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An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect
BNCE Pusad 4/7/2006
As CFCs molecules reach stratosphere. For the past several years. An alternative approach for addressing Green house effect. from off shore sources when an older R-12 system loses its charge or needs major repairs. and that which is still being mugged into the U. Many international / National bodies have expressed their concern leading to this critical issue “Montreal protocol” is an important step in this direction.S. there exist several example of creation by man vitiating the atmosphere either knowingly or unknowingly. 2 . This year’s event was held Feb.An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. many of the technical session that were offered were focused on retrofitting older vehicles with R-12 A/c system to the new “Ozone-safe” R-134 refrigerant. generating a chain reaction one molecule of CFC is thus sufficient to destroy many hundreds of ozone molecules. 18-21 in Las Vegas. they are dissociated by the sunlight into active chlorine compounds. The effects of the same are realized later affecting the creator as well as nature. R-12 has almost disappeared from the market except for the residual refrigerant that can still be recovered and recycled from older vehicles. most shops are going ahead and converting there system to R-134 a which is creating a new problem for the environment. which in turn. Chlorine in CFCs molecules causes depletion of ozone. Refrigerant 134a is one of the leading candidates to replace R-12 in many of the application. But this year. Abstract Through the history of mankind. these were hardly any discussion of retrofit at all the reason of retrofit has become a non-issue. This paper describes R-134a and case study of automobile vehicle Key words :- Ozone deletions Green House HFC 134a – (Tetra Fluoro ethane) Introduction Early years of the member of the mobile and air conditioning society (MACS) get together and discuss a wide range of topics that are of interest to those who make their living serving automotive A/C system. attack ozone.
Shows various atmospheric A/c layer with approximate thickness.An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. It absorbs ultra-violet (U. In this layer the temperature decreases with altitude at a rate of 1c/165 m of distance. The prevention of UV rays from reaching the earth saves inhabitance on the earth surface from many types of cancer diseases. In the stratosphere up 40 km.V. The concentration of ozone layer as of three atom of oxygen’s is more this layer is called ozonosphere or Mesosphere. Function of Ozone Layer : Fig.) rays coming from the sun and only the beneficial light and heat rays are allowed to reach the earth surface. known as normal lapse rate. Hence a great importance is attached to the ozonosphere especially due to the existence of life only on this planet. The stratosphere layer varies from 4-8 km (at –40oC) at the poles to about 16-18 km (at –80oC) at the equator. After this layer there is stratosphere upto 50 km. Retrofitting R-12 OR CFC’S AND OZONE HOLE – A GLOBAL PROBLEM.e. It is an “Anchal” of a mother to protect her children. 3 . Thus this layer forms a protective cover for all life on the earth i.
Through the above developed were brought by engineers. As CFC’s molecules reach stratosphere they are dissociated by the sunlight into active chlorine compound which. In addition to pollution and eco-balance the Ozone hole has attracted rather bigger attention of the leading international bodies. in turn. • Causes of Ozone Hole Though there are several causes or way to hole the ozone layer and some of these are as explained below. The disappearance of ozone on a localized region is called as “Ozone Hole”. and international bodies have shown their keen interest in protecting and finding the best solution of these problem. yielding tremendous amount of polluting gases. 1) The main criteria was found after surveying to all over world is that manufacture of automobiles and locomotives as well as their use installation and operation of thermal and nuclear owner plant and chemical and refrigeration plant. • Green house effect : 4 . 2) India criminate felling of trees. Ozone hole problem. 4) Refrigeration & A/c for increased productivity and better quality of life. mining. techno craters and industrialists for better product and services. leading to eco-imbalance. Chlorine in CFC’s molecules causes depletion of ozone. big barrages etc. developers has not been guiltless of creating continuously polluting environment over past 50 years. Several govt. 3) Modernization of agriculture for large output and cities for better living causing several problem. The ozone hole causes the two major causes 1) 2) Green house effect.An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. attach ozone generating a chain reaction one molecule of CFS is thus sufficient to destroy many hundred of ozone molecule. The above hole has developed at the South Pole.
On average. 5 . The atmosphere allows a large percentage of the rays of visible light from the sun to reach the earth surface and heat it. trap same heat in the layer art of the atmosphere. the average surface temperature would be colder than what it is today? Natural event cause changes in climate over longer time span. which transmit sunlight in the visible range but hold in heat. Hydro Fluro Carbon (HFC’s) per Fluoro Carbon (FFG) and Sulpher Hexafluoride (Sfo) also released into earth’s atmosphere. A human activity also changes the climate. This enhance the natural green house effect. The green house effect is a warming of the earth surface and lower atmosphere that tends to intensify with an increate in atmospheric carbon dioxide.3 mm annually. Green house gases such as water vapours and carbon dioxide as well as clouds and small articles known as a erosols. thousand of year shifted climate from ice age to relatively warmer period of today. A part of this energy is radiated by earth surface in the form of long wave infrad radiation much of which molecules of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere absorb & which is reflected back to the surface as heat. Green house gases are those gases in earth atmosphere. absorbed radiation is balanced by the amount of energy return to space in the form of infrared heat radiation. leading an increasing earth’s average surface temperature. is absorbed at the earth surface and in the atmosphere above. This is called the green house effect if these were no natural green house effect. The trapping of this infrared radiation causes the earth’s surface & lower atmospheric layer to warm to the higher temperature. Incoming radiation from the sun mainly in the form of visible life. Global warming has increased ocean levels by more than 1mm a year in part century out since 1960 ocean level is increasing 1. This is roughly analysis to the effect produced by the glass panel of the green house. Apart from this leakage of CFC’s also help in depletion of ozone layer. This affect along with energy absorbed by the earth surface affect the long term energy balance of earth and its atmosphere where fundamentally controls the earth’s climate. Due to more power generation need more carbon dioxide is released in atmosphere and due to carrying of forest percentage of carbon dioxide continuously increasing.An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. nitrous oxide. which retain a part of sun energy reflected back from earth surface. Apart from this methane.
05 1.80 1.00 0. Fortunately. The Montreal protocol in 1987 is an important step in this direction. of representative of various countries.00 0. The first reeducation would take affect in 1993.An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.00 3.30 4. Ozone Hole Formation The chlorine or CFC molecules take about 25-30 years (27) in reaching from the earth surface to ozonosphere. 1) 2) 3) 4) Production & consumption of full halogenated CFCs will be from to 1986 levels as of 1st Jan. 1989.00 GWP 1. It means the ozone hole problem is due to release of such molecules around 1960’s.37 0.15 0. the nature is very kind to human being to the original state as can be seen in fig.00 0. Since release of these molecules have some to around 10-20 folds. Refrigerant R-11 R-12 R-113 R-114 R-22 R-134a R-152a ODF/RODP 1.29 0. The next reduction would occur in 1998 with 30% reduction.05 0. The Montreal protocol vision consist of the following. Reducing producing & consumption to 0% of the 1986 levels. It means the problem is expected to the rather more serious in the future. -ODF – Ozone depletion factor 6 .00 1. Many national / international bodies have expressed their concern leading to several meeting of a large no.10 GWP – Global Warming Potential RODP – Relative ozone depletion potential.
They are : 1) 2) 3) 4) Development of new refrigerant suitable for substitution of common CFS. The machine is about the size of a large microphone and generates a charge of more than 15000 volts. It proposes to produce ozone in the upper atmosphere. Use of non-azeotrapic mixtures. 2) Indirect Measures : This method proposes various measures to redue the ozone depleting sources. Consist of a solar powered machine attached to a big balloon. Use of CFC’s with relatively low. Thus by sending powerful radio waves from the ground to upper atmosphere surplus electrons may be created. • Various Measures for Ozone Conservation : 1) Direct Measures :To meet the challenges faced by the planet the suggested method are 1) 2) Use of radio wave to produce negative chlorine ions in the stratosphere. it produces significant amount of ozone by converting oxygen of the air. The second method is proposed by British org..An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. Use of Ammonia & water as a refrigerant wherever possible. Ozone Help (OH). When this charge is emitted into atmosphere. In the first method the chlorine do not destroy the ozone layer. The Machine is carried to high altitude by balloons over Antarctica where the ozone depletion has reached it’s highest. ODP. Plugging ozone holes with balloons. These electrons when combine with neutral chlorine atoms the latter becomes ionized and thus becomes harmless to ozone. 7 . The proposed method envisages to carry 100 such ozonaters powered 300 small solar panels per balloons. The system is known as “ozonater”. To have reasonably cost effective method. the solar energy may be utilized for this purpose.
The plant located at the company’s chambers works in deep water. The outcome is very encouraging similarly to reduce R-113 emissions a flux removal solvent is under development. large gauge of operating temperature. Mixture of refrigerant & water. 1) Development of New Refrigerant :There are tremendous efforts put forth in this direction. COP high refrigeration. its leakage detection is very easy. Very low system renders light components except to take care about compressor. 3) Use of ammonia. The refrigerant like 124 (CF3CHFcl) & R-142 (b) (CH3CC1F2) & 134a contain chlorine but their ozone depletion potential (ODP) is low. New Jery. 8 . low cost available in abundance. USA is producing HCF-134a. In the light of gravity of problem due to ozone hole. Neither toxic non flammable Chemically inert at high temperature. Du Point Company has started up a small lot production facility to produce compeno that replace CFS for use in refrigeration application. 2) Use of low ODD value Refrigerants. Water is an excellent refrigerant for substitute. no leakage problem. High COP & Outstandingly very high enthalpy of vapourization. stable at high temperature. ammonia has been suggested to be a “an excellent alternative” If possesses almost all desirable properties such as high enthalpy of vaporization. No cost of refrigerant. window and air conditioners etc. As it has no ozone depleting potential this is earmarked to replace CFC-12 current used for blowing agent and refrigerant in a large no of application such as household refrigerator.An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. efficiency. It’s main advantage that 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Thermal. An environmentally acceptable fluorocarbon is under development for replacement of R-12 in sterilant gas for use in sterilization of surgical & health care equipment. They can better tried and used as refrigerant or as substitute for high ODP CFC’s application. It is not miscible in oil.
The cost to do a retrofitting will varying depending on need. Positive displacement machine such as scroll & screw compressor & large centrifugal water cooled chiller. Performance requirement it’s cost 26% new chiller. It has good availability because of this wide application. As an example in lace of R-12 a mixture of 70% R-22 & 30% R-12 renders the ODP from 1 to about 0.An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. Hence. 4) Mixed Refrigerant (Non-Azeotrophic Mixture) It’s use reduces the ozone depletion potential. * 1) 2) Advantages : It has positive pressure both evaporator & condenser. R-134a offers the best ?& perhaps the only long term choice for applications such as transport refrigeration. age control up grade location. This mixture has been tried. * R-134 a on Glance The chemical name of 134a is (Tetrafluro ethane) HFC (Hydro Fluro Carbon) HFC 134a is considered to be the most suitable substitute for higher pressure system using R-12 and R-22 & R500.1%) It has good system efficiency. For retrofitting R-134a is replacement of R-12. no necessity of purged unit. 3) 4) 5) 6) It has a 0% ODP (Ozone depletion potential) It has a low GWP (Global warm potential) (0. Car air conditioning household refrigerator. 9 . In hybrid air conditioning operation.34 even this technique has got potential scope. It is declared as non-toxic refrigerant by testing for alternative Fluoro carbon Toxicity testing & has an allowable explosure & has an allowable explosure limit (ALE) of 1000 (PPM) (Part per micron) the highest level given it is given group (A) safety classification due to non-toxicity & non-flammability. R-134a is retrofitting to be easier because a greatest change is not require. The performance of the system gave encouraging response. A direct conversion of R-12 into R-134a will result in 8 to 10% capacity loss & 1 to 2% loss in efficiency.
non flammable contains no chlorine & it does not breakdown the earth’s ozone layer that helps block’s sun’s harmful (UV) radiation. Current status of A Vehicle using R-134a.S. But if it leaks out. Forty million pounds of refrigerant is the equivalent of 53 million 12 – ozone cans. The problem they ray is that CO2 retains heat. But a much larger portion (perhaps 50% or more) of global CO2 problem is due to deforestation & “ slash & burn agricultural articles in many. measurable amount of 134a are now being detected that indicate roughly 40 million pounds of R-134a a year is some how finding its way into the atmosphere. R-134a is non toxic. Even so the role played by motor vehicles is significant. Environmental protection agency rays 134a has a global warming potential that is 1. it remains in the atmosphere a long. As long as 134a or nay other refrigerant remains sealed inside an A/c system. long time & contributes to the global worming problem. The rise CO2 is directly linked to the increased use of fossil fuels in industrialized countries & the increase in the world’s vehicle population. Third world nations. Motor vehicles account for about 20% of the overall CO2 problem.300 times greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) CO2 is a major issue with environmental because the rising level of CO2 is the atmosphere over the past century is causing a gradual rise in average world wide temperature & adverse changes in world climate patterns. 10 . It is a “Green house” gas that contributes to global warming. By the year 2010 or sooner the world’s vehicle population of cars & light trucks is expected to number more than 1 billion of these. The U. According new research that has been conducted by the environmental protection agency. 84% will have factory equipped air conditioning multiply the number of vehicle times the amount of refrigerant each contains & it adds u to a lot of green house gas. It posses no environmental hazard. We now 738 millions cars & light trucks on the world’s load plus another 200 million commercial vehicles. That is a huge amount of refrigerant. This creates “Green house” effect has traps heat in the atmosphere & allows it to build up over time.An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.
On many 1989 the rough 1993 vintage vehicle R-12 A/c system can be converted by simply recovering any 11 . Many owners won’t put any more money into an older vehicle. This generally involves removing all the old mineral oil from the system. Labels must also be installed to identify the system has been converted to R-134a. Federal law also requires the permanent installing of R-134a fittings on the high & low service parts to reduce the change of refrigerant. It may only be worth a couple thousand dollars. It’s nice to have but you can drive without it unless you live in Arizona. then adding a specified. The question is owners of older vehicle having their vehicles retrofitted to R-134a. the system is recharged to about 85 to 90% of it’s original capacity with R-134a.An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. * Techniques of Retrofitting The retrofit can done in two ways. The answer to far is that yes. Unless the repairs are absolutely necessary to keep it running. replacing O-rings (if required) installing or replacing a high pressure cutout switch (which may shops seem to forget) changing the orifice tube or expansion valve (if required). The other approach to retrofit. Florida or another hot sport where not summer temperature high humidity make city traffic unbearable. installing a more efficient condenser may be recommended for improved cooling performance after the modification are made. replacing the accumulator with one that contains X – 7 desiccant. * 134a Retrofitting According to the American automobile manufacture Association (AAMA) the current vehicle population of cars and light trucks build from 1991 to 1994 with R-12 air conditioning system is about 50 million add in the all A/c equipped vehicles from earlier year and it add upto a huge potential market for retrofit. Air conditioning unfortunately is usually regarded as a luxury. it may less expensive to get rid of the vehicle or junk it than fix up. even then. The first is to follow the vehicle manufacturer recommended retrofit procedure. When their A/c system needs work? The older a vehicle gets the more it depreciates by the time it is 10 to 12 years old. Cross contamination the next time the vehicle is serviced. PAG oil and recharging the system with R-134a on same application. Is the “quick and cheap” one. People are having older vehicles are retrofitted to R134a and other refrigerant.
7500) to $200 (10.46 R-134 a 0.00001 0.192 4.75 326 0.000) for a simple retrofit provided no major components have to be replaced.42 316 Ammonia 0. But simple law cost retrofits may net give the best cooling performance and may not even be possible on some vehicle.210 4.00664 0.23 R-22 0.00616 0. Mpa Compression Ratio Refrigerating effect KJ/kg Refrigerant Flaw rate kg/s S vol. Mpa Condenser Pressure.16 0. adding pot oil (which is compatible will both types of refrigerant) and recharging to 5 to 90% capacity with R-134a.164 4.296 1.An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.81 150.236 1.03 162. k 0.476 0.71 12 .77 4.226 4. refrigerant that is still in the system.0774 0. Of Suction gas m3/kg Compressor Displacement L/s Compressor Power kw COP Compressor Discharge Temp.207 4.812 0. A customer may only have to pay $150 (Rs.94 1102.463 0. Comparative Refrigerant performance per kW of Refrigeration Refrigerant Properties Evaporator Pressure.84 371 0.5106 0.1224 0.
This is toward implementing the “Montreal Protocol”. One of the major application of refrigerant is used in automobile A/c. * Conclusion Use of eco-friendly refrigerant make’s it possible to neglect the effect of GWP as well as ODP.An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. In near future this technique can be applied to all related Refrigeration & Air Conditioning. Now it is individual responsibility to become ozone friendly citizen by taking actions against to reduce and eliminates on the stratospheric ozone layer caused by the appliances and equipments. Retrofitting is one of the solution to replace conventional refrigerant with eco-friendly refrigerant. 13 .
E. ISHARE Handbook Refrigeration – 1999 edition. Page No. Emission and Environmental impact from Air Conditioning System By James M. Calm P. Reference 1. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning By Manoher Prasad (IInd Edition-2002) New Age International Publisher Page No.An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect. 18-26 14 . 2. 2.5 3.
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