winds are light. the rays arrive at an angle to the surface and are less intense. • • • • Over large areas centered at 30 ° latitude. The sun emits rays that hit the earth's surface at different angles. • • • The trade winds of the two hemispheres meet near the equator. Our climate system is based on the location of these hot and cold air-mass regions and the atmospheric circulation created by trade winds and westerlies. Both westerlies and trade winds blow away from the 30 ° latitude belt. As the rising air cools. In all other cases. Radiation that reaches the atmosphere here is at its most intense. the smaller the angle and therefore the less intense the radiation. Air slowly descends to replace the air that blows away. they blow from the southeast. Trade winds north of the equator blow from the northeast. The resulting bands of cloudy and rainy weather near the equator create tropical conditions. Temperatures in these areas tend to be the hottest places on earth. Westerlies blow from the southwest on the Northern Hemisphere and from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere. which is tilted at 23. • • • • This tilt and the sun's radiation result in the Earth's seasons.5 degrees. South of the equator. These rays transmit the highest level of energy when they strike the earth at a right angle (90 °). Any moisture the air contains evaporates in the intense heat. The tropical deserts. Seasons The Earth rotates about its axis.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE 1. causing the air to rise. Westerlies steer storms from west to east across middle latitudes.

• Location relative to source regions of air masses in part determines the variation of the day-to-day weather and long-term climate of a place. and stability. • Solar radiation heats the Earth's surface. This creates the seasons. • The seasonality of precipitation is affected by the seasonal movement of global and regional pressure systems o Climates located at 10o to 15o of latitude 12 . Climatology . or climate.the study of the long-term state of the atmosphere. which affects cloud development and precipitation. • Heating of the air determines its stability. tend to be cooler. which in turn determines the temperature of the air above. Just about all the characteristics of climate can be traced back to the receipt of solar radiation. As the Earth rotates on it's tilted axis around the sun.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE • Other locations. o Stormy climate of the midlatitudes is a product of lying in the boundary zone of greatly contrasting air masses called the polar front. so long as there is water available. humidity. where the sun's rays hit at lesser angles. • The receipt of solar radiation drives evaporation. • The long-term state of the atmosphere is a function of a variety of interacting elements o Solar radiation o Air masses o Pressure systems (and cyclone belts) o Ocean Currents o Topography Solar radiation • Probably the most important element of climate. • Unequal heating of the Earth's surface creates pressure gradients that result in wind. Air masses • Subsumes the characteristics of temperature. different parts of the Earth receive higher and lower levels of radiant energy. Pressure systems • Places dominated by low pressure tend to be moist • Those dominated by high pressure are dry.

Topography The orientation of mountains to the prevailing wind affects precipitation. o Asia is impacted by the annual fluctuation of wind direction due to the monsoon. especially in the low latitudes. Pressure dominance also affects the receipt of solar radiation. • Windward slopes. o Places dominated by high pressure tend to lack cloud cover and hence receive significant amounts of sunshine. • • Ocean Currents • Ocean currents greatly affect the temperature and precipitation of a climate. o Mountains have nearly the same affect as latitude does on climate. • Air masses traveling over warm ocean currents promote instability and precipitation o Warm ocean water keeps air temperatures somewhat warmer than locations just inland from the coast during the winter. o Air traveling over cold ocean currents loses energy to the water  Moderate the temperature of nearby coastal locations. those facing into the wind o Experience more precipitation due to orographic uplift of the air.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Wet period when dominated by the Intertropical Convergence Zone • Dry period when the Subtropical High moves into this region. • Leeward sides of mountains are in the rain shadow o Receive less precipitation. • Air temperatures are affected by slope and orientation o Slopes facing into the Sun will be warmer than those facing away • Temperature also decreases as one moves toward higher elevations. • Climates bordering cold currents tend to be drier o Cold ocean water helps stabilize the air o Inhibit cloud formation and precipitation. o On tall mountains a zonation of climate occurs as you move towards higher elevation. 13 .

o Can insulate the soil below o Reduce temperature variability. Topography . loose.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE 1. • Air ascending a mountain o Decreases in pressure o Releases moisture in the form of rain or snow. and dry soils are subject to high maximum and low minimum surface temperatures.controls the flux of water vapour into the air through transpiration. which depends on the composition of the soil and its use. Microclimatic conditions depend on the following factors • Temperature • Humidity • Wind and turbulence • Dew • Frost • Heat balance • Evaporation • Soil type – considerable o Sandy soils and other coarse. therefore. • Within a few metres or less above and below the Earth’s surface and within canopies of vegetation • Usually applies to the surfaces of terrestrial and glaciated environments • Also pertain to the surfaces of oceans and other bodies of water. o Ability of the soil to absorb and retain moisture. o Soils of lighter colour reflect more and respond less to daily heating.4 Microclimatic Conditions • Any climatic condition in a relatively small area. o The strongest gradients of temperature and humidity occur just above and below the terrestrial surface. • Vegetation .affects the vertical path of air in a locale and. • As the air proceeds down the leeward side of the mountain o Compressed 14 . o Sites of exposed soil then exhibit the greatest temperature variability. o Complexities of microclimate are necessary for the existence of a variety of life forms because o strongly contrasting microclimates in close proximity provide a total environment in which many species of flora and fauna can coexist and interact. the relative humidity and air circulation.

TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE o Heated o Promotes drier. Microclimates control evaporation and transpiration from surfaces and influence precipitation. • The microclimates of a region are defined by  Moisture  Temperature  Winds of the atmosphere near the ground  Vegetation  Soil  Latitude  Elevation  Season  Weather is also influenced by microclimatic conditions. and so are important to the hydrologic cycle —the processes involved in the circulation of the Earth’s waters. 15 . o Wet ground promotes evaporation and increases atmospheric humidity o The drying of bare soil creates a surface crust that inhibits ground moisture from diffusing upward. which promotes the persistence of the dry atmosphere. hotter conditions An undulating landscape can also produce microclimatic variety through the air motions produced by differences in density.

• 16 . depending on the difference in temperature between the body and the air and also air movement o Ambient temperature is comfortable at 26°C. The climate of a region will determine what plants will grow there. and what animals will inhabit it. coverings. o It is not advisable to wear wool and heavy clothing in hot weather. • Long-term weather of that area (at least 30 years).5°-37°C.the sensation of physical well being in relation to body heat loss to the surroundings • • Internal body temperature is comfortable at 36. and one-third of wall area.the transmission of heat from materials in contact with the skin. recommended to be not less than one-tenth of floor area. World biomes are controlled by climate.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE 2.1 Thermal Comfort Thermal comfort .0 World Climates Climate – the characteristic condition of the atmosphere near the earth's surface at a certain place on earth. • Factors determining an area's climate o Air temperature o Precipitation. droughts. There is continuous exchange of heat between the human body and its surroundings. o Window openings allow air exchange. • Includes the region's general pattern of weather conditions. 4 physical ways The heat exchange between the body and its surroundings takes place in four physical ways: • Conduction . or rainy periods. and finishes in warm climate. o Select the proper materials. Convection .the exchange of body heat with ambient air. Components of a BIODOME • Climate • Plants • Animals 2. seasons and weather extremes like hurricanes.

the cooling effect of evaporation is not possible even if relative humidity is below 100 percent. o Humans normally lose one liter of water per day due to perspiration and respiration.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE o Operable windows are preferable to fixed glass windows. and floors. o Heat from the ceiling is reported to affect us more than heat from walls. temperature.2 Microcllimate 17 . o Buildings and homes are comfortable when planned and designed according to topography and wind direction.heat transfer between the human body and the surrounding internal surfaces like the walls.  If the surrounding air has higher temperature than the skin. Evaporation .the tendency of warm air to rise and go out through the opening in the higher level. climbing plants. • 2. o Natural night ventilation should be allowed indoors to reduce air temperature during hot weather. o Poorly insulated buildings have hot internal surfaces. and air movement.occurs when the temperature of surrounding air and surfaces is above 25°C. and koi ponds reduce temperature of roofs and walls and internal surfaces. • Long-wave radiation . o Sunshades and shutters reduce sunlight penetration. o Green roofs. o Stack effect . o Ceiling height and thermal property of ceiling and wall materials are therefore important considerations in designing homes and buildings. and it takes heat from the body and its surroundings to evaporate it. o The body loses heat through evaporation or perspiration depending on clothing worn. The hot air will be replaced by cool air entering through the lower openings. ceiling. relative humidity. o Relative humidity (the amount of moisture in the air as percentage of the maximum moisture the air can contain at a certain temperature and pressure)  Affects heat loss by evaporation.  Air speed does not decrease the temperature but causes a cooling sensation through heat loss by convection and increased evaporation. o Light-colored paint on external walls is recommended in hot climate because it will reflect solar radiation.

or with active microclimate control devices. such as silica gel.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Microclimate . • Wind effects around tall buildings are assessed as part of a microclimate study. and a sheltered position can reduce the severity of winter. • Roof gardening exposes plants to more extreme temperatures in both summer and winter. • Tall buildings create their own microclimate. Also refer to purpose made environments.3 Tropical Climate A tropical climate is a climate of the tropics. such as those in a room or other enclosure. 18 . o Cities often raise the average temperature by zoning. both by overshadowing large areas and by channeling strong winds to ground level. o The area in a developed industrial park may vary greatly from a wooded park nearby • Natural flora in parks absorb light and heat in leaves • Building roof or parking lot just radiates back into the air • Widespread use of solar collection can mitigate overheating of urban environments by absorbing sunlight and putting it to work instead of heating the foreign surface objects. • Passive methods.local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area • • May refer to areas as small as a few square feet (for example a garden bed) or as large as many square miles (for example a valley). Examples o Near bodies of water which may cool the local atmosphere o In heavily urban areas where brick. • 2. o Commonly created and carefully maintained in museum display and storage environments. and reradiate that heat to the ambient air: the resulting urban heat island is a kind of microclimate. concrete. and asphalt absorb the sun's energy. heat up. o Slope or aspect of an area. • South-facing slopes in the Northern Hemisphere and north-facing slopes in the Southern Hemisphere are exposed to more direct sunlight than opposite slopes and are therefore warmer for longer.

Naturally comfortable houses are low energy houses 2. tropical temperature remains relatively constant throughout the year and seasonal variations are dominated by precipitation Tropical Designs Considerations 1. Light colored roofs (or zinc alum) reflect the heat 4.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE • Köppen climate classification o Non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F). Ceiling fans provide low energy cooling if you only use them whilst rooms are occupied 3. Plant tall trees on the east and west sides of the house to shade walls 19 . Minimize east and west wall areas and avoid windows on east and western walls to prevent low morning and afternoon sun heating up the house 6. Use orientation and shading to eliminate direct sun on walls 5. o With season. Correctly sized eaves can provide permanent shade to north and south windows and walls (northern verandas make sense 7.

Roof space ventilation draws the heat out. Design for Air-Condition 20 . Other roofs: R1. masonry walls store heat and release it well into the night. shutters or fixed overhangs . Trees and shrubs act to cool the air passing through the house. Unshaded.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE 8.g.then you can enjoy the cooling effect of rain. Consider using operable/removable fly-screen shutters Minimum Insulation Standard 1. louvres) that can be opened Orientate house to catch the breeze (whilst still minimizing sun on east and west walls) A long narrow floor plan catches the breeze best. Shelter windows with louvres. Don't use exposed concrete on ground immediately outside the house as it heats the air. Tall trees on north and south shade roof (minimized mid-height foliage to let breeze through for naturally ventilated houses). Light coloured well ventilated roofs: foil/sisalation 2. Consider leaving half roof un-shaded if solar panels are to be used Design for Natural Ventilation Use the breeze for cross ventilation through openings in opposite walls and internal partitions Maximize the area of windows (e. Full shading of wall is much more important than wall R-value. Dirty fly-screens block more breeze. canopies.5 batts and foil/sisalation 3. 4.

Exposed heavy construction materials (e. the less energy air-conditioning will use. Windows 1. The better your house seals and is insulated. 1. Medium sized with the greatest possible operable area per window. so you don't have to air-condition all the time 2. Occupants can have difficulty acclimatizing to outside temperatures 2. Energy costs will be high when air-conditioning is running and comfort levels will be low when air conditioning is switched off. and the less glass area. Keep the heat and moisture out and the cool in! 4. Heavy snug fitting curtains and pelmets prevent cooling energy loss from radiation and air flow against glass 3. Shade walls and choose the highest wall R-value (lowest U-value) possible.g. 3.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE NOTE: House designs depending on full air-conditioning for comfort are not very suitable for our tropical climate nor environmentally sensitive. Combined Air-Conditioning and Naturally Ventilated Houses 1. and placed for cross ventilation. Many houses in tropical regions have some air conditioned spaces and some naturally ventilated spaces or the same spaces are naturally ventilated and air-conditioned at different times 21 . A square floor plan minimizes external wall area and therefore reduces cooling energy loss through walls. concrete and bricks) inside insulation barrier store cooling energy. 4.

Walls separating naturally ventilated and cooled spaces should be insulated and have doors to limit loss of cooled air. the two rainy seasons merge into one. o Thunderstorms o Considerable sunshine o Provides ideal growing conditions for luxuriant vegetation. o Principal regions  Amazon Basin in Brazil  Congo Basin in West Africa and Indonesia Substantial sun’s heat is used up in evaporation and rain formation o temperatures in the tropics rarely exceed 35°C o a daytime maximum of 32°C is more common o At night the abundant cloud cover restricts heat loss o Minimum temperatures .TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE 2. There is abundant rainfall due to the active vertical uplift or convection of air that takes place there. and the climate becomes more of a Monsoonal  One wet season  one dry season  Northern Hemisphere. Design of each area should follow principles for natural ventilation or airconditioning as relevant. the wet season occurs from May to July  Southern Hemisphere from November to February. • Tropical rainforest climate (Af): • • All twelve months have average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2. 22 . These climates usually occur within 5–10° latitude of the equator.4 in). 3. 2.22°C o Temperature .little variation throughout the year o The seasons are distinguished not as warm and cold periods but by variation of rainfall and cloudiness  Greatest rainfall occurs when the Sun at midday is overhead (March and September)  Two wet and two dry seasons.4 Characteristics of Tropical Climate • • Much of the equatorial belt within the tropical climate zone experiences hot and humid weather. o Further away from the equator.

United States o Georgetown. Florida.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE • • • In some eastern-coast areas. Australia Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate (Aw): • • These climates have a pronounced dry season. Driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm and also less than (100 − [total annual precipitation {mm}/25]). Examples • • • • Conakry. Bangladesh Miami. Congo Tropical monsoon climate (Am): • • • Most common in southern Asia and West Africa. Results from the monsoon winds which change direction according to the seasons. Examples: 23 . Hawaii. Examples o Kuala Lumpur. Guinea Chittagong. Guyana o Amazon Basin. Malaysia o Belém. and therefore has no natural seasons. Brazil o Congo Basin. This climate is dominated by the Doldrums Low Pressure System all year round. United States Cairns. Brazil o Hilo. but more than (100 − [total annual precipitation {mm}/25]). they may extend to as much as 25° away from the equator. This climate has a driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator) with rainfall less than 60 mm.

• With predictable increases in evapotranspiration and rainfall changeability. for instance. in particular. are very vulnerable to major climate changes especially on seas. • Coral reefs might be capable of surviving this intensification. Nigeria Darwin. momentous elevational lifts on the ecosystems on the mountains show change in distribution and behavior of the rainforest. Maharashtra. resulting in contraction and desiccation. especially vulnerable to o Coastal erosion o Land loss o Inundation 24 . • Landward migration of mangroves and tidal wetlands is likely to be inhibited by human infrastructure and human activities. a substantial change in dry forest and decrease in wet forest might occur. the area of tropical forests could increase from 45% to 80% of the total forest cover • In Sri Lanka. Australia Honolulu. Mexico Port-au-Prince. • Sea level and temperature rises are the most likely major climate change-related stresses on ecosystems. heavily settled and intensified used low-level coastal plains. India Jakarta. likely a negative impact on the viability of freshwater wetlands will occur. Veracruz. but suffer bleaching from high temperatures. • Particularly. Indonesia Rio de Janeiro. • In Thailand. Haiti Dar es Salaam. Rio de Janeiro. Northern Territory. sea flooding and barrage. deltas.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE • • • • • • • • • Mumbai. Brazil Veracruz. Tanzania Lagos. and islands are particularly susceptible to coastal erosion and land loss. United States Problems in Areas with Tropical Climate Bionetwork In Tropical Asia. Lagos State. Coastal lands Coastal lands. Hawaii.

Augmented temperatures and seasonal variability could cause a backdrop of glaciers and increasing danger from glacial lake outburst floods. upstream movement of the saline/freshwater front and seawater incursion into freshwater lenses. changes in temperature. probably a 1 metre rise in sea level. Myanmar. Then. Socio-economic effects may be noticeable to major cities and ports. and infra-structure development. Lower level basins are expected to be most affected. artisinal and commercial fishing and coastal agriculture. can affect climate. though not in the long term—run off snow-fed rivers might change as well. an increased amount economic. could have major effects on hydropower generation. As stated before. o • • • Hydrology In Tropical Asia. mixed with an increase in peak flows and sediment yield. Food ration The sensitivity of major cereal and tree crops. tourist resorts. Hydrological changes on island and drainage basins will be relatively low to Tropical Asia. One instance is the influences on rice fields. and industrial resources. 25 .TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Sea flooding. but it can put an extra stress on water. Viet Nam and Thailand. the Himalayas are crucial to the provision of water of the continental monsoon. Mainly at risk are large delta regions of Bangladesh. a diminution of average flow of snow-fed rivers. and the low-lying areas of Indonesia the Philippines and Malaysia. wheat yield and sorghum yield imply that any increase in production associated with CO2 fertilization will most likely be offset by reductions in yield from temperature or moisture changes. despite those relate to sea rise. agriculture. Global studies have expected the dislodgment of several millions of people from the region's coastal zone. moisture and CO2 concentration of the magnitudes estimated for the region has been done in many studies. Supply of hydropower generation from snow-fed rivers can occur in the short term. urban water supply and agriculture.

urbanization. are very sensitive to climate and are likely to spread into new regions on the margins of currently widespread areas as a result of climate change. storage. droughts and cyclones. and the vulnerability of agricultural (especially low-income rural population) areas to periodic environmental hazards. such as floods. Human health The occurrence and level of some vector-borne diseases are anticipated to rise with global warming. and distribution. a growth in epidemic potential of • 12-27 per cent for malaria and • 31 to 47 per cent for dengue and • A decrease of schistosomiasis of 11-17 per cent . Waterborne and water related infectious diseases. are also expected to increase when higher temperatures and higher humidity are placed over on existing conditions and estimated upsurge in population. 26 . etc. deduction of water quality and other trends.( the lack of inclusion of possible diseases. crop management. local disparity in emergent season. the continuing effect of the region-wide changes is tentative because of varietal disparity. pests.. already accounting for the majority of epidemic emergencies in the area. • Malaria • Schistosomiasis and • Dengue These are significant causes of humanity and morbidity in Tropical Asia. specifically focused on climate influences on infectious disease in present vulnerable regions. According to one study. Lately affected populations initially would go through higher fatality rates. and microorganisms in crop model simulations).TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Even though climate impression may result huge changes in crop yields.

TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Heat Transfer • • • • Heat conduction Convection Thermal radiation Phase-change transfer Conduction . heat flows so that the body and the surroundings reach the same temperature at thermal equilibrium Spontaneous heat transfer always occurs from a region of high temperature to another region of lower temperature.also called diffusion. due to fluid motion Radiation The transfer of energy to or from a body by means of the emission or absorption of electromagnetic radiation Mass transfer The transfer of energy from one location to another as a side effect of physically moving an object containing that energy Condensation . is the direct microscopic exchange of kinetic energy of particles through the boundary between two systems. • • • The transfer of energy between objects that are in physical contact When an object is at a different temperature from another body or its surroundings. Convection The transfer of energy between an object and its environment. Evaporation .change of a liquid to a gas 27 .change from a vapor to a condensed state (solid or liquid). (Second law of Thermodynamics) Transfer by thermal radiation is the transfer of energy by transmission of electromagnetic radiation described by black body theory.

• Analysis of transient systems is more complex and often calls for the application of approximation theories or numerical analysis by computer. 3. or convection . transferring some of their energy (heat) to these neighboring particles • Heat is transferred by conduction when adjacent atoms vibrate against one another.a form of conduction that happens when the temperature difference driving the conduction is constant • After an equilibration time.1Conduction On a microscopic scale • Heat conduction occurs as hot. rapidly moving or vibrating atoms and molecules interact with neighboring atoms and molecules.means any substance that deforms under shear stress • Liquids • Gases • Plasmas • Some plastic solids Bulk motion of the fluid enhances the heat transfer between the solid surface and the fluid. Transient conduction . Steady state conduction . • • Dominant form of heat transfer in liquids and gases Combined effects of conduction and fluid flow 28 .2 Convection Convective heat transfer.the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids Fluid .TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE 3. the spatial distribution of temperatures in the conducting object does not change any further • The amount of heat entering a section is equal to amount of heat coming the study of heat conduction between solid bodies in contact. or as electrons move from one atom to another • Most significant means of heat transfer within a solid or between solid objects in thermal contact o Fluids—especially gases—are less conductive Thermal contact conductance .occurs when the temperature within an object changes as a function of time.

which carries energy away from the surface. • Unlike conductive and convective forms of heat transfer." 3.occurs when the fluid motion is caused by buoyancy forces that result from density variations due to variations of temperature in the fluid Forced convection .energy emitted by matter as electromagnetic waves due to the pool of thermal energy that all matter possesses that has a temperature above absolute zero • Propagates without the presence of matter through the vacuum of space • Direct result of the random movements of atoms and molecules in matter o Atoms and molecules are composed of charged particles (protons and electrons) o Their movement results in the emission of electromagnetic radiation. transferring heat to the surrounding environment primarily through thermal radiation.fluid is forced to flow over the surface by external means • Fans • Stirrers • Pumps — creating an artificially induced convection current Convection in Newton's law of cooling ."The rate of heat loss of a body is proportional to the difference in temperatures between the body and its surroundings. or natural convection .TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Free.3Radiation A red-hot iron object. Thermal radiation . thermal radiation can be concentrated in a small spot by using reflecting mirrors o Exploited in concentrating solar power generation  Sunlight reflected from mirrors heats the PS10 solar power tower and during the day it can heat water to 285 °C (545 °F) 29 .

Evaporation is an essential part of the water cycle • Solar energy drives evaporation of water from oceans. based on how they collide • Sometimes the transfer is so one-sided for a molecule near the surface that it ends up with enough energy to escape. moisture in the soil. they transfer energy to each other in varying degrees. It is just that the process is much slower and thus significantly less visible.g.5 Evaporation and Condensation Evaporation – a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs only on the surface of a liquid Other type of vaporization • Boiling . these liquids are evaporating.. lakes. Evaporation is also part of the water cycle . Not all liquids evaporate visibly at a given temperature in a given gas (e. and other sources of water • In hydrology. which rises up and forms clouds 30 .TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE 3.4 Mass Transfer In mass transfer – energy (including thermal energy) is moved by the physical transfer of a hot or cold object from one place to another • Can be as simple as placing hot water in a bottle • Heating a bed • Movement of an iceberg in changing ocean currents • A practical example is thermal hydraulics 3. • The molecules in a glass of water do not have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid • With sufficient heat.caused when water is exposed to air and the liquid molecules turn into water vapor. cooking oil at room temperature) • They have molecules that do not tend to transfer energy to each other in a pattern sufficient to frequently give a molecule the heat energy necessary to turn into vapor • However. the liquid would turn into vapor quickly (boiling point) • When the molecules collide.occurs on the entire mass of the liquid. evaporation and transpiration (which involves evaporation within plant stomata) are collectively termed evapotranspiration • Evaporation .

Condensation in direct contact with sub-cooled liquid.0 Passive Cooling • • • “Passive” . o Involves an understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer  Heat conduction  Convective heat transfer  Thermal radiation (primarily from the sun) Remove unwanted heat from a building • In mild climates with cool dry nights this can be done with ventilating.implies that energy-consuming mechanical components like pumps and fans are NOT used. 31 . Passive cooling building design attempts to integrate principles of physics into the building exterior envelope to: • Slow down heat transfer into a building.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE • Condensation occurs when a vapor is cooled and changes its phase to a liquid o Condensation heat transfer – during condensation. Condensation on direct contact with a cooling wall of a heat exchanger . • Difficult to sustain reliably • Industrial equipment is normally designed to operate in filmwise condensation mode 3. and usually occurs when the liquid does not wet the surface. In hot humid climates with uncomfortable warm / humid nights. and some type of solar air conditioning may be cost effective.most commonly used in industry Filmwise condensation is when a liquid film is formed on the sub-cooled surface. the latent heat of vaporization must be released o The amount of the heat is the same as that absorbed during vaporization at the same fluid pressure Types of condensation Homogeneous condensation . ventilation is during a formation of fog. and usually occurs when the liquid wets the surface Dropwise condensation is when liquid drops are formed on the sub-cooled surface.

West-facing rooms – prone to overheating because the low afternoon sun penetrates deeper into rooms during the hottest part of the day • Methods of shading 32 . it creates a solar furnace. the low angle of the sun mostly reflects off of roof-angled glass o Warm air rises by natural convection. and day-lighting throughout a well-designed passive solar building Awnings. plus interior glass between the solarium and the interior living quarters acts like a Thermal Buffer Zone . Buildings can be orientated to take advantage of winter sun (longer in the East / West dimension) Location-specific wide eaves or overhangs above the Equator-side vertical windows o South side in the Northern hemisphere o North side in the Southern hemisphere Passive solar buildings should not allow direct sunlight through use large glass areas directly into the living space in the summer A greenhouse / solarium is usually integrated into the equator side of the building o Captures low winter sun o Blocks direct sunlight in the summer. touches the roof angled glass. blocking summer heat. when the sun's altitude is 47 degrees higher o The outer glass of the solarium. and lower-quality doors and windows can leak a lot of outside air infiltration. conduct and radiate a lot of undesirable heat transfer through the exterior envelope of a building • Roof-angled glass is not a great option in any building in any climate o In the summer. trellises or climbing plants can be fitted to existing buildings for a similar effect. with the sun nearly perpendicular to it o On cold winter days.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Shading • • • Shading a building from solar radiation can be achieved in many ways.Two smaller temperature differentials produce much lower heat transfer than one large temperature differential • • The quality of window-and-door fenestration can have a significant impact on heat transfer rate (and therefore on heating and cooling requirement) • A solid wood door with no windows conducts heat about twelve times faster than a foam-filled door • Older fenestration. shade screen. and then conducts and radiates heat outside • Vertical equator-facing glass is far superior for solar gain.

TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE o Deciduous planting o Vertical shutters or blinds Should be minimized or eliminated in passive solar design • Solar heat also enters a building through its walls and roof • In temperate climates. The rate of heat transfer • Related to heating-and-cooling requirement • Determined in part by the surface area of the building • Decorative corners can double or triple the exterior envelope surface area • Also create more opportunities for air infiltration leaks . like a tower. a poorly insulated building can o Overheat in summer o Will require more heating in winter One sign of poor thermal design is an attic that gets hotter than the peak outside summer air temperature. In mild arid climates with comfortable cool dry nights. Cross ventilation requires openings on two sides of a room Passive-stack ventilation uses a vertical space. • This can be significantly reduced or eliminated with a cool roof or a green roof o Can reduce the roof surface temperature by 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) in the summer o Below the roof there should be a radiant barrier and an air gap • Blocks 97% of downward radiation from the sun Radiation is one of the most significant in most climates • Least easy to model o There is a linear relationship between temperature differential and conductive / convective heat transfer rate o But. which is much more significant when the temperature differential is large (summer or winter). that creates a vacuum as air rises by natural convection • An inlet for cool air at the bottom of this space creates an upward-moving air current 33 . radiation is an exponential relationship. two types of natural ventilation can be achieved through careful design • Cross ventilation • Passive-stack ventilation.

dehumidified. BUILDING CONFIGURATION.Facing Sides of a building EGGCRATE TYPES Combination of Horizontal and Vertical Shades 34 . 3.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Allergens such as pollen can be an issue when windows are used for fresh air ventilation. and cooled (possibly using an air exchanger). BUILDING ORIENTATION Example : In tropical countries such as the Philippines. SUNSHADING DEVICES VERTICAL TYPES Vertical Sun Shades are generally used on the East-Facing and West. filtered. CROSS VENTILATION The circulation of fresh air through open windows. 2. thermal mass can be strategically placed and insulated to slow the heating of the building when the sun is hot. Passive Cooling Techniques 1. it is best to place service areas in the west and east facing sides of the building because these sides are exposed to direct sunlight. creating a draft that draws in cooler air or gas from below 5. terrain etc. FACADE DESIGN Use of Double-layered façade Use Low-emissivity glass (Low-E glass) Use of Insulation 4. In a climate that is cool at night and too warm in the day. SITE LAYOUT and SITE PLANNING Example : A building can be protected from direct sunlight by placing it on a location within the site that utilizes existing features such as trees. fireplace. fresh air ventilation can be controlled. kitchen and bathroom vents) will draw unfiltered outside air in through every small air leak in a building In hot humid climates with uncomfortable nights. Anything that creates an air pressure difference (like an externally vented clothes dryer. doors or other openings on opposite sides of a room STACK EFFECT / CHIMNEY EFFECT The tendency of air or gas in a shaft or other vertical space to rise when heated.

ventilation.More ways 35 . roof ponds. efficient active cooling techniques Passive Cooling: • • • • • • • Passive Cooling Guides and Tools Shading Reflective Roofs (and Walls) Cooling Towers & Solar Chimneys Earth Tubes Reflectors Tips Active Cooling: • • • Efficient Active Cooling . And.Ventilation Efficient Active Cooling – Evaporative Efficient Active Cooling . etc…).TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Passive cooling techniques (solar chimneys. thermal mass.

WIND ANALYSIS 36 .TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE A home that illustrates how a number of simple cooling techniques that were combined in this house to avoid the need for air conditioning A good overview of passive cooling strategies.

Use of atrium In the tropical zone the atrium should be located so as to provide ventilation within the built form. Cross ventilation: Cross ventilation is far more important in the tropics than in temperate zones. The theoretical strategy for blocking or inducing wind flow into a building is based on local prevailing wind conditions. Zoning for transitional spaces -the traditional spaces used for lobbies. In the arid zone the atrium should be located at the centre of the building for cooling and shading purposes. • Building's main orientation for tropical countries would have a directional emphasis on an axis 5deg north of east 37 . An atrium can also be used a transitional space. Orientation: Orientation as well as directional emphasis changes with latitude in response to solar angle. For the tropical and arid zones. where the sides are of length x:y. the transitional spaces are located on the north and south sides of the building where the sun's penetration is not as great. circulation. Influences on Built Form 1. 2. 2. stairs. utility spaces. for the tropical zones as much ventilation as possible is desired. Form: Optimum building form for each climatic zone.1:3 • Analysis of these ratios shows that an elongated form to minimize east and west exposure is needed at the lower latitudes. are: tropical zone . Any breeze in the lower latitude (tropical and arid climates) is beneficial for most of the year. balconies and any other areas where movement take place. Influences on Built Form 1. These areas do not require total climatic control and natural ventilation is sufficient.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Wind direction: Desirable and undesirable winds in each of the climatic zones depend largely on local conditions. Generally. • Research has shown that the preferred length of the sides of the building.

• For the tropical zone. • The length of the roof overhangs for summer shading is a critical factor.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE 3. • Building's shape • Solar orientation • Interior layout • Size In cold climates building form should be • Compact to reduce heat loss caused by winter winds • Elongated on the east west axis to maximize solar gain. o This is inefficient in winter o Desirable in hot weather. the cores are located on the east and west sides of the building form. In a humid hot climate • Heat gain through windows should be minimized • Ventilation and shading maximized. o The correct length varies with distance and latitude. • Air movement should be maximized with cross ventilation. 38 . • Increasing the surface area by making the building taller or longer increases the area of heat transfer. 4. so as to help shade the building from the low angles of the sun during the major part of the day.1Building Configuration Factors that affect building’s energy use and its sustainability. Vertical cores and structure • The arrangement of primary mass can be used as a factor in climatic design as its position can help to shade or retain heat within the building form.

or to the most important facade of the building. • The building orientation can have an impact on heating. one can take optimal advantage of the sun for daylight and passive solar heating o This will result in lower cooling costs by minimizing western exposures. where it's most difficult to provide shade from the sun. length and breadth can vary resulting in different total surface areas. • Although any building will have different orientations for its different sides. for example. o By maximizing southern exposure. 39 . the orientation can refer to a particular room. lighting and cooling costs.2 Building Orientation Orientation of the building generally used to refer to solar orientation • The placement of building with respect to solar access. there are numerous ways in which actual dimensions of height. o The way the volume and surfaces of the building are oriented also severely affect the heat gain or loss from a building. 4. For any given enclosed building volume.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Shape and surroundings of any building • • May cause heat gain when cooling is required and heat loss when heat gain is required. may have quiet different surface areas and hence different rate of heat loss and heat gain. o Two buildings. both having the same volume and built of the same materials.


i. Apparent magnetic North can be very different to where Solar North is (up to 20 degrees). the kitchen. 41 .TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Solar orientation is different to magnetic orientation It is very important that you remember to orientate your house with respect to the Sun and not to magnetic North (or South). these will also act as additional thermal mass. etc. laundry. this can make all the difference between a passive solar design being viable or not Living Area placement Also of importance is that the rooms most used must be on the side of the house orientated towards the sun. see the diagram below.e. UNITS / TERMS: The five elements of passive solar design include Aperture Collector – (typically glass) the aperture collector is the area through which sunlight enters the home or building. garage.e. if properly insulated. i. lounge. Also put the least used rooms on the side of the house in shade.

a south-facing orientation within 30o east or west of true south will provide around 90% of the maximum static solar collection potential. stones. the sun comes up in the southeast and sets in the southwest. bricks. differential thermostats. • The optimum directional orientation depends on site specific factors and on local landscape features such as trees.the absorber is typically a hard. o In the middle of the day in the summer. or other buildings that may shade the sunspace during certain times of the day.elements that control the under. o Summer in the northern hemisphere. BACKGROUND FACTS: Building orientation can maximize • Opportunities for passive solar heating when needed. Control .the material(s) that retain the heat absorbed by the absorber • Thermal mass can be composed of water. • Avoidance of Solar heat gain during cooling time. such as overhangs. the sun is high in the sky overhead. • Natural ventilation. Distribution . Thermal Mass .the means by which the solar heat is transferred from the storage material(s) to areas of the home or building. hills. and operable vents A true passive solar building includes proper orientation. concrete. 42 .TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Absorber . and • Daylighting throughout the year. tile or other materials with high specific heat capacity. collection.and overheating of a space. the sun comes up in the northeast and sets in the northwest. and distribution capability. • In general. the sun is low in the southern sky. The basic considerations for optimizing the solar heating potential of a sunspace include the directional orientation and the angle of the glazing (glass or windows). o In the middle of the day in the winter. o Southern exposure is the key physical orientation feature for passive solar energy in the northern hemisphere o Winter in the northern hemisphere. darkened surface on the storage element that sits in the path of sunlight and absorbs its heat.

• Orientation factors depending on functional requirements: o Designing for cooling load or heating load. Energy conservation strategies relating to building orientation: • • • • • • • • Maximizing north and south façade exposure for daylight harvesting to reduce lighting electrical loads Using southern exposure for solar heat gain to reduce heating loads in the heating season Using shading strategies to reduce cooling loads caused by solar gain on south façades Turning long façades toward the direction of prevailing breezes to enhance the cooling effect of natural ventilation Turning long façades in the direction parallel to slopes to take advantage of cool updrafts to enhance natural ventilation Shielding windows and openings from the direction of harsh winter winds and storms to reduce heating loads Orienting the most populated building spaces toward north and south exposures to maximize daylighting and natural ventilation benefit Determining building occupant usage patterns for public. on different exposures Application: Designing for Building Orientation: The designer must consider and prioritize all factors and site conditions affecting building orientation. o But this may be counter to street lines and other site considerations. or residential buildings. and how occupants will be affected by the building orientation.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Rectangular buildings should be oriented with the long axis running east-west. so the east and west walls receive less direct sun in the summer. 43 . commercial. the building may be oriented along an east–west axis. o To take advantage of north–south day lighting. In the winter. passive solar heat gain occurs on the south side of the building. by time of day. institutional.

the dropped leaves will permit desired solar gain. o Light shelves also can work well with the higher sun in the southern exposure o North-facing glass receives good daylight but relatively little direct isolation. so heat gain is less of a concern. East and west window orientations and horizontal orientation (skylights) all result in more undesired heat gain in the summer than winter o East and west sun glare is also more difficult to control for occupant comfort because of low sun angles in early morning and late afternoon Wind will affect tall buildings more than low structures. optimum façade orientation is typically south. activity zones. locate pedestrian paths and parking lots on south and east sides of buildings to enable snow melting. o In southern climates locate these on the less sunny east or north sides of the building In temperate and northern climates o Locate deciduous trees for south-side shading in the cooling season. orientation may be strongly determined by o Local regulation o View easements o Urban design regulations Be aware of unique local and site-specific conditions o Lake or coastal exposures o Effect of mountainous conditions o Special scenic easements. In urban settings. and local urban design guidelines. and/or county agricultural extension offices. libraries. To minimize heat losses and gains through the surface of a building • • • • • • 44 . o Design for wind direction—admitting favorable breezes and shielding from storms and cold weather winds. o Wind information is often available from airports. o South-facing glass is relatively easy to shade with an overhang during the summer to minimize solar heat gain. o In cold climates.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE o Orientation of the building entrance may have to respect street access. • For most regions. o In the heating season.

• Can provide interest and human scale to an otherwise undistinguished design. 4. • • During cooling seasons. reductions in annual cooling energy consumption of 5% to 15% have been reported. • Increased satisfaction and productivity. however. • Sun control and shading devices can also improve user visual comfort by controlling glare and reducing contrast ratios. • Well-designed sun control and shading devices can dramatically reduce building peak heat gain and cooling requirements • Improve the natural lighting quality of building interiors. may place a large portion of the floor area far from perimeter day lighting  Contrary to the cube. a building massing that optimizes day lighting and ventilation would be elongated along its east– west axis • More of the building area is closer to the perimeter.  The most compact orthogonal building would be a cube. • In warm.  This configuration. sunny climates excess solar gain may result in high cooling energy consumption • In cold and temperate climates winter sun entering south-facing windows can positively contribute to passive solar heating • In nearly all climates controlling and diffusing natural illumination will improve day lighting. • Opportunity of differentiating one building facade from another.3 Sun Control and Shading Devices There are many different reasons to want to control the amount of sunlight that is admitted into a building. Shading can be provided by 45 . external window shading is an excellent way to prevent unwanted solar heat gain from entering a conditioned space. • Although this may appear to compromise the thermal performance of the building • The electrical load and cooling load savings achieved by a well-designed day lighting system will be more than compensate for the increased surface losses.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE o A compact shape is desirable  This characteristic is mathematically described as the “surface-to-volume” ratio of the building. • An important aspect of many energy-efficient building design strategies o Buildings that employ passive solar heating or daylighting often depend on well-designed sun control and shading devices. • Depending on the amount and location of fenestration.

these new glass products reduce the need for exterior shading devices. Some shading devices can also function as reflectors. Exterior shading devices are particularly effective in conjunction with clear glass facades. • • • Thus. but peak temperature and humidity are more likely to occur in August. o When specified. Remember that an overhang sized to fully shade a south-facing window in August will also shade the window in April when some solar heat may be desirable • • • 46 . The design of effective shading devices will depend on the solar orientation of a particular building façade o Simple fixed overhangs are very effective at shading south-facing windows in the summer when sun angles are high o The same horizontal device is ineffective at blocking low afternoon sun from entering west-facing windows during peak heat gain periods in the summer. solar control and shading can be provided by a wide range of building components including: • Landscape features such as mature trees or hedge rows • Exterior elements such as overhangs or vertical fins • Horizontal reflecting surfaces called light shelves • Low shading coefficient (SC) glass • Interior glare control devices such as Venetian blinds or adjustable louvers • Fixed exterior shading devices such as overhangs are generally most practical for small commercial buildings The optimal length of an overhang depends on the size of the window and the relative importance of heating and cooling in the building In the summer. o High-performance glazing are now available that have very low shading coefficients (SC).TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE o Natural landscaping o Building elements such as  Awnings  Overhangs  Trellises. peak sun angles occur at the solstice on June 21. which bounce natural light for day lighting deep into building interiors. called light shelves.

To the greatest extent possible. However. o The earlier in the design process that shading devices are considered they more likely they are to be attractive and well integrated in the overall architecture of a project. 3. Consider the use of landscaping to shade east and west exposures. Also. in the tropics consider shading the roof even if • • 47 . achieving its maximum on a given day at solar noon. Do not worry about shading north-facing glass in the continental United States latitudes since it receives very little direct solar gain. is the angle of the sun's projection onto the ground plane relative to south Shading devices can have a dramatic impact on building appearance o This impact can be for the better or for the worse. Indirect (diffuse) radiation should be controlled by other measures. also known as the bearing angle. disregard this rule-of-thumb since the north side of a building will receive more direct solar gain. 2. Designing Shading Systems Given the wide variety of buildings and the range of climates in which they can be found. • The altitude angle is the angle of the sun above the horizon. it is difficult to make sweeping generalizations about the design of shading devices.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE • To properly design shading devices it is necessary to understand the position of the sun in the sky during the cooling season o The position of the sun is expressed in terms of altitude and azimuth angles. the following design recommendations generally hold true: 1. limit the amount of east and west glass since it is harder to shade than south glass. The azimuth angle. Use fixed overhangs on south-facing glass to control direct beam solar radiation. such as low-e glazing. In the tropics.

Materials and Methods of Construction In recent years. selecting shading devices. When relying on landscape elements for shading. may be completely inappropriate for other sites at different latitudes.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE there are no skylights since the roof is a major source of transmitted solar gain into the building. 4. be sure to consider the cost of landscape maintenance and upkeep on life-cycle cost. a light shelf bounces natural light deeply into a room through high windows while shading lower windows. Shading strategies that work well at one latitude. Carefully consider the durability of shading devices. Over time. 7. 48 . Remember that shading effects daylighting. operable shading devices can require a considerable amount of maintenance and repair. Do not expect interior shading devices such as Venetian blinds or vertical louvers to reduce cooling loads since the solar gain has already been admitted into the work space. 6. these interior devices do offer glare control and can contribute to visual acuity and visual comfort in the work place. 9. For example. • A wide range of adjustable shading products is commercially available o Canvas awnings o Solar screens o Roll-down blinds o Shutters o Vertical louvers. and placing Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) panels or solar collectors. Study sun angles. An understanding of sun angles is critical to various aspects of design including determining basic building orientation. Be careful when applying shading ideas from one project to another. there has been a dramatic increase in the variety of shading devices and glazing available for use in buildings. 8. However. 5. consider both simultaneously.

carefully evaluate all operations and maintenance (O&M) and safety implications. particularly operable ones.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE • While they often perform well. hazards such as nesting birds or earthquakes may reduce the viability of incorporating exterior shading devices in the design. When designing shading devices. • The need to maintain and clean shading devices. their practicality is limited by the need for manual or mechanical manipulation. must be factored into any life-cycle cost analysis of their use. • In some locations. The visible transmittance (Tvis) of a glazing material indicates the percentage of the light available in the visible portion of the spectrum admitted into a building. Require A&E professionals to fully specify all glass • They should be prepared to specify o Glass U-value o SC o Tvis o Net window U-value Shading coefficient (SC) of a glazing indicates the amount of solar heat gain that is admitted into a building relative to a single-glazed reference glass. o Durability and maintenance issues are also a concern. o A lower shading coefficient means less solar heat gain. 49 .

The impact of wind on the building form creates areas of • Positive pressure on the windward side of a building and • Negative pressure on the leeward and sides of the building.0 Wind and Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation is the process of supplying and removing air through an indoor space by natural means. • Wind speed increases with height and is lower towards the ground due to frictional drag. hills) and urban context (buildings.3 Pa to 3 Pa) o Wind pressures are usually far greater (~1 Pa to 35 Pa). o In practical terms wind pressure will vary considerably creating complex air flows and turbulence by its interaction with elements of the natural environment (trees. o The majority of buildings employing natural ventilation rely primarily on wind driven ventilation. are quite low (typical values: 0. • Differences in static pressure arise from global and microclimate thermal phenomena and create the air flow we call wind. There are two types of natural ventilation occurring in buildings • Wind driven ventilation • Stack ventilation. also known as 'the stack effect'. but stack ventilation has several benefits. • Thus building shape is crucial in creating the wind pressures that will drive air flow through its apertures. • The impact of wind on a building affects the ventilation and infiltration rates through it and the associated heat losses or heat gains.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE 4. structures) o Vernacular and traditional buildings in different climatic regions rely heavily on natural ventilation for maintaining human comfort conditions in the enclosed spaces 50 . o The pressures generated by buoyancy. The static pressure of air is the pressure in a free-flowing air stream and is depicted by isobars in weather maps. o The most efficient design for a natural ventilation building should implement both types of ventilation. • Dynamic pressure is the pressure exerted when the wind comes into contact with an object such as a hill or a building and it is related to the air density and the square of the wind speed.

• Wind driven ventilation depends on o Wind behavior. • Wind driven ventilation takes advantage of the natural passage of air without the need for high energy consuming equipment o Wind catchers are able to aid wind driven ventilation by directing air in and out of buildings. chimneys) • Construction methods and detailing (infiltration) • External elements (walls. screens) • Urban planning conditions Wind driven ventilation has several significant benefits: • Greater magnitude and effectiveness • Readily available (natural occurring force) • Relatively economic implementation • User friendly (when provisions for control are provided to occupants) Some of the important limitations of wind driven ventilation: • Unpredictability and difficulties in harnessing due to speed and direction variations • The quality of air it introduces in buildings may be polluted for example due to proximity to an urban or industrial area • May create strong draughts. Design guidelines are offered in building regulations and other related literature and include a variety of recommendations on many specific areas such as: • Building location and orientation • Building form and dimensions • Window typologies and operation • Other aperture types (doors.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Design Typical building design relies on rules of thumb for harnessing the power of wind for the purpose of natural ventilation. Wind driven ventilation Wind driven ventilation or roof mounted ventilation design in buildings provides ventilation to occupants using the least amount of resources. • Mechanical ventilation drawbacks include the use of equipment that is high in embodied energy and the consumption of energy during operation. discomfort. o On the interactions with the building envelope and 51 .

e. o Give cross ventilation statistics according to the wind statistics of the considered urban location. o It helps quantifying the natural cross ventilation induced by the wind flow crossing the buildings. • When there is a temperature difference between two adjoining volumes of air the warmer air will have lower density and be more buoyant thus will rise above the cold air creating an upward air stream. • One of these CFD tools. The knowledge of the urban climatology i. 52 . Air exchange depends linearly on the wind speed in the urban place where the architectural project will be built. Stack driven ventilation The stack effect used for high-rise natural ventilation Stack effect is temperature induced. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) tools and zonal modelings are usually used to calculate pressure.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE o On openings or other air exchange devices such as inlets or chimneys. the wind around the buildings is crucial when evaluating the air quality and thermal comfort inside buildings as air and heat exchange depends on the wind pressure on facades. (UrbaWind) makes the link between this pressure and the real urban climatology o It computes with a macroscopic method the mass flow rate incoming the building for each wind characteristic (incidence and velocity magnitude).

Stack ventilation can be implemented in ways that air inflow in the building does not rely solely on wind direction. while colder. • Above the neutral plane. location of apertures) and may incur extra costs (ventilator stacks. • Natural occurring force (hot air rises) • Stable air flow (compared to wind) • Greater control in choosing areas of air intake • Sustainable method Limitations of stack driven ventilation: • Lower magnitude compared to wind ventilation • Relies on temperature differences (inside/outside) • Design restrictions (height. 53 . • Below the neutral plane the air pressure will be negative and external air will be drawn into the space. Stack driven ventilation has several significant benefits: • Does not rely on wind: can take place on still. In order for a building to be ventilated adequately via stack effect the inside and outside temperatures must be different so that warmer indoor air rises and escapes the building at higher apertures. denser air from the exterior enters the building through lower level openings. hot summer days when it is most needed. Passive stack ventilators are common in most bathrooms and other type of spaces without direct access to the outdoors. taller spaces) • The quality of air it introduces in buildings may be polluted for example due to proximity to an urban or industrial area Natural ventilation in buildings relies mostly in wind pressure differences but stack effect can augment this type of ventilation and partly restore air flow rates during hot. the air pressure will be positive and air will rise. still days.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE • • Forced stack effect in a building takes place in a traditional fireplace. Stack effect increases with greater temperature difference and increased height between the higher and lower apertures. In this respect it may provide improved air quality in some types of polluted environments such as cities. The neutral plane in a building occurs at the location between the high and low openings at which the internal pressure will be the same as the external pressure (in the absence of wind).

o During the cooling season.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE • • • For example air can be drawn through the backside or courtyards of buildings avoiding the direct pollution and noise of the street facade. or other forms of leakage. air hygiene for plant workforce and methodology of construction to reduce total installed costs of greenfield and brownfield projects. Stack effect ventilators have undergone numerous evolutionary steps in recent years to correspond to new safety standards for protection against weather penetration. and thus the stack effect.1Stack / Chimney Effect Stack / Chimney effect is the movement of air into and out of buildings. or other openings and leakage. • Since buildings are not totally sealed (at the very minimum. • The greater the thermal difference and the height of the structure. and glass plants. steel mills. the warmer indoor air rises up through the building and escapes at the top either through open windows. • The result is either a positive or negative buoyancy force. 5. ventilation openings. and it helps drive natural ventilation and infiltration. o Stairwells 54 . chimneys. the stack effect can create significant pressure differences that must be given design consideration and may need to be addressed with mechanical ventilation. Wind can augment the stack effect but also reduce its effect depending on its speed. but is typically weaker due to lower temperature differences. and is driven by buoyancy. o The rising warm air reduces the pressure in the base of the building. the stack effect is reversed. the stack effect will cause air infiltration. Examples of stack effect ventilation can be seen on aluminum smelters. o During the heating season. • The stack effect is also referred to as the "chimney effect". Buoyancy occurs due to a difference in indoor-to-outdoor air density resulting from temperature and moisture differences. flue gas stacks. In a modern high-rise building with a well-sealed envelope. or other containers. there is always a ground level entrance). Therefore prevailing winds must be taken into account when designing for stack effect ventilation. drawing cold air in through either open doors. windows. direction and the design of air inlets and outlets. the greater the buoyancy force.

a window's orientation to the direction of wind movement is critical to the amount of air flowing through an inlet. an industrial flue gas stack typically provides little obstruction for the flue gas along its length and is. Whereas interior partitions. normally optimized to enhance the stack effect to reduce fan energy requirements. in fact. resulting in a net heat loss. 5. except that it involves hot flue gases having large temperature differences with the ambient outside air. Furthermore.) and to force warm interior air out of the building through an outlet (window. The stack effect in industrial flue gas stacks is similar to that in buildings.2 Cross Ventilation Cross ventilation relies on wind to force cool exterior air into the building through an inlet (window.) As one would expect. o Especially in case of fire. door. door.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE o Shafts o Elevators • • Tend to contribute to the stack effect. the stack effect needs to be controlled to prevent the spread of smoke. floors. etc. Fireplace chimneys can sometimes draw in more cold outside air than can be heated by the fireplace. and fire separations can mitigate it. etc. Large temperature differences between the outside air and the flue gases can create a strong stack effect in chimneys for buildings using a fireplace for heating. 55 .

hence movement of cool air goes to the tropical area and returning again. 56 . • Energy Scheming operates under this assumption. After reaching at North Pole and South Pole. The amount of heat removed from a building is directly proportional to the inlet and outlet areas.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Rule-of-thumb • An inlet is useful for cross ventilation if the direction of wind flow is in the range of -45 degrees to 45 degrees to the surface normal of the window. Caused by difference of radiation heat and weather change of the mountains and sea level. hence the cool air go down to surface of earth.3 Wind Behavior in a room Theoretically. with the existence of Coriolis Forces. 5. The air movement occurs because the atmosphere heating is not distributed evenly. • Of course. the global air circulation can be occurred as a result of a heat air movement in a tropical area go to atmosphere and move up to North Pole and South Pole. one can manipulate exterior geometries to redirect air movement through a window: Also of importance to cross ventilation is inlet and outlet area.

This air movement makes a system. The air moves from the relative chilled and high-pressured area to the relative warm and low-pressure area. either its direction or its speed 57 . is a cycle of air circulation movement applied to the earth surface. Gradient wind is the wind at certain high where form of surface coarse can be neglected.TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE The quality of not-even heating on the land and sea occurs because the difference of solar position. Air velocity varies from time to time. The discussion of surface air movement is necessary known as “gradient wind”. Air velocity is an amount of vectors following its level or speed and direction.

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