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An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect

Ritesh Bhusari
BNCE Pusad 4/7/2006

An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.

An alternative approach for addressing Green house effect.

Abstract Through the history of mankind, there exist several example of creation by man vitiating the atmosphere either knowingly or unknowingly. The effects of the same are realized later affecting the creator as well as nature. Chlorine in CFCs molecules causes depletion of ozone. As CFCs molecules reach stratosphere, they are dissociated by the sunlight into active chlorine compounds, which in turn, attack ozone, generating a chain reaction one molecule of CFC is thus sufficient to destroy many hundreds of ozone molecules. Many international / National bodies have expressed their concern leading to this critical issue Montreal protocol is an important step in this direction. Refrigerant 134a is one of the leading candidates to replace R-12 in many of the application. This paper describes R-134a and case study of automobile vehicle Key words :-

Ozone deletions Green House HFC 134a (Tetra Fluoro ethane) Introduction Early years of the member of the mobile and air conditioning society (MACS) get together and discuss a wide range of topics that are of interest to those who make their living serving automotive A/C system. This years event was held Feb. 18-21 in Las Vegas. For the past several years, many of the technical session that were offered were focused on retrofitting older vehicles with R-12 A/c system to the new Ozone-safe R-134 refrigerant. But this year, these were hardly any discussion of retrofit at all the reason of retrofit has become a non-issue. R-12 has almost disappeared from the market except for the residual refrigerant that can still be recovered and recycled from older vehicles, and that which is still being mugged into the U.S. from off shore sources when an older R-12 system loses its charge or needs major repairs, most shops are going ahead and converting there system to R-134 a which is creating a new problem for the environment. 2

An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.

Retrofitting R-12 OR CFCS AND OZONE HOLE A GLOBAL PROBLEM. Function of Ozone Layer : Fig. Shows various atmospheric A/c layer with approximate thickness. The stratosphere layer varies from 4-8 km (at 40oC) at the poles to about 16-18 km (at 80oC) at the equator. In this layer the temperature decreases with altitude at a rate of 1c/165 m of distance, known as normal lapse rate. After this layer there is stratosphere upto 50 km. In the stratosphere up 40 km. The concentration of ozone layer as of three atom of oxygens is more this layer is called ozonosphere or Mesosphere. It absorbs ultra-violet (U.V.) rays coming from the sun and only the beneficial light and heat rays are allowed to reach the earth surface. Thus this layer forms a protective cover for all life on the earth i.e. It is an Anchal of a mother to protect her children. The prevention of UV rays from reaching the earth saves inhabitance on the earth surface from many types of cancer diseases. Hence a great importance is attached to the ozonosphere especially due to the existence of life only on this planet.

An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.

Causes of Ozone Hole

Though there are several causes or way to hole the ozone layer and some of these are as explained below. 1) The main criteria was found after surveying to all over world is that manufacture of automobiles and locomotives as well as their use installation and operation of thermal and nuclear owner plant and chemical and refrigeration plant, yielding tremendous amount of polluting gases. 2) India criminate felling of trees, mining, big barrages etc. leading to eco-imbalance. 3) Modernization of agriculture for large output and cities for better living causing several problem. 4) Refrigeration & A/c for increased productivity and better quality of life. Through the above developed were brought by engineers, techno craters and industrialists for better product and services, developers has not been guiltless of creating continuously polluting environment over past 50 years. Several govt. and international bodies have shown their keen interest in protecting and finding the best solution of these problem. In addition to pollution and eco-balance the Ozone hole has attracted rather bigger attention of the leading international bodies. The above hole has developed at the South Pole. The disappearance of ozone on a localized region is called as Ozone Hole. The ozone hole causes the two major causes 1) 2) Green house effect. Ozone hole problem.

Chlorine in CFCs molecules causes depletion of ozone. As CFCs molecules reach stratosphere they are dissociated by the sunlight into active chlorine compound which, in turn, attach ozone generating a chain reaction one molecule of CFS is thus sufficient to destroy many hundred of ozone molecule.

Green house effect :

An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.

Green house gases are those gases in earth atmosphere, which retain a part of sun energy reflected back from earth surface. This affect along with energy absorbed by the earth surface affect the long term energy balance of earth and its atmosphere where fundamentally controls the earths climate. Incoming radiation from the sun mainly in the form of visible life, is absorbed at the earth surface and in the atmosphere above. On average, absorbed radiation is balanced by the amount of energy return to space in the form of infrared heat radiation. Green house gases such as water vapours and carbon dioxide as well as clouds and small articles known as a erosols, trap same heat in the layer art of the atmosphere. This is called the green house effect if these were no natural green house effect, the average surface temperature would be colder than what it is today? Natural event cause changes in climate over longer time span, thousand of year shifted climate from ice age to relatively warmer period of today. A human activity also changes the climate. Due to more power generation need more carbon dioxide is released in atmosphere and due to carrying of forest percentage of carbon dioxide continuously increasing. Apart from this methane, nitrous oxide, Hydro Fluro Carbon (HFCs) per Fluoro Carbon (FFG) and Sulpher Hexafluoride (Sfo) also released into earths atmosphere. This enhance the natural green house effect; leading an increasing earths average surface temperature. The green house effect is a warming of the earth surface and lower atmosphere that tends to intensify with an increate in atmospheric carbon dioxide. The atmosphere allows a large percentage of the rays of visible light from the sun to reach the earth surface and heat it. A part of this energy is radiated by earth surface in the form of long wave infrad radiation much of which molecules of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere absorb & which is reflected back to the surface as heat. This is roughly analysis to the effect produced by the glass panel of the green house, which transmit sunlight in the visible range but hold in heat. The trapping of this infrared radiation causes the earths surface & lower atmospheric layer to warm to the higher temperature. Apart from this leakage of CFCs also help in depletion of ozone layer. Global warming has increased ocean levels by more than 1mm a year in part century out since 1960 ocean level is increasing 1.3 mm annually.

An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.

Ozone Hole Formation The chlorine or CFC molecules take about 25-30 years (27) in reaching from the earth surface to ozonosphere. It means the ozone hole problem is due to release of such molecules around 1960s. Since release of these molecules have some to around 10-20 folds. It means the problem is expected to the rather more serious in the future. Fortunately, the nature is very kind to human being to the original state as can be seen in fig. Many national / international bodies have expressed their concern leading to several meeting of a large no. of representative of various countries. The Montreal protocol in 1987 is an important step in this direction. The Montreal protocol vision consist of the following. 1) 2) 3) 4) Production & consumption of full halogenated CFCs will be from to 1986 levels as of 1st Jan. 1989. The first reeducation would take affect in 1993. Reducing producing & consumption to 0% of the 1986 levels. The next reduction would occur in 1998 with 30% reduction.

Refrigerant R-11 R-12 R-113 R-114 R-22 R-134a R-152a

ODF/RODP 1.00 1.00 0.80 1.00 0.05 0.00 0.00

GWP 1.00 3.05 1.30 4.15 0.37 0.29 0.10 GWP Global Warming Potential RODP Relative ozone depletion potential. -ODF Ozone depletion factor

An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.

Various Measures for Ozone Conservation :

1) Direct Measures :To meet the challenges faced by the planet the suggested method are 1) 2) Use of radio wave to produce negative chlorine ions in the stratosphere. Plugging ozone holes with balloons.

In the first method the chlorine do not destroy the ozone layer. Thus by sending powerful radio waves from the ground to upper atmosphere surplus electrons may be created. These electrons when combine with neutral chlorine atoms the latter becomes ionized and thus becomes harmless to ozone. To have reasonably cost effective method, the solar energy may be utilized for this purpose. The second method is proposed by British org., Ozone Help (OH). It proposes to produce ozone in the upper atmosphere. The system is known as ozonater. Consist of a solar powered machine attached to a big balloon. The Machine is carried to high altitude by balloons over Antarctica where the ozone depletion has reached its highest. The machine is about the size of a large microphone and generates a charge of more than 15000 volts. When this charge is emitted into atmosphere, it produces significant amount of ozone by converting oxygen of the air. The proposed method envisages to carry 100 such ozonaters powered 300 small solar panels per balloons. 2) Indirect Measures : This method proposes various measures to redue the ozone depleting sources. They are : 1) 2) 3) 4) Development of new refrigerant suitable for substitution of common CFS. Use of CFCs with relatively low. ODP. Use of Ammonia & water as a refrigerant wherever possible. Use of non-azeotrapic mixtures.

An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.


Development of New Refrigerant :There are tremendous efforts put forth in this direction. Du Point Company has

started up a small lot production facility to produce compeno that replace CFS for use in refrigeration application. The plant located at the companys chambers works in deep water. New Jery, USA is producing HCF-134a. As it has no ozone depleting potential this is earmarked to replace CFC-12 current used for blowing agent and refrigerant in a large no of application such as household refrigerator, window and air conditioners etc. An environmentally acceptable fluorocarbon is under development for replacement of R-12 in sterilant gas for use in sterilization of surgical & health care equipment. The outcome is very encouraging similarly to reduce R-113 emissions a flux removal solvent is under development. 2) Use of low ODD value Refrigerants. The refrigerant like 124 (CF3CHFcl) & R-142 (b) (CH3CC1F2) & 134a contain chlorine but their ozone depletion potential (ODP) is low. They can better tried and used as refrigerant or as substitute for high ODP CFCs application. 3) Use of ammonia, Mixture of refrigerant & water. In the light of gravity of problem due to ozone hole, ammonia has been suggested to be a an excellent alternative If possesses almost all desirable properties such as high enthalpy of vaporization, COP high refrigeration, efficiency, large gauge of operating temperature, low cost available in abundance, its leakage detection is very easy. It is not miscible in oil. Water is an excellent refrigerant for substitute. Its main advantage that 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Thermal, stable at high temperature. Neither toxic non flammable Chemically inert at high temperature. High COP & Outstandingly very high enthalpy of vapourization. No cost of refrigerant, no leakage problem. Very low system renders light components except to take care about compressor. 8

An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.


Mixed Refrigerant (Non-Azeotrophic Mixture) Its use reduces the ozone depletion potential. As an example in lace of R-12 a

mixture of 70% R-22 & 30% R-12 renders the ODP from 1 to about 0.34 even this technique has got potential scope. In hybrid air conditioning operation. This mixture has been tried. The performance of the system gave encouraging response. * R-134 a on Glance The chemical name of 134a is (Tetrafluro ethane) HFC (Hydro Fluro Carbon) HFC 134a is considered to be the most suitable substitute for higher pressure system using R-12 and R-22 & R500. For retrofitting R-134a is replacement of R-12. R-134a is retrofitting to be easier because a greatest change is not require. The cost to do a retrofitting will varying depending on need, age control up grade location. Performance requirement its cost 26% new chiller. A direct conversion of R-12 into R-134a will result in 8 to 10% capacity loss & 1 to 2% loss in efficiency. R-134a offers the best ?& perhaps the only long term choice for applications such as transport refrigeration, Car air conditioning household refrigerator, Positive displacement machine such as scroll & screw compressor & large centrifugal water cooled chiller. * 1) 2) Advantages : It has positive pressure both evaporator & condenser. Hence, no necessity of purged unit. It is declared as non-toxic refrigerant by testing for alternative Fluoro carbon Toxicity testing & has an allowable explosure & has an allowable explosure limit (ALE) of 1000 (PPM) (Part per micron) the highest level given it is given group (A) safety classification due to non-toxicity & non-flammability. 3) 4) 5) 6) It has a 0% ODP (Ozone depletion potential) It has a low GWP (Global warm potential) (0.1%) It has good system efficiency. It has good availability because of this wide application.

An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.

Current status of A Vehicle using R-134a. R-134a is non toxic, non flammable contains no chlorine & it does not breakdown the earths ozone layer that helps blocks suns harmful (UV) radiation. It is a Green house gas that contributes to global warming. The U.S. Environmental protection agency rays 134a has a global warming potential that is 1,300 times greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) CO2 is a major issue with environmental because the rising level of CO2 is the atmosphere over the past century is causing a gradual rise in average world wide temperature & adverse changes in world climate patterns. The problem they ray is that CO2 retains heat. This creates Green house effect has traps heat in the atmosphere & allows it to build up over time. The rise CO2 is directly linked to the increased use of fossil fuels in industrialized countries & the increase in the worlds vehicle population. Motor vehicles account for about 20% of the overall CO2 problem. But a much larger portion (perhaps 50% or more) of global CO2 problem is due to deforestation & slash & burn agricultural articles in many. Third world nations. Even so the role played by motor vehicles is significant. We now 738 millions cars & light trucks on the worlds load plus another 200 million commercial vehicles. By the year 2010 or sooner the worlds vehicle population of cars & light trucks is expected to number more than 1 billion of these, 84% will have factory equipped air conditioning multiply the number of vehicle times the amount of refrigerant each contains & it adds u to a lot of green house gas. As long as 134a or nay other refrigerant remains sealed inside an A/c system. It posses no environmental hazard. But if it leaks out, it remains in the atmosphere a long, long time & contributes to the global worming problem. According new research that has been conducted by the environmental protection agency, measurable amount of 134a are now being detected that indicate roughly 40 million pounds of R-134a a year is some how finding its way into the atmosphere. Forty million pounds of refrigerant is the equivalent of 53 million 12 ozone cans. That is a huge amount of refrigerant.


An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.

134a Retrofitting According to the American automobile manufacture Association (AAMA) the

current vehicle population of cars and light trucks build from 1991 to 1994 with R-12 air conditioning system is about 50 million add in the all A/c equipped vehicles from earlier year and it add upto a huge potential market for retrofit. The question is owners of older vehicle having their vehicles retrofitted to R-134a. When their A/c system needs work? The older a vehicle gets the more it depreciates by the time it is 10 to 12 years old. It may only be worth a couple thousand dollars. Many owners wont put any more money into an older vehicle. Unless the repairs are absolutely necessary to keep it running, even then, it may less expensive to get rid of the vehicle or junk it than fix up. Air conditioning unfortunately is usually regarded as a luxury. Its nice to have but you can drive without it unless you live in Arizona, Florida or another hot sport where not summer temperature high humidity make city traffic unbearable. The answer to far is that yes. People are having older vehicles are retrofitted to R134a and other refrigerant. * Techniques of Retrofitting The retrofit can done in two ways. The first is to follow the vehicle manufacturer recommended retrofit procedure. This generally involves removing all the old mineral oil from the system, replacing the accumulator with one that contains X 7 desiccant, replacing O-rings (if required) installing or replacing a high pressure cutout switch (which may shops seem to forget) changing the orifice tube or expansion valve (if required), then adding a specified. PAG oil and recharging the system with R-134a on same application, installing a more efficient condenser may be recommended for improved cooling performance after the modification are made, the system is recharged to about 85 to 90% of its original capacity with R-134a. Federal law also requires the permanent installing of R-134a fittings on the high & low service parts to reduce the change of refrigerant. Cross contamination the next time the vehicle is serviced. Labels must also be installed to identify the system has been converted to R-134a. The other approach to retrofit. Is the quick and cheap one. On many 1989 the rough 1993 vintage vehicle R-12 A/c system can be converted by simply recovering any 11

An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.

refrigerant that is still in the system, adding pot oil (which is compatible will both types of refrigerant) and recharging to 5 to 90% capacity with R-134a. A customer may only have to pay $150 (Rs. 7500) to $200 (10,000) for a simple retrofit provided no major components have to be replaced. But simple law cost retrofits may net give the best cooling performance and may not even be possible on some vehicle. Comparative Refrigerant performance per kW of Refrigeration
Refrigerant Properties Evaporator Pressure, Mpa Condenser Pressure, Mpa Compression Ratio Refrigerating effect KJ/kg Refrigerant Flaw rate kg/s S vol. Of Suction gas m3/kg Compressor Displacement L/s Compressor Power kw COP Compressor Discharge Temp. k 0.00001 0.5106 0.463 0.207 4.84 371 0.00616 0.0774 0.476 0.210 4.75 326 0.00664 0.1224 0.812 0.226 4.42 316

Ammonia 0.236 1.164 4.94 1102.23

R-22 0.296 1.192 4.03 162.46

R-134 a 0.16 0.77 4.81 150.71


An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.

Conclusion Use of eco-friendly refrigerant makes it possible to neglect the effect of GWP as

well as ODP. One of the major application of refrigerant is used in automobile A/c. Retrofitting is one of the solution to replace conventional refrigerant with eco-friendly refrigerant. Now it is individual responsibility to become ozone friendly citizen by taking actions against to reduce and eliminates on the stratospheric ozone layer caused by the appliances and equipments. This is toward implementing the Montreal Protocol. In near future this technique can be applied to all related Refrigeration & Air Conditioning.


An Alternative Approach For Addressing Green House Effect.



Emission and Environmental impact from Air Conditioning System By James M. Calm P.E.


ISHARE Handbook Refrigeration 1999 edition. Page No. 2.5


Refrigeration and Air Conditioning By Manoher Prasad (IInd Edition-2002) New Age International Publisher Page No. 18-26