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71.1 71.2 71.3 71.4 The Rankine Cycle The Turbine The Condenser The Condenser Cooling System
Once-Through Cooling System • Wet Cooling Towers • Mechanical- and Natural-Draft Cooling Towers • Dry and Wet-Dry Cooling Towers
71.5 The Feedwater System 71.6 The Steam Generator
The Fuel System • Pulverized Coal Firing • Cyclone Furnaces • Fluidized-Bed Combustion • The Boiler • Superheaters and Reheaters • The Economizer • Air Preheater • Environmental Systems
Mohammed M. El-Wakil
University of Wisconsin
71.7 Cycle and Plant Efﬁciencies and Heat Rates
Power plants convert a primary source of energy to electrical energy. The primary sources are: 1. Fossil fuels, such as coal, petroleum, and gas. 2. Nuclear fuels, such as uranium, plutonium, and thorium in ﬁssion and deuterium and tritium in fusion. 3. Renewable energy, such as solar, wind geothermal, hydro, and energy from the oceans. The latter could be due to tides, waves, or the difference in temperature between surface and bottom, called ocean-temperature energy conversion (OTEC). Systems that convert these primary sources to electricity are in turn generally classiﬁed as follows: 1. The Rankine cycle, primarily using water and steam as a working ﬂuid, but also other ﬂuids, such as ammonia, a hydrocarbon, a freon, and so on. It is widely used as the conversion system for fossil and nuclear fuels, solar energy, geothermal energy, and OTEC. 2. The Brayton cycle, using, as a working ﬂuid, hot air–fossil fuel combustion products or a gas, such as helium, that is heated by nuclear fuel. 3. The combined cycle, a combination of Rankine and Brayton cycles in series. 4. Wind or water turbines, using wind, hydropower, ocean tides, or ocean waves. 5. Direct energy devices, which convert some primary sources to electricity directly (without a working ﬂuid), such as photovoltaic cells for solar energy and fuel cells for some gaseous fossil fuels. In the mid-1990s, U.S. power plants generated more than 550,000 megawatts. About 20% of this capacity was generated by ﬁssion nuclear fuels using the Rankine cycle. A smaller fraction was generated by hydropower, and a meager amount by other renewable sources. The largest portion used fossil fuels
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ﬁve closed feedwater heaters with drains cascaded backward. CO = condenser.1 The Rankine Cycle Rankine is a versatile cycle that can use a wide variety of heat sources.71-2 The Engineering Handbook. RE = reheaters. commonly at 170 bar (about 2500 psia) and 540∞C (about 1000∞F). In its most common form. Figure 71. High-pressure. 71. and the Rankine cycle. It can be built to generate large quantities of electric power. exceeding 1000 megawatts in a single power plant. above 221 bar (3208 psia). and one open feedwater heater.1 shows a ﬂow diagram of a Rankine cycle. CP = condensate pump. BO = boiler. though new developments call for higher values with pressures in the supercritical range. which in turn drives an electric generator to produce electricity. SU = superheaters. It has the highest conversion efﬁciency (ratio of electrical energy generated to heat energy added) of all large practical conversion systems. where the temperature is just below the boiling temperature at the maximum pressure in the cycle.1 A ﬂow diagram of a fossil-fuel Rankine-cycle power plant with one closed feedwater heater with drains pumped forward. 71. Second Edition SU 1 HP IP LP LP EG DR RE 2 BO EC CO 3 CP 4 FP FIGURE 71. The following section describes fossil-Rankine-type power plants. HP = high-pressure turbine. converting it to steam at 1. usually 80% steam by mass. DR = steam drum. becoming a two-phase mixture of steam and water. LP = low-pressure turbine. where it is heated in stages by a series of feedwater heaters. where the pressure and temperature are typically 0. condensing to a saturated liquid at 3. to 4. Heat is then added to feedwater in a steam generator. EC = economizer. superheated steam is admitted to a steam turbine at 1. EG = electric generator. IP = intermediate-pressure turbine. Nuclear power plants and some of the renewables are described elsewhere in this chapter. it uses water and steam as a working ﬂuid. according to the following formula: WT = © 2005 by CRC Press LLC Â(m ◊ Dh) ¥ h T (71. Steam expands through the turbine to 2.2 The Turbine The energy imparted by the steam from 1 to 2 is converted to mechanical work by the turbine. The condensate is then pumped through a feedwater system.07 bar and 40∞C (about 1 psia and 104∞F) but vary according to the available cooling conditions in the condenser. FP = feedwater pump. The turbine exhaust at 2 is cooled in a condenser at constant pressure and temperature.1) .
) The condenser is where heat is rejected. the pumping power would be greater than the electrical power output. called the direct-contact or open condenser. resulting in net negative power. When cooling water goes through a condenser. the rejected heat must be minimized so that a higher percentage of the heat added is converted to work. possible by using the lowest-temperature coolant available. kJ/kg or Btu/lb. and when dry cooling towers (below) are used.3 The Condenser The process of condensation is necessary if net power is to be generated by a power plant. To minimize this heating and its undesirable effect on the environment and to conserve water. hence. a high-pressure turbine. m = mass ﬂow rate of steam through each turbine section. A direct-contact . and returns through the other half of the tubes to the second compartment of the ﬁrst box. reverses direction in the second box. at about 20% of the pressure and about the same temperature as at 1. such as with geothermal power plants. (If the turbine exhaust were to be pumped back directly to the steam generator. and back to its source. enters an intermediate-pressure turbine made of reaction blading. Another type. and WG = WT ¥ hG (71. Such a condenser is of the one-pass kind. Dh = enthalpy drop of steam through each turbine section. from which it leaves in two or three parallel paths to two or three low-pressure turbines.Power Plants 71-3 where WT = turbine mechanical power. The incoming water enters half the tubes from one compartment. usually in tandem (on one axis). from which it goes through the tubes. composed of a steel shell with water boxes on each side connected by water tubes.h3 ) (71. The heat rejected to the environment by the condenser QR is given by QR = m c (h2 . The most common condenser is the surface condenser. its temperature rises before it is readmitted to its source. some heat must be rejected. often exceeding 100. double-ﬂow and also made of reaction blading. Surface condensers are large in size. kg/h or lb/h. Steam enters each in the center and exhausts at both ends. Also. Cooling water from the coolest part of the source is cleaned of debris by an intake mechanism and pumped by large circulating pumps to one of the water boxes. It is a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. One-pass condensers require twice the quantity of cooling water as two-pass condensers but result in lower condenser pressures and higher power plant efﬁciencies and are used where there are ample supplies of water. exiting at the other box.3) where mc = steam mass ﬂow rate to condenser = mass ﬂow rate of turbine inlet steam at 1 minus steam bled from the turbine for feedwater heating. as discussed later. made largely of impulse blading. Chapter 74 of this text describes steam turbines in greater detail. A two-pass condenser is one in which one box is divided into two compartments. This conﬁguration divides up the large volume of the low-pressure steam — and therefore the height and speed of the turbine blades — and eliminates axial thrust on the turbine shaft. and hence the lowest pressure. lake. The reheated steam. the second law of thermodynamics stipulates that not all heat added to a thermodynamic cycle can be converted to work.000 m2 (more than a million square feet) of tube surface area. such as a river. resulting in four or six paths to the condenser. usually water from a nearby large supply. The ﬁrst section. or ocean. and 15 to 30 m (50 to 100 ft) tube lengths in large power plants. receives inlet steam and exhausts to a reheater in the steam generator. Figure 71. Modern power plant turbines are made of multiple sections.2) where Wg = electrical generator power and hG = electrical generator efﬁciency. and hT = overall turbine efﬁciency = ratio of turbine shaft power to power imparted by the steam to the turbine. at such a location to avoid reentry of the heated water to the condenser. This is done by operating the condenser at the lowest temperature. To increase the cycle efﬁciency.2. with OTEC. cooling towers may be used. Most power plants are situated near such bodies of water. is used in special applications. 71. kW or British thermal units (Btu)/h.
wet mechanical-draft cooling towers. Because of evaporative losses. condenser is further classiﬁed as a spray condenser.2 A ﬂow diagram of a power plant cooling system. passed through the condenser. with a two-pass surface condenser and a wet. more importantly. It is sprayed over a lattice of slats or bars. In geothermal plants the fraction equal to the turbine ﬂow may be returned to the ground.P. Second Edition Steam to L.2. as in Figure 71. cooling water is taken from the source (usually at a depth where it is sufﬁciently cool). in which © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . such as downstream of the intake. A fraction of it equal to the turbine ﬂow goes to the cycle. The ratio of cooling water to turbine ﬂow is large. An additional loss is due to drift. hence.4 The Condenser Cooling System A condenser cooling system may be open (or once-through) or partially closed. the warm condenser water is essentially cooled by direct contact with atmospheric air. The latter two are not widely used. and dry cooling towers. Turbines Exit Hot Humid Air Condenser Air Recirculating Pump Makeup Pump Water Source Bleed FIGURE 71. called a ﬁll or packing. Environmental regulations often prohibit the use of once-through systems. the balance is cooled in a dry cooling tower and then recirculated to the condenser spray nozzles. The water is cooled by exchanging heat with the cooler air and. Once-through systems are the most efﬁcient means of cooling a condenser but require large quantities of water and discharge warm water back to the source. in which case cooling towers are used.71-4 The Engineering Handbook. The mixture becomes a saturated liquid condensate. cross-ﬂow cooling tower. but they appreciably reduce it. then returned to the source at a point that ensures against short circuiting of the warmer water back to the condenser. which increases its surface-to-volume ratio. mechanical-induced-draft. wet towers do not eliminate the need for water. Once-Through Cooling System Here. Atmospheric air passes by the water in a cross-ﬂow or counterﬂow manner. or a jet condenser. A spray direct-contact condenser is one in which demineralized cooling water is mixed with the turbine exhaust via spray nozzles. by partial evaporation into the heated and. In OTEC it is returned to the ocean. lower-relative-humidity air. using cooling towers. The latter are classiﬁed into wet natural-draft cooling towers. about 20 to 25. a barometric condenser. since these losses are a fraction of the total water ﬂow. Wet Cooling Towers In a wet cooling tower. 71.
and possible recirculation of the hot humid exit air. The bleed. steel.5% of the evaporative losses. All losses must be compensated for by makeup. Drift eliminators are added to reduce this loss. near large power consumers to reduce electrical transmission costs. Dry cooling towers. the number depending upon the size of the power plant. a certain percentage of the circulating cooling water is bled to maintain low concentrations of these contaminants. power plants using wet cooling towers are also sited near bodies of water. or in arid areas. The water distribution system and ﬁll are placed at the bottom. or ﬁberglass). They are essentially closed-type heat exchangers in which warm condenser water passes through a large number of ﬁnned tubes cooled by atmospheric air. Drift could be as high as 2.and Natural-Draft Cooling Towers Atmospheric air ﬂows through cooling towers either mechanically or naturally.5% of total water ﬂow. but consume no power. and could be as large as 10 m (33 ft) in diameter. resulting in large heat exchanger surfaces and land areas. most mechanical towers move the air by induced-draft fans. is often returned to the source after treatment to minimize pollution. FD . This also results in higher condenser water temperatures and hence higher back pressures on the turbine than with wet towers. These are placed at the top and suck the hot air through the tower. leaks. Other problems of wet towers are icing and fogging due to exiting saturated air in cold weather. Chemical additives are used to inhibit microbiological growth and scales. nearly as high as the evaporative loss if high purity is to be maintained. given by FD = (r 0 . Because of distribution problems. The towers are imposing structures that are visible from afar and are costly to build. An additional loss is blowdown or bleed. and g = the gravitational acceleration. and most of the tower height is open space of circular cross-section. The problem is aggravated further during periods of high atmospheric air temperatures. H = height of the tower. Such towers are usually multicell with several fans placed in stacks atop a bank of towers. caused by the density differences between the cool air outside and the warm air inside the tower. which offers good resistance to wind pressures. they have lower heat transfer capabilities. A compromise between mechanical and natural draft towers is called the hybrid or fan-assisted hyperbolic cooling tower. Natural-draft cooling towers are usually made of reinforced concrete and sit on stilts and are mostly of the counterﬂow type. near coal mines or other abundant fuel to reduce transportation costs. The hybrid consumes less power than a mechanical and is smaller and less costly than a natural tower. and so on.Power Plants 71-5 unevaporated water drops escape with the air. Mechanical. Warm water in the tower contains suspended solids and is fully aerated. air ﬂows by a natural driving force. Because the difference between the densities is small. Evaporative losses depend upon the climatic conditions and could be as high as 1. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . are not as effective. In the former. however. The fans are usually multibladed (made of aluminum. A number of forced draft fans surround the bottom to augment the natural driving force of a shorter hyperbolic tower. Thus. resulting in lower power plant efﬁciencies. In the natural-draft cooling tower. are driven at low speeds by electric motors through reduction gearing. drift. They are usually easier to maintain than wet towers and do not suffer from fogging or icing. and no water is lost due to evaporation. it is moved by one or more fans. Lacking evaporative cooling.ri )Hg (71. Mechanical-draft cooling towers consume power and are relatively noisy. H is large — about 130 m (430 ft).4) where ro and ri = average densities of air outside and inside the tower. Dry and Wet-Dry Cooling Towers Dry cooling towers are used when a power plant is sited far from adequate sources of water. The vertical proﬁle is hyperbolic.
more common. This seemingly high temperature represents an energy loss to the system but is necessary to prevent condensation of © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . This combustion air is forced through the system from the atmosphere by a forced-draft fan. throttled to the next lower-pressure feedwater heater — or pumped forward into the feedwater line. superheaters. use a conventional surface condenser with an intermediate coolant. They also may be designed to operate in direct or indirect modes. The cascade type is most common (see Figure 71. The amount of steam bled from the turbine is a small fraction of the total turbine ﬂow because it essentially exchanges its latent heat of vaporization with sensible heat of the single-phase feedwater. This reduces fogging and evaporative losses. where the temperature is most conductive to deaeration. the turbine exhaust steam passes through large ﬁnned tubes that are cooled by the atmospheric air. this type is often referred to as a deaerating or DA heater. It is either cascaded backwards — that is. such as ammonia.6 The Steam Generator A modern fossil-fuel power plant steam generator is a complex system. 71.3)]. The latter. The Fuel System Fuel is burned in a furnace with excess air (more than stoichiometric or chemically correct). they are much like condensers but are smaller and operate at higher pressures and temperatures.1). results in marked improvement in cycle efﬁciency and is used in all modern Rankine cycle power plants. under development. Closed feedwater heaters are shell-and-tube heat exchangers where the feedwater ﬂows inside tubes and the bled steam condenses over them. mix the bled steam with the feedwater. such as water. The mass ﬂow rate of the bled steam to the feedwater heaters is obtained from energy balances on each heater [El-Wakil. All types use steam bled from the turbine at pressures and temperatures chosen to match the temperatures of the feedwater in each feedwater heater. The mix is then pumped by a feedwater pump to the next higher-pressure feedwater heater. resulting in saturated liquid. The former are further classiﬁed into drains cascaded backwards and drains pumped forward. Wet-dry cooling towers are combinations of the above. called regeneration or feedwater heating. Parallel air ﬂows to each section combine to a common exit. The steam that condenses is returned to the cycle. it is pumped by condensate and feedwater pumps — to overcome ﬂow pressure losses in the feedwater system and the steam generator — and enters the turbine at the desired pressure. Open feedwater heaters. 71. and air preheater and ﬁnally leave through a stack.5 The Feedwater System The condensate at 3 (in Figure 71. resulting in combustion gases at about 1650∞C (3000∞F). Called the feedwater. both fossil and nuclear. In the direct mode. This process. Second Edition Dry cooling towers may be mechanical or natural draft. This determines the mass ﬂow rate in each turbine section [which is necessary to evaluate the turbine work [Equation (71. which doubles as a means to rid the system of air and other noncondensable gases. economizer.1) is returned to the cycle to be converted to steam for reentry to the turbine at 1.1)] and the heat rejected by the condenser [Equation (71. on the other hand. Most power plants use one open-type feedwater heater. reheaters. Indirect dry towers. Combustion gases pass successively through the boiler. The feedwater is heated successively to a temperature close to the saturated temperature at the steam generator pressure. which are of two types: (1) closed or surface type and (2) open or direct-contact type. improves heat transfer and results in lower penalties on the cycle efﬁciency. At steam generator exit the air (now called ﬂue gases) is drawn out by an induced-draft fan at about 135 to 175∞C (275 to 350∞F) into the stack. Thus. 1984]. Warm condenser water enters a dry section of the tower — reducing its temperature partially — then goes on to a wet section. but at the expense of more complexity and cost. or a two-phase ﬂuid. Regeneration is done in stages in feedwater heaters. It is usually placed near the middle of the feedwater system.71-6 The Engineering Handbook.
averaging about 20 cm (8 in. Crushed coal particles. which would combine with other combustion products to form acids and to facilitate ﬂue gas dispersion into the atmosphere. and removed. Hot air then carries the powdery coal in suspension to a classiﬁer. Ash removal materially reduces erosion and fouling of steam generator surfaces and reduces the size of particulate matter-removal equipment such as electrostatic precipitators and bag houses. which are of several types. Technical problems. about 5 mm).297 mm). It is widely used to burn poorer grades of coal that contain high percentages of ash and volatile matter. are under active study. including rings. The crushed coal is then dried by air at 345∞C (650∞F) or more. Large steam generators have more than one pulverizer system. This good mixing results in high rates of heat release and high combustion temperatures that melt most of the ash into a molten slag. such as the handling of the calcium sulfate. Air from a plenum below ﬂows upwards at high velocity so that the drag forces on the particles are at least equal to their weight. MgCO3) that reacts with SO2 and some O2 from the air to form calcium sulfate. CaCO3. run-of-the-mill (as shipped from the mine) coal. The Boiler The boiler is that part of the steam generator that converts saturated water or low-quality steam from the economizer to saturated steam. such as oxides of nitrogen. plus some magnesium carbonate. reducing NOx formation. because of the high temperatures. With coal. This drains to a tank at the bottom of the cyclone where it gets solidiﬁed. about 20% of the total combustion air.75 in. Pulverized Coal Firing Furnaces have undergone much evolution. To pulverize. then ﬂows down insulated down-comers. straight-tube. the production of more pollutants. oil. 6 to 20 mm (0. and the rest. The coal is then ground by pulverizers. About 90% of the sulfur dioxide that results from sulfur in the coal is largely removed by the addition of limestone (mostly calcium carbonate.074 mm openings) and 99. NOx. Cyclone Furnaces A cyclone furnace burns crushed coal (about 95% passing a #4 mesh screen.25 to 0. and CO2. Bradford breakers. enter the burner successively and tangentially. The most recent are water-tube–water-wall boilers. The disadvantages of cyclone ﬁring are high power requirements and. A common one is the medium-speed (75 to 225 rpm) ball-andrace pulverizer. and the particles become free or ﬂuidized with a swirling motion that improves combustion efﬁciency. secondary and tertiary air. It is fed to the furnace burners via a set of controls that also regulate primary (combustion) air to suit load demands. or gas. Burners may be designed to burn pulverized coal only or to be multifuel. Pulverized coal is classiﬁed as 80% passing a #200 mesh screen (0. which returns any escaping large particles back to the grinders. Early boilers included ﬁre-tube.99% through a #50 mesh screen (0. One surface consists of steel balls that roll on top of the other surface. obtained from the air preheater. is reduced to below 2 cm (0. The water in the tubes receives heat © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . and Stirling boilers. are injected into a bed above a bottom grid. The former is a disposable dry waste. the old mechanical stokers have given way to pulverized coal ﬁring in most modern systems. Primary air.75 in. Water from the economizer enters a steam drum.Power Plants 71-7 water vapor in the gases. and hammer mills.) in size. broken. scotch marine. Fluidized-Bed Combustion Another type of furnace uses ﬂuidized-bed combustion. each feeding a number of burners for a wide range of load control. which grinds the coal between two surfaces. similar to a large ball bearing. situated outside the furnace to a header. The latter feeds vertical closely spaced water tubes that line the furnace walls. CaSO4.) in size. capable of burning pulverized coal. which are usually classiﬁed according to speed. imparting a centrifugal motion to the coal. Combustion occurs at lower temperatures than in a cyclone.) by crushers.
They may be plain-surfaced. Superheaters and reheaters may be of the radiant or convection types. 1.75. This is done in the economizer. Regenerative preheaters use an intermediate medium. The steam drum now contains a two-phase bubbling mixture. The Economizer The ﬂue gases leave the reheaters at 370 to 540∞C (700 to 1000∞F). About half the sectors are exposed to and are heated by the hot ﬂue gases moving out of the system at any one instant. where it is reheated to about the same turbine inlet temperature in a set of reheaters.75 to 2.to 3-in. is not widely used.5 to 4 in. The tubes also cool the furnace walls. from which dry steam is separated by gravity and mechanically with bafﬂes. in diameter. Recuperative preheaters are commonly counterﬂow shelland-tube heat exchangers in which the hot ﬂue gases ﬂow inside and the air outside vertical tubes. They are now used in an air preheater to heat the atmospheric air. The latter receives heat by convection. Rather than reject their energy to the atmosphere. Smaller spacings and studs are usually used with clean ash-free burning fuels. The former. ﬂue gases now heat the feedwater leaving the last (highest pressure) feedwater heater to the inlet temperature of the steam generator. tubes on 3. At high loads the economizer exit may be low-quality water–steam mixture. downstream of and similar in design to the superheaters. suitable for high-temperature operation.75.to 4-in. thus reducing total fuel requirements and increasing plant efﬁciency. leaving the forced-draft fan to about 260 to 345∞C (500 to 650∞F) before admitting it to the furnace. spacings. A now-common one is the membrane design. as explained above. The superheaters are made of 2. which convert it to superheated steam. The most common. supported from the bottom and called the inverted tube. such as natural gas.75 in. The density difference between the downcomer and the tubes causes a driving force that circulates the mixture up the tubes and into the drum. attemperators are placed between the primary and secondary sections of superheaters and reheaters. Another type. Second Edition from the combustion gases and boils to a two-phase mixture. Superheaters and Reheaters Dry-saturated steam from the boiler enters a primary and then a secondary superheater in series. and centrifugal separators. Air preheaters may be recuperative or regenerative. The bundles are usually hung from the top. receives heat primarily by radiation. they become exposed to and heat the air that is moving in the opposite direction (into the system) © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . in diameter. ﬁnned. an attemperator maintains the desired temperatures by spraying regulated amounts of lower-temperature water from the economizer or boiler directly into the steam. the main form of heat transfer in superheaters and reheaters. centers are connected by welded membranes that act as ﬁns to increase the heat-transfer surface as well as form a pressure-tight wall protecting the furnace walls.71-8 The Engineering Handbook. or studded to increase heat transfer. as the sectors rotate. 1. screens. Air Preheater Flue gases leave the economizer at 315 to 425∞C (600 to 800∞F).75 to 2 in. in view of the luminous combustion ﬂames in the furnace. is rotary and is driven by an electric motor at 1 to 3 rpm through reduction gearing. with a consequent loss of plant efﬁciency. or from the side. The reheated steam enters the intermediate-pressure and then the low-pressure turbines. A hopper is placed at bottom to collect soot from inside the tubes. and called horizontal tubes. There are several water-wall designs. This heat transfer mode causes the exit steam temperature to decrease with increasing load (steam ﬂow). in which 2. diameter U-tube bundles made of special high-strength alloy steels of good strength and corrosion resistance. Superheated steam enters the high-pressure turbine and exhausts from it to return to the steam generator. which causes the exit steam temperature to increase with load. In its most common form. To obtain fairly constant steam temperatures.to 3-in. arranged in vertical sections between headers and placed on 1. called ljungstrom. Economizers are usually made of tubes. The rotor has 12 to 24 sectors that are ﬁlled with a heat-absorbing material such as corrugated steel sheeting. and called pendant tubes.
Another parameter that gives a measure of the economy of operation of the power plant is called the heat rate. which migrate to the plates.000 for older plants and as low as 8500 for modern plants. glass ﬁbers. wire-to-discharge electrodes carry a 40 to 50 kV current and are centrally located between grounded plates or collection electrodes. which may be gross or net. in which WG is reduced by this auxiliary power. HR. made of various porous fabrics (wool.000. Electrostatic precipitators remove particulate matter from the ﬂue gases. The plant efﬁciency. Brayton cycle — A cycle in which a gas (most commonly air) is compressed.5a) (71. The elements are also periodically cleaned. The resulting current charges the soot particles. in kg/h or 1b/h. are given by the following: hP = WG / Q A hC = WT / QC (71. pumps. It could be as high as 14. For example. usually by cooling water from an outside source. A benchmark net HR is 10. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC .5b) where mf = the mass ﬂow rate of fuel to the furnace. is used within the plant to power various equipment. in kJ/kg or Btu/lb. equivalent to a net plant efﬁciency of about 34%. WG. given above. Fabric ﬁlters or baghouses also remove particulate matter. is often referred to as the plant gross efﬁciency. for return back to the steam generator. pulverizers. nylon.7) The lower the value of HR is. where they are periodically removed. heated. there are other systems that reduce the impact of power generation on the environment.7 Cycle and Plant Efﬁciencies and Heat Rates The heat added to the power plant. Condenser — A heat exchanger in which the exhaust vapor (steam) of the turbine in a Rankine cycle is condensed to liquid. use aqueous slurries of lime–limestone to absorb SO2. Cooling tower — A heat exchanger in which the condenser cooling water is in turn cooled by atmospheric air and returned back to the condenser. Flue gas desulfurization systems. and so on. also called scrubbers. and cycle efﬁciency. are given by the following: Q A = m f ¥ HHV QC = Q A ¥ hsg = m1 (h1 . and expanded in a gas turbine to produce mechanical work.Power Plants 71-9 Environmental Systems Besides cyclone and ﬂuidized-bed combustion. kW) (71. Here. Net plant HR.h4 ) (71. hC. QA. Btu/kWh = (QA. a net efﬁciency is often used. 71. Btu/h)/(WG – auxiliary power. They are made of a large number of vertical hollow cylindrical elements — 5 to 15 in. and HHV = higher heating value of fuel. hp. Since some of the generator power. such as fans. the better. Deﬁning Terms Baghouse — Removes particulate matter from the ﬂue gases by porous fabric ﬁlters. etc.6b) The value hp. in diameter and up to 40 ft high.6a) (71.) — through which the ﬂue gases ﬂow and get cleaned in the manner of a household vacuum cleaner. QC. and the cycle. It is given by the ratio of the heat added in Btu/h to the plant power in kW. lighting.
Combustion. and air preheater. M. Fluidized-bed furnace — A furnace in which crushed coal is ﬂoated by upward air — resulting in a swirl motion that improves combustion efﬁciency. Heat rate — The rate of heat added to a power plant in Btu/h to produce one kW of power. Impulse blades — Blades in the high-pressure end of a steam turbine and usually symmetrical in shape that ideally convert kinetic energy of the steam leaving a nozzle into mechanical work. Steam generator — A large complex system that transfers the heat of combustion of the fuel to the feedwater. thus reducing furnace size and the ﬂy ash content of the ﬂue gases and eliminating the cost of coal pulverization. Babcock & Wilcox. and Kitto.) 1991. G. and feedwater system. Feedwater heaters — Heat exchangers that successively heat the feedwater before entering the steam generator using steam that is bled from the turbine. Once-through cooling — The exhaust vapor from the turbine of a Rankine cycle is condensed by cool water obtained from an available supply such as a river. Chicago. J. S. B. reheater. which in turn gives lower combustion temperatures and reduced NOx in the ﬂue gases — and in which limestone is added to convert much of the sulfur in the coal to a disposable dry waste. where they are periodically removed. (Ed. OH. Scrubbers — A desulfurization system that uses aqueous slurries of lime–limestone to absorb SO2 in the ﬂue gases.) 1992. (Eds. A modern steam generator is composed of economizer. C. boiler. and then returned to that same supply. resulting in good heat release and high combustion temperatures that melt the coal ash content into removable molten slag. J. Fossil Power. American Power Conference. New York. M. often between steel balls and a race. condenser. Forced-draft fan — The fan that forces atmospheric air into the steam generator to be heated ﬁrst by an air preheater and then by combustion in the furnace. Its Generation and Use. superheater. Second Edition Cyclone furnace — A furnace in which crushed coal is well mixed with turbulent air. Singer. Powerplant Technology. converting it to steam that drives the turbine. The steam is usually superheated at subcritical or supercritical pressures (critical pressure = 3208 psia or 221 bar). Combustion Engineering. Stultz. Rankine cycle — A closed cycle that converts the energy of a high-pressure and high-temperature vapor produced in a steam generator (most commonly steam) into mechanical work via a turbine. which migrate to the other grounded electrode. Electrostatic precipitator — A system that removes particulate matter from the ﬂue gases by using one electrode at high voltage to electrically charge the particles. It is usually composed of multiple sections that have impulse blades at the high-pressure end. Barberton. Windsor. NY 10017): ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Mechanical Engineering © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . 1984. followed by reaction blades. Steam turbine — A machine that converts steam energy into the rotary mechanical energy that drives the electric generator. lake. CT. McGraw-Hill. Steam. Further Information Proceedings of the American Power Conference.. 345 E. References El-Wakil. ASME publications (ASME. New York. 47th Street. Reaction blades — Blades downstream of impulse blades in a steam turbine and having an airfoil shape that convert some of both kinetic and enthalpy energies of incoming steam to mechanical work. IL 60616. Pulverized coal — A powdery coal that is prepared from crushed and dried coal and then ground. or the ocean. Illinois Institute of Technology.71-10 The Engineering Handbook.
O. published monthly by Elsevier Science. Construction Standards for Surface Type Condensers for Ejector Service. England. Box 10412.. International Journal. The Heat Exchange Institute. McGraw-Hill. Exeter EX1 2AH. The Electric Power Research Institute. NJ 08520. The Journal of the Combustion Institute. Power Engineering.C. 20585. Hightstown. P. Palo Alto. Power. The Heat Exchange Institute. Bampfylde Street. EPRI Journal. Energy. Standards for Closed Feedwater Heaters. Tulsa. D. NY 10010. 1421 Sheridan Road. OH. Department of Energy. CA 94303. Ofﬁce of Public Information. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . Washington. P.O. Box 521.Power Plants 71-11 Journal of Energy Resources Technology Journal of Gas Turbines and Power Journal of Turbomachinery Combustion and Flame. OK 74112. New York. OH. Cleveland. Cleveland. 655 Avenue of the Americas. Elsevier Science Ltd.