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# Tshwane University of Technology

Zahidur Rahman

Electronics III

## Wien Bridge oscillator

Index Introduction Theoretical calculations Project specs General outcome Bibliography

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## Wien Bridge oscillator

Introduction The Wien Bridge is one of the most common oscillators used in industry due to its simplicity and accuracy. The typical Wien Bridge consists of two parts, an RC circuit that causes a lead and lag property attribute to the output signal while a voltage divider similar to the op-amp non-inverting configuration. The lead and lag circuit is made from a RC combination in parallel with another RC combination in series. The lead and lag circuit causes a near perfect sine wave with a peak voltage 1/3rd of the input voltage.

Image extracted from internet PDF file (common lead-lag circuit) Above is the example of a lead and lag circuit, Vo is used at the positive input to the Op-Amp used for amplification. The RC combination causes a sine wave output. An example circuit of a Wien bridge is shown in the following figure

Image captured from Proteus simulation As shown above, the lead and lag circuit comprises of resistors R2 and R3 combined with capacitors C1 and C2. The lead and lag circuit is accompanied with a voltage divider circuit, the voltage gain of the lead lag circuit has an attenuating value of 1/3, this has to be balanced by the voltage divider circuit with a gain of 3 so that the combined gain will yield unity gain. By calculations, the default gain of the lead lag circuit will always lead to 1/3 regardless of resistor or capacitor values as long as the resistors and capacitors are identical. But the voltage divider circuit has to be physically made with resistors Rahman Z Page 3

## Wien Bridge oscillator

In the above circuit, the voltage divider circuit is made with the combination of a 10k POT in parallel with resistor R1.

Theoretical calculations The following calculations are adapted from a power point slide and are relative to the following image:

## Image taken from power point slide show

Formulas adapted from the circuit From the above formulas, the following general formulas can be found yielding calculations for frequency which is generated by the values in the lead lag circuit

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## Wien Bridge oscillator

General formula adapted from the lead and lag circuit Project specs In the design specs of the project, we are required to build a Wien Bridge oscillator with selectable frequencies, namely 20 Hz, 200Hz, 2 kHz and 20 kHz. These frequencies are attained by the use of the following values of resistors and a set value capacitor of 10 nF Resistor value 820 8.2 k 82 k 820 k Capacitor Value 10 nF 10 nF 10 nF 10 nF Output frequency 19.4 kHz 1.94 kHz 194 Hz 19.4 Hz

Selecting between these resistors in the circuit will ensure the selected frequencies. The output voltage has to be between 0.1Vp-p and 2Vp-p, in my circuit, the output voltage is controlled by a variable resistor in the voltage divider circuit which is not recommended under usual circumstances but since required voltages are so low compared to the input supply voltage of 18Vp-p by the use of a split supply, the controlling of the output voltage using the variable resistor at the voltage divider is also a usable method since the combination of two diodes in parallel with R1 in the circuit will cause a short circuit every time the gain is too high. What must be controlled on the other hand is that the closed loop gain does not go below 3, this will cause the signal to attenuate and eventually die out but it is an unlikely scenario.

Image captured from Proteus, actual circuit of vera-board Due to limitations, no Gerber file has been generated and the circuit has had to be adapted on veraboard for presentation. All values in the above circuit have been implemented on the actual circuit Rahman Z Page 5

## Wien Bridge oscillator

and switches have been supplied to change the values of resistors R3 and R2 for the switching between frequencies. General outcomes Initially when simulating the circuit, no frequency could be read at the output since initially the output is equal to zero and both inputs are a result of the output. Due to further investigation into the circuit design, it had been discovered that a method was needed to jump start the circuit, if there was a output then the inputs would react, thus the switch had been implemented at the positive input to the Op-Amp, this would ensure there would be a change in comparison for the op amp to see and since the power inputs to the Op-Amp is positive and negative voltages, the output will switch between those two. Bibliography Google search: 48451550-wien-bridge-oscillator-shahkar-and-khaksaar.ppt http://www.circuitschematicdiagram.com/297-adjustable-frequency-sinewave-generator/ http://www.play-hookey.com/oscillators/wien_bridge_oscillator.html Gottlieb, Irving M., Practical Oscillator Handbook, Newnes, 1997. Kennedy, E. J., Operational Amplifier Circuits, Theory and Applications, Holt Rhienhart and Winston, 1988.

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