REFLECTIVE TEACHING AND COMPETENCE 1) List at least 8 of the dilemmas faced by teachers.

Treating each learner as a whole person Treating each learner as a pupil Organizing the learners on an individual basis Organizing the learners as a class Giving learners a degree of control over their use of time, their activities and their work standards Offering reasons and rewards so that learners are extrinsically motivated to tackle tasks Developing and negotiating the curriculum from an appreciation of learners’ interest Providing a subject curriculum which learners are extrinsically motivated to tackle tasks (figure 1.2, page 6) 2) List the advantages and disadvantages of competency approaches by Whitty and Willmott (1991). Advantages -May provide clear goals for students Disadvantages -May be hard to agree definitions of competence

-May clarify the roles of schools and of colleges in -May lead to a fragmented reductionism of the the training process holistic capacity to teach

-May give employers greater confidence in what -May be difficult to agree valid and reliable criteria beginning teachers can do for assessment

-May give beginning teachers more confidence in -May emphasize outcomes rather than learning themselves process in training


Discuss the six characteristics reflective teaching of Dewey (1933). 1) Reflective teaching implies an active concern with aims and consequences, as well as means and technical efficiency. Teachers play different roles during the practice. Teachers should play role as active interpreters of political policy, where teachers make democratically decisions about the aims of education when there is uncontroversial argument. Teacher should also role as activist, where teachers have rights to pursue their values and beliefs as guided by their own individual moral and ethical concerns. The teachers also should speak put when they view particular aims and policies as being professionally impracticable, educationally unsound or morally questionable.

to support the development of teaching competence. evaluate and revise their own practice by which teachers follow the process of reflective teaching cyclic. describing situations. observe and collect data on their own and the pupils’ intentions. informed partly by self-reflection and partly by insight from educational disciplines where the attempts to maximize the potential for collaboration between teachers and researchers in relevant disciplines and the strengths and weaknesses of both is revealed. 4) Reflective teaching requires attitudes of open-mindedness. evaluative competence. plans and provision before beginning the process again. Analytical competence is how the teachers interpret descriptive data and evaluative competence is how teachers make judgments about the educational consequences of the practical enquiry. and feelings. causes and effects. 4) Explain three stages in development of competence. There are three types of competence. Teachers expected to plan. language and concepts for analyzing practice are refined. willing to adopt the consequences when they follow reasonably and how teachers’ consideration takes place. . experiences are shared. judgments made and decisions taken. Empirical competence involve knowing what is going on in a classroom or school which concern with collecting data. evaluation becomes reciprocal and commitments are affirmed. 3) Reflective teaching requires competence in methods of classroom enquiry. make provision and to act. professional learning and personal fulfillment are enhanced through collaboration and dialogue with colleagues where the aims are clarified. Finally. empirical competence. This evidence needs to be critically analyzed and evaluated so that it can be shared. the personal insecurities of innovation are reduced. actions. 6) Reflective teaching. Teachers also need to monitor. processes. analytical competence. either objective data (what people do) or subjective data (people feelings and thought). responsibility and whole-heartedness which indicate the teachers desire to listen to more sides than one in the sense of being willing to reflect upon ourselves.2) Reflective teaching is applied in a cyclical or spiraling process in which teachers continually monitor. 5) Reflective teaching is based on teacher judgment. teachers revise to his or her classroom policies.

Interpersonal abilities. the expertise in the craft is passed on from generation to generation. The young trainee learns by imitating the expert’s techniques. Stones and Morris pointed that the Craft Model is conservative and depends. having only a limited understanding of the issues with which they are about to engage and having to think hard about both the various features of their classroom situation and how best to act in it. understand various dimensions of school and classroom contexts and their decision is intuitive. where they have had more experience and know classroom situations better. 2. The Applied Science model is beneficial to the trainees to gain professional competence because the findings of scientific knowledge and experimentation that are conveyed to them by the experts in the relevant areas. relate to and support others. Through this process. They tend to need to proceed carefully. The concept of the venerable old master teacher is difficult to sustain in an educational context of new methodologies. for whatever effectiveness it might have. 3. the ability to emphasize with. Motivational abilities. the ability to understand. Thus. 4. on the other hand. the trainees are able to use the new findings in their practices and gain professional competence. They can interpret and respond to events with more confidence. The last stage is expert teachers where they at higher level of competence. Education is something that can be presented or managed by others while development is something that can be done by one for oneself. analyze and communicate the information. the one thing that is definite is that in few years time. NO. even though they still work at their decision-making. 14 – CHAPTER 1 – TEACHER EDUCATION: SOME CURRENT MODELS 1. . things will be very different from what they are now. syllabuses and the fresh-graduate teachers are better informed than the practicing teacher.There are three stages involve in this development. and dedicated. and by following the expert’s instructions and advices. the ability to set personal goal. In contemporary society. The second stage is competent teacher. The Craft Model explains about the wisdom of the profession resides in an experienced professional practitioner: someone who is expert in the practice of the ‘craft’. 5) List three factors of success according to Klemp (1977). on an essentially static society. take risk. Cognitive abilities. The first stage is novice teachers.

The first disadvantage is the experience is private and makes the reflective discussion difficult as it is based on the insecure foundation. Learners are familiar with certain concepts such as intonation patterns and grammatical hierarchy form the morpheme to the sentence in the science of linguistics. This also relate with the teachers’ professional competence. 14 – CHAPTER 2 – RELATING THEORY AND PRACTICE: THE REFLECTIVE MODEL 1. . Effectiveness depends on how well they relate to the trainees onw reflection and practice. often related to some kind of research. On the other hand. In stage one. Received knowledge consists of facts.5. They may also incorporate new techniques in their practice and then reevaluate them. This stage happens in cyclic. After doing their practices. beliefs and attitudes. The last disadvantage is the lacking of articulating reflection structure where the experience that structured the way practice can sometimes lend significance and permanence. data and theories. They may evaluate the inputs in terms of their own practice and either decides to change their teaching in some way or not. This is because the trainees have ‘received’ the knowledge rather than ‘experienced’ it in professional action. he trainees will ask themselves what has gone wrong and why it went so well in order to find ways to do self-improvement. 2. NO. the pre-training practice highlights what the trainees bring to training which related with teachers’ ideas. That is why the ‘received knowledge’ and ‘experiential knowledge’ are different. The second disadvantage is the lack of focus in the discussion. The next stage is professional education development that highlights the received knowledge and experiential knowledge. The received knowledge should both directly inform the experiential knowledge and be directly informed by it. ‘experiential knowledge’ is different since it is derived from two phenomenon that are ‘knowing-in-action’ and ‘reflection’. The last stage is the goal which refers to the objective of the practice. The teachers’ authority as an interpreter of his or her own experience may be questioned.

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