007 Edward '1st Earl of Jersey' Villiers II

007 Edward Villers ‐ Frances Howard 

Edward Villiers, 1st Earl of Jersey
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Edward Villiers, 1st Earl of Jersey (c. 1656 – 25 August 1711) son of Sir Edward Villiers (1620–1689) of Richmond and Frances Howard, the youngest daughter of Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk and Elizabeth Hume, was created Baron Villiers and Viscount Villiers in 1691 and Earl of Jersey in 1697. His grandfather, Sir Edward Villiers (c. 1585-1626), Master of the Mint and President of Munster, was half brother of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, and of Christopher Villiers, 1st Earl of Anglesey; his sister was Elizabeth Villiers, the mistress of William III, and afterwards Countess of Orkney. Villiers was Knight Marshal to the royal household in succession to his father; Master of the Horse to Queen Mary; and Lord Chamberlain to William III and Queen Anne. In 1696 he represented his country at the Congress of Ryswick; he was ambassador at The Hague, and after becoming an earl was ambassador in Paris. In 1699 he was made Secretary of State for the Southern Department, and on three occasions he was one of the Lords Justices of England. In 1704 he was dismissed from office by Anne, and after this event he was concerned in some of the Jacobite schemes. He died on 25 August 1711 of apoplexy.[1] He married Barbara Chiffinch (1663 — before 13th December 1735), daughter of William Chiffinch (1602-1688) on 17 December 1681. They had two sons and a daughter:
  

William Villiers (c. 1682 — 13 July 1721) Henry Villiers (d. 1743)

Mary Villiers (d. 17 Jan 1734/35) Married Thomas Thynne (d. 1710) son of Henry Frederick Thynne and Dorothy Philips and in 1711 George Granville, 1st Baron Lansdowne. With Thomas she had a son: Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth.

007 William '2nd Earl of Innchiquin' OBrien

008 Edward Villers II
008 Edward Villiers 

Sir Edward Villiers
He was the eldest son of Sir George Villiers, by his first wife Audrey Saunders, making him half-brother to the court favourite George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, Christopher Villiers, 1st Earl of Anglesey and John Villiers, 1st Viscount Purbeck. He was knighted on 7 September 1616, and in October 1617 succeeded Sir Richard Martin as Master of the Mint, and in November 1618 became comptroller of the court of wards.[1] On 30 December 1620 he was returned to parliament as member for Westminster. In the same month he was sent Frederick III, Elector Palatine to say that assistance would be rendered him, but only on condition that he entered into an agreement to relinquish the crown of Bohemia. He returned before May and took his seat in parliament, but was in that month temporarily excluded from the house for attempting to speak on the question of a patent, in which he was personally interested (the gold and silver patent in which Villiers had invested £4,000 in 1617, and from which he derived an income of £500 annually). His conduct was vindicated in the inquiry by the House of Lords in June, and Villiers was allowed to resume his seat in the Commons. In September he was again sent to the Elector Frederick, then serving with the Dutch army, to persuade him to withdraw from it and submit to the Holy Roman Emperor. On 23 September 1622 he was granted a lease of the customs and subsidies on gold and silver thread on condition of surrendering the mastership of the mint, but the latter office was restored to him in July 1624. He was re-elected for Westminster on 22 January 1624, and on 25 April 1625; in August of the latter year he asked the commons to prevent a dissolution by desisting from their attack on Buckingham.[1] Meanwhile James I, in January 1625, appointed Villiers Lord President of Munster; the appointment was confirmed by Charles I on 6 May, and in August Villiers went to Ireland to assume his duties. He held the post little over a year, and was absent for several months during that period. He died in the college of Youghal, which he made his official residence, on 7 September 1626; he was buried in St. Mary’s, Youghal.[1] [edit] Family Villiers married Barbara, eldest daughter of Sir John St. John and niece of Oliver St John, 1st Viscount Grandison; his viscountcy was specially entailed on his niece’s issue. Consequently her eldest son by Sir Edward Villiers, William, succeeded St. John as 2nd Viscount Grandison in 1630; he was father of Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland. Sir Edward’s second and third sons, George and John, succeeded as 3rd Viscount Grandison and 4th Viscount Grandison; the fourth son, Sir Edward (1620- 1689), was father of Edward Villiers, 1st Earl of Jersey.[1]

008 Murragh '1st Earl of Inchiquin' OBrien

008 Murrah '1st Earl Of Inchiquin' OBrien 

Murrough O’Brien, 1st Earl of Inchiquin (c. 1618–9 September 1674)
1614-1674 Murrough O’Brien, 1st Earl of Inchiquin (c. 1618–9 September 1674), known from 1624 to 1654 as the 6th Baron Inchiquin, was a chieftain of the O’Briens and, after Ormond, the leading Protestant native Irish peer in Ireland. He was one of the ten named in Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 as leaders of the Royalist forces in Ireland. Inchiquin served in the Spanish Army of Italy 1636-9 then returned to Ireland and married the daughter of Sir William St Leger, President of Munster. When St Leger died in 1641, Inchiquin took over the administration of Munster. At the Irish Uprising of 1641, he was the only lord descended from Irish chieftains to side with the settlers and Protestants against the Catholic Confederates. He held Cork and south-western Ireland in the King’s name until the Cessation arranged by Ormond in September 1643. In 1642, he routed a Confederate army under Garret Barry that was advancing on Cork in the Battle of Liscarroll. Snubbed by Charles I In February 1644, Inchiquin went to Oxford expecting to be granted the King’s commission as President of Munster, but Charles snubbed him by giving the post to the Earl of Portland. Enraged, Inchiquin returned to Ireland and declared his support for the Parliamentarians. He expelled the Catholics from Cork, Youghal, and Kinsale, and consolidated his hold on the south-west with a series of anti-Confederate actions. The slaughter of the garrison at Cashel in September 1647 and the subsequent devastation of Catholic held Munster earned him the nickname, Murchadh na dOitean or “Murrough of the Burnings” or “the Incendiary”. [1]He decisively defeated Lord Taafe’s Confederates at the battle of Knocknanauss in November 1647, crippling the Confederates’ Munster Army. Alarmed at the implications of the Vote of No Addresses, Inchiquin changed sides and declared for the King in March 1648. He called for a truce with the Confederates, but this caused a split between the Supreme Council and the Pope’s representative, Archbishop Rinuccini. Inchiquin welcomed the Marquis of Ormond when he returned to Ireland in September 1648 and supported the Second Ormond Peace, which secured an alliance between the Royalists and the Confederates against the English Parliament. Inchiquin spent much of 1648 and 1649 trying to put down resistance to the Confederate-Royalist alliance by the dissident Ulster Catholic general Owen Roe O’Neill. The infighting was brought to an end by the summer of 1649, but hampered the Royalists’ ability to resist Cromwell’s invasion of Ireland. Inchiquinn was present at the Royalists’ costly defeat at the Battle of Rathmines — his troops rearguard action enabling many of the remainder to get away. By the following year, things looked hopeless for the Royalists. Many of Inchiquinn’s Protestant troops defected to the Parliamentarians in May of 1650 and he went into exile with Ormond to France shortly afterwards. The Restoration Inchiquin found favour with the exiled Charles II, who granted him an earldom in 1654. He fought with the French army in Italy and Catalonia 1654-5, when he converted to Catholicism. At the Restoration, Inchiquin recovered his estates in Munster but was denied the Presidency because of his religion. He commanded an unsuccessful expeditionary force sent by Charles II to help the Portuguese in 1662, after which he lived quietly in Ireland until his death in 1674. References 1. A Compendium of Irish Biography (2 January 2007). This article incorporates text under a Creative Commons License by David Plant, the British Civil Wars and Commonwealth website http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/inchiquin.htm

008 Murragh '1st Earl of Inchiquin' OBrien

008 Roger '1st Earl of Orrery' Boyle   

Robert Boyle, Earl of Orrery
Earl of Orrery is a title in the Peerage of Ireland that is united with the earldom of Cork since 1753 . It was created in 1660 for the soldier, statesman and dramatist Roger Boyle, 1st Baron Boyle, third but eldest surviving son of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork. He had already been created Lord Boyle, Baron of Broghill, in the Peerage of Ireland in 1628 (at the age of only six). He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. He represented County Cork in the Irish House of Commons and served as Vice-President of Munster. On his death the titles passed to his eldest son, the third Earl. He represented East Grinstead in the English House of Commons. He was succeeded by his younger brother, the fourth Earl. He was a Lieutenant-General in the Army and a prominent diplomat. In 1711 he was created Baron Boyle of Marston, in the County of Somerset, in the Peerage of Great Britain. His son, the fifth Earl, succeeded his third cousin as fifth Earl of Cork in 1753. See the latter title for further history of the peerages. Henry Boyle, son and namesake of the Hon. Henry Boyle, younger son of the first Earl of Orrery, was created Earl of Shannon in 1756. The Irish placename Orrery came from Gaelic Orbhraighe, which was at first the name of a tribe (Orbhraighe = “Orb’s people”), and then of a territory and a barony.

008 Roger '1st Earl of Orrery' Boyle 

Roger Bolye A Short Biography
Orrery, Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of (1621-1679). — Statesman and dramatist, third s. of the Earl of Cork, was ed. at Trinity Coll., Dublin. After having fought on the Royalist side he was, on the death of the King, induced by Cromwell to support him in his Irish wars and otherwise. After the death of the Protector he secured Ireland for Charles II., and at the Restoration was raised to the peerage. He wrote a romance in 6 vols., entitled Parthenissa, some plays, and a treatise on the Art of War. He has the distinction of being the first to introduce rhymed tragedies. Retrieved from “http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/A_Short_Biographical_Dictionary_of_ English_Literature/Orrery%2C_Roger_Boyle%2C_1st_Earl_of”

008 Roger '1st Earl of Orrery' Boyle

008 Roger '1st Earl of Orrery' Boyle

008 William '2nd Earl of Inchiquin' OBrien

008 William '2nd Earl of Inchiquin' OBrien

009 Anne Greenwood-Wharton

009 Edward Villiers I

009 Murrough '1st Earl of Inchinquin' OBrien - Biography

Murrough O’Brien ‘1st Earl of Inchiquin’ 1614-74
Murrough O’Brien was the eldest son of Dermond O’Brien, fifth Baron Inchiquin, and his wife Ellen, daughter of Sir Edmond Fitzgerald of Cloyne. His father’s family claimed descent from the earliest kings of Ireland while his mother was the daughter of a powerful Anglo-Norman (“Old English”) dynasty. Murrough succeeded as the sixth Baron Inchiquin at the age of ten upon the death of his father in 1624. His estates were held in wardship by Sir William St Leger, President of Munster, a Protestant nobleman who sought to increase his power in Ireland by arranging the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth (d.1685) to Inchiquin in October 1635. Inchiquin remained under St Leger’s influence even after he gained control of his estates in 1636. After serving in the Spanish Army of Italy during 1638-40, Inchiquin returned to Ireland and was appointed vice-president of Munster in April 1640. During the Irish Uprising of 1641, St Leger took command of government forces in Munster in an uneasy alliance with the powerful Earl of Cork. Inchiquin quickly rose to prominence owing to his military experience, though as a native Irishman, he was regarded with suspicion by Lord Cork. After St Leger’s death in April 1642, Inchiquin and Cork vied for control of the Munster Protestants. Inchiquin defeated Viscount Muskerry and the Catholic insurgents at the battle of Liscarrol in August 1642 and ruthlessly kept control of south-western Ireland until the Cessation of Arms was signed between the Confederates and the King’s representative the Marquis of Ormond in September 1643. During the Cessation, Inchiquin sent five Irish regiments to reinforce the King’s army in England in the expectation that he would be granted the presidency of Munster, which had remained vacant since St Leger’s death. In February 1644, Inchiquin went to Oxford expecting to be granted the King’s commission but Charles snubbed him by giving the presidency to the Earl of Portland. Enraged, Inchiquin returned to Ireland and declared for Parliament in July 1644. After he had expelled the Catholics from Cork, Youghal, and Kinsale, the English Parliament appointed him president of Munster, which he governed without reference to the King’s representatives Portland and Ormond. However, Parliament was unable to spare him many supplies so Inchiquin remained on the defensive against the Confederates. Although he managed to maintain his garrisons in Munster, Inchiquin’s position was complicated by factional rivalry with Lord Broghill, son of the Earl of Cork. Their enmity intensified over Broghill’s insistence that Irish soldiers should subscribe to the Solemn League and Covenant, which Inchiquin refused to sign, and over Parliament’s appointment of Viscount Lisle as lord-lieutenant of Ireland in April 1646, who tended to defer to Broghill and oppose Inchiquin. After Lisle’s abrupt departure from Ireland in April 1647, Broghill continued to undermine Inchiquin’s position with accusations of disloyalty at Westminster. Inchiquin decided to assert his authority in Munster by mounting a major military offensive against the Confederates during the summer and autumn of 1647. He stormed and captured Dungarvin, Cappoquin and other garrisons, gaining a terrible reputation amongst the Irish as Murchadh na d’Tóiteán, “Murrough the Burner”, after his troops stormed the Rock of Cashel, where they burned down the defences, massacred soldiers, civilians and priests and desecrated the Cathedral of St Patrick. Desperate to prevent Inchiquin from joining forces with Colonel Jones’ Parliamentarian troops at Dublin, the Confederates sent Viscount Taaffe into County Cork with six thousand foot and twelve hundred horse. Although heavily outnumbered, Inchiquin inflicted a decisive defeat on Taaffe at the battle of Knocknanuss in November 1647, which left him master of southern Ireland. Despite Inchiquin’s military success, he received little support from London, where Ireland was not regarded as a priority so long as Dublin was secure. His marginalisation by the Parliamentarians and his increasing alarm at the dominance of the radical Independents at Westminster prompted Inchiquin to change sides once again. He declared for the King in April 1648 and negotiated for a new alliance with the Confederates. The resulting Inchiquin Truce of May 1648 was fiercely opposed by the Pope’s representative Archbishop Rinuccini and led to civil war within the Confederacy between Rinuccini’s supporters and the Anglo-Irish lords on the Supreme Council. However, Inchiquin received a royal commission as Lord-President of Munster in July and welcomed the Marquis of Ormond when he

009 Murrough '1st Earl of Inchinquin' OBrien - Biography returned to Ireland in September 1648 to negotiate an alliance between the Royalists and the Confederates. In March 1649, Inchiquin joined forces with the Confederate lords Taaffe and Castlehaven to drive the renegade Owen Roe O’Neill out of Leinster. During the summer, he captured the garrisons at Trim, Drogheda and Dundalk. In July, Ormond sent Inchiquin back to Munster with three cavalry regiments in order to guard against the possibility of Cromwell’s army from England landing there, but in Inchiquin’s absence, Ormond was defeated by Colonel Jones at the battle of Rathmines near Dublin in August 1649. After this defeat, many Protestants in Inchiquin’s army deserted to Parliament. Inchiquin struggled to resist the relentless advance of Cromwell’s invasion but, one-by-one, the Munster garrisons capitulated. In March 1650, Inchiquin was defeated by his old enemy Lord Broghill at Mallow in County Cork. Mistrusted by the Catholic Confederates, Inchiquin left Ireland for exile in France in December 1650. Thanks to the influence of the Marquis of Ormond, Inchiquin found favour with the exiled Charles II, who granted him an earldom in 1654. He served with the French army in Italy and Catalonia during 16548, and converted to Catholicism in 1657 after a period of illness. His sudden conversion caused an irreconcilable split with his devoutly Protestant wife and alienated him from Ormond and his friends at court. In 1659, Inchiquin was offered a commission in the Portuguese army but was captured by Algerian corsairs on his way to take up his command. He remained a prisoner until the newly-restored Charles II intervened on his behalf in the summer of 1660. At the Restoration, Inchiquin recovered his estates in Munster but, because of his religion, was denied the presidency which was granted to his old enemy Broghill, now Earl of Orrery. However, Inchiquin became reconciled with Orrery, and his heir William O’Brien married Orrery’s daughter Margaret Boyle in 1665. After commanding an unsuccessful expeditionary force sent by Charles II to help the Portuguese in 1662, Inchiquin lived quietly in Ireland until his death in 1674.

009 Richard '1st Earl of Cork' Boyle

009 Richard '1st Earl of Cork' Boyle

009 Roger '1st Earl of Orrery' Boyle

Roger Boyle 1st Earl of Orrery
1621-1679 Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery (April 25, 1621–Oc tober 26, 1679), British soldier, statesman and dramatist He was the third surviving son of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork and Richard’s second wife, Catherine Fenton. He was created Baron of Broghill on February 28, 1627. Boyle fought in the Irish Confederate Wars (part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms) and subsequently became known for his antagonism towards Irish Catholics and their political aspirations. He is also known as noted playwright and writer on 17th century warfare. Roger Boyle was named after his father’s first son who died aged nine. The Boyle family settled in Ireland in the late 16th century, Richard Boyle becoming the Earl of Cork and acquiring large estates and wealth, largely at the expense of the local Irish lords. Roger Boyle was educated at Trinity College, Dublin. He travelled in France and Italy, and coming home took part in the Bishops Wars against the Scots. He returned to Ireland on the outbreak of the rebellion in 1641 and fought with his brothers against the Irish rebels at the battle of Liscarroll in September 1642. However, Boyle and the English in Ireland were left vulnerable by the outbreak of the English Civil War. Although initially under the command of the Royalist Marquis of Ormonde (later James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde), Lord Broghill consented to serve under the parliamentary commissioners in Cork against the Irish Confederates. Boyle fought with the Parliamentarians until the execution of the king, when he retired altogether from public affairs and took up his residence at Marston in Somersetshire. Subsequently he originated a scheme to bring about the Restoration. On his way abroad to consult with King Charles, he was unexpectedly visited by Oliver Cromwell in London. Cromwell informed him that his plans were well known to the council, and warned him of the consequence of persisting in them. Cromwell offered him a command in Ireland against the rebels that entailed no obligations except faithful service. It was accepted. His assistance in Ireland proved invaluable during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. Appointed master of the ordnance, he soon assembled a body of infantry and horse, and drove the rebels into Kilkenny, where they surrendered. He also induced the Royalist garrison of Cork (English troops with whom he had served earlier in the wars) to defect back to the Parliamentarian side. On May 10, 1650 he completely defeated at Macroom a force of Irish advancing to the relief of Cork, and joining Cromwell assisted in taking the latter place. On Cromwell’s departure for Scotland he co-operated with Henry Ireton, whom he joined at the siege of Limerick. In 1651 he defeated an Irish force marching to Limerick’s relief under Lord Muskerry at the battle of Knocknaclashy, the final battle of the Irish Confederate Wars, thus effecting the capture of the town. By this time Broghill had become the fast friend and follower of Cromwell, whose stern measures in Ireland and support of the English and Protestants were welcomed after the policy of concession to the Irish initiated by Charles I. He was returned to Cromwell’s parliaments of 1654 and 1656 as member for the county of Cork, and also in the latter assembly for Edinburgh, for which he elected to sit. He served this year as lord president of the council in Scotland, where he won much popularity; and when he returned to England he was included in the inner cabinet of Cromwell’s council, and was nominated in 1657 a member of the new House of Lords. He was one of those most in favour of Cromwell’s assumption of the royal title, and proposed a union between the Protector’s daughter Frances and Charles II. On Oliver Cromwell’s death he gave his support to Richard Cromwell; but as he saw no possibility of maintaining the government he left for Ireland, where by resuming his command in Munster he secured the island for Charles and anticipated Monk’s overtures by inviting him to land at Cork. He sat for

009 Roger '1st Earl of Orrery' Boyle Arundel in the Convention and in the parliament of 1661, and at the Restoration was taken into great favour. On September 5, 1660 he was created earl of Orrery. The same year he was appointed a lord justice of Ireland and drew up the Act of Settlement. He continued to exercise his office as lord-president of Munster till 1668, when he resigned it on account of disputes with the duke of Ormonde, the lordlieutenant. On November 25, he was impeached by the House of Commons for “raising of money by his own authority upon his majesty’s subjects,” but the prorogation of parliament by the king interrupted the proceedings, which were not afterwards renewed. He married Lady Margaret Howard, 3rd daughter of Theophilus, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, whose charms were celebrated by Suckling in his poem “The Bride.” By her he had besides five daughters, two sons, of whom the eldest, Roger (1646-1681 or 1682), succeeded as 2nd earl of Orrery.

Earl Of Orrery
Earl of Orrery is a title in the Peerage of Ireland that is united with the earldom of Cork since 1753 . It was created in 1660 for the soldier, statesman and dramatist Roger Boyle, 1st Baron Boyle, third but eldest surviving son of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork. He had already been created Lord Boyle, Baron of Broghill, in the Peerage of Ireland in 1628 (at the age of only six). He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. He represented County Cork in the Irish House of Commons and served as Vice-President of Munster. On his death the titles passed to his eldest son, the third Earl. He represented East Grinstead in the English House of Commons. He was succeeded by his younger brother, the fourth Earl. He was a Lieutenant-General in the Army and a prominent diplomat. In 1711 he was created Baron Boyle of Marston, in the County of Somerset, in the Peerage of Great Britain. His son, the fifth Earl, succeeded his third cousin as fifth Earl of Cork in 1753. See the latter title for further history of the peerages. Henry Boyle, son and namesake of the Hon. Henry Boyle, younger son of the first Earl of Orrery, was created Earl of Shannon in 1756. The Irish placename Orrery came from Gaelic Orbhraighe, which was at first the name of a tribe (Orbhraighe = “Orb’s people”), and then of a territory and a barony.

What The Earl Of Orrery Is In Ireland
Earl of Orrery is a title in the Peerage of Ireland that is united with the earldom of Cork since 1753 . It was created in 1660 for the soldier, statesman and dramatist Roger Boyle, 1st Baron Boyle, third but eldest surviving son of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork. He had already been created Lord Boyle, Baron of Broghill, in the Peerage of Ireland in 1628 (at the age of only six). He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. He represented County Cork in the Irish House of Commons and served as Vice-President of Munster. On his death the titles passed to his eldest son, the third Earl. He represented East Grinstead in the English House of Commons. He was succeeded by his younger brother, the fourth Earl. He was a Lieutenant-General in the Army and a prominent diplomat. In 1711 he was created Baron Boyle of Marston, in the County of Somerset, in the Peerage of Great Britain. His son, the fifth Earl, succeeded his third cousin as fifth Earl of Cork in 1753. See the latter title for further history of the peerages. Henry Boyle, son and namesake of the Hon. Henry Boyle, younger son of the first Earl of Orrery, was created Earl of Shannon in 1756. The Irish placename Orrery came from Gaelic Orbhraighe, which was at first the name of a tribe (Orbhraighe = “Orb’s people”), and then of a territory and a barony. Earls Of Orrery (1660)

009 Roger '1st Earl of Orrery' Boyle Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery (1621–1 679) Roger Boyle, 2nd Earl of Orrery (1646–1 682) Lionel Boyle, 3rd Earl of Orrery (1671–1 703) Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery (1674–1 731) John Boyle, 5th Earl of Cork and Orrery (1707–1 762) See the Earl of Cork for further succession See also Earl of Shannon References Kidd, Charles, Williamson, David (editors). Debrett’s Peerage and Baronetage (1990 edition). New York: St Martin’s Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment’s Peerage Page www.thepeerage.com Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_of_Orrery”

009 Roger '1st Earl of Orrery' Boyle

009 Roger '1st Earl of Orrery' Boyle

009 Roger '1st Earl of Orrery' Boyle

009 Theophilus Howard

010 Catherine Fenton-Boyle

010 Catherine Fenton-Boyle

010 John Pike I — Biography

John Pike (Settler)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia John Pike (1613-1688/1689) was a founder of Woodbridge, New Jersey and a judge and politician of the early colony of New Jersey. Early Life And Education Pike was born in Wiltshire, England. He came to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635 with his father, John Pike (1572-1654), who first settled in Newbury. In 1665, acting on the invitation of Governor Philip Carteret, a number of Newbury residents formed a corporation to settle in Woodbridge, named after Rev. John Woodbridge, a Newbury clergyman.[1] The younger John Pike, one of the original nine “associates” of Woodbridge, was granted some 300 acres (1.2 km2) in Woodbridge in 1665, more than the common freeholders. He was “the prominent man of the town” in its early years. He was elected President of Woodbridge, and in 1671 was appointed to the Governor’s Council. After 1675, he was appointed captain of the militia, and afterward was known as Capt. Pike.[2] In 1684, together with his son John, he was charged and convicted of possession of stolen goods, a felony. After his death, the New Jersey assembly passed an act clearing his name, as well as one allowing his family to sue for defamation.[2] He was well respected despite the felony conviction. After years of local leadership, Pike was chosen to represent the township in the colonial General Assembly three times: 1692-3, 1696, and 1697-8.[2] Marriage And Family Pike and his first wife had several children together: John (1634-1714), Thomas, Joseph, Hannah, and Ruth, and three others who predeceased him. As a widower aged 72, Pike married his second wife Elizabeth Fitz Randolph in 1685. He died a few years later.[2] According to genealogists using DNA analysis, almost 25% of current male Pikes in the United States are descendants from his line.[3] He is also an ancestor of Albert Pike, a prominent Confederate brigadier general and an important Freemason; and Lt. Colonel Emory Jenison Pike, awarded a posthumous Medal of Honor for actions during World War I in France, where he was killed. References 1. ^ Joshua Coffin (1845). A Sketch of the History of Newbury, Newburyport, and West Newbury, from 1635 to 1845. Boston: Samuel Gardner Drake & Co.. http://books.google.com/books?id=FsYMAAAAYAAJ. ^ a b c d William Adee Whitehead (1856). Contributions to the Early History of Perth Amboy and Adjoining Country. Perth Amboy, New Jersey: D. Appleton & Co.. http://books.google.com/books?id=rxPcnAAegXMC. ^ Pike DNA Surname Project

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010 Laurence Ormerod

Ormerod House
Within this township are Bowcroft and Ormerod. The first was from the earliest times to which records extend, down to the middle of the last century, the property and residence of a family of the same name. Ormerod, is a house and family of equal antiquity with the former. The present house of Ormerod appears to have been re-built in the life time of Lawrence Ormerod and Elizabeth Bancroft whose name it bears with the date 1595. It stands to some disadvantage with a rising ground in front and declivity behind: but this last is filled with a background of aged sycamores and elms, peopled by a large colony of rooks. The house was fronted anew and modernized by the grandfather of the late possessor, who left it an extremely neat and comfortable residence. Charlotte Ann Ormerod, sole heiress of Lawrence Ormerod Esq. Married John Hargreaves Esq. By which the estate came into his possession.

010 Laurence Ormerod

010 Laurence Ormerod

010 Matthew Greenwood

010 Richard '1st Earl of Cork' Boyle - Biography

Richard Boyle 1st Earl of Cork
Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, also known as the Great Earl of Cork (October 13, 1566 – September 15, 1643), was Lord High Treasurer of the Kingdom of Ireland. Boyle is an important figure in the continuing English colonisation of Ireland (commenced by the Normans) in the 16th and 17th centuries, as he acquired large tracts of land in plantations in Munster in southern Ireland, at the expense of native landowners. Moreover, his sons played an important role in fighting against Irish Catholic rebellion in the 1640s and ‘50s, assisting in the victory of the British and Protestant interest in Ireland. Boyle was born at Canterbury October 3, 1566, the second son of Roger Boyle (d. March 24, 1576 at Preston, near Faversham in Kent), a descendant of an ancient landed Herefordshire family, and of Joan (born October 15, 1529 at Canterbury — died March 20, 1586), daughter of John Naylor, who were married in Canterbury on October 16, 1564. Both are interred in an Alabaster tomb in the upper end of the Chancel of the parish church of Preston.[1] Young Boyle went to The King’s School, Canterbury, at the same time as Christopher Marlowe. University education began at Bennet (Corpus Christi) College, Cambridge, England, in 1583. After this he studied law at the Middle Temple in London and became a clerk to Sir Roger Manwood, Kt., who was then the Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. Before completing his studies, Boyle decided “to gain learning, knowledge, and experience abroad in the world”[2] and left London for a new start in Ireland. He arrived in Dublin on June 23, 1588 with just over £27 as well as a gold bracelet worth £10, and a diamond ring (given to him by his mother at her death and which he wore all his life), besides some fine clothing, and his “rapier and dagger”.[2] In 1590 he obtained the appointment of deputy Escheator to John Crofton, the Escheator-General. On November 6, 1595, he married Joan Apsley, the daughter and co-heiress of William Apsley of Limerick, one of the council to the first President of the province of Munster.[2] This marriage brought Boyle an estate of £500 a year, which he continued to receive until at least 1632. Joan died at Moyallow on December 14, 1599 during childbirth (the son was still-born). Both were buried in Buttevant church, county Cork. It is said by his detractors that unlike many of his other close relatives whom he took great care to commemorate, he took no trouble to have Joan commemorated after her death, leading to the conviction among some that his (in every sense) monumental commemorative endeavours were entirely practical (in terms of securing his personal objectives) rather than sentimental (her connections being of no direct use to him after her passing). Boyle by this time had been the object of the attacks of Sir Henry Wallop, Treasurer at War, Sir Robert Gardiner, Chief Justice of the King’s Bench, Sir Robert Dillon, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and Sir Richard Bingham, Chief Commissioner of Connaught, a demonstration, said Boyle, of their envy of his success and increasing prosperity.[3], Boyle was arrested on charges of fraud and collusion with the Spanish (essentially accusations of covert papist infiltration, a treasonable offence for an official in Queen Elizabeth I’s Protestant civil service) in his office. He was thrown into prison (at least once by Sir William FitzWilliam in about 1592) several times during this episode. He was about to leave for England to justify himself to Queen Elizabeth, when there was a rebellion in Munster in October 1598, and “all my lands were wasted”[2] which once again returned him to poverty. The Nine Years War arrived in Munster with Irish rebels from Ulster, who were joined by locals who had lost land to English settlers. Boyle was forced to flee to Cork for safety. This turn of events left him obliged to return to London and his chambers at The Temple. At this point he was almost immediately taken into the service of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex.

010 Richard '1st Earl of Cork' Boyle - Biography Henry Wallop then renewed his prosecution of Boyle. Boyle was summoned to appear at the Court of Star Chamber. In the proceedings, Boyle’s adversaries seem to have failed to substantiate their accusations. Boyle had somehow managed to secure the attendance of Queen Elizabeth I herself at the proceedings, and he successfully exposed some misconduct on the part of his adversaries. Elizabeth famously said: “By God’s death, these are but inventions against the young man” and she also said he was “a man fit to be employed by ourselves”. He was immediately appointed clerk of the council of Munster by Elizabeth I in 1600. In December 1601, Boyle brought to Elizabeth the news of the victory near Kinsale. In October 1602, Boyle was again sent over by Sir George Carew, the president of Munster, on Irish affairs. He was knighted at St Mary’s Abbey, near Dublin, by Carew on July 25, 1603. It was also on this day that he married his second wife, Catherine, daughter of Sir Jeffrey Fenton, Principal Secretary of State, and Privy Councillor, in Ireland.[4] He became a privy councillor for Munster in 1606, and in 1613 became a privy councillor for the whole of Ireland. It is claimed that Boyle obtained his Earldom with £4,000. He built towns such as Bandon, in which he founded iron-smelting and linen-weaving industries and brought in English settlers, many from Bristol. He was returned as a Member of Parliament for Lismore (at a Parliament held in the Castle of Dublin) on May 18, 1614. He ascended to the Irish Peerage as Lord Boyle, Baron of Youghal, September 6, 1616. He was created Earl of Cork and Viscount Dungarvan, October 26, 1620. On October 26, 1629 he was appointed as a Lord Justice, and on November 9, 1631 he became the Lord Treasurer of Ireland. Although he was not a Peer in the English Parliament, it is nonetheless recorded that he was “by writ called into the Upper House by His Majesty’s great grace”, and he then took up the honoured position of an “assistant sitting on the inside of the Woolsack.” The town of Clonakilty [1] was formally founded in 1613 by Richard Boyle when he received a charter from King James I. Oliver Cromwell is reported to have said of Richard Boyle ‘If there had been an Earl of Cork in every province it would have been impossible for the Irish to have raised a rebellion.’ Boyle bought Sir Walter Raleigh’s estates of 42,000 acres (170 km²) for £1,500 (a tiny price, even then) in the counties of Cork (including Lismore Castle), Waterford, and Tipperary and Youghal in 1602. He made these purchases on the insistence of Sir George Carew. Order on the Boyle estates was maintained by 13 castles which were garrisoned by retainers. It is a mistake to see Boyle’s ‘empire’ as merely being exclusively confined to the development of the ‘Raleigh estates’: for instance, his acquisition of the entirety of the city of Bandon was not completed until 1625. Other towns which also form part of Boyle’s municipal development legacy (which records employment of over 4,000 people during his lifetime) include Midleton, Castlemartyr, Charleville and Doneraile. Richard Boyle had a substantial residence at Youghal, known today as “The College”, close to St. Mary’s Collegiate Church. Boyle occupied the office of Sheriff from 1625 to 1626. T he Great Earl’s most famous enemy was Thomas Wentworth (who later became the 1st Earl of Strafford). Strafford arrived in Ireland in 1633 as Lord Deputy, and at first successfully deprived Boyle of much of his privilege and income. Boyle patiently husbanded forces in opposition to Strafford’s Irish

010 Richard '1st Earl of Cork' Boyle - Biography program and this successful political manoeuvering by Boyle was an important factor in Strafford’s demise. An illuminating example of the humiliations to which Wentworth subjected Boyle, was the instance where he forced Boyle to remove his wife’s tomb from the choir in St Patrick’s at Dublin. Archbishop William Laud delighted in Wentworth’s attacks on Boyle and wrote: “No physic better than a vomit if it be given in time, and therefore you have taken a very judicious course to administer one so early to my Lord of Cork. I hope it will do him good”. Laud and Wentworth shared, with King Charles I, the same fate as many others who at some time in his life, found reasons to conspire against Boyle: an early demise, with Boyle showing his customary astuteness by putting on a convincing show of politically appropriate response at every crucial juncture. Boyle made an entry concerning Wentworth in his diary: “A most cursed man to all Ireland and to me in particular.” It seems Boyle was someone whom you betrayed at your peril, no matter how safe your position might have seemed to be. At Wentworth’s trial, Boyle was a key witness, but he did not take any other direct part in the prosecution itself. Unsurprisingly, he was in full support of the condemnation of Wentworth and wholeheartedly approved of his execution. Boyle died in 1643, having been chased off his lands in the Irish Rebellion of 1641. His sons, however, recovered the family estates after the suppression of the rebellion. Boyle has been described as the “first colonial millionaire”. Historian R. F. Foster, in his Modern Ireland calls him an ‘epitome of Elizabethan adventurer-colonist in Ireland’, The Boyle motto is: ‘God’s Providence is my inheritance’. Rev. Alexander Leeper, Canon of St Patrick’s, in his Historical Handbook of St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin, says that Boyle spent £700 on having an Irish translation of Gospel made, and sent 500 copies to Ireland. Boyle’s theopolitical philosophy has been described as ‘providentialist’ when contrasted with its counterpart which prevailed to the north in Ulster at the time, which, is more typically characterised as Presbyterian. Notice how such a comparison of these two standpoints is neither exclusively religious nor secular, a factor which perhaps offers some small insight as to how Boyle managed to achieve what seems to us now the extraordinary feat of gaining strong favour at various times with the leaders on either side of the English Civil war. By his second wife, Catherine née Fenton, the 1st Earl of Cork had the following issue: 1. Roger Boyle August 1, 1606 in Youghal, county Cork, Ireland and died on October 10, 1615 in Deptford, Kent, England, where he was buried. 2. Lady Alice Boyle 1607–1667 Married David Barry, 1st Earl of Barrymore, then after his death, married John Barry, of Liscarroll, co Cork, Ireland 3. Lady Sarah Boyle 1609-1633 Married Sir Thomas Moore, then after his death married Robert, 1st Baron Digby of Geashill, Ireland 4. Lady Lettice Boyle 1610-1657 Married Colonel George Goring, Lord Goring 5. Lady Joan Boyle 1611-1657 Married George “The Fairy Earl” FitzGerald, 16th Earl of Kildare

010 Richard '1st Earl of Cork' Boyle - Biography 6. Sir Richard “the Rich” Boyle, 2nd Earl of Cork (1612-1698) also held the titles: 1st Earl of Burlington, Lord high treasurer of the kingdom of Ireland, Viscount Boyle of Kinalmeaky, Baron of Bandon Bridge, 1st Baron Clifford of Lanesborough in the county of York Lady latiffa Boyle, 1614-1691 married Arthur Jones, 2nd Viscount Ranelagh Geffrey Boyle Lady Dorothy Boyle Sir Lewis “the Valiant” Boyle Sir Roger “the Wise” Boyle 1st Earl of Orrery Francis “the Wise” Boyle Lady Mary Boyle Robert Boyle (1627 – 1691), author of The Sceptical Chymist; considered to be the father of modern chemistry Lady Margaret Boyle Boyle erected an elaborate monument to himself, his wives, his mother and children in St Mary’s Church, Youghal, County Cork and there is a similar but much larger Boyle monument in St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin. References Lodge, John, (Keeper of The Rolls), with Archdall, Mervyn, A.M., (member of the Royal Irish Academy), The Peerage of Ireland, Dublin, 1789: 150-1 Lodge & Archdall, The Peerage of Ireland, 1789: 152 Lodge & Archdall, The Peerage of Ireland, 1789: 153 Lodge & Archdall, The Peerage of Ireland, 1789: 156 Canny, Nicholas P., The Upstart Earl. Townshend, D., The Life and Letters of the Great Earl of Cork, 1904. George Bennett ‘The History of Bandon’ Harris, A.L., ‘The Funerary Monuments of Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork’, Church Mons. 13 (1998), 70-86

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010-Theophilus ‘2nd Earl of Suffolk’ Howard – Biography

Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theophilus_Howard,_2nd_Earl_of_Suffolk Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, KG (August 13, 1584 – June 3, 1640) was an English nobleman and politician. Born at the family estate of Saffron Walden, he was the son of Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, by his second wife Catherine Knyvet of Charlton, and succeeded his father in 1626. Sir Theophilus Howard was named in the Second Charter of Virginia made by King James I on May 23, 1609. The members if this extensive list were “incorporated by the name of The Tresorer and Companie of Adventurers and Planters of the Citty of London for the Firste Collonie in Virginia.” Howard owned Framlingham Castle in Suffolk which he sold to Sir Robert Hitcham in 1635 for the sum of £14,000. He died at Suffolk House, Charing Cross, London, and was buried on June 10 of that year in Saffron Walden. Marriage and children In March 1612, he married Elizabeth Home (d. 19 August 1633), daughter of George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar. They had nine children: James Howard, 3rd Earl of Suffolk (c.1620–1689) Thomas Howard Catherine Howard (d. 1650), married first George Stewart, 9th Seigneur d’Aubigny (d. 1642), second James Livingston, 1st Earl of Newburgh Elizabeth Howard (d. 11 March 1705), married on 1 October 1642 Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland Margaret Howard, married Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery 9th Great Grandmother George Howard, 4th Earl of Suffolk (1625–1691) Henry Howard, 5th Earl of Suffolk (1627–1709) Anne Howard, married Thomas Walsingham Frances Howard (d. October 1677), married Sir Edward Villiers (d. 1689) 8th Great Grandmother

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011 Catherine Knyvett-Howard — Biography

Catherine Howard, Countess Of Suffolk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Catherine Knyvet (1564 — 1633?) was born in Charlton, Wiltshire. She was the daughter of Sir Henry Knyvet of Charlton and Elizabeth Stumpe. Her half-brother was Sir Thomas Knyvet who foiled the gunpowder plot. She married, firstly, Richard, son of Robert Rich, 2nd Baron Rich, and grandson of Richard Rich, 1st Baron Rich and secondly, Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk. In 1619 she suffered from smallpox "which spoiled that good face of hers, which had brought to other much misery and to herself greatness which ended with much unhappiness." She had fourteen children:
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Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk (13 August 1582 – 3 June 1640) married: Elizabeth Hume had issue Elizabeth Howard (c. 1583 — 17 April 1658) married: (1) William Knollys, 1st Earl of Banbury had issue (2) Edward Vaux, 4th Baron Vaux of Harrowden (some say that Elizabeth's and William's children were illegitimate) Sir Robert Howard (1584–1653) married: Catherine Nevill Gertrude Howard (born c. 1585)[1] Sir William Howard (1586 – bef. 1672) Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Berkshire (8 October 1587 – 16 July 1669) married: Elizabeth Cecil had issue Catherine Howard (c.1588–1673) married: William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury had issue Emily Howard (born 1589)[1] Frances Howard (31 May 1590–1632) married: (1) Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex (2) Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset had issue Sir Charles Howard (1591–1622), married Mary Fitzjohn and had issue Henry Howard (1592–1616), married Elizabeth Bassett and had issue John Howard (1593–1595)[1] Edward Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Escrick (d. 24 April 1675) Margaret Howard, (c.1599 — 1608)

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Notes 1. ^ a b c "Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk". http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Bios/ThomasHoward(1ESuffolk).htm. Retrieved 2006-12-30.

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011 John ‘The Martyr’ Greenwood — Biography

Martyr John Greenwood
From Greenwood Genealogies, 1154-1914, Pg. 30-37 “John Greenwood was born in 1556 and entered Corpus Christie (or Benet) College, Cambridge, March 18, 1577-8 as a theological student. He received his Bachelor’s degree in 1580-1 and was ordained deacon of the English Established Church by Bishop of London. He was then ordained a priest by the Bishop of Lincoln and for 5 years labored in the English church in Norfolk County. What led to a change in his religious belief in unknown but he was deprived of his benefice and began holding secret religious services at the home of Lord Robert Rich, of Rockford, Essex County, who was interested in his doctrine. Soon Lord Rich and a clergyman named Robert Wright, who was associated with John Greenwood were arrested and thrown into prison. Mr. Greenwood then went to London where he formed a secret congregation at the house of one Henry Martin at St. Andrews. Here early in October 1586 he was arrested while conducting a service and lodged in the Clink prison. In late November 1586 John Greenwood and a follower of his, Thomas Barrowe, Esq. were removed to the Fleet prison where their quarters were close and they were deprived of proper food, sufficient warmth and many necessities of life for 7 years. Many times during their imprisonment Greenwood and Barrowe were taken before the authorities of the English Church and questioned as to their religious belief. Such an examination of Greenwood took place first at the palace (1586) before the Bishop of London. Asked by the Bishop (John Ayler) if he believed in baptism Greenwood replied that he did. Asked if he did not have a son unbaptized, Greenwood replied that his son, Abel, 1 and a half years old was unbaptized but that he had been in prison and was unable to take his son to a reformed church where he could be baptized according to God’s ordinance. Asked if he did not consider the English Church a church of God Greenwood replied, “No.” Mr. Greenwood told the Bishop that every congregation of Christ should be governed by a pastor, teacher and elder and by no other than that Christ appoints. He would excommunicate the Queen (Elizabeth Tudor) as well as all members of the church who disobeyed the teachings of the word of God. He would make no exception for the Queen. “The Scriptures set down sufficient laws for the worship of God and government of church which no man may add to or diminish. Her Majesty is not the supreme head of the Church.” On the 9th of March 1589 Archdeacon Hutchinson visited Mr. Greenwood at the Fleet, saying he had come by virtue of a commission from Her Majesty to confer. Mr. Greenwood declined to have anything to say until he could have pen and ink and a fellow prisoner as a witness of the conversation on the ground that he had been wickedly slandered and his cause falsely reported by the bishops and especially by one Dr. Some. The pen, ink and witness being granted, the archdeacon read some questions, mainly as to whether a church made up of members who were called together by the blowing of Her Majesty’s trumpet, received into the church without conversion and repentance and consisting of all sorts of profane people could be considered a true church of Christ. Very little progress was made at the interview and when the archdeacon went away he insisted on carrying with him all the notes that had been taken of what passed. He was prevailed upon to leave them in the hands of Mr. Calthop, the witness, but Mr. Greenwood ways; “No sooner was I gone and locked up than the wardens were sent to the gentleman for the papers, who, declining to deliver them without our consent, the archbishop’s servant came and took them away.” Eight days after this, March 17, 1589 the archdeacon came to see Mr. Greenwood again, bringing a witness of his own and having the doors locked upon them with no other person present except the two turnkeys of the jail one of whom acted as the scribe. On this occasion the argument was mainly upon the question whether John the Baptist received to his baptism those Pharisees and Sadduces whom he called generations of vipers. The archdeacon insisted that he did and Mr. Greenwood contended that while the vipers may have been present they took no part in the baptism, except as onlookers.

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011 John ‘The Martyr’ Greenwood — Biography In an interview on April 13, 1589 between Greenwood, his follower Barrowe and clergymen of the English church, the prisoners state, “Things were disorderly handled and there were manifold cavils and shifts, shameless denials of manifest truths, and most unchristian contumelies, scoffs and reproaches against our persons.” It ended with Greenwood and Barrowe being required to set down in brief the reasons why they persisted in refusing to return to the Church of England which they did in these words: That the people of the church, as they stand, are not orderly to the faith, but stand mingled together in confusion. The ministry set over the people is not the true ministry of the gospel which Christ appointed. The administrations and worship of the church are not according to the word of God. The ecclesiastical government, officers and canons are not according to the testament of Christ and are anti-Christian and popish. That the sacrament of baptism and the Lord’s Supper as administered in the Established Church are not true sacraments. That infants ought not be baptized according to the form of baptism now in the Church of England. That it is not lawful to use the Lord’s prayer publicly in the church for a set form of prayer. That all set and stinted prayers are merely babblings in the sight of the Lord and not to be used in public Christian assemblies. That the public prayers and worship of God in England as it is done in the Established Church is false, superstitious, popish, and not to be used in any Christian congregation. John Greenwood’s definition of a church was “ A company of faithful people separated from the unbelievers and heathen of the land, gathered in the name of Christ, whom they truly worship and readily obey as their only king, priest and prophet, joined together as members of one body, ordered and governed by such officers and laws as Christ in his will and testament hath hereunto obeyed. “ While in prison both Greenwood and Barrowe wrote several books which were produced under difficulties that would have crushed the spirit of men of weaker fibre and inferior courage. Denied proper writing material they used such scraps of paper and bits of material as was secretly brought to them by friends from the outside. When one piece of paper was written it was taken away and another piece as secretly furnished. These pieces of paper were taken to Holland where the writing was put into print and the books published. In the autumn of 1592 for some reason not apparent there was a relaxation of the rigor with which Greenwood was treated and he was allowed to leave the Fleet, either on bail or on his personal promise to appear when required. He went to live with Roger Rippon in Southwalk. Rippon’s house was one of those at which the members of Greenwood’s secrete church held its meetings. Mr. Greenwood, now that he was out of prison, met with these people. However the Bishops were alarmed by what they heard of the spread of Separatism and on Dec. 5, 1592 Greenwood was again arrested and returned to the Fleet prison. On March 23, 1593 Greenwood and his follower Barrowe were brought to trial at the Old Bailey in London. They were charged with publishing and dispensing seditious books; the proofs of the charge were found in the writings which they had published while in prison. Their sedition consisted in denying Her Majesty’s ecclesiastical supremacy and attacking the existing ecclesiastical order. Greenwood was examined on the 11th and the 20th of March and confessed to his authorship of the books laid to his charge. However the answers of both Greenwood and Barrowe at the trail were a general denial of the charges brought against them of sedition. They were never the less found guilty and sentenced to be hanged.

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011 John ‘The Martyr’ Greenwood — Biography The next morning, March 24, 1593 preparations were made for their execution — but they were reprieved. Certain doctors and deans were then sent to the prisoners to confer with them but the prisoners claimed an open or public discussion which was refused them. On the 31st of March the prisoners were conveyed to the place of execution very early and secretly. They were there tied by the neck to a tree and were permitted to speak a few words. They declared their innocence of all malice or ill intent and exhorted the people to obey and love the Queen and magistrates but to follow their leaders no further than they followed Scripture. They were then in the act of praying for the Queen when they were again reprieved. This time as a result of a supplication to the Lord Treasurer (William Cecil, First Baron of Burghley) that “in a land where no Papist was put to death for religion, theirs should not be the first blood shed who disagree about faith with what was professed in the country.” But only six days was gained by this clemency. The law that Greenwood was convicted under did not well apply in his case and the prelates having introduced a bill into Parliament that would apply were much alarmed when the bill came down to the Commons with modifications. Lest the prisoner escape execution he was secretly and early on the Morning of April 6, 1593 taken to Tyburn and there hanged. After the death of Greenwood and Barrowe the Parliament of England enacted a law “To Retain the Queen Majesty’s subjects in their Due Obedience” which read: “That if any person over 16 years of age shall be absent from church for a month, or by writing, printing or speech shall attempt to persuade any of her Majesty’s subjects to deny the Queen’s ecclesiastical supremacy or shall attempt to persuade them from coming to church or shall be present at any unlawful meeting for religious worship they shall be committed to prison without bail until they conform and make submission. If for 3 months they refuse to conform they are to be banished from the realm. If they fail to leave the country or return without license they are to be hanged as felons.” Immediately after the passage of this act most of the Separatist prisoners were released from jail and several hundred of them streamed to Holland. Among the first that fled were the members of the secret church in London of which John Greenwood had been pastor. That little band of Pilgrims that landed at Plymouth Mass in 1620 were his followers — they had worshipped at the church he founded. The religious teaching of John Greenwood rapidly spread in England and in 1640 Oliver Cromwell led the Puritans in England’s Civil War. “ Today these tenants represent the Congregational Church in New England. From The Greenwood Genealogies 1154 to 1914 by Frederick Greenwood, Pages 30 — 37 See also George F. Willison’s Saints and Strangers, 1945. Another version:

Greenwood Genealogies, 1154-1914
By Frederick Greenwood, East Templeton, MA — 1914 Chapter 5 • THE EXECUTION OF JOHN GREENWOOD It will be of interest to every Greenwood to learn of the execution in England of John Greenwood as a Puritan. He was a graduate of Cambridge University in England, a clergyman in the Established Church, and the very first to separate from that church and found the religious doctrine known as Puritanism or Congregationalism. He labored for simplicity of religious forms. Seven years he suffered the privations of close prison confinement and finally on the sixth of April, 1593, with his coworker, Henry Barrowe, was taken from jail and hanged. That little band of Pilgrims that landed at Plymouth, Mass., in 1620, were his followers — they had worshipped at the church he founded — that band of Puritans that landed in America and founded Boston were believers in the doctrine he was first to teach. The religious teachings of John Greenwood rapidly spread in England and in 1640 occurred the

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011 John ‘The Martyr’ Greenwood — Biography civil war in which the Puritans under Oliver Cromwell as leader overthrew the English church and government and established in England the right of the Puritans to existence in that country. Persecution of the Puritans ceased for a time in England after Cromwell established himself as ruler of the country. But that little band of Pilgrims at Plymouth, that band of Puritans at Boston, those followers who wended their way to Virginia and Maryland — they brought to America the teachings of John Greenwood — the separation of church and state — and if America owes its greatness, its progress, and its achievements to one principle in government more than another it is that in America every American can kneel at the altar of his own faith, and worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience. The state in America is separated from the church. American government tolerates no single form of religious worship but shelters and protects alike all. John Greenwood taught that there could be but one head to the church and that head was not the Queen but Christ, and that there could be no law for the government of the church other than what the Scriptures contained. The execution of John Greenwood was in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. John Greenwood, b. 1556, entered Corpus Christie (or Benet) College, Cambridge, Mar. 18, 1577-8, a theological student, received his Bachelor’s degree 1580-1, was ordained deacon of the English Established Church by the Bishop of London and priest by the Bishop of Lincoln, and for 5 years labored in the English Church, in Norfolk County. What led to a change in his religious belief is unknown but he was deprived of his benefice and began holding secret religious services at the home of Lord Robert Rich, of Rockford, Essex County, who was interested in his doctrine. Soon Lord Rich and a clergyman named Robert Wright, who was associated with John Greenwood, were arrested and thrown into prison. Mr. Greenwood then went to London where he formed a secret congregation at the house of one Henry Martin at St. Andrews. Here, early in October, 1586, he was arrested and lodged in the Clink prison while conducting a service. There had preceded Greenwood at Cambridge by a little more than 10 years a man of marked ability, by name of Henry Barrowe, third son of Thomas Barrowe, Esq., of Shipdam, Norfolk, by his second wife, Mary. He entered Cambridge Nov. 22, 1565, receiving his degree of Bachelor of Arts 1569-70, became a lawyer and practiced in Her Majesty’s courts. He had become interested in the religious teachings of John Greenwood, and hearing of Greenwood’s arrest he visited Greenwood on Sunday, Nov. 19, 1586, between 9 and 10 o’clock, at the Clink. Here with no pretense of legal warrant Barrowe was arrested and locked in with Greenwood. A few days later both Greenwood and Barrowe were removed to the fleet prison, where their quarters were close, and deprived of proper food, sufficient warmth and many necessities of life they were kept in confinement for 7 years. Many times during their imprisonment Greenwood and Barrowe were taken before the authorities of the English Church and questioned as to their religious belief. Such an examination of Greenwood took place first at the palace (1586) before the Bishop of London. Asked by the Bishop if he believed in baptism, Greenwood replied that he did. Asked if he did not have a son unbaptized, Greenwood replied that his son Abel, 1-1/2 years old, was unbaptized, but that he had been in prison and was unable to take his son to a reformed church where he could be baptized according to God’s ordinance. Asked if he did not consider the English Church a church of God replied “No.” Mr. Greenwood told the Bishop that every congregation of Christ should be governed by a pastor, teacher and elder and by no other than that Christ appoints. He would excommunicate the Prince (Queen) as well as all members of the church who disobeyed the teachings of the word of God. He would make no exception of the Prince. “The Scriptures Set down efficient laws for the worship of God and government of church which no man may add to or diminish. Her Majesty is not the supreme head of the church.” Barrow’s first examination was on the afternoon of his arrest before the Archbishop, Archdeacon and Doctor Cosin. He protested stoutly against his arrest without a warrant but to no effect. An effort was made to bind Barrowe by an oath to attend the Established Church, but he refused to take the oath. Eight days afterwards, 27 November, Barrowe was taken to Lambert before a synod of bishops and a dean, when a long sheet of accusations was read against him. He admitted that much of the matter was true but

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011 John ‘The Martyr’ Greenwood — Biography not all, and demanded that witnesses against him should be sworn, whereupon Whitgift (head of Corpus Christie College), losing his temper, burst out “Where is his keeper? You shall not prattle here. Away with him. Clap him up close. let no man go to him. I will make him tell another tale yer I have done with him.” On the 9th of March 1589, Archdeacon Hutchinson visited Mr. Greenwood at the Fleet, saying he had come by virtue of a commission from her Majesty to confer. Mr. Greenwood declined to have anything to say until he could have pen and ink and a fellow prisoner as a witness of the conversation, on the ground that he had been wickedly slandered and his cause falsely reported by the bishops and specially by one Dr. Some. The pen, ink and witness being granted, the archdeacon read some questions, mainly as to whether a church made up of members who were called together by the blowing of Her Majesty’s trumpet, received into the church without conversion and repentance and consisting of all sorts of profane people could be considered a true church of Christ. Very little progress was made at the interview and when the archdeacon went away he insisted on carrying with him all the notes that had been taken of what passed. He was prevailed upon to leave them in the hands of Mr. Calthop, the witness, but Mr. Greenwood says: “No sooner was I gone and locked up than the wardens were sent to the gentleman for the papers, who, declining to deliver them without our consent, the archbishop’s servant came and took them away.” Eight days after this, Mar. 17, 1589, the archdeacon came to see Mr. Greenwood again, bringing a witness of his own and having the doors locked upon them with no other person present except the two turnkeys of the jail, one of whom acted as scribe. On this occasion the argument was mainly upon the question whether John the Baptist received to his baptism those Pharisees and Sadducees whom he called generations of vipers, the archdeacon insisting that he did and Mr. Greenwood contending that while the vipers may have been present they took no part in the baptism, except as onlookers. In one interview the archdeacon had with Mr. Barrowe, the latter complained of his many years of illegal imprisonment and close confinement and was told by the archdeacon that “You should be most happy, for the solitary and contemplative I hold the most blessed life; it’s the life I would choose.” Mr. Barrowe meekly replied: “Could you be content, Mr. Andrews, to be kept from exercise and air for so long a time, matters so necessary to a body?” “I say not,” was the answer, “that I would want air.” In an interview, April. 13, 1589, between Greenwood and Barrowe and clergymen of the English church, the prisoners state, “Things were disorderly handled and there were manifold cavils and shifts, shameless denials of manifest truths, and most unchristian contumelies, scoffs and reproaches against our persons.” It ended with Greenwood and Barrowe being required to set down in brief the reasons why they persisted in refusing to return to the Church of England, which they did in these words: That the people of the church, as they stand, are not orderly to the faith, but stand mingled together in confusion. The ministry set over the people is not the true ministry of the gospel which Christ has appointed. The administrations and worship of the church are not according to the word of God. The ecclesiastical government, offers and canons are not according to the testament of Christ and are antiChristian and popish. That the sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s Supper as administered in the Established Church are not true sacraments. that infants ought not be baptized according to the form of baptism now in the Church of England. That it is not lawful to use the Lord’s prayer publicly in the church for a set form of prayer. That all set and stinted prayers are merely babblings in the sight of the Lord and not to be used in public Christian assemblies.

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011 John ‘The Martyr’ Greenwood — Biography That the public prayers and worship of God in England as it is done in the Established Church is false, superstitious, popish and not to be used in any Christian congregation. While in prison both Greenwood and Barrowe wrote several books which were produced under difficulties that would have crushed the spirit of men of weaker fiber and inferior courage. Denied proper writing material they used such scraps of paper and bits of material as was secretly brought to them by friends from the outside. When one piece of paper was written over it was taken away and another piece as secretly furnished. These pieces of paper were taken to Holland where the writing was put into print and the books published. The Holland printers had to make what they could of the writing, but on the whole they did their work fairly well. These books treated of the religious belief of Greenwood and Barrowe and contained the interviews between them and the English Church officers, and although 300 years have passed since their publication, some of these books are yet found. In the autumn of 1592, for some reason not apparent, there was a relaxation of the rigor with which Greenwood was treated and he was allowed to leave the fleet, either on bail or on his personal promise to appear when required, and he went to live with Roger Rippon, in Southwalk. Barrowe remained in jail. Rippon’s house was one of those at which the members of a secret church, formed by Mr. Greenwood four or five years before had held its meetings. Mr. Greenwood, now that he was out of prison, met twitch these people, and was appointed their doctor or teacher, but the bishops were alarmed by what they heard of the spread of Separatism and on Dec. 5, 192, Mr. Greenwood was again arrested and committed again to the Fleet with Barrowe. This time he was arrested at the home of Edward Boyse on Ludgate Hill. On March 23, 1593, Greenwood and Barrowe were brought to trail at the Old Bailey in London. They were charged with publishing and dispensing seditious books; the proofs of the charge were found in the writings which they had published while in prison. Their sedition consisted in denying Her Majesty’s ecclesiastical supremacy and attacking the existing ecclesiastical order. On the 3d, 11th and 20th of March Barrowe had been cited before Chief Justice Sir John Popham and Attorney General Lord Ellesmere and examined as to his opinions and his authorship of certain books. Barrowe avowed his convictions of the truth of his treatises and among other things expressed his opinion that the established government of the Church of England was unlawful and anti-christian. Greenwood had been examined on the 11th and 20th and confessed to his authorship of the books laid to his charge. Robert Bowle and Robert Stokes examined and testified on the 19th as to the way the books of Greenwood and Barrowe had been printed. Daniel Studley and James Forster testified to the printing also of the books. The latter, who described himself as a physician and master of arts, confessed having written some part of the Greenwood’s and Barrowe’s book entitled “A Brief Description of the False Church.” The answers of Greenwood and Barrowe at the trial was a general denial of the charges brought against them but they were found guilty and sentenced to be hanged. The next morning, March 24, 1593, preparations were made for their execution but they were reprieved. certain doctors and deans were then sent to the prisoners to confer with them but the prisoners claimed an open or public discussion, which was refused them. On the 31st of March the prisoners were conveyed to the place of execution very early and secretly, where being tied by the neck to the tree, were permitted to speak a few words. They declared their innocence of all malice or ill intent and exhorted the people to obey and love the Queen and magistrates but to follow their leaders no further than they followed Scripture. They were then in the act of parrying for the Queen when they were again reprieved. This time as the result of a supplication to the Lord Treasurer that “in a land where no Papist was put to death for religion, theirs should not be the first blood shed who disagreed about faith with what was professed in the country,” and desired conference to be convinced of their error. But only six days was gained by this clemency.

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011 John ‘The Martyr’ Greenwood — Biography The law that Greenwood and Barrowe were convicted under did not well apply in their case and the prelates having introduced a bill into Parliament that would apply were much alarmed when the bill came down to the Commons with its modifications and lest the prisoners should escape execution they were secretly and early on the morning of Apr. 6, 1593, taken to Tyburn and there hanged without ceremony. After the death of Greenwood and Barrowe, Parliament of England enacted a law “To Retain the Queen Majesty’s subjects in Their Due Obedience” which read: “That if any person over 16 years of age shall be absent from church for a month, or by writing, printing or speech shall attempt to persuade any of her Majesty’s subjects to deny the Queen’s ecclesiastical supremacy or shall attempt to persuade them from coming to church or shall be present at any unlawful meeting for religious worship they shall be committed to prison without bail until they conform and make submission. If for 3 months they refuse to conform they are to be banished from the realm. If they fail to leave the country or return without license they are to be hanged as felons.” Immediately after the passage of this act most of the Separatist prisoners were released from jail and several hundred of them streamed to Holland. Among the first that fled were the members of the secret church in London of which John Greenwood had been pastor. They crossed the sea in separate companies as they were able and within three or four years most of them had settled in Amsterdam. At one time 56 members of John Greenwood’s secret church, while holding a service among the sand hills at Islington, were surprised and arrested. They were “committed without neither meat, drink, fry or lodgings, nor were their friends allowed to have access to them; husbands and wives were purposely put into different prisons; some had not a penny about them, so that not only they but their poor families were in wretched cause. All was contrary to law etiquette and conscience. On May 22, 1593, John Penry, a graduate of Cambridge University and a member of John Greenwood’s secret congregation, was hanged at St. Thomas Waterings in London. Gov. Bradford, in his “Dialogue,” gives these additional names of Puritans who were publicly executed — William Dennis at Thetford, Norfolk, and John and Elias Coppin at Bury St. Edmunds. A great many Puritans who were committed to jail died in prison. Some were horse whipped, some branded with hot irons and some kept in chains. John Greenwood’s definition of a church was: A company of faithful people separated from the unbelievers and heathen of the land, gathered in the name of Christ, whom they truly worship and readily obey as their only king, priest and prophet, joined together as members of one body, ordered and governed by such officers and laws as Christ in his will and testament hath hereunto obeyed. It is interesting to notice how John Greenwood and members of the church he founded struck upon some of the simple forms of religious observance that have remained characteristic of the Congregational Church to this day: One Daniel Buck, a writing master, deposed 9 March, 1593, that when he joined the company “he made ye protestation that he would walk with the rest and yet so long as they did walk in the way of the Lorde and as far as might be warranted by the word of God; that Greenwood took water and washed the faces of them that were baptized saying only in ye administration of the sacrament ‘I do baptize the in ye name of the Father, of the Son and of the Holy Ghost and without Godfather and Godmother’; and that at the Lord’s supper five white loaves or more were set upon ye table and that the pastor did break ye bread and then deliver it unto some of them and the deacons delivered to the rest, some of sd. congregation sitting and some standing about the table and that the pastor delivered the cup unto one and he unto another till they had all drank using the words at ye delivery thereof according as is set down in the eleventh of Cor. ye 24 verse.” Henry Barrowe was unmarried and a man of some property, which he willed to the Puritan Church at his death. His money paid for the printing of the religious works he and Mr. Greenwood wrote in prison. The execution of John Greenwood at Tyborn is recorded on the records of Corpus Christie College, Cambridge, Eng., and the offense is given as “writing against the Book of Common Prayer.”

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011 John 'The Martyr' Greenwood

011 John 'The Martyr' Greenwood

011 Roger Boyle

011 Thomas '1st Earl of Suffolk' Howard — Biography

Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Spouse(s) Mary Dacre Katherine Knyvet Issue Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk Elizabeth Howard Robert Howard Gertrude Howard Sir William Howard Catherine Howard Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Berkshire Emily Howard Frances Howard Sir Charles Howard Henry Howard John Howard Edward Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Escrick Margaret Howard Noble Family House of Howard Father: Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk Mother: Margaret Audley Born: 24 August 1561 Died: 28 May 1626 The Earl Of Suffolk

Admiral Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, KG, PC (24 August 1561 – 28 May 1626) was a son of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk by his second wife Margaret Audley, Duchess of Norfolk, the daughter and heiress of the 1st Baron Audley of Walden. Early Life And Marriage After the death of his mother on 10 January 1564, the infant Thomas inherited Saffron Walden and other Audley properties. While imprisoned in the Tower before his execution in 1572, his father urged him to marry his stepsister Mary Dacre, the daughter of Thomas Dacre, 4th Baron Dacre and Elizabeth Leybourne, the Duke's third wife. He did so; but Mary died, childless, on April 1578 at Walden.[1] In or before 1583, Howard remarried to Katherine Knyvet, widow of Richard, son of Robert Rich, 2nd Baron Rich. A noted beauty, she was also the eldest daughter and heiress of her father, Sir Henry Knyvet of Charlton.[2] Issue
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Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk (13 August 1582 – 3 June 1640) married: Elizabeth Hume had issue Elizabeth Howard (c. 1583 — 17 April 1658) married: (1) William Knollys, 1st Earl of Banbury had issue (2) Edward Vaux, 4th Baron Vaux of Harrowden (some say that Elizabeth's and William's children were illegitimate) Sir Robert Howard (1584–1653) married: Catherine Nevill

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011 Thomas '1st Earl of Suffolk' Howard — Biography Gertrude Howard (born c. 1585)[3] Sir William Howard (1586 – bef. 1672) Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Berkshire (8 October 1587 – 16 July 1669) married: Elizabeth Cecil had issue Catherine Howard (c.1588–1673) married: William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury had issue Emily Howard (born 1589)[3] Frances Howard (31 May 1590–1632) married: (1) Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex (2) Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset had issue Sir Charles Howard (1591–1622), married Mary Fitzjohn and had issue Henry Howard (1592–1616), married Elizabeth Bassett and had issue John Howard (1593–1595)[3] Edward Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Escrick (d. 24 April 1675) Margaret Howard (c.1599 — 1608)

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Naval Exploits In December 1584, he was restored in blood as Lord Thomas Howard.[1] Lord Thomas commanded the Golden Lion in the attack on the Spanish Armada. On 25 July 1588, the Golden Lion was one of the three ships that counter-attacked the Spanish galleasses protecting the Saint Anne. He was knighted the next day aboard Ark Royal by his kinsman, Admiral Lord Howard of Effingham.[4] In 1591, he was sent with a squadron to the Azores which was to waylay the Spanish treasure fleets from America. However, one fleet reached Spain before his arrival, and the second would not arrive in the islands until September. Forced by the long delay to land his sick and repair his ships, he was barely able to reballast and get to sea off Flores in time when his scouts reported an arriving fleet. To his horror, this proved to be, not the treasure fleet, but a powerful Spanish force dispatched from Ferrol to destroy his squadron. All of Howard's fleet escaped, by the barest of margins, except Revenge, commanded by the squadron's vice-admiral, Sir Richard Grenville. Revenge, some distance from the remainder of the fleet, attempted to break through the Castilian Squadron and was forced to surrender after a long fight, in which Revenge was virtually destroyed and Grenville mortally wounded.[5] In 1596, Howard served as vice-admiral of the expedition against Cadiz, which defeated a Spanish fleet and captured the town. Favored by Queen Elizabeth, he was installed as a Knight of the Garter in April 1597, and in June sailed with the unsuccessful expedition to the Azores, which he had partly funded.[1] Political Career He was seriously ill in the autumn of 1597, and was created Baron Howard de Walden by writ of summons. While he recovered from his illness, he was unable to attend Parliament until January 1598. On 2 February 1598, he was admitted an honorary member of Gray's Inn. In 1599, he commanded the fleet in The Downs, and was appointed Constable of the Tower of London on 13 February 1601 after the revolt of the Earl of Essex, and was one of the commission who tried Essex and Southampton. Still active in

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011 Thomas '1st Earl of Suffolk' Howard — Biography privateering ventures, he never obtained significant profit from them. At this time, he was also sworn High Steward of Cambridge University, and would hold the post until 1614.[1] (He received an MA from Cambridge in 1605.[6]) A friend of Sir Robert Cecil, he became acting Lord Chamberlain at the close of 1602, and entertained the Queen at the Charterhouse, towards the end of her life in January 1603. Under James I, Howard immediately entered the King's favour, being appointed Lord Chamberlain on 6 April 1603 and a Privy Counsellor on 7 April. Later that year, on 21 July 1603, he was created Earl of Suffolk. He was also appointed a commissioner for creating Knights of the Bath, and from 1604 to 1618 a commissioner for the Earl Marshalcy. He was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Suffolk in 1605, having several years earlier been made Lord Lieutenant of Cambridgeshire.[1] Suffolk accepted a gift from the Spanish ambassador negotiating the peace treaty of 1604, but his countess proved a more valuable informant and Catholic sympathizer. Avaricious, she accepted an annual pension of £1000 from the Spanish. While Suffolk was less pro-Spanish and pro-Catholic than his wife, she was felt to dominate her husband in matters of politics, a circumstance which would later bring him to grief.[1] By 1605, Cecil, now Earl of Salisbury, Suffolk, the Earl of Northampton, and the Earl of Worcester were James' principal privy counsellors. Suffolk and Salisbury were both privy to the communications made by Lord Monteagle revealing the existence of the Gunpowder Plot, and Suffolk examined the cellar, spotting the brushwood concealing the gunpowder. Later that evening, the Keeper of the Palace, Sir Thomas Knyvet (Suffolk's brother-in-law) made further search, revealing the gunpowder, and the plot collapsed. Suffolk was one of those commissioned to investigated and try the plotters.[1] Numbered by James as one of his "trinity of knaves" (with Salisbury and Northampton), he was nonetheless thought loyal and reliable to the King. By 1607, work was completed on Charlton Park, Wiltshire, a house which is still home to his descendants. In December 1608, Salisbury's eldest son and heir, William married Suffolk's third daughter, Catharine. Salisbury, who died in 1612, praised Suffolk's friendship in his will; and upon his death, Suffolk was appointed one of the Lords of the Treasury. Though he disliked Sir Robert Carr, the royal favorite, Suffolk supported his daughter Frances' desire to divorce her husband, the Earl of Essex to marry him. She did so in December 1613, shortly after his creation as Earl of Somerset.[1] On 8 July 1614, Suffolk was appointed Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, replacing his kinsman Northampton, and on 11 July 1614 was made Lord High Treasurer. His new son-in-law, Somerset, replaced him as Lord Chamberlain, and Suffolk and his family now dominated the court.[1] In 1615, however, Suffolk's fall began. James had become deeply infatuated with Sir George Villiers, and Suffolk's daughter Frances, now Countess of Somerset, was implicated in the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury. Suffolk was accused by James of complicity with Somerset in trying to suppress investigation of the crime, but successfully weathered the storm. However, Suffolk then made the mistake of attempting to undermine the rising power of Villiers by grooming another handsome young man to succeed him in James' favor. Completely unsuccessful, this only provoked a counterattack by Villiers, now (1618) Marquess of Buckingham, upon Suffolk's conduct as Lord High Treasurer.[1]

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011 Thomas '1st Earl of Suffolk' Howard — Biography Suffolk's finances were always in a perilous state. His early privateering and naval ventures nearly bankrupted him, despite some financial help from Queen Elizabeth. Under James, the situation was somewhat eased by his preferment at court, which gave him board and lodging and valuable emoluents, and the regrant of some of the sequestered estates of his father. Some of this he invested in land in East Anglia, and he further benefited from a series of customs farms and bequests from relatives. He had been forced to sell his London residence, the Charterhouse, in 1611, but this was replaced in 1614 when he inherited the Earl of Northampton's house at Charing Cross. Suffolk added to his own troubles by extravagant building programs. Audley End House, built from 1603 to 1616, was the largest private house in England. He also added an expensive new wing to Charing Cross, and his wife built Charlton Park on the Knyvett estates she had inherited. Suffolk's children were also well provided for. He spent considerable sums to keep up their profile at court, and provided generous marriage portions to improve their matches. While this strategy was successful, it generated crushing debts for him, owing £40,000 in bonds and mortgages by 1618. His appointment as Lord High Treasurer in 1614 provided the opportunity for ameliorate his financial position through graft and deals with customs farmers, although it did not completely relieve his debts. It was also to prove the instrument of his downfall.[1] Arrest And Fall Through the agency of Buckingham, James was made aware of Suffolk's misconduct in the Treasury, particularly allegations that Lady Suffolk harassed creditors of the crown, and extorted bribes from them before they could obtain payment. Suffolk was suspended from the Treasurership in July 1618. Early in 1619, his wife suffered an attack of smallpox which destroyed her famous beauty, and Suffolk himself pleaded ill health in an attempt to avoid trial. These efforts failed: in October 1619, he, his wife, and their crony Sir John Bingley, Remembrancer of the Exchequer were prosecuted on a variety of counts of corruption in the Court of Star Chamber. Sir Francis Bacon, the prosecutor, compared Lady Suffolk to an exchange woman keeping shop while her apprentice, Bingley, cried "Whad'ye lack?" outside.[3] On 13 November 1619, they were found guilty on all counts. A fine of £30,000 was imposed, and they were sentenced to imprisonment at the King's pleasure.[1] After ten days, Suffolk and his wife were released, and appealed to Buckingham to intercede for them. Although Suffolk further irritated James by legal maneuvers to avoid seizure of his property, Buckingham was willing to be magnanimous to his rival now that his power had been destroyed. Buckingham obtained for Suffolk an audience with the King, and the fine was subsequently remitted except for £7000. In 1623, Suffolk's youngest son Edward married Buckingham's niece, Mary Boteler. While Suffolk never again rose to high office, he was active in the Lords, and served twice as a commissioner of ecclesiastical causes. He died at Charing Cross on 28 May 1626 and was buried on 4 June at Saffron Walden.[1] References 1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Croft, Pauline (2004). "Howard, Thomas, first earl of Suffolk (1561–1626)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/13942. Retrieved 2006-12-30. 2. ^ "Howard pedigree 2". http://www.stirnet.com/HTML/genie/british/hh4bz/howard02.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-30. 3. ^ a b c d "Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk". http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Bios/ThomasHoward(1ESuffolk).htm. Retrieved 2006-12-30. 4. ^ Camden, William (1625). Annales Rerum Gestarum Angliae et Hiberniae Regnante Elizabetha. http://www.philological.bham.ac.uk/camden/1588e.html. Retrieved 2006-12-30.

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011 Thomas '1st Earl of Suffolk' Howard — Biography 5. ^ "The Last Fight of the Revenge The Revenge". http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/renaissance/revenge/default.aspx. Retrieved 2006-12-30. http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/renaissance/revenge/default.aspx. 2006 6. ^ Howard, Thomas in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 Press vols, 1922–1958.

"Howard, Thomas (1561-1626 Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1626)". Co 1885–1900.

Political Offices Vacant Title Last Held By The Lord North Vacant Title Last Held By The Lord Hunsdon Preceded By The Viscount Howard Of Bindon Preceded By The Lord Hunsdon Preceded By In Commission (First Lord: The Lord Ellesmere) Preceded By The Earl Of Northumberland Preceded By Sir Thomas Mildmay Preceded By Sir Robert Jermyn Preceded By The Earl Of Northampton Captain Of The Gentlemen Pensioners 1615–1616 Custos Rotulorum Of Essex Bef. 1621–1624 Custos Rotulorum Of Suffolk Bef. 1621–1624 Academic Offices Chancellor Of The University Of Cambridge 1614–1626 Succeeded By The Duke Of Buckingham Lord Lieutenant Of Dorset With The Earl Of Salisbury 1611– 1612 1611–1626 Lord Chamberlain 1603–1613 Lord High Treasurer 1614–1618 Succeeded By The Earl Of Somerset Succeeded By In Commission (First Lord: George Abbot) First Lord Succeeded By Lord Howard De Walden Lord Lieutenant Of Suffolk 1605–1626 Lord Lieutenant Of Cambridgeshire 1602–1626 Succeeded By The Earl Of Suffolk

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011 Thomas '1st Earl of Suffolk' Howard — Biography

Peerage Of England New Creation Earl Of Suffolk 1603–1626 Baron Howard De Walden (Descended By Acceleration) 1597–1610 Succeeded By Theophilus Howard

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011 Thomas '1st Earl of Suffolk' Howard

011 Walter Hungerford

011 Warham St. Leger

012 Anthony 'Lord Deputy' St. Leger — Biography

Anthony 'Lord Deputy' St. Leger
Anthony St Leger first son of Ralph St. Leger of Ulcombe. Source: History of Parliament, a biographical dictionary of Members of the House of Commons. Born c.1496, first son of Ralph St. Leger of Ulcombe. Educ. Camb.; travelled France and Italy; G. Inn. Married Agnes, dau. of Hugh Warham of Croydon and niece and heiress of William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury. Suc. family 1518. Kntd. 1539; KG 1544. J.p. Kent by 1526, sheriff 1539-40; commr. to survey Calais 1535, 1552, to defend Kent coast 1539, heresy 1552; gent. privy St. Leger Ulcome House, Doneraile Court Built in 1725 chamber by 1538-c.53; ld. deputy, Ireland Jul 1540-48, Aug 1550 — May 1551, Oct 1553-May 1556; PC 7 Aug 1553 — BEF 1558; envoy to France Aug 1553. The Imperial Ambassador in London confused St. Leger with Sir Thomas Chaloner, Member of Parliament, which has led several subsequent writers to the belief that St. Leger was in France most of the year. When twelve years of age St. Leger was sent for his grammar learning with his tutor into France, for his carriage into Italy, for his philosophy to Cambridge, for his law to Gray’s Inn, and for that which completed all, the government of himself, to court, where his debonairness and freedom took with Henry VIII, as his solidity and wisdom with the Cardinal Wolsey. At eighteen Anthony joined the retinue of George Neville, Lord Abergavenny, an association which grew into a family tie when one of his sons, Warham, married Lord Abergavenny’s daughter Ursula Neville and her sister Catherine married one of Anthony’s Devon nephews. He was present at the marriage of the princess Mary at Paris in Oct 1514, and is mentioned in the following year as forming one of Lord Abergavenney’s suite (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, i. 898, ii. 134). After Wolsey’s downfall he seems to have taken a prominent part, he attached himself to Cromwell, whote active agent he was in the demolition of the suppressed abbeys. On 2 Aug 1535, he was appointed, along with Sir William Fitzwilliam and George Paulet, to inquire into the state of Calais, and to take measures for strengthening the English Pale in France (ib. ix. 79). The following year he was one of the grand jury of Kent that found a true bill against Anne Boleyn (cf. Froude, ii. 507), and his name appears in the list of such noblemen and gentlemen as were appointed in Oct that year to attend upon the King’s own person in the northern rebellion (Letters and Papers of Hentry VIII, xi.233). On 31 Jul 1537 was appointed president of a commission of enquiry into the condition of Ireland ‘for the ordre and establishment to be taken and made touching the hole state of our lande of Ireland, and all and every our affaires within the same, bothe for the reduccion of the said lande to a due civilitie and obedyens, and the advanncement of the publique weale of the same’ (State Papers, Henry VIII, printed, ii. 452-63). He and his fellow-commissioners arrived at Dublin on 8 Sep, and having with the assistance of the lord-deputy, Lord Leonard Grey, dissolved the army, they set out on the 26th on a tour of inspection through the parts adjacent to the English Pale. In the course of this work, he obtained much useful knowledge of the country.

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012 Anthony 'Lord Deputy' St. Leger — Biography He returned to England at the end of Mar or beginning of Apr 1538 and in Jun was appointed one of the gentlement of the King’s privy chamber. He was knighted early in 1539, and was one of the jury that tried and condemned Sir Nicholas Carew on 14 Feb. In Oct that year he went to Brussels in order to procure a safe-conduct through Flanders from the Queen of Hungary for Anne of Cleves, whom he escorted to England (Cal.State Papers, Henry VIII, xiv.pt. i.114, pt. ii. 126) and on his return was made sheriff of Kent and a commissioner for the establishment of the church of Canterbury with a view to its

Ulcome House From Back

conversion into a cathedral. Anthony was a long time friend of Sir Thomas Wyatt of Allington Castle in Kent and upon his death in 1542 Anthony wrote the Epitaph upon Sir Thomas which expresses is own personal respect and admiration for the man. Anthony’s step-grandaughter Jane Finch (dau. of Catherine Moyle, wife of Nicholas St. Leger) married into the Wyatt family by marrying George Wyatt the grandson of Sir Thomas Wyatt. On 7 Jul 1540, Anthony was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland with a salary of £666 13s 4d., and tasked with the repression of disorder. He moved against the Kavanaghs, permitting them to retain their lands only by accepting feudal tenure on the English model. By a similar policy he exacted obedience from the O’Mores, the O’Tooles and the O’Conors in Leix and Offaly; and having conciliated the O’Briens in the west and the Earl of Desmond in the south, he carried an act in the Irish parliament in Dublin conferring the title of King of Ireland on Henry VIII and his heirs. Conn O’Neill, who had remained sullenly hostile, was forced to submit. In the same year obtained an act of parliament disgavelling his estates in Kent (Robinson’s Gavelkind, p. 299). St. Leger’s policy was generally one of moderation and conciliation — more so than Henry VIII wished. He recommended The O’Brien, when he gave token of a submissive disposition, for the title of Earl of Thomond; O’Neill was created Earl of Tyrone; an administrative council was instituted in the province of Munster; and in 1544 a levy of Irish soldiers was raised for service in Henry VIII’s wars. St. Leger’s personal influence was proved by an outbreak of disturbance when he visited England in 1544, and the prompt restoration of order on his return some months later. Though so carefully prepared, St. Leger was never a principal adviser to any of his sovereigns, being required instead to devote himself to the thankless task of trying to impose an alien government on the Irish. Recognizing that Ireland ‘is much easier won than kept’, as he put it, he concentrated on the area around Dublin, and endeavoured to win over the local leaders by grants of land, ‘small gifts’ and ‘honest persuasion’. At first successful, the end of his first period in office was marred by a quarrel with Ormond, the most powerful Irishman. Sometime about 1544 Sir Anthony received the honour of the Garter together with £200 to his salary as deputy. In Sep 1548 Sir Anthony returned to England having been superseded by Sir Edward Bellingham. On 20 Apr 1550 he was appointed to meet the French hostages for the fulfilment of the treaty of Boulogne, between London and Dover, and on 4 Aug he was reconstituted lord deputy of Ireland (Instructions in Cal. Carew MSSi.226-30), being sworn in on 10 Sep charged with the duty of introducing

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012 Anthony 'Lord Deputy' St. Leger — Biography the reformed liturgy into Ireland. Reappointed by Protector Somerset, St. Leger was given the impossible task of imposing the new Book of Common Prayer. Somerset made no allowance for the differences between England and Ireland, and was warned by St. Leger that the Irish ‘should be handled with the more humanity lest they, by extremity, should adhere to other foreign powers’. His conciliatory methods led to his recall in the summer of 1551. In May 1552 he had a grant in fee farm of the castle of Leeds in Kent, and on 12 Jun he was appointed a commissioner for the survey of Calais and the marches. His name occurs as one of the witnesses to the will of Edward VI, 21 Jun 1553; but he supported the claims of Mary, and on 7 Aug was sworn a privy councillor. After the accession of Queen Mary he was again appointed Lord Deputy in Oct 1553 and reached Dublin on 11 Nov. By Mary’s reign money was short and St. Leger’s own standing had been undermined by accusations of corruption. He offended the catholics by certain verses ridiculing the doctrine of transubstantiation. But he had other and more powerful enemies, chief among whom must be reckoned Sir William Fitzwilliam who charged him with falsifying his accounts in favour of Andrew Wyse, late vice-treasurer. The charge of keeping false accounts caused him to be recalled for the third time in 1556, and on 26 May surrendered the sword of state to Thomas Radcliffe, lord Fitzwalter. John Hooker wrote: ‘This man ruled and governed very justly and uprightly in a good conscience ... [yet] many slanderous informations were made and inveighed against him, which is a fatal destiny, and inevitable to every good governor in that land. For the more pains they take in tillage, the worse is their harvest; and the better be their services, the greater is the malice and envy against them, being not unlike to a fruitful apple tree, which the more apples he beareth, the more cudgels be hurled at him’ The truth of the matter will never be ascertained. His own attitude would no doubt have been the same as a statement he had made when similar accusations had been levelled against him in 1538: ‘I have too long abstained from bribery to begin now’. There is no doubt that Mary kept him short of money, and he was said to have left debts in Ireland of over £3,000. His return from Ireland in 1556 to face a Privy Council inquiry marked the end of his active career. The investigation was still in progress when Elizabeth succeeded, and, typically enough, far from dropping the charges, she renewed the inquiry into his accounts. Perhaps it was his vulnerability that led St. Leger, now in his sixties, to seek, for the first time, election to Parliament, or perhaps it was simply that he wished to serve at least once as knight of his shire, an honour his absences in Ireland had often denied him, though he could have sat in Mary’s last, where he might have been more at home. The vestigial journals of Elizabeth’s first Parliament do not mention his name, and St. Leger died during its course. On 8 Dec 1558 a letter was addressed to him requiring him to ‘to signifye with speed... what he myndeth to doo herein’; but his death at Ulcombe on 16 Mar 1559 put a stop to further proceedings. He was buried at Ulcombe, his family seat for 450 years. His wife died eight days later. The state funeral for Sir Anthony had already been arranged, posing a problem for the Herald’s Office. There was no precedent for a person of his rank being buried with his wife. The problem was solved by burying Agnes first on the day before her husband’s funeral on 5 Apr. They were both buried at Ulcombe, Kent. (Moya Frenz St. Leger, 1986) St. Leger must be classed as indifferent in religion. He was attached to both Wolsey and Thomas Cromwell, though he should not be confused with a namesake, a Sussex priest, who was wholly committed to Cromwell. He served both Somerset and Mary, moderating as far as he could, the extremes of both regimes. When the protestant Archbishop of Dublin chided him for conservatism he retorted, ‘Go to, your matters of religion will mar all’. When the Catholic Bishop Gardiner of Winchester was condemning a priest for conducting reformed services he intervened: ‘My good lord chancellor, trouble not yourself with this heretic. I think all the world is full of them’.

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012 Anthony 'Lord Deputy' St. Leger — Biography In John Stowe’s 1595 survey of London and Westminster states “crossing the London bridge to Southwark note near the bridge a stone yard for repairs to the bridge. Next to this is St. Leger house which I believe was once owned by Sir Anthony then by Sir Warham St. Leger, on the other side is a bakehouse”. Renamed St. Leger House after it was granted to Sir Anthony at the dissolution of the monasteries. Once known as the Inn of St. Augustine when owned by the Abbots of St. Augustine, Canterbury. It probably became the London residence of Sir Anthony. The rambling stone and timberbuilt house had many rooms, wide passages and staircases and numerous galleries.

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012 Anthony 'Lord Deputy' St. Leger

012 Anthony 'Lord Deputy' St. Leger

012 Cecily Beaumont-Fenton

012 Christopher '3rd Baron of Delvin' Nugent

012 Christopher '3rd Baron of Delvin' Nugent

Cambridge University Alumni, 1261-1900
Name: College: Entered: Born: More Information: Christopher Nugent CLARE Easter, 1563 1544 from CLARE, Easter, 1563. S. of Richard, Lord Delvin. B. 1544. Succeeded as Baron Nugent, 1559. Knighted, July, 1566. Served repeatedly in Ireland. Married Marie, dau. of Gerald Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare. Author, A Primer of the Irish Language. Committed to Dublin Castle on suspicion of treason. Died there Oct. 1, 1602. (Cooper, II. 331; D.N.B.)

Source Information: Ancestry.com. Cambridge University Alumni, 1261-1900 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 1999. Original data: Venn, J. A., comp.. Alumni Cantabrigienses. London, England: Cambridge University Press, 1922-1954. Description: This list of all known students, graduates, and officers at the University of Cambridge, England, from 1261 to 1900 offers information from various sources. Every entry offers important information which may include any of the following: notable accomplishments, occupation, birth date, birth place, other schooling, spouse's name, parent's names, siblings and other important associations.

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012 Margaret Audley-Howard — Biography

Margaret Audley-Howard, Duchess of Norfolk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Magaret Audley-Howard, Duchess of Norfolk Spouse(s) Lord Henry Dudley Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk Philip Howard Issue Elizabeth Howard Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk William Howard Margaret Howard Father: Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden Mother: Elizabeth Grey Born: 1540 Walden, Essex, England Died: 9 January 1564 (aged 23-24) Norwich, Norfolk, England Margaret Howard (née Audley), Duchess of Norfolk (1540 – 1564) was the sole surviving child[1] of Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden and Lady Elizabeth Grey, daughter of Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset and Margaret Wotton. Lady Elizabeth Grey was the aunt of Lady Jane Grey, de facto Queen of England for nine days in 1553 and, therefore, Margaret and Queen Jane were first cousins. Marriages Margaret was a wealthy heiress[2] and married first, without issue, Lord Henry Dudley, the youngest son of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland. Henry Dudley was killed at the Battle of St. Quentin, 20 August 1557.[3] In December 1558, she became the second wife of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, who was her fifth cousin, through their descent from Jacquetta of Luxembourg and Richard Woodville. Margaret's line of descent came from the marriage of Elizabeth Woodville and John Grey, while Thomas Howard's line of descent came through Elizabeth Woodville's sister, Catherine, who had married Henry Stafford.[4] They had four children, Elizabeth (who died as a child), Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, William, and Margaret.[5] She died on 9 January 1564, three weeks after the birth of her last child.[6] She was buried at St. John the Baptist's church at Norwich. Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ^ Williams p. 34 ^ Adams p. 171 ^ Williams pp. 49, 34 ^ Williams p. 34 ^ Williams p. 87 ^ Williams p. 87

Margaret Howard, Duchess of Norfolk by Hans Eworth, 1562

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012 Margaret Audley-Howard — Biography References
• •

Adams, Simon: Leicester and the Court: Essays in Elizabethan Politics Manchester UP 2002 ISBN 0719053250 Neville Williams: Thomas Howard, Fourth Duke of Norfolk Barrie & Rockliff 1964

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012 Margaret Cusak-OBrien

012 Richard Blount

012 Robert Weston

012 Thomas '4th Duke of Norfolk' Howard — Biography

Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Spouse(s) Mary FitzAlan Margaret Audley Elizabeth Leyburne Noble Family House of Howard Father: Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey Mother: Frances de Vere Born: 10 March 1536 Died: 2 June 1572 (aged 36), Tower Hill , London, England Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal (10 March 1536 – 2 June 1572) was an English nobleman.

The Duke of Norfolk

Norfolk was the son of the poet Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. He was taught as a child by John Foxe, the Protestant martyrologist, who remained a lifelong recipient of Norfolk's patronage. His father predeceased his grandfather, so Norfolk inherited the Dukedom of Norfolk upon the death of his grandfather, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk in 1554. Norfolk was a second cousin of Queen Elizabeth I of England through her mother's family and was trusted with public office despite his family's history and leanings towards Catholicism (although he was brought up a Protestant). Marriages And Plots First Wife Thomas Howard's first wife was Mary FitzAlan, who after the death of her brother Henry in 1556 became heiress to the Arundel Estates of her father Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel. She died after a year of marriage having given birth to a son, Philip Howard (28 June 1557 – 19 October 1595), who became 20th Earl of Arundel. It is from this marriage that the present Duke of Norfolk takes his name of 'FitzAlan-Howard' and why his seat is in Arundel. Though her funeral effigy is there, Mary FitzAlan was never buried at Framlingham, but at the church of St. Clement Without, Temple Bar and then (under the direction of her grandson's will) at Arundel. Second Wife Norfolk next married another heiress, Margaret Audley, widow of Sir Henry Stanley and daughter of Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden.

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012 Thomas '4th Duke of Norfolk' Howard — Biography Margaret's children by her marriage to Norfolk were two boys (Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk and s Thomas Lord William Howard, ancestor of the Earls of Carlisle) and two girls. Both Mary FitzAlan and Margaret , Audley have their tomb effigies at St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [1] Framlingham. Third Wife After Margaret's death, Norfolk married Elizabeth Leyburne (1536 – 4 September 1567), widow of s 1567 Thomas Dacre, 4th Baron Dacre of Gillesland. Norfolk's three sons by his first two wives, Philip, Thomas, and William, married, respectively, Anne, s Marie, and Elizabeth Dacre. The Dacre sisters were the daughters of Elizabeth Leyburne by her marriage to Thomas Dacre and were, therefore, stepsisters to Norfolk sons. Norfolk's Public Offices Norfolk was Earl Marshal of England and Queen s Lieutenant in the North. From February to July 1560, Queen's Norfolk was commander of the English army in Scotland in support of the Lords of the Congregation opposing Mary of Guise. He agreed the Treaty of Berwick (1560) by which the Congregation invited . [1] English assistance. Attempted Fourth Marriage, Plots And Death Queen Elizabeth imprisoned Norfolk in 1569 for scheming to marry Mary, Queen of Scots. Scots Following his release, he participated in the Ridolfi plot with King Philip II of Spain to put Mary on the English throne and restore Catholicism in England, though the strength of the evidence for his participation in the Ridolfi plot is doubted by some[citation needed]. He was executed for treason in 1572. He is buried at St Peter ad Vincula within the walls of the Tower of London. Norfolk's lands and titles were forfeit, although much of the estate was later restored to his sons. The title s of Duke of Norfolk was restored, four generations later, to Thomas Howard. In Books And Film
• •

Thomas Howard appears as a character in the Philippa Gregory novels The Virgin's Lover and The Virgin Other Queen, and in the novel I, Elizabeth by Rosalind Miles. A highly fictionalized version of the 4th Duke of Norfolk appears as a villain, played by Christopher Eccleston, in the 1998 film Elizabeth. Another version of the Duke is in the BBC mini-series The Elizabeth. mini Virgin Queen, played by Kevin McKidd McKidd. The marvellous chance: Thomas Howard, Fourth Duke of Norfolk, and the Ridolphi plot, 1570 1570-1572 by Francis Edwards (1968) ISBN 0246644745 Thomas Howard, Fourth duke of Norfolk by Neville Williams (1965) AISN B0007DRE5Y Thomas Howard: Fourth Duke of Norfolk by The Benedictine Brethren of Glendalough, edited by Glendalough William Cooke Taylor (2005) ISBN 142546159X "Howard, Thomas (1536-1572 Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1572)". Co 1885–1900. 1. ^ Calendar of State Papers Scotlan vol. 1 (1898), 323, 440. Scotland,

Further Reading
• • • •

Footnotes

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012 Thomas '4th Duke of Norfolk' Howard — Biography

Political Offices Preceded By The Duke Of Norfolk Preceded By The Earl Of Sussex Preceded By Thomas Howard Earl Marshal 1554–1572 Lord Lieutenant Of Norfolk 1559–1572 Peerage Of England Duke Of Norfolk (3rd Creation) 1554–1572 Earl Of Surrey (3rd Creation) 1554–1572 Baron Mowbray 1554–1572 Succeeded By Thomas Howard (Restored 1660) Succeeded By Thomas Howard (Another) (Restored 1604) Succeeded By Philip Howard Succeeded By The Earl Of Shrewsbury Succeeded By Unknown

Dukes Of Norfolk House Of Plantagenet (1397– 1399) House Of Mowbray (1397– 1481) House Of Plantagenet (1481– 1483) House Of Howard (1483– 1572, 1660—) Margaret, 1st Duchess (1397–1399) Thomas, 1st Duke (1397–1399) • John, 2nd Duke (1425–1432) • John, 3rd Duke (1432–1461) • John, 4th Duke (1461–1476) Richard, 1st Duke (1481–1483) John, 1st Duke (1483–1485) • Thomas, 2nd Duke (1514–1524) • Thomas, 3rd Duke (1524–1547, 1553–1554) • Thomas, 4th Duke (1554–1572) • Thomas, 5th Duke (1660–1677) • Henry, 6th Duke (1677–1684) • Henry, 7th Duke (1684–1701) • Thomas, 8th Duke (1701–1732) • Edward, 9th Duke (1732–1777) • Charles, 10th Duke (1777–1786) • Charles, 11th Duke (1786–1815) • Bernard, 12th Duke (1815–1842) • Henry, 13th Duke (1842–1856) • Henry, 14th Duke (1856–1860) • Henry, 15th Duke (1860–1917) • Bernard, 16th Duke (1917–1975) • Miles, 17th Duke (1975–2002) • Edward, 18th Duke (2002—)

Retrieved From "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thomas_Howard,_4th_Duke_of_Norfolk&oldid=462908297"

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012 Thomas '4th Duke of Norfolk' Howard

England, Extracted Parish and Court Records
Text: Book: Norfolk, Tho. Howard, D. of; beheaded. 02 Jun 1572 , aet. 36. (Buswell's Knts. 187; Birch's Illust. 29; MSS.; LLoyd's Worth. 540; Wood's Fasti Ox. 103.) Obituary Prior to 1800 (as far as Relates to England, Scotland, and Ireland), Compiled by Sir William Musgrave, 6th Bart., of Hayton Castle, Co. Cumberland, and Entitled by Him "A General Nomenclator and Obituary, with Referrence to the Books Where the Persons are Mentioned, and Where Some Account of Their Character is to be Found." England, Scotland, Ireland: Musgrave's Obituaries Prior To 1800, Parts 3 & 4

Collection:

Source Information: Ancestry.com. England, Extracted Parish and Court Records [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2001. Original data: Electronic databases created from various publications of parish and probate records. Description: This database is a collection of historical parish registers from England. The records in this collection can range in date from the early 1500s to the mid- to late-1800s. Parish records--primarily baptisms, marriages, and burials--provide the best sources of vital record information in the centuries before civil registration. Baptismal records generally list the date of the baptism, the name of the child being baptized, and the name of the father. Marriage records generally include the date of the marriage and the names of the bride and groom. Burial records generally list the date of the burial and the name of the deceased individual. Occasionally burial records will include other bits of information, such as where the individual was from or if he/she was a widow.

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012 Walter Hungerford

012 Walter Hungerford

012 Walter Hungerford

012 William Dormer — Biography

William Dormer
Sir William Dormer (1503-17 May 1575) was a Tudor knight, captain and politician, best known for a broken engagement to Jane Seymour, who later became the third wife of Henry VIII. William was born in 1503, the only child, son and heir, of Sir Robert Dormer of West Wycombe, Wing and London, and his wife Jane Newdigate, daughter of John Newdigate of Harefield and Amphilicia Neville. The Dormers were landowners. The Seymours He worked as a servant of Oliver Cromwell, and was friends with Cromwell's son George, who married Elizabeth Seymour. When he was 19 he fell in love with the 14 year old Jane Seymour. They were engaged to be married but his parents, especially his mother, were horrified. They could not understand what he saw in Jane who had neither looks, wealth nor pedigree. Lady Dormer hurriedly arranged a marriage with the wellbred Mary Sidney, daughter of Sir William Sidney. After she died he married Dorothy Catesby, 20 years his junior, and they had several children, including Robert Dormer. While young, he served as a soldier in the war against France in 1544 and two years later was mustered as captain of 100 men. He later became Sheriff of his county of Buckinghamshire and eventually MP. He died at the age of 72, and was buried in the family vault in the church of Wing. His wife Dorothy had a monument built for him in the church, and founded an almshouse in the village of Wing in his memory. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Dormer

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012 William Dormer

013 Agnes Anne Pakenham-Sydney

013 Aunt Frances ‘Duchess of Suffolk’ Brandon-Grey - Biography

Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Spouse(s) Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk and 3rd Marquess of Dorset Adrian Stokes Issue Lady Jane Grey Catherine Seymour, Countess of Hertford Lady Mary Keyes Elizabeth Stokes House House of Tudor Father: Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk Mother: Mary of England Born: 16 July 1517, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England Died: 20 November 1559 (aged 42), London, England Burial: Westminster Abbey Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk (16 July 1517 – 20 November 1559), born Lady Frances Brandon, was the second child and eldest daughter of Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Mary Tudor, Dowager Queen of France. She was the mother of Lady Jane Grey, who was briefly Queen of England, and older sister to Henry Brandon, 1st Earl of Lincoln and Eleanor Clifford, Countess of Cumberland. Her brother predeceased her. Her paternal grandparents were Sir William Brandon and Elizabeth Bruyn. Her maternal grandparents were King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York. Her maternal uncle was King Henry VIII of England and her maternal aunt was Queen Margaret of Scotland. She had a strong claim to the throne of England that would be seized upon in 1553 by opponents to the accession of Mary I of England. Early Life And First Marriage Frances was born in Hatfield, Hertfordshire[1] and spent her childhood in the care of her mother. She was close to Catherine of Aragon, first wife of her uncle King Henry VIII. She was a childhood friend of her first cousin, Princess Mary (later Mary I of England). Frances’ mother Mary was opposed to the annulment of the marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine in 1533 and never accepted Anne Boleyn as a legitimate wife or Queen of England. Frances received permission from her maternal uncle, Henry VIII to marry Henry Grey, Marquess of Dorset in 1533. They were married in Southwark, London. Her first two pregnancies resulted in the births of a son and daughter who both died young. These were followed by three surviving daughters:
• • • Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk, Marchioness of Dorset

Lady Jane Grey (12 October? 1537 – 12 February 1554). Lady Catherine Grey (25 August 1540 – 26 January 1568). Lady Mary Grey (1545 – 20 April 1578).

Frances is considered to have been a strong and energetic woman. Her residence at Bradgate was a minor palace in Tudor style. After the death of her two brothers, the title Duke of Suffolk reverted to the crown,

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013 Aunt Frances ‘Duchess of Suffolk’ Brandon-Grey - Biography and was granted to her husband as a new creation. She had high expectations for her daughters and made certain they were educated to the same standards as their cousins, the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth (later Mary I and Elizabeth I, respectively). Her daughters were associated with both Princesses on relatively equal terms. Scheming For Her Daughters Frances was active at the court of Henry VIII and was on friendly terms with his sixth wife Catherine Parr. It was through her friendship with the Queen that Frances’s husband Henry, Duke of Suffolk secured a wardship for their daughter. There, Jane came into contact with Prince Edward (later Edward VI of England), son of Henry VIII and half-brother of Mary and Elizabeth. In 1546, the Imperial ambassador, van der Delft, wrote that there were rumours that Henry would divorce Catherine Parr in favour of her close friend, Catherine Willoughby, Duchess of Suffolk. Catherine Willoughby was Frances’s stepmother. Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547, and Edward succeeded to the throne. Jane followed the Queen Dowager, Catherine Parr, to her new residence and was soon established as a member of the inner circle of the young King. Edward VI was only nine years old at the time of his accession. He would die in 1553 unmarried and childless. Frances found herself during the reign of King Edward VI, third-in-line for the English throne, following the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth. Her daughters followed her in line for the throne: Jane (fourth-in-line), Catherine (fifth-in-line) and Mary (sixth-in-line). Henry VIII’s elder sister, Margaret Tudor descendants had been removed from the succession. This took place legally under the terms of the Will of King Henry VIII which laid out the succession to the throne. It was only after the Greys were discredited and the death of Elizabeth I that it was possible for the heir to Margaret Tudor’s line, James VI of Scotland, to succeed to the English throne as King James I in 1603. Catherine Parr married again, to Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley and Lord High Admiral. Jane followed the Queen Dowager to her new household. Frances and her husband soon started scheming with Baron Seymour on the prospect of arranging a marriage between Jane and the King. The two adolescents were reportedly already close. If any offspring were born to such a union, the success of this scheme would secure the succession of Edward VI. The Greys would as a result gain further influence at court. The Lord Protector Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset was seeking a Queen Consort for Edward VI among the daughters of Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Catherine Parr gave birth to her daughter, Lady Mary Seymour, on 30 August 1548. Complications resulted in her death and that of her daughter on 5 September 1548. Frances did not trust her eldest daughter Jane alone with Baron Seymour and recalled her home. Baron Seymour, on the other hand, pressed the Greys with demands that he held Jane’s wardship and she should be returned to his household. The Greys surrendered to the inevitable and Jane returned to Seymour’s household and moved in to the late Catherine Parr’s apartments. Seymour still planned to convince Edward VI to marry Jane, but the King had become distrustful of his two uncles. An increasingly desperate Seymour invaded the King’s bedchamber in an attempt to abduct him, and shot Edward’s beloved dog when the animal tried to protect its master. Not longer after Seymour was tried for treason and executed on 10 March 1549. The Greys convinced the Privy Council of their innocence in Seymour’s scheme. Jane was again recalled home. The Greys lost hope of marrying their eldest daughter to Edward VI who was sickly and thought likely not to live. For a time it is claimed they contemplated marrying her to Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, son of the Lord Protector and Anne Stanhope. However, the Lord Protector fell from power and was replaced by John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland. The Greys soon declared their allegiance to the new Lord Protector, who successfully arranged for Jane to be married to his youngest son Lord Guildford Dudley. It has been claimed since the early 18th century that Jane was brutally beaten and whipped into submission by Frances. However, there is no historic evidence for it. Guildford was, as a fourth son, not the greatest match for the eldest daughter of royal

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013 Aunt Frances ‘Duchess of Suffolk’ Brandon-Grey - Biography descent, and William Cecil, another close friend of the Greys claimed the match was brokered by Catherine Parr’s brother and his second wife.[2] According to Cecil, they promoted the match to Northumberland who responded rather enthusiastically. The Greys didn’t favour the match much, since it would have meant to pass the crown out of their family and to Northumberland. However, since Dudley claimed to have the king’s support in the matter, they finally gave in. The only historic proof of some family quarrel concerning the marriage is written down by Commendone as “the first-born daughter of the Duke of Suffolk, Jane by name, who although strongly depreciating the marriage, was compelled to submit by the insistence of her mother and the threats of her father”.[3] Mother To A Queen Regnant The marriage of the Lady Jane to Lord Guildford Dudley occurred on 15 May 1553. Northumberland had a greater scheme in mind. Edward VI was dying and was considering the matter of his own succession. The young King was a firm believer in the practices of Anglicanism. His half-sister, Mary, was an equally firm believer in those of the Roman Catholic Church. Her accession would end the Protestant Reformation in England. Northumberland arranged for the will of the dying King to exclude both Princesses Mary and Elizabeth under the pretext of both being bastards, on the grounds that Henry VIII had his marriages to their respective mothers Catherine of Aragon annulled and Anne Boleyn executed for high treason (though at the time both daughters remained in the line of succession). Their removal from the succession would make Frances the heiress presumptive of the King. Edward changed his will concerning the succession, passing Frances over. Frances and especially Henry Grey were at first outraged, but eventually, after a private audience with the king, Frances had to renounce her own rights to the throne in favour of Jane.[4] The throne would pass to Jane and any male issue from her marriage to Guilford. Edward VI died on 6 July 1553. Jane was declared queen regnant on 10 July. Frances joined her for the proclamation and during her stay in the Tower. She had been fetched when Northumberland realised Jane’s confusion and overwhelming feelings, and she managed to calm her daughter down. Since she had seen the king himself and spoken to him about the succession, she could convince Jane that she was the rightful queen and heir.[5] Their success was short-lived. Jane was deposed by armed support in favour of the Princess Mary who was proclaimed Queen on 19 July 1553. Northumberland paid for his failed machinations with his life on 22 August/23 August 1553. Henry, Duke of Suffolk was arrested, but released days later thanks to Frances’ intervention. The moment she heard of her husband’s arrest, Frances rode over to Mary in the middle of the night to plead for her family. Despite all odds, not only did Frances manage to be received by the Queen, but also could secure him a pardon by placing all the blame on Northumberland. While in his household, Jane had fallen sick of food poisoning and had suspected Northumberland’s family.[6] Frances now used Jane’s suspicions and her husband’s sickness to accuse Northumberland of having tried to kill her family.[7] Therefore, Mary was willing to pardon her first cousin’s husband. Mary also intended to pardon Jane once her coronation was complete, thus sparing the 16-year-old’s life. Thomas Wyatt the younger declared a revolt against Mary on 25 January 1554. Suffolk joined the rebellion, but was captured by Francis Hastings, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon. The revolt had failed by February. The plot ringleaders had wished to supplant Mary with her sister Elizabeth, although Elizabeth played no part in the matter. Jane was now becoming too dangerous for Mary and was beheaded on 12 February 1554 with her husband. Jane’s father was convicted of high treason and was executed eleven days later on 23 February 1554. With two young daughters barely in their teens and her husband a convicted traitor, Frances literally faced ruin. As a wife, she held no possessions in her own right. As such all her husband’s possessions would be returned to the Crown, as usual for traitors’ property. She managed to plead with Queen Mary to show mercy, which meant at least she and her daughters had the

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013 Aunt Frances ‘Duchess of Suffolk’ Brandon-Grey - Biography chance of rehabilitation. The Queen’s forgiveness meant some of Grey’s property would remain with his family, or at least could be granted back at some later time.[8] Life At Court Frances and her two surviving daughters settled in court, serving the queen. Mary I made a point of placing them by her side, favoured but kept under the observation of the queen. They were still regarded with some suspicion and in 1555 the Spanish ambassador wrote of a possible match between Frances and Edward Courtnay, a Plantagenet descendant. Once again, their children would have had a claim to the throne, but Frances escaped the marriage by another, much safer match. She married her Master of the Horse, Adrian Stokes. It was a safe marriage for her, since any children from it would be considered too low-born to compete for the throne. Also, her childhood friend and stepmother Catherine Willoughby had married her gentleman usher, so Frances moved on familiar ground. She and Stokes married in 1555, .[9] Two children were born to the couple:
• •

Elizabeth Stokes (16 July 1555 – 7 February 1556). A son (December, 1556), stillborn.

Frances died on 20 November 1559. She was buried at Westminster Abbey at the expense of Elizabeth. Her daughter Catherine acted as chief mourner. Four years after her death, her husband crowned the grave with Frances’ effigy which still remains. The inscription on her grave reads in Latin: Nor grace, nor splendour, nor a royal name, Nor widespread fame can aught avail; All, all have vanished here. True worth alone Survives the funeral pyre and silent tomb.[10] A Slandered Reputation As the centuries passed on, the view on Frances Brandon changed dramatically. At the beginning of the 18th century, the myth of Frances as evil woman and cruel mother emerged.[11] It was mainly due to the changing public attitude towards her daughter Jane. The Nine Days Queen was slowly yet steadily transformed into an almost angelic being, an example of innocence and passivity, a chaste child-martyr. To outline her perfection, she needed an antagonist, and it was Frances who fell victim to this need. A portrait of the harshlooking Lady Dacre and her son was re-labeled and claimed to be Frances with her second husband Adrian Stokes. Thanks to the physical attributes of Lady Dacre, Frances was soon regarded as a female version of her uncle, King Henry VIII: Lady Dacre and her son Gregory, often mislabeled as Frances Brandon and Adrian ambitious, cruel and lustful.
Stokes

Another reason for Frances’ growing unpopularity was the

quotation from Jane to Roger Ascham: For when I am in presence of either Father or Mother, whether I speak, keep silence, sit, stand or go, eat, drink, be merry or sad, be sewing, playing, dancing or doing anything else, I must do it, as it were, in such weight, measure and number, even so perfectly as God made the world, or else I am so sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened, yea, presently sometimes with pinches, nips and bobs, and other ways, (which I shall not name, for the honour I bear them), so without measure misordered, that I think myself in hell”.[12] From this passage it was – and still is – deduced that Frances and Henry Grey had mistreated their daughter.

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013 Aunt Frances ‘Duchess of Suffolk’ Brandon-Grey - Biography However, it needs to be noted that Ascham wrote these words years after the actual meeting, and to promote the idea that children learned well under a kind tutor. Also, his view might have been influenced by the later events concerning the Greys. The letter he wrote to Jane just a few months after the visit speaks admiringly of her parents and praises both Jane’s and their virtues.[13] James Haddon, chaplain of the Greys, told his acquaintance Michel Angelo Florio how Jane was following in her parents’ footsteps concerning piety, and how close she was to her mother Frances.[14] Jane’s age also most certainly played a role in her words. At the age of fourteen and highly aware of her brightness and people’s admiration of it, it couldn’t sit well with Jane to still have to submit to her parents’ authority. The Tudor times demanded, of all virtues, obedience, and Jane was spirited enough to even make her beloved teacher Aylmer agree with her parents that it was necessary to “provide bridles for restive horses.”[15] At a difficult age, with a developing sense of her own personality, yet obliged to obey as if she was still a child, Jane was as bound to clash with her parents as any other teenager. There still is historic evidence that Frances wasn’t the archetype of female wickedness the last two centuries claim her to be. While Jane was already with her husband Guildford Dudley, under the supervision of his parents, she heard news that Edward VI was changing his will to exclude her mother from the succession and name Jane as his heir instead. Jane, startled by the news, asked her mother-in-law permission to visit her mother, yet was met with refusal. Ignoring her, Jane sneaked out of the house and went back home.[16] The evil mother from the myth was accused of having beaten Jane into submission to marry Guildford Dudley and certainly would not have taken kindly to her daughter running away from her husband. However, if Frances’ claim of having opposed the match from the beginning on is true, Jane fleeing to her makes perfect sense. In fact, Frances was noted for her hospitality and generosity. When her brother-in-law’s children Thomas, Margaret and Francis Willoughby were orphaned, the Greys took them under their wings. Thomas soon joined Henry and Charles Brandon at college and his siblings went to live with their uncle George Medley. However, during the Wyatt rebellion, Medley was imprisoned and taken to the Tower. At the time he was released, the imprisonment had taken its toll on him and he couldn’t take care of the children any longer. Frances had already lost her eldest daughter, her husband and a considerable part of her lands. Nevertheless, she once more resumed care of Francis and Margaret Willoughby, organized a place in school for the boy and took the girl to court, along with herself and her surviving daughters.[17] Their elder brother was placed as ward under a Councillor’s care. Since Thomas was his father’s heir, the councillor had control over the Willoughby fortune during Thomas’ minority. Therefore, Frances’ decision to take care of the younger siblings certainly wasn’t made for profit’s sake. Also she did her utmost to realize her daughter Catherine’s wish to marry the man she loved. The discrepancies between these facts and the legend of the bullying, intimidating woman are hard to overlook. As Leanda de Lisle puts it: Since the eighteenth century she has been used as the shadow that casts into brilliant light the eroticised figure of female helplessness that Jane came to represent. While Jane is the abused child-woman of these myths, Frances has been turned into an archetype of female wickedness: powerful, domineering and cruel. The mere fact that Frances was with the rest of the household in the park, while Jane read her book, became the basis for the legend that she was a bloodthirsty huntress. The scene in Trevor Nunn’s 1985 film Lady Jane, in which Frances slaughters a deer in white snow, is inspired for it and establishes her early on in the film as a ruthless destroyer of innocents: a wicked Queen to Jane’s Snow White.”[18] Titles
• • • •

The Lady Frances Brandon Lady Frances Grey The Most Honourable Marchioness of Dorset Her Grace The Duchess of Suffolk

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013 Aunt Frances ‘Duchess of Suffolk’ Brandon-Grey - Biography Her Grace The Dowager Duchess of Suffolk (she didn’t cease to use her highest title even after remarriage, just like Lady Katherine Neville was styled Dowager Duchess of Norfolk even though she remarried three times after the death of the Duke)

Dramatic Representation She has been portrayed by Sara Kestelman in 1986 film Lady Jane and by Julia James in a 1956 episode of BBC Sunday-Night Theatre.[19] In Fiction

Frances was fictionalized in the 2007 historical fiction book Innocent Traitor by author Alison Weir.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. ^ http://genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00004236&tree=LEO ^ Leanda de Lisle: The Sisters who would be Queen, p. 98 ^ Leanda de Lisle, p. 329 ^ Leanda de Lisle, p. 104 ^ Leanda de Lisle, p. 110 ^ Leanda de Lisle, p. 105 ^ Leanda de Lisle, p. 126 ^ Leanda de Lisle, p. 157 ^ Eric Ives: Lady Jane Grey: A Tudor Mystery Wiley-Blackwell 2009 ISBN 9781405194136 p. 38 ^ Leanda de Lisle, p. 197 ^ Leanda de Lisle: The sisters who would be queen, p. 310 ^ Leanda de Lisle: The sisters who would be queen, p. 68 ^ Leanda de Lisle: The sisters who would be queen, p. 17 ^ Leanda de Lisle: The Sisters who would be Queen, p. 159 ^ Leanda de Lisle: The Sisters who would be Queen, p. 70 ^ Leanda de Lisle: The Sisters who would be Queen, p. 104 ^ Leanda de Lisle: The Sisters who would be Queen, p. 162 ^ Leanda de Lisle: The Sisters who would be Queen, p. 69 ^ [1]

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013 Bridget Baynton-Stumpe

013 Bridget Baynton-Stumpe

013 David John 'Cardinal' Bethune — Biography

Cardinal David John Bethune
Murder of Cardinal Bethune The Murder of Cardinal David Beaton or Bethune. David Beaton or Bethune was born at Markinch in Fife in 1494, the third son of seven to John Beaton of Balfour in Fife and Isabel Moneypenny, daughter of Dasvid Moneypenny of Pitmilly. He studied at St Andrews and matriculated 26 October 1511, after which he went to the University of Paris. In 1519 he was appointed to be Envoy at the French Court by James V. Wealth was conferred by his uncle, Archbishop James Beaton, who gave him the rectories of Campsie and Cambuslang. He was then granted the Commendatory of Arbroath by Pope Adrian IV. In 1528 he was made Lord Privy Seal and became a favourite of the young James V. In 1533 he was sent to France to negotiate the marriage of James V to Magdalene Valois, but the marriage was delayed for some four years (married 1 January 1537) through the young woman`s ill health. Beaton did not, however, waste his time at the French Court and became a favourite of King Francis I to the extent that he was made a naturalised citizen of France. Following the marriage of James and Margaret, Beaton returned to Scotland with the royal pair . But the 15 year old Queen Margaret died after about a year, apparently pregnant. James then fixed to marry Mary, daughter of the Duke of Guise, and widow of the Duke de Longueville. Beaton negotiated this marriage too. Francis I meanwhile conferred on Beaton the bishopric of Mirepoix, and Suffragen to the Archbishop of Toulouse; with this was an annual revenue of 10,000 livres — a huge income. But Francis`s favour did not stop there, as he sought Pope Paul III to make Beaton a Cardinal, which he did on 20 December 1538 with the title S. Stephen in Monte Caelio. Beaton was then just 44 years old and had the world at his feet. He became Archbishop of St Andrews when his uncle James died in 1539. He was installed between 13th and 25th February 1538/9. Almost immediately after his bastard son, also David, was given a grant of Crown lands in Angus. The Archbishop had as a concubine Marion Ogilvy, daughter of the first Lord Ogilvy of Airly, who bore him three sons and three daughters. The sons were each invested with a good estate of land and the daughters all married off to persons of substance and standing. Shortly after Wishart`s burning the Archbishop went in great pomp to Angus to be at the wedding of his daughter Margaret to David Lindsay, Master of Crawford (later 9th Earl of Crawford) at Finhaven Castle. He gave as a dowry the relatively enormous sum for those days of 4,000 marks Scots. One of the sons, Alexander Bethune was Archdeacon of Lothian and Laird of Carsgonny, who turned Protestant. David senior was invested by the Pope with the dignity of a Legate a latere in Scotland in an effort to combat the spreading Protestant doctrines. This gave Beaton the utmost authority of the Pope to take whatever action considered appropriate. Ironically the document conferring the appointment, dated 30 January 1544, was seized on board a ship by an English privateer, and found its way to Henry VIII so he knew what was happening in Scotland. Early on the Archbishop showed his intentions to enforce the rule of the Catholic Church by giving the King James V a list of over 360 persons, including many nobles, who were suspected of heresy. Henry meanwhile despatched an envoy to Scotland seeking to plot Beaton`s disgrace, alleging treason. However, James V did not want to know and the envoy returned to Henry saying "I assure your majesty that he excused the Cardinal in everything, and seemed wonderous loath to hear of anything that should sound as an untruth in him, but rather gave him great praise."

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013 David John 'Cardinal' Bethune — Biography This carte blanche gave Beaton total control of both church and government; allegations of heresy soon flowed, with the denunciation of Sir John Borthwick, Provost of Linlithgow, his estate forfeit and burned in effigy. Borthwick escaped into England and was sent to the continent as an envoy of Henry VIII. About the end of February 1539 some five protestants were burned and a further nine recanted, while others, including the eminent George Buchanan, escaped from prison. King James V meanwhile left everything to Beaton. Some relief seemed to be in sight when James V died, but Beaton had allegedly schemed to have himself named as co -regent for the infant Mary (Queen of Scots) .The will was put aside as a forgery and Lord Arran became regent, while Beaton was detained and imprisoned for a while. However, Arran was inept ( some reports say an imbecile which we might recognise today as senile dementia) and Beaton was released to inveigle his way into becoming virtual ruler of Scotland. Arran publicly stated his support for action against heretics saying "My Lord Governor (meaning Beaton) shall be at all times ready to do therein what accords him of his Office." Against this background, and Arran affronting Henry VIII by sending the young Mary to France (rather than betrothed to the infant Edward VI), there were several attempts to disgrace Beaton and even to murder him. This latterly involved Crighton, Laird of Brunston, who in 1544 plotted with Henry VIII and offered to assassinate Beaton. George Wishart became involved and was sent to Newcastle to communicate the plan to the Earl of Hertford and seek reassurances of English support. Wishart allegedly then went with the Laird`s letter to London and communicated the plan direct to Henry who privately supported the proposal. It was alleged that apart from Brunston, Kirkcaldy, the Master of Rothes, Norman Leslie and Kirkaldy of Grange, were pensioners of Henry VIII and commissioned to do the deed. They had been among those nobles etc who were forced to flee into England earlier during the English incursions in the Borders. Henry certainly had a mind to be rid of Beaton and thus the assassination was essentially a political act. These conspirators and murderers continued to receive a pension from England after the event. But Wishart was a marked man as Beaton had long sought to secure him for spreading the reformed doctrines. Wishart was staying with Sir Alexander Cockburn at Ormiston House, in Haddingtonshire where he was seized by the Earl of Bothwell and taken at night to Beaton`s residence at Elphinstone Tower. A delighted Beaton summoned the prelates in February 1546 to meet at St Andrews for Wishart`s trial and martyrdom. Revenge for the martyrdom of George Wishart was at hand, however. Norman and John Leslie (sons of George, Earl of Rothes) William Kirkaldy of Grange, James Melvill of Carnbee, Peter Carmichael and others resolved to kill the cardinal. There was pre existing hostility between the Leslies and the Cardinal over land at Easter Wemyss previously belonging to Sir James Colvill. These had been forfeited and given the Rothes family by King James V. After the King`s death the forfeit was reduced by Parliament at the direction of Beaton (who was Chancellor of Scotland as well as Archbishop). The Leslies were also the subject of a plot by Beaton who had planned to have them killed, but they had struck first. On the evening of 28 May 1546 the Norman Leslie and five followers arrived in St Andrews at went to their normal place of lodging. William Kirkaldy of Grange and John Leslie were already there. At daybreak the conspirators (sixteen in all) entered in small groups and had mostly made it into the castle when the Porter recognised John Leslie and tried to close the gate. He was summarily despatched and the keys taken from him. Quickly and quietly the conspirators dismissed workmen about the place and followed this by escorting gentlemen of the castle out of the posterne gate. In this way the castle guard was removed before they went to the Cardinal`s rooms. Here they found Beaton cowering. Beaton tried to stop the men asking if Lesley was Norman, his friend. but John Leslie would have no prevarication and he and Carmichael immediately attacked Beaton. With cries of ` I am a priest, I am a priest` the prelate was stabbed through. Likewise, James Melvill would have none of Beaton`s protestations and told him it was to avenge the death of Mr Wishart. Without more ado Beaton was repeatedly stabbed by Melvill who related afterwards " Never word was heard out of his mouth but ` I am a preest ! fy, fy, all is gone ! "

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013 David John 'Cardinal' Bethune — Biography In the town there was a murmuring and people, including the Provost, demanded to know if the Cardinal was dead. Beaton`s corpse was brought to the balcony (from where the execution of Wishart had been viewed) where the body was displayed and Leslie told them to disperse. Having seen the body, the crowd departed without one word or prayer being said for the Cardinal. Finally, as a burial could not be quickly arranged, the Cardinals body was dressed with salt and encased in a lead cope, then left to lie in one of the cells of the Sea Tower — the same cells where prisoners had previously waited on the not so tender ministrations of the Cardinal. It is variously claimed that the body laid there for weeks even up to nine months before it was removed — where to is also uncertain. Some writers say it was taken to the family mausoleum, others think it probably lies somewhere in St Andrews. source: http://www.thereformation.info/Cardl%20Beaton.htm

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013 David John 'Cardinal, Archbishop of St. Andrews' Bethune

013 David John 'Cardinal, Archbishop of St. Andrews' Bethune

013 Edward Hungerford

013 Edward Hungerford

013 Frances de Vere-Howard — Biography

Frances de Vere-Howard, Countess of Surrey Howard,
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Frances Howard, by Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1535 Frances Howard, (née de Vere), Countess of Surrey (c. 1516 – 30 June 1577) was the daughter of John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford and Elizabeth Trussell, Countess of Oxford. Frances married twice, first to Oxford. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk and Lady Elizabeth , Stafford, by whom she had five children. Secondly she married Thomas Staynings, and by him had one , , child. Issue Name Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk Catherine Howard Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton Margaret Howard Jane Howard Birth March 10, 1536 1538 February 25, 1540 1543 1533/1537 Death June 2, 1572 Notes (1) married Mary FitzAlan — had issue (2) married Margaret Audley — had issue; (3) married Elizabeth Leybourne — had no issue married Henry Berkeley, 7th Baron Berkeley

1596 June 15, 1614 1590 June 30, 1593 (buried) Unknown

married Henry Scrope, 9th Baron Scrope of Bolton — had issue married Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland — had issue by Thomas Staynings

Unnamed Son

c. 1555

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013 Frances de Vere-Howard — Biography References
• • •

DeVere Family Accessed February 16, 2008 stanford.edu Accessed May 23, 2008 Brenan, Gerald, and Edward Phillips Statham. The House of Howard. London: Hutchinson & co, 1907. googlebooks Retrieved February 16, 2008

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013 Gerald '11th Earl of Kildare' FitzGerald

013 Gerald '11th Earl of Kildare' FitzGerald

013 Henry 'Earl of Surrey' Howard — Biography

Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Spouse Frances de Vere Issue Jane Howard Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk Margaret Howard Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton Catherine Howard Noble Family House of Howard Father: Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk Mother: Lady Elizabeth Stafford Born: c. 1517 Hunsdon, Hertfordshire Died: 19 January 1547 (aged 29-30) Beheaded, Tower Hill, Tower of London, London

Henry 'Earl of Surrey' Howard

Henry Howard, KG, (1516/1517 – 19 January 1547), known as The Earl of Surrey although he never was a peer, was an English aristocrat, and one of the founders of English Renaissance poetry. Life He was the eldest son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, and his second wife, Lady Elizabeth Stafford (daughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham), so he was descended from kings on both sides of his family tree. He was reared at Windsor with Henry VIII's illegitimate son Henry Fitzroy Duke of Richmond, and they became close friends and, later, brothers-in-law. He became Earl of Surrey in 1524 when his grandfather died and his father became Duke of Norfolk. In 1532 he accompanied his first cousin Anne Boleyn, the King, and the Duke of Richmond to France, staying there for more than a year as a member of the entourage of Francis I of France. In 1536 his first son, Thomas (later 4th Duke of Norfolk), was born, Anne Boleyn was executed on charges of adultery and treason, and Henry Fitzroy died at the age of 17 and was buried at one of the Howard homes, Thetford Abbey. That was also the year Henry — who took after his father and grandfather in military prowess — served with his father against the Pilgrimage of Grace rebellion protesting the dissolution of the monasteries. Literary Activity And Legacy He and his friend Sir Thomas Wyatt were the first English poets to write in the sonnet form that Shakespeare later used, and Henry was Hans Holbein, Henry Howard, the first English poet to publish blank verse in his translation of the Earl of Surrey, c.1542 second and fourth books of Virgil's Aeneid. Together, Wyatt and Surrey, due to their excellent translations of Petrarch's sonnets, are known as "Fathers of the English Sonnet." While Wyatt introduced the sonnet into English, it was Surrey who gave them the rhyming meter and the division into quatrains that now characterizes the sonnets variously named English, Elizabethan or Shakespearean sonnets.[1][2]

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013 Henry 'Earl of Surrey' Howard — Biography Death And Burial He was imprisoned with his father by Henry VIII, who, consumed by , paranoia, was convinced that Henry Howard had planned to usurp the crown paranoia, from his son Edward. He was sentenced to death on 13 January 1547, and . beheaded for treason on 19 January 1547 (his father was saved from his execution only by it being set for the day after the king happened to die His die). son Thomas became heir to the Dukedom of Norfolk instead, inheriting it on the 3rd Duke death in 1554. Duke's He is buried in a spectacular painted alabaster tomb at St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham amlingham. Marriage And Issue He married Lady Frances de Vere, the daughter of John de Vere, 15th Earl , of Oxford and Elizabeth Trussell, Countess of Oxford They had five Oxford. children:
• •

Jane Howard Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk (10 March 1536 – 2 June 1572) married (1) Mary FitzAlan (2) Margaret Audley (3) Elizabeth Leyburne Margaret Howard, married Henry Scrope, 9th Baron Scrope of Bolton Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton Catherine Howard, married Henry Berkeley, 7th Baron Berkeley, by whom she had issue.
Frances de Vere-Howard, by Vere Hans Holbein the Younger, c. Younger 1535

• • •

References 1. ^ The Shakespearean Sonnet 2. ^ Sonnets Further reading
• • • • • •

House of Treason: the Rise and Fall of a Tudor Dynasty by Robert Hutchinson, 2009 , A Tudor Tragedy: Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk by Neville Williams, 1989 The Ebbs and Flows of Fortune: Life of Thomas Howard, the Duke of Norfolk by David M. Head, Head 1995 Henry VIII's Last Victim: The Life and Times... by Jessie Childs, 2008 s Selected Poems (Fyfield Books) by Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, and Dennis Keene ) The Poems of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey Edited with a Memoir by James Yeowell d, Surrey: biography, and poems "Complaint of the Absence of Her Lover Being upon the Sea set to music From the 1990 concept Complaint Sea" album "Tyger and Other Tales"

External links
• •

"Howard, Henry (1517?-1547)" Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. ". Co 1885–1900.

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013 Henry 'Earl of Surrey' Howard

013 Henry 'Earl of Surrey' Howard

013 Henry 'Earl of Surrey' Howard

013 John Hussey

013 John Hussey

013 John Weston

013 John Weston

013 John Weston

013 Ludowick Lewis Boyle

013 Malyn Oxenbridge-Carew – Biography

Malyn Oxenbridge
Extract from ‘The Who’s Who of Tudor Women’ MALYN OXENBRIDGE (1475-October 1544) Malyn Oxenbridge was the daughter of Sir Robert Oxenbridge of Brede Place, Sussex and his wife Anne. She married Sir Richard Carew of Beddington (d. May 18, 1520). Their children: Margaret (b.c.1510), Elizabeth (d. February 4, 1532), Ann, Sir Nicholas (x. March 3, 1539), Mary Malyn’s inheritance from her husband included lands he had recently purchased in the county of Guisnes. After her son’s execution for treason, Lady Carew continued to live in Beddington, possibly in the building later called the Old Post Office. Later in 1539, her grandson, Charles Carew (x.1540), rector of Beddington and the illegitimate son of Sir Nicholas, conspired to rob Malyn of her money, plate, and jewelry. A letter exists from Malyn to Lord Cromwell, thanking him for his kindness and asking for mercy for the offenders. In it she writes “if I had my sight I would have waited on you to thank you,” from which I conclude she was blind. Some records give her name as Maude. Some records also say she had another husband before Richard Carew. Two names are suggested but both are unlikely. William Cheyney was actually married to Malyn’s niece, Malyn Fincham. Arthur Darcy of Huntingdon will also be found in some records, but a marriage to him is based on Malyn’s reference to a “son” by that name. In fact, she is referring to her granddaughter’s husband.

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013 Richard Lister

013 Richard 'Sheriff of Buckinghamshire & Bedfordshire' Blount — Biography

Mapledurham’s Priest’s Holes
Built between 1588 and 1612, it was purpose-built to be a place where the Catholic Blount family could hide priests and where Mass could be celebrated in secret. The house has several hiding holes in which priests would hide from the authorities during penal times, and we were all most impressed at how cleverly constructed these hiding holes were. They boasted many ingenious features that allowed the priest, among other things, to look out into the grounds of the house and to escape when the coast was clear. Mapledurham’s hiding holes must have served their purpose for there is no record of a priest ever being captured at Mapledurham! The house boasts many other interesting features, including a bureau that hides an altar, complete with tabernacle and candlesticks inside. Many ancient houses contain these quaint passages and hidie-holes, the commonest being the Priest’s Room, from which the Rev. Father emerged to practice the rites of the forbidden religion. While not necessarily an escape for priests, this secret passage speaks of the curiously furtive life which the gentlemen of England were compelled to lead in the late 16th and 17th centuries Roman Catholics.

Mapledurham House

013 Robert Barcroft

013 Thomas '1st Baron of Walden' Audley — Biography

Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Lord Chancellor In office: 26 January 1533 – 1544 Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster In office: 1529–1533 Speaker of the House of Commons In office: 1529–1533 Keeper of the Great Seal In office: 1529 – 21 April 1544 Baron Audley of Walden In office: 29 November 1538 – 21 April 1544 Personal Details Born: ca. 1488, Earls Colne, Essex. Kingdom of England Died: 30 April 1544 (aged 56). Saffron Walden, Kingdom of England Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden, KG, PC, KS (ca. 1488 – 30 April 1544), Lord Chancellor of England, born in Earls Colne, Essex, the son of Geoffrey Audley, is believed to have studied at Buckingham College, Cambridge.[1] He was educated for the law, entered the Middle Temple, was town clerk of Colchester, and was a Justice of the Peace for Essex in 1521. In 1523 he was returned to Parliament for Essex, and represented this constituency in subsequent Parliaments. In 1527 he was Groom of the Chamber, and became a member of Wolsey's household. On the fall of the latter in 1529, he was made Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and the same year Speaker of the House of Commons, presiding over the famous assembly styled the Reformation Parliament, which abolished the papal jurisdiction. The same year he headed a deputation of the Commons to the king to complain of Bishop Fisher's speech against their proceedings. He interpreted the King's "moral" scruples to parliament concerning his marriage with Catherine of Aragon, and made himself the instrument of the King in the attack upon the clergy and the preparation of the Act of Supremacy. In 1531 he had been made a serjeant-at-law and king's serjeant; and on 20 May 1532 he was knighted, and succeeded Sir Thomas More as Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, being appointed Lord Chancellor on 26 January 1533. He supported the king's divorce from Catherine and the marriage with Anne Boleyn; and presided at the trial of Fisher and More in 1535, at which his conduct and evident intention to secure a conviction has been criticised by some. Next year he was part of trial of Anne Boleyn and her "lovers" for treason and adultery. The execution of the king's wife left him free to declare the king's daughter Princess Elizabeth a bastard, and to marry Anne's maid, Jane Seymour. Audley was a witness to the queen's execution, and recommended to Parliament the new Act of Succession, which made Jane Seymour's issue legitimate. In 1537 he condemned to death as traitors the rebels of the Pilgrimage of Grace. On 29 November 1538 he was created Baron Audley of Walden; and soon afterwards presided as Lord Steward at the trials of Henry Pole, Lord Montacute, and of the Marquess of Exeter. In 1539, though inclining himself to the
Thomas Audley, The 1st Lord Audley

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013 Thomas '1st Baron of Walden' Audley — Biography Reformation, he made himself the King's instrument in enforcing religious conformity, and in the passing of the Six Articles Act. On 24 April 1540 he was made a Knight of the Garter, and subsequently managed the attainder of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, and the dissolution of Henry's marriage with Anne of Cleves. This was despite having previously been a strong ally of Cromwell.[2] In 1542 he warmly supported the privileges of the Commons, but his conduct was inspired as usual by subservience to the court, which desired to secure a subsidy, and his opinion that the arrest was a flagrant contempt has been questioned by good authority. He received several grants of monastic estates, including Holy Trinity Priory in Aldgate, London and the abbey of Walden, Essex, where his grandson, Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, built Audley End, doubtless named after him. In 1542 he endowed and re-established Buckingham College, Cambridge, under the new name of St Mary Magdalene, and ordained in the statutes that his heirs, "the possessors of the late monastery of Walden" should be visitors of Magdalene College in perpetuum. A Booke of Orders for the Warre both by Sea and Land (Harleian MS. 297, 144) is attributed to his authorship. He married Christina, daughter of Sir Thomas Barnardiston, and later Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset, by whom he had two daughters. He resigned the great seal on 21 April 1544, and died on 30 April, being buried at Saffron Walden, where he had prepared for himself a splendid tomb. His barony became extinct at his death. References 1. ^ Audley, Thomas in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 vols, 1922–1958. 2. ^ p.187, Eric Ives, Anne Boleyn

Political Offices Preceded By Sir Thomas More Preceded By Sir Thomas More (Lord Chancellor) Speaker Of The House Of Commons 1529 – 1533 Keeper Of The Great Seal 1532 – 1533 Lord Chancellor 1533 – 1544 Peerage Of England New Creation Baron Audley Of Walden 1538 – 1544 Extinct Succeeded By The Earl Of Wriothesley (Lord Chancellor) Succeeded By Sir Humphrey Wingfield

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013 Thomas Cusack

013 Thomas Cusack

013 Uncle Henry ‘1st Duke of Suffolk’ Grey — Biography

Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Born: 17 January 1517, House, Dorset, England Died: 23 February 1554 (aged 37), Executed Tower of London London Hill, London, England Title: Duke of Suffolk, Marquess of Dorset Spouse: Lady Frances Brandon (m.1533-1554) Children Lady Jane Grey Lady Catherine Grey Lady Mary Grey Parents Thomas Grey Margaret Wotton Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, 3rd Marquess of Dorset, KG (17 January 1517 – 23 February 1554) was an English nobleman of the Tudor period and the father of Lady Jane Grey. Henry VIII’s Reign The son of Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset and of Margaret Wotton; through his father he was a great-grandson of Elizabeth Woodville, the queen of Edward IV of England, by her first marriage to Sir John Grey of Groby. Before 1530, Grey was betrothed to Kathrine, the daughter of William FitzAlan, 18th Earl of Arundel.[1] Henry Grey became the 3rd Marquess of Dorset in 1530 after his father died.[2] In 1533, with the permission of King Henry VIII he married Lady Frances Brandon (1517–1559), the daughter of Henry VIII’s sister Mary Tudor and Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. The couple had three children who survived infancy: Lady Jane Grey (1537–1554), Lady Catherine Grey (1540–1568), and Lady Mary Grey (1545–1578). Before Henry VIII’s death in 1547, Grey became a fixture in court circles. A knight of the Bath, he was the king’s sword bearer at Anne Boleyn‘s coronation in 1533, at Anne of Cleves‘ arrival in 1540, and at the capture of Boulogne in 1545. Twice he bore the Cap of Maintenance in parliament. He helped lead the army in France in 1545. In 1547 he joined the Order of the Garter. Edward VI’s Reign After Henry VIII’s death in 1547, Grey fell out of favour with the leader of King Edward VI’s government, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset and Protector of England. Returning to his home in Bradgate, Leicestershire, Grey concentrated on raising his family to greater heights. Thus, with the Protector’s brother Thomas Lord Seymour, Grey conspired to have his daughter Jane married to the King. This plot failed, ending in Seymour’s execution, but Grey emerged unscathed. In 1549, John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, overthrew the Protectorship and secured power by appointing loyal friends to the Privy Council. Grey joined the Council as a part of this group. In July of 1551 his wife’s younger half-brother, Charles Brandon, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, died. Henry Grey was created Duke of Suffolk jure uxoris on 11 October 1551, in the same ceremony that elevated John Dudley to the Dukedom of Northumberland. Protestantism Henry Grey was best known for his zeal for the Protestant faith. The Swiss reformer Henry Bullinger dedicated a book to him in 1551 and frequently corresponded with the family. In Parliament and on the

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013 Uncle Henry ‘1st Duke of Suffolk’ Grey — Biography Privy Council, Grey pushed for further Protestant reforms. He is credited for making Leicestershire one of the most reliably Protestant counties in early modern England. Queen Jane Seriously ill, and fearing his own death, King Edward VI granted Northumberland’s request for the marriage of Suffolk’s daughter Jane to Northumberland’s son, Lord Guildford Dudley, on 21 May 1553. Edward later altered his will to make Jane his designated successor. Edward died on 6 July 1553, and three days later Suffolk, Northumberland, and other members of the Privy Council proclaimed Jane queen.[3] This proclamation failed, with a large-scale rallying of forces in the country to Henry VIII’s eldest daughter, Mary I. By his wife’s friendship with the new Queen Mary, Grey and his daughter and son-in-law temporarily avoided execution. However, Mary had Henry Grey beheaded on 23 February 1554, after his conviction for high treason for his part in Sir Thomas Wyatt‘s attempt (January – February 1554) to overthrow her after she announced her intention to marry Philip II of Spain. According to the archives of Ripley’s Believe It or Not! the severed head of the Duke was discovered in a vault in London’s Holy Trinity church perfectly preserved by oak sawdust from the scaffold on which he had been executed, 297 years earlier. In Popular Culture
• • •

Henry Grey is featured in the 2007 historical fiction novel Innocent Traitor by author Alison Weir, which is a fictionalised story about his daughter, Lady Jane Grey as an abusive, ambitious parent. He has been played on screen by Miles Malleson in Tudor Rose and Patrick Stewart in Lady Jane. The Suffolk based crust/metal band Meadows’ song “The Head of Henry Grey” is about a man who has come into possession of the severed head of Henry Grey and delights in showing it around the public houses of Woodbridge, Suffolk.

References 1. ^ Britain’s Royal Families The Complete Genealogy, Alison Wier page 157 2. ^ http://www.thepeerage.com/p10208.htm#i102072 3. ^ Grey, Henry, duke of Suffolk (1517–1554), magnate by Robert C. Braddock in Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004) Bibliography
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FactMonster.com entry for “Suffolk, Henry Grey, duke of”, accessed 2004 AllRefer.com biography “Suffolk, Henry Grey, duke of” from British And Irish History section, accessed 2003 Robert C. Braddock, ‘Grey, Henry, duke of Suffolk (1517–1554)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. Ripley’s Believe It or Not 22nd series; property Ripley International, Ltd Meadows information from [1], accessed 2011

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013 Uncle Henry ‘1st Duke of Suffolk’ Grey — Biography

Preceded By None Preceded By The Earl Of Huntingdon

Preceded By The Earl Of Wiltshire

Preceded By New Title Preceded By Thomas Grey

Political Offices Lord Lieutenant Of Leicestershire 1549–1551 Lord Lieutenant Of Leicestershire 1552–1554 Legal Offices Justice In Eyre South Of The Trent 1550–1553 Peerage Of England Duke Of Suffolk 1551–1554 Marquess Of Dorset 1530–1554

Succeeded By The Earl Of Huntingdon Succeeded By The Earl Of Huntingdon

Succeeded By The Earl Of Sussex

Forfeit

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013 William Sydney - Biography

Sir William Sidney (1482 — 1554)
William was a courtier to King Henry VIII and tutor (and later steward) to his son Edward. In 1552 — one year before his death, aged just 26 — Edward VI granted Penshurst to Sir William Sidney.

William Sydney's Tomb

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013 William Sydney

014 Alice Gage-Browne

014 Alison Wellesley-Cusack

014 Anthony Browne II & Alice Gage — Biography

Anthony Browne II (Died 1548)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sir Anthony Browne (died 6 May 1548) was an English courtier and Knight of the Shire. He was the son of Sir Anthony Browne, Standard Bearer of England and Governor of Queenborough Castle, by his wife Lucy Nevill, daughter of John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu and widow of Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam. Anthony junior was thereby half-brother of William Fitzwilliam, 1st Earl of Southampton. He married Alice, daughter of Sir John Gage, and their children included:
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Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu; Mary Browne, who married John Grey of Pirgo and was the mother of Henry Grey, 1st Baron Grey of Groby; Mabel Browne, who married Gerald FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Kildare.
Sir Anthony Browne

His recorded royal service began in 1518, when he was appointed surveyor and master of hunting for the Yorkshire castles and Lordships of Hatfield, Thorne, and Conisbrough. He was included him in an embassy to hand over Tournai to Francois I. Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, knighted him on 1 July 1522. In 1525 he was made lieutenant of the Isle of Man. He was ambassador to France in 1527, reporting home in increasingly anti-French terms. During the uprisings in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, known as the Pilgrimage of Grace, Brown was sent against the Catholic protesters, to test his loyalty. Anthony maintained Henry’s trust. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1540. When Henry VIII came to Rochester to meet Anne of Cleves, he first sent Anthony, his Master of Horse, into her chamber. He later declared that he was never more dismayed in his life, lamenting in his heart to see the Lady so far and unlike that was reported. Henry confided his own disappointment the next day to Anthony as they returned to Greenwich by barge.[1] He was returned as knight of the shire for Surrey in 1539 and was then re-elected in 1542, 1545, and 1547. Sometime after 1540, he married Elizabeth Fitzgerald, daughter of the 9th Earl of Kildare, his wife Alice having died. As a conservative, he had to be careful not to be brought down by factional politics at the court of Henry VIII. He became so trusted by Henry that in the King’s latter years, Browne held a dry stamp of the King’s signature, to use for minor letters. By 1547, he was Keeper of Oatlands

Anthony Browne With Brothers

Palace He died on 28 April 1548 at Byfleet, Surrey, and was buried at Battle in a tomb with his first wife. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Anthony.

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014 Anthony Browne II & Alice Gage — Biography Mistresses Brown Browne was said to be a good-looking man and two members of his family were said to have been mistresses of Henry VIII. One, ‘Mistress Browne’, we do not know the first name of, but it was allegedly his sister. One piece of information, however, points to it being his daughter, Elizabeth Browne, countess of Worcester. The ex-mistress was alleged to have been a prime mover in the downfall of Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth Browne was a lady-in-waiting to Queen Anne Boleyn and the chief witness against her. Another member of his family, Anne Bassett was rumoured to be in the running to become Henry’s fifth wife and there were earlier rumours of an affair, shortly before his marriage to Anne of Cleves.[2] References 1. ^ Strype, John, Ecclesiastical Memoirs, vol. 1 part 2, Oxford (1822), 456-458. 2. ^ Hart, Kelly (June 1, 2009). The Mistresses of Henry VIII (First ed.). The History Press. ISBN 0752448358. http://books.google.com/books?id=r6HGPAAACAAJ. • Dictionary of National Biography, Browne, Sir Anthony (d 1548), politician, by J. A. E. Roundell. Published 1886. • Rotherham Web:Sir Anthony Browne • Medieval History:Sir Anthony Browne Political Offices Preceded by Sir Nicholas Carew Preceded by The Earl of Essex Preceded by The Earl of Rutland Master Of The Horse 1539–1548 Honorary titles Captain of the Gentlemen Pensioners 1539–1548 Legal Offices Justice in Eyre North Of The Trent 1546–1548 Succeeded by The Earl of Shrewsbury Succeeded by The Lord Braye Succeeded by Sir William Herbert

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014 Anthony Browne II & Alice Gage — Biography

Alice Gage-Browne – Tomb Alice Gage ALYS GAGE (c.1504-March 31, 1540) Alys Gage was the daughter of Sir John Gage of Firle Place (October 28, 1479-April 18, 1556) and Philippa Guildford (c.1480-before 1556). In 1525/6 she became the first wife of Sir Anthony Browne (1500-April 28, 1548). Their children were Anthony (November 29, 1526-October 19, 1592), Mary (c.1527-1592+), Mabel (c.1528-August 25, 1610), Lucy, William, Henry, Francis, Thomas, George, and a second Henry. Lady Browne was one of the gentlewomen who met Anne of Cleves when she arrived in England in January 1540. She is reported to have remarked that Anne was “far discrepant from the King’s Highness’s appetite.” Alys is said to have inspired such devotion in her oldest son that when his father took a mistress after her death, Anthony the younger reportedly told him that he’d rather lose half his inheritance to a stepmother than see him so dishonor his mother’s memory. Portrait: effigy at Battle Abbey. Online at: www.kateemersonhistoricals.com/ TudorWomen.htm

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014 Anthony Browne II

014 Anthony Browne II

014 Aunt Elizabeth Howard-Bolyen — Biography

Elizabeth Howard-Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Elizabeth Howard-Boleyn Countess of Wiltshire Countess of Ormond Viscountess Rochford Spouse(s) Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire Issue Mary Boleyn Henry Boleyn Anne, Queen of England William Boleyn Margaret Boleyn George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford Catherine Boleyn Noble Family Howard Father: Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk Mother: Elizabeth Tilney Born: c. 1480 Died: 3 April 1538 (aged 57–58) Burial: Southwark Cathedral, London Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire (c. 1480 – 3 April 1538), born Lady Elizabeth Howard, was the eldest of the two daughters of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk and his first wife Elizabeth Tilney. Through her marriage, she held the titles of Countess of Wiltshire, Countess of Ormond and Viscountess Rochford. She is noted for being the mother of Anne Boleyn, who became the second wife of King Henry VIII of England. As such, she was also the maternal grandmother of Elizabeth I of England. Marriage And Issue Little is known of her but a rough chronology of her life can be pieced together through the narratives, myths, and documents of her contemporaries and chroniclers. Her family managed to survive the fall of their patron, King Richard III who was killed at Bosworth in 1485 and supplanted by the victor, King Henry VII, when she was about five years old. Elizabeth became a part of the royal court as a young girl. It was while she was at court, that she wed Thomas Boleyn, an ambitious young courtier, sometime before 1500, probably in 1498.[1] According to Thomas, his wife was pregnant many times in the next few years but only 7 children are thought to have survived birth and only three into adulthood. Children Of The Earl And Countess Of Wiltshire:
• • • • • •

Mary Boleyn, mistress of Henry VIII of England (c. 1499 — 19 July 1543). Henry Boleyn — thought to have died young. (1500–1501) Anne Boleyn, queen consort of Henry VIII of England (c. 1501 — 19 May 1536 ) William Boleyn — thought to have died young. (1502–1503) Margaret Boleyn — thought to have died young. (1503–1504) George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford (c. 1504 — 17 May 1536).

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014 Aunt Elizabeth Howard-Bolyen — Biography Catherine Boleyn — thought to have died young. (1505–1506)

As Lady-In-Waiting For The Royal Court Throughout this time, Elizabeth was a lady-in-waiting at the royal court; first to Elizabeth of York and then to Catherine of Aragon. Based on later gossip, Elizabeth Boleyn must have been a highly attractive woman.[2] Rumours circulated when Henry was involved with Anne Boleyn that Elizabeth had once been his mistress, with the suggestion even being made that Anne Boleyn might be the daughter of Henry VIII.[3] However, despite recent attempts by one or two historians to rehabilitate this myth, it was denied by Henry and never mentioned in the dispensation he sought in order to make his union with Anne lawful. Most historians believe it is likely that this rumour began by confusing Elizabeth with Henry's more famous mistress Elizabeth Blount, or from the growing unpopularity of the Boleyn family after 1527.[4] Scandals Involving Her Daughters In 1519, Elizabeth's daughters, Anne and Mary, were living in the French royal court as Ladies-in-waiting to the French Queen consort Claude. According to the papal nuncio in France fifteen years later, the French King Francis I had referred to Mary as, "my English mare"; and later in his life described her as "a great whore, the most infamous of all".[5] In the words of historian M.L. Bruce, both Thomas and Elizabeth "developed feelings of dislike" for their daughter Mary.[5] In later years, Mary's romantic involvements would only further strain this relationship. Around 1520, the Boleyns managed to arrange Mary's marriage to Sir William Carey, a respected and popular man at court. It was sometime after the wedding that Mary became mistress to Henry VIII (the exact dates as to when the affair started and ended are unknown), although she never held the title of "official royal mistress," as the post did not exist in England. It has long been rumoured that one or both of Mary Boleyn's children were fathered by Henry and not Carey. Some historians, such as Alison Weir, now question whether Henry Carey was fathered by the King.[6] Few of Henry's mistresses were ever publicly honoured, except Elizabeth Blount, who was mentioned in Parliament and whose son, Henry Fitzroy was created Duke of Richmond and Somerset in an elaborate public ceremony in 1525.[7] Henry's relationship with Mary was so discreet that within ten years, some observers were wondering if it had ever taken place.[8] In contrast to Mary, Elizabeth's other daughter, Anne, is thought to have had a close relationship with her mother. Elizabeth had been in charge of her children's early education including Anne's and she had taught her music and religion, as well as arithmetic, embroidery, the family genealogy, good manners, household management, reading, and writing.[9] In 1525, Henry VIII fell in love with Anne, and Elizabeth became her protective chaperone. She accompanied Anne to Court, since Anne was attempting to avoid a sexual relationship with the King.[10] Elizabeth travelled with Anne to view York Place after the fall of the Boleyn family's great political opponent, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey — an intrigue which had given Anne her first real taste of political power. She was crowned queen four years later. Elizabeth remained in her daughter's household throughout her time as queen consort. Tradition has it that Anne's daughter, Elizabeth I was named after her maternal grandmother. However, it is more likely that she was named after Henry's mother, Elizabeth of York, although we cannot rule out the possibility that she was named after both grandmothers. Elizabeth Boleyn sided with the rest of the family when her eldest daughter, Mary, was banished in 1535 for eloping with a commoner, William Stafford. Mary had initially expected her sister's support (Anne had been Mary's only confidante within the Boleyn family since 1529),[11] but Anne was furious at the breach of etiquette and refused to receive her.[12] Only a year later, the family was overtaken by a greater scandal. Elizabeth's younger daughter, Anne, and her only living son, George, were executed on charges of treason, adultery and incest. Anne's two chief biographers, Eric Ives and Retha Warnicke, both concluded that these charges were fabricated.[13] They

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014 Aunt Elizabeth Howard-Bolyen — Biography also agree that the King wanted to marry Jane Seymour. Beyond this obvious fact, the sequence of events is unclear and historians are divided about whether the key motivation for Anne's downfall was her husband's hatred of her or her political ambitions.[14] Despite the claims of several recent novels, academic historians agree that Anne was innocent and faithful to her husband. Nonetheless, the judges obeyed the King, condemning Anne, George Boleyn and four others to death. Elizabeth's husband, Thomas Boleyn and brother Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk provided no help to the condemned. The accused men were beheaded by the axe on 17 May 1536 and Anne was executed by a French swordsman two days later. Following the annihilation of the family's ambitions, Elizabeth retired to the countryside. She died only two years after her children and her husband died the following year. Elizabeth is buried in the Howard family chapel at St. Mary's Church, Lambeth. The church, decommissioned in 1972, is now a garden museum. Titles From Birth To Death Lady Elizabeth held a number of titles throughout her life, as the daughter of a Duke, then as the wife of a knight, viscount, and earl, respectively. Her titles through marriage chart the Boleyn family's rise to power.
• • • • • •

c. 1480-1498: Lady Elizabeth Howard 1498-1523: Lady Elizabeth Boleyn 1523-1525: Lady Boleyn 1525-1527: The Right Honourable The Viscountess Rochford 1527-8 December 1529: The Right Honourable The Countess of Ormond 8 December 1529-3 April 1538: The Right Honourable The Countess of Wiltshire and Ormond

Footnotes 1. ^ "The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn", by Eric Ives, p.17 (2004). 2. ^ "Anne Boleyn," by Marie-Louise Bruce, p. 13 (1972). 3. ^ 'Hart, Kelly (June 1, 2009). The Mistresses of Henry VIII (First ed.). The History Press. p. 118. ISBN 0752448358. http://books.google.com/books?id=r6HGPAAACAAJ. 4. ^ "The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn," by Eric Ives, p. 16 (2004). 5. ^ a b "Anne Boleyn," by Marie-Louise Bruce, p. 23 (1982). 6. ^ Henry VIII: The King and His Court, by Alison Weir, p. 216. 7. ^ "The Six Wives of Henry VIII," by Alison Weir, p. 81 (1991). 8. ^ "The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn," by Eric Ives, pp. 15–16. 9. ^ "The Six Wives of Henry VIII," by Alison Weir, p. 148 (1991). 10. ^ "Divorced, Beheaded, Survived: A Feminist Reinterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII," by Karen Lindsey, pp. 58–60 (1995). 11. ^ "Divorced, Beheaded, Survived: A Feminist Reinterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII," by Karen Lindsey, p. 73 (1995). 12. ^ "The Six Wives of Henry VIII," by Alison Weir, p. 273 (1991). 13. ^ "The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn," by Eric Ives (2004) and "The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn," by Retha Warnicke (1989).

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014 Aunt Elizabeth Howard-Bolyen — Biography 14. ^ For the debate, see the introduction to J.J. Scarisbrick's 1997 edition of his biography "Henry VIII," "The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn," by Eric Ives, pp. 319–337 and "The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn," by Retha Warnicke, pp. 189–233 (1989). References

Block, Joseph S. (2004). Boleyn, George, Viscount Rochford (c.1504–1536), courtier and diplomat. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/2/101002793/. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Cokayne, George Edward (1959). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII, Part II. London: St. Catherine Press. Head, David M. (2008). Howard, Thomas, second duke of Norfolk (1443–1524), magnate and soldier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/13/101013939/. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Ives, E.W. (2004). Anne (Anne Boleyn) (c.1500–1536), queen of England, second consort of Henry VIII. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/0/101000557/. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Lindsey, Karen (1995). Divorced, Beheaded, Survived: A Feminist Reinterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII. Reading, Maine: Perseus Books. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6981860. Retrieved 8 March 2011. Richardson, Douglas (2004). Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company Inc. Weir, Alison (1991). The Six Wives of Henry VIII. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. www.findagrave.com

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014 Aunt Elizabeth 'Countess of Wiltshire' Howard-Boleyn

014 Aunt Elizabeth 'Countess of Wiltshire' Howard-Boleyn

014 Edward Baynton

Wiltshire, England, Extracted Parish Records
Text: The 3 messuages and other the premises in Southwicke are held of the King as of his manor of East Greenwich, co. Kent, by fealty only, in common socage and not in chief, and are worth per ann., clear, to wit, the premises in the tenure of the said William Brownjohn and Henry Parsons, 15s., and the residue thereof nothing during the lives of the said Judith Scott and John Herriatt, and afterwards they will be worth 5s. The messuage called the Chauntry and the 10 acres of land, meadow, and pasture thereto belonging in Bromham are held of the King as of his said manor of East Greenwich, in common socage and not in chief, and are worth per ann., clear, 10s. The 10 acres of meadow in Bromham lately purchased of Thomas White are held of Edward Baynton, knt., as of his manor of Bromham Battell, in common socage, and are worth per ann., clear, 10s. The premises in Bromham purchased of the said Andrew Smyth are held of the said Edward Bainton as of his manor of Bromham, in common socage, by the rent of 3s., and are worth per ann., clear, 10s. The acre of land formerly called Withers acre is held of the King by knight's service in chief, but by what part of a knight's fee the jurors know not, and is worth per ann., clear, 1s. Samuel Webbe. Delivered into Court 6th May, 15 Charles 1st. Wiltshire: - Abstracts of Inquisitiones Post Mortem Returned Into The Court of Chancery in The Reign of Charles 1st

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Source Information: Ancestry.com. Wiltshire, England, Extracted Parish Records [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2001. Original data: Electronic databases created from various publications of parish and probate records. Description: A collection of parish records in England and Wales from the 1500s to the 1800s.

© 2011, The Generations Network, Inc.

014 Edward Baynton

Wiltshire, England, Extracted Parish Records
Text: The jury also say that the aforesaid 2 messuages called Vannes otherwise Vennes, and Margotts, the messuage called Curtishold, and other the premises in Ditchridge aforesaid, late in the tenure of Nicholas West and Anthony Harte, otherwise Horte, are held of the King as of his honor of Ewelme, and lately of the honor of Wallingford, but by what service they are ignorant; they are worth yearly, clear, 20s. The messuage called Weeke, with the lands, etc., to the same belonging were held at time of the death of Henry Longe, the father, of the Treasurer of Salisbury, in free and common socage by fealty and the rent of 20s. a year, and are worth yearly, clear, 13s. 8d. Of whom the closes called Racke, Benecroft and Holbrooke, in Ashleye within the parish of Box, are held the jury are ignorant; they are worth yearly, clear, 13s. 4d. The premises called ...at the time of the death of the said Henry Longe, the father, were held of George Speake, esq., as of his manor of Box, by fealty, suit at the court of the manor, and the yearly rent of 2s. 6d., and are worth yearly, clear, 10s. The aforesaid messuages and 2 half virgates of land, called Henly and Isley, are held of the said George Speake, as of his said manor of Box, in free and common socage, that is to say the yearly rent of 16s. 4d. for all other service, and are worth yearly, clear, 6s. 8d. Of whom the said messuage called Wormecliffe is held the jury are ignorant; it is worth yearly, clear, 8s. The messuage and other the premises in the tenure of -- Bolwell are held of the said George Speake, as of his manor of Haselbury, in free and common socage, by suit of court, and the yearly rent of 2s. 10d. for all other service, and they are worth, yearly, clear, 2s. The moiety of the meadow called Westmeade, and other the premises lately purchased of Thomas Maynard and Dorothy his wife, in the said parish of Box, are held of the said George Speake, as of his said manor of Haselbury, in free and common socage, by fealty and the yearly rent of 2s. 6d., and they are worth yearly, clear [blank]. The capital messuage of Ashleye is held of the King as of his honor of Wallingford, by knight's service and the yearly rent of 3s. 4d., but by what part of a knight's fee the jury do not know; it is worth yearly, clear, £4. The messuage in ...Middlehill...late in the tenure of William Buttler, is held of Sir Edward Baynton, knt., as of his manor of Rowden, in free and common socage .. at the yearly rent of 20s. 10d., and it is worth yearly, clear, 10s. The meadow and pasture in Rudlow are held of Sir Edward Hungerford, knight of the Bath, as of his manor of Rudlow, in free and common socage, by fealty and suit at the court of that manor, and by the yearly rent of 20s.; they are worth yearly, clear, 8s. Of whom the meadows in Ditchridge, in the occupation of Reginald Nowell, are held, or by what service, the jury are ignorant; they are worth yearly, clear [illegible]. The messuage, etc., in Ashley, formerly in the occupation of Julianna Auste, is held of the King, as of his honor of Wallingford, by knight's service, and is worth yearly, clear [illegible]. Of whom the lands and tenements in Box, formerly in the occupation of John Clarke, are held, and by what service, the jury are ignorant; they are worth yearly, clear, 8d. The jury are likewise ignorant of whom or by what service the lands and tenements formerly in the occupation of William Hardinge in Ashley are held; they are worth yearly, clear, 10s. Of whom the premises in the city of Bath, Holloway, Walcot and Widcombe are held, or by what service, they are likewise ignorant; they are worth yearly, clear [illegible].

Ancestry.com - Wiltshire, England, Extracted Parish Records

http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=epr_wiltshire&ti=0&gss=a...

Book: Collection:

Henry Long, esquire. Wiltshire: - Abstracts of Inquisitiones Post Mortem Returned Into The Court of Chancery in The Reign of Charles 1st

Source Information: Ancestry.com. Wiltshire, England, Extracted Parish Records [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2001. Original data: Electronic databases created from various publications of parish and probate records. Description: A collection of parish records in England and Wales from the 1500s to the 1800s.

© 2011, The Generations Network, Inc.

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014 Edward Baynton

014 Edward Baynton

014 Edward Baynton

014 Edward Baynton

014 Edward Baynton

014 Edward Baynton

014 Eleanor Hoo-Carew

014 Elizabeth ‘3rd Duchess of Norfolk’ Stafford-Howard — Biography

Elizabeth Stafford-Howard, 3rd Duchess of Norfolk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Spouse(s) Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk Issue Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey Mary Howard, Duchess of Richmond Catherine Stanley, Countess of Derby Thomas Howard, 1st Viscount Howard of Bindon Noble Family Stafford Father: Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham Mother: Lady Eleanor Percy Born: 1494 Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, England Died:30 November 1558 (aged 63-64), Lambeth, London, England Elizabeth Howard (nee Stafford) (1494 – 30 November 1558) was the eldest daughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and the wife of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. She was of royal lineage as she was a direct descendant of Edward III of England. Family Elizabeth was born in 1494, the eldest daughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham (3 September 1478-1521) and Eleanor Percy. Her paternal grandparents were Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Catherine Woodville, and her maternal grandparents were Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland and Maud Herbert. Her grandfather, the Duke of Buckingham, was executed in 1483 by King Richard III for treason, and in 1521, her own father suffered the same fate when he was beheaded on Tower Hill for treason against his king, Henry VIII. Elizabeth had two sisters, Mary, Lady Bergavenny and Catherine, Countess Westmoreland, and a brother, Henry Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford.[1] Early Life Elizabeth was betrothed to her father’s ward Ralph Neville, fourth Earl of Westmorland. The couple seemed to be in love and devoted to each other. He and I had loved together two year, and I had married him before Christmas,” if the widowed Thomas Howard, the earl of Surrey’s heir, had not made vigorous suit to my father.[2] Elizabeth first came to court in the train of Catherine of Aragon in 1509, and soon became her devoted friend for life. She also accompanied her husband to Ireland when we was sent on a mission there in 1520-22 and then again in 1524, when he gained the dukedom of Norfolk.

Elizabeth Stafford, Duchess of Norfolk, Countess of Surrey

On 10 September 1533, she stood as one of the two godmothers of Princess Elizabeth.

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014 Elizabeth ‘3rd Duchess of Norfolk’ Stafford-Howard — Biography Marriage On 8 January 1513, Elizabeth married Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, who in 1524, would become the 3rd Duke of Norfolk. The marriage was his second. Elizabeth was against it from the start as her father Buckingham had promised her in marriage to Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland his ward whom Elizabeth was in love with. Howard however wouldn’t accept any of Elizabeth’s sisters as a wife and wanted her. Howard’s first wife had been Anne of York, the daughter of Edward IV, but none of their children had lived beyond early infancy. According to some letters Elizabeth wrote about the early days of the marriage, when the two seemed to have been bound together by mutual love and loyalty. I was daily waiter in the Court sixteen years together, when he hath been from me more than a year on the King’s wars. Elizabeth bore her husband four surviving children but their marriage was unhappy in the later days. He had taken in 1527[3] as his mistress Elizabeth Holland, whom, Elizabeth Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, described as “a churl’s daughter who was but a washer in my husband of Elizabeth Stafford nursery for eight years”[4] , though this was far from accurate, as Holland belonged to a family of local gentry and even served Anne Boleyn as a lady-in-waiting.[5] The Duke’s infatuation caused the marriage to decay, and resulted eventually in Elizabeth leaving the family home[6], in 1533. She was then relocated to Redbourne, Hertfordshire, from where she wrote many letters to Thomas Cromwell, accusing her husband and his servants of various ill-treatment, some of which appears extreme and possibly implausible.[7]In March 1534 she wrote:the duke locked me up in a chamber and took away my jewels and apparels.[8]. She complained that she lived as a virtual prisoner and only got a paltry sum of 200 pounds as allowance, and even asserted her husband had exhorted her servants to sit on her while she had been pregnant. An accusation he strenuously denied as being preposterous, claiming no decent man would treat a “woman in child-bed” in such a way. A suggestion that her accusations of brutality are possibly exaggerated, if not invented, might lie in the fact that the records show her husband was desperately seeking divorce and was offering her return of her jewels and clothes if she would agree, implying it would have made little sense to alienate her in some of the ways she describes. Even when urged by Cromwell and others, Elizabeth refused either to give Norfolk an official divorce,[9], or to reconcile with him and live under his roof. According to a letter she wrote to Thomas Cromwell on 3 March 1539, she was determined They shall not rule me as long as I offend not the King; I am of age to rule myself, as I have done these five years, since my husband put me away. It were better I kept my own house; for he will be angry with those I “suggyn” with, if they cannot bring their purpose about, just as he said those who wrote to me in his cause gave me ill-counsel, “but I have letter to show contrary.” Be not displeased that I have not followed your counsel to come home again, which I will never do during my life.[10] In January 1547, her husband and eldest son, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, were arrested on charges of treason. Elizabeth was interrogated, as were Elizabeth Holland, and other members of the family, but not imprisoned, possibly saved by her estrangement from her husband. Her son was subsequently beheaded,

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014 Elizabeth ‘3rd Duchess of Norfolk’ Stafford-Howard — Biography but her husband was rescued from imminent execution by the death of Henry VIII the night before he was due to die. Norfolk remained in the Tower until 1554, and on his release appears to have been reconciled with Elizabeth. She lived with him until his death the same year.[11] Relationship With Anne Boleyn In 1533, Howard’s niece, Anne Boleyn, was crowned Queen of England. Elizabeth did not like Anne and was staunchly partisan in favour of Catherine of Aragon. In 1530, Elizabeth smuggled letters received from Italy to Catherine concealed in oranges.[12] In 1531, Elizabeth was exiled from the court for talking too freely against her niece by marriage and siding with Catherine openly.[13] Elizabeth also later told the Spanish Ambassador, Eustace Chapuys, that Howard had confided in her that “Anne would be the ruin of all her family”.[14] Anne, however, managed to win the favour of Elizabeth by arranging brilliant matches for the Howard children. Henry was married to the daughter of John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford, while Mary married the King’s illegitimate son, Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset. Appeased, Elizabeth stopped plotting against Anne and returned to Court.[15] On 10 September 1533, she stood as one of the two godmothers of Princess Elizabeth. She died on 30 November 1558 in Lambeth, London at the age of sixty-four. Elizabeth was the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk at the time of her death, her estranged husband, the Duke, having died four years earlier. She was buried on 7 December 1558 in Lambeth. Issue
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Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1517-1547). He married Frances de Vere. Their children include Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk. The Earl was executed for treason in 1547. Mary Howard, Duchess of Richmond (1519–1557). She married 28 November 1533 Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Richmond (1519–1536). They had no children. She was lady-in-waiting to Anne Boleyn and Anne of Cleves. Thomas Howard, 1st Viscount Howard of Bindon (1520–1582). He married four times: Elizabeth Marney, by whom he had five children; Gertrude Lyte, by whom he had two children; Mabel Burton, by whom he had one daughter; and lastly, Margaret Manning but this marriage was childless. ^ Tudorplace.com. ^ Oxford Dictionary National Biography Vol. 28. Oxford University Press 2004 ^ Oxford Dictionary National Biography Vol. 28. Oxford University Press 2004 ^ Alison Weir “The Six Wives of Henry VIII”, page168 ^ Oxford Dictionary National Biography Vol. 28. Oxford University Press 2004

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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014 Elizabeth ‘3rd Duchess of Norfolk’ Stafford-Howard — Biography 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ^ House of Treason: the Rise and Fall of a Tudor Dynasty by Robert Hutchinson, 2009 ^ House of Treason: the Rise and Fall of a Tudor Dynasty by Robert Hutchinson, 2009 ^ House of Treason: the Rise and Fall of a Tudor Dynasty by Robert Hutchinson, 2009 ^ Oxford Dictionary National Biography Vol. 28. Oxford University Press 2004 ^ Letters and Papers: March 1539, 1-5’, Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 14 Part 1: January–July 1539 (1894), pp. 166-177 ^ House of Treason: the Rise and Fall of a Tudor Dynasty by Robert Hutchinson, 2009 ^ Weir, page220 ^ Oxford Dictionary National Biography Vol. 28. Oxford University Press 2004 ^ Weir, page 231 ^ Weir, p.249 Alison Weir “The Six Wives of Henry VIII”, Ballantine Books, New York, 1991 ISBN 0-34538072-X Tudorplace.com.Stafford

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

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014 Elizabeth Sulliard-Baynton

014 Gerald '9th Earl of Kildare' FitzGerald — Biography

Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare (1487–1534), also known in Irish as Gearóid Óg (‘Young Gerald’), was a figure in Irish History. In 1513 he inherited the title of Earl of Kildare and position of Lord Deputy of Ireland from his father. Family He was the son of Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare and Alison FitzEustace, daughter of Rowland FitzEustace, 1st Baron Portlester. He married Elizabeth Zouche, daughter of Sir John Zouche, and Elizabeth St.John, a cousin of the King,[1] in 1503 with whom he had Thomas Fitzgerald, 10th Earl of Kildare. He later married Lady Elizabeth Grey and had a further six children: Gerald FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Kildare, Elizabeth FitzGerald, Countess of Lincoln, Edward FitzGerald, Mary FitzGerald, Cecily FitzGerald, and Thomas FitzGerald. Biography In 1496 he was detained by Henry VII at his court as a hostage for his father’s fidelity. In April 1502 at the age of 15, he played the principal role in the funeral ceremony for Henry VII’s eldest son Arthur, Prince of Wales in Worcester Cathedral. In 1503, he was soon after permitted to return to Ireland, having married a cousin of Henry VII.[2] Next year he was appointed Lord Treasurer. In August 1504 he commanded the reserve at the battle of Knocktuagh, where his rashness and impetuosity were the cause of some loss. On the death of his father in 1513 he succeeded to the title, and was by the council chosen Lord-Justice. Henry VIII soon afterwards appointed him Lord-Deputy. Some of the Irish chiefs at the end of 1513 having ravaged parts of the Pale, the Earl, early in the following year, defeated O’More and his followers in Leix, and then, marching north, took the Castle of Cavan, killed O’Reilly, chased his followers into the bogs, and returned to Dublin laden with booty. This energetic action was so highly approved by the King that he granted the Earl the customs of the ports in the County of Down - rights repurchased by the Crown from the 17th Earl in 1662. In 1516 the Earl invaded Imayle, and sent the head of Shane O’Toole as a present to the Lord Mayor of Dublin. He then marched into Ely O’Carroll, in conjunction with his brother-in-law the Earl of Ormond, and James, son of the Earl of Desmond. They captured and razed the Castle of Lemyvannan, took Clonmel, and in December he returned to Dublin “ laden with booty, hostages, and honour.” In March 1517 he called a parliament in Dublin, and then invaded Ulster, stormed the Dundrum Castle, marched into Tyrone, and took, “and so reduced Ireland to a quiet condition.” On the 6 October of the same year his Countess died at Lucan, County Dublin, and was buried at Kilcullen. Next year, 1518, his enemies having accused him of maladministration, he appointed a deputy and sailed for England. He was removed from the government, and the Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk appointed in his stead. He appears to have accompanied the King to France in June 1520, and was present at “the Field of the Cloth of Gold“, where he was distinguished by his bearing and retinue. On this occasion he met the King’s first cousin, Lady Elizabeth Grey, whom he married a few months afterwards, and thereby gained considerable influence at court. Reports now came from Ireland that he was secretly striving to stir up the chieftains against the new Deputy. After inquiries, the King wrote to Surrey that, as they had “noon evident testimonies” to convict the Earl, he thought it but just to “release hym out of warde, and putt hym under suretie not to departe this our realme without our special lisense.” He was permitted to return in January 1523. At about this date he founded the College of Maynooth, which nourished until suppressed in 1538. He signalled his return to Ireland by an expedition into Leix in company with the Lord Mayor of Dublin.

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014 Gerald '9th Earl of Kildare' FitzGerald — Biography Having burnt several villages, they were caught in an ambuscade, and after considerable loss retreated with some difficulty to Dublin. In consequence of disputes and misunderstandings between the Earl of Kildare and Ormond, now Lord-Deputy, they appealed to the King, accusing each other of malpractices and treasons. Arbitrators were appointed, who ordered that both the Earls should abstain from making war without the King’s assent, that they should cease levying coigne and livery within “the four obeysant shires- Meath, Urgell, Dublin, and Kildare, “ that the two Earls should persuade their kinsmen to submit to the laws, and that they should be bound by a bond of 1,000 marks each to keep the peace for one year. Before long, however, their mutual hatred blazed forth again in consequence of the murder of James Talbot, one of Ormond’s followers, by the retainers of Kildare. Again the Earls appealed to the King, and again commissioners were sent over, who conducted an inquiry at Christ Church, Dublin, in June 1524. Their decision was in the main in favour of Kildare, and an indenture was drawn up, by which the Earls agreed to forgive each other, to be friends, and to make common cause for the future. Soon afterwards Kildare was reappointed Lord-Deputy. He took the oaths at Thomascourt, his nephew, Con Bacagh O’Neill, carrying the sword of state before him. He then entered into an indenture with the King not to grant pardons without the consent of the council, to cause the Irish in his territories to wear English dress, to shave their “upper berdes,” and not to levy coigne and livery except when on the King’s business, and then only to a specified amount, not exceeding 2d. a meal for horsemen, 1½d. for footmen, and 1d. for horseboys, with 12 sheaves per day of corn for war horses, and 8 for pack horses. Next year, 1525, Kildare and Ormond were again at daggers drawn. They appealed to the King concerning a disputed sum of £800 in account between them, accusing each other, as before, of sundry enormities and malfeasances. About the same time Kildare, in accordance with a royal mandate, assembled a large force, and marched into Munster to arrest the Earl of Desmond, making a show of great eagerness, but sending private instructions to the Earl how to keep out of the way. He next turned north, and by diplomacy and force pacified the O’Neills and O’Donnells. In 1526 he was ordered to England to meet the charges of Ormond (now Earl of Ossory through surrender of the higher title to the King) of having secretly assisted the Desmonds, and having murdered many good subjects because they were adherents of the Ormond and the Butler family. On arrival in London, he was for a time committed to the Tower, and was retained in England for four years; and when he was brought before the council, a violent altercation ensued between him and Wolsey, which is reported at full length by Holinshed. Wolsey is said to have obtained an order for his immediate execution, which his wellwisher, the Constable of the Tower, frustrated by exercising a right (still inherent in the office) of demanding a personal interview with the King. Liberated on bail for a time, Kildare was recommitted on the discovery of his intriguing with the Irish princes to induce them to commit assaults on the Pale, so as to make his return appear necessary. Liberated again, he was one of the peers who in 1530 signed the letter to the Pope relative to the divorce of Queen Catharine. The same year, to the joy of his retainers, he was permitted to return to Ireland with Skeffington, the new Lord-Deputy. On his arrival he marched against the O’Tooles to punish them for ravages on his tenantry in his absence, and then accompanied the Deputy against the O’Donnells. The friendship of the Deputy and Earl did not last long, and they sent letters and messages to the King accusing each other. The Deputy, as might be expected, was supported by the Butlers. Nevertheless, the Earl appears to have cleared himself, and to have been appointed to succeed Skeffington as Lord Deputy under the Duke of Richmond who had been granted the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Landing at Dublin in this capacity, in August 1532, Kildare was received with great acclamations. But lengthened peace appeared impossible. He insulted Skeffington, degraded John Alen, Archbishop of Dublin, wasted the territories of the Butlers, and was accused of forming alliances with the native chiefs. In 1533 the council reported to the King that such was the animosity between the Earls of Kildare and Ormond that peace was out of the question so long as either of them was Lord Deputy.

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014 Gerald '9th Earl of Kildare' FitzGerald — Biography Death At this period, Kildare had partially lost the use of his limbs and his speech, in consequence of a gunshot wound received in an attack upon the O’Carrolls at Birr. He was again summoned to court; and in February 1534, at a council at Drogheda, in an affecting speech, he nominated his son Thomas, Lord Offaly, as Vice-Deputy, and then, embracing him and the lords of the council, set sail for England. On his arrival in London he was arraigned on several charges, and was committed to the Tower, where he died of grief, 12 December 1534, on hearing of his son’s rebellion, and perusing the excommunication launched against him. He was buried in St. Peter’s Church in the Tower. References 1. ^ Jones,Michael and Underwood, Malcolm The King’s Mother Cambridge University Press 1992 2. ^ Jones and Underwood The King’s Mother See also
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William Skeffington History of County Kildare Peerage of Ireland Preceded by Gerald FitzGerald Preceded by Sir Hugh Conway Preceded by The Earl of Kildare Preceded by The Earl of Ormonde Preceded by Sir William Skeffington Earl of Kildare 1513–1534 Political offices Lord Treasurer of Ireland 1504–1514 Lord Deputy of Ireland 1513–1518 Lord Deputy of Ireland 1524–1529 Lord Deputy of Ireland 1532–1534 Succeeded by The Lord Slane Succeeded by The Duke of Norfolk Succeeded by Sir William Skeffington Succeeded by Sir William Skeffington Succeeded by Thomas FitzGerald

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014 Gerald FitzGerald

014 Hugh Pakenham

014 Hugh Pakenham

014 Hugh Pakenham

014 James Greenwode

014 Jane Bellingham-Shirley - Biography

Burneshead Hall

Burneside Hall is a ruined 14th century pele tower now attached to a farm house and outbuildings. The fortification of the house was licenced in 1341 when the tower and a gatehouse were built. There is a long south wing, and a shorter oblong north wing, which is in fact a pele tower. There are two tunnel-vaulted chambers at ground level, seperated by a narrow tunnel-vaulted passage. Burneside Hall can be found to the North of Burneside and to the West of the A6, about three miles outside of Kendal. The hall became the property of Richard de Bellingham of Northumberland when he married Margaret, the heiress of Gilbert de Burneshead. Their descendants remained living in the hall for the next 200 years or so. Most of the 14th century tower still survives, together with some of the original enclosing wall of the barmkyn, or fortified courtyard. This area would have been used to house and protect cattle in the event of a raid or an attack. Today, the hall and its grounds are accessed along a narrow drive-way from the road below it. Entrance would have been through a gate house from the 16th century onwards, that still stands intact but with broken windows. The original heavy oak doors to the gate house can still be seen, albeit off their hinges now and leaning against the interior wall! The hall and its attendant buildings are from different dates. The pele tower was built by the Burnesheads in the 14th century. Its basement is divided into two cellars, connected by a tunnel passing right through the tower. Apparently this is an architecturally unique feature for a pele tower. The walls of the pele tower were originally around 1.2metres thick. No traces of the embattled parapets survive. There was a special enclosure directly outside the tower, possibly for the protection of horses. Attached to the rear of the pele tower is the Great Hall, probably built during the 16th century. This part of the building was built by the Bellinghams, and was enlarged during the 17th century by the Braithwaites. There are stretches of curtain wall still remaining, and these would originally have formed a fortified courtyard. To the front of the tower survive traces of a moat surrounding the site and an ornamental lake with a small island. The hall is part of a working farm, and is therefore private property.

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014 John ‘15th Earl of Oxford ‘de Vere - Biography

John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford (before 1490 – 21 March 1540) was an English peer and courtier.[1] Biography John de Vere was the son of John de Vere and Alice Kilrington (alias Colbroke), and the great-grandson of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford, succeeding his second cousin, John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford.[2] John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford was the first protestant earl of Oxford.[2] He was Esquire of the body in 1509, knighted by Henry VIII in 1513, and in attendance to Henry VIII during meetings with the French King Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1520. In 1529, he had a life grant of the great chamberlainship and signed the lords’ petition against Wolsey. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1530 and became a royal councillor in 1531. Oxford bore the crown at Anne Boleyn‘s coronation, but later served on commissions trying her and her alleged lovers in 1536 and also the panels for

John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford, painting by Daniel Mytens

the Courtenay conspiracy trials in 1538. The Earl was the patron of the Lord Chamberlains’s players, a dramatic troupe that acted John Bale’s plays, from 1537.[3] A Venetian report in 1531 asserted ‘[that he was] a man of valour and authority … and it is his custom always to cavalcade with two hundred horse’ (CSP Venice, 1527–33, 295). He died on 21 March 1540 and was buried at Castle Hedingham.” Family The 15th Earl of Oxford married twice: First, Christian Foderingey (b. circa 1481, d. in or before 1498, the daughter of Sir Thomas Foderingey (circa 1446–1491), Lord of South Acre and his wife Elizabeth Doreward (c.1473–1491) the granddaughter of John Doreward (d. 1420) serjeant-at-law and Speaker of the House of Commons. They had no children. Second, Elizabeth Trussell, the daughter of Sir Edward Trussell of Kibblestone, Staffordshire and, Margaret Dunn. They had seven children:[1] 1. 2. Elizabeth de Vere (b. circa 1512), who married Thomas Darcy, 1st Baron Darcy of Chiche and had issue. John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford (b. 1516, d. 3 Aug 1562), who married firstly, Dorothy Neville, daughter of Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland, secondly, Margery Golding, and had issue from both marriages. Frances de Vere (b. circa 1517, d. 30 Jun 1577), who married of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey and was mother of the fourth Duke of Norfolk Aubrey de Vere, whose grandson, Robert would be the 19th Earl of Oxford Robert de Vere (b. circa 1520)

3. 4. 5.

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014 John ‘15th Earl of Oxford ‘de Vere - Biography 6. 7. Anne de Vere, (b. circa 1522, d. circa February 1572), who married Edmund Sheffield, 1st Baron b. Sheffield of Butterwick b. 1523), Geoffrey de Vere (b. circa 1523 who married Elizabeth Hardkyn, daughter of Sir John Hardkyn

References 1. ^ a b Record for John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford on www.thepeerage.com 2. ^ a b ”Vere, John de (1512?-1562 Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1562)“. Co 1885–1900. 3. ^ Lancashire, Ian. Dramatic Texts and Records of Britain: A Chronological Topography to 1558 Records (Toronto, 1984) p. 407.

Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, (2005), 744.

Peerage Of England Preceded By John De Vere Earl Of Oxford 1526–1539 Succeeded By John De Vere

This Biography Of An Earl In The Peerage Of England Is A Stub. You Can Help Wikipedia By Expanding It.

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014 John '15th Earl of Oxford' de Vere

014 Margaret ‘Marchioness of Dorset’ Wotton Marchioness Wotton-Grey — Biography

Margaret Wotton, Marchioness of Dorset
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Spouse(s) William Medley Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset Issue George Medley Lady Elizabeth Grey Lady Katherine Grey Lady Anne Grey Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk Lord John Grey Lord Thomas Grey Leonard Grey Lady Mary Grey Father: Sir Robert Wotton Mother: Anne Belknap Born: 1487, Boughton Malherbe, Kent, England Died: 1541, Yorkshire, England

Margaret Wotton, Marchioness of Dorset (1487– 1541) was the second wife of Thomas Grey, 2nd Portrait of Margaret Wotton, Marchioness of Dorset, by Hans Holbein the Younger Marquess of Dorset, and the mother of his children, , including Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, with whom she engaged in many quarrels during his minority Suffolk, over money and his allowance. Her lack of generosity to Henry shocked her peers as unmotherly, and . inappropriate behaviour toward a high high-ranking nobleman, relative[1] of King Henry VIII of England. In England ] 1534, she felt compelled to answer to the charges that she was an “unnatural mother”.[2] On 10 September 1533, she stood as one of the godmothers of Princess Elizabeth, who would later rule as , Queen Elizabeth I of England. She was the subject of two portraits by Hans Holbein the Younger. One of her many grandchildren was Lady Jane Grey. Family Margaret was born in 1487, the daughter of Sir Robert Wotton of Boughton Malherbe, Kent, and Anne Malherbe Belknap, sister of Sir Edward Belknap. Two of her brothers held important positions in the government. Belknap. Sir Edward Wotton[disambiguation needed ] was Treasurer of Calais, and Nicholas Wotton was a diplomat who arranged the marriage of Henry VIII to Anne of Cleves in 1539. Marriages And Issue In 1505, Margaret married her first husband, William Medley, by whom she had one son, George (died , 1562). In 1509, sometime after the death of her husband in February of that year, she married as his . second wife, Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset, the eldest son of Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset and Cecily Bonville, Baroness Harington and Bo Bonville. She was styled as Marchioness of Dorset upon her marriage.

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014 Margaret ‘Marchioness of Dorset’ Wotton-Grey — Biography Together, Thomas and Margaret had eight children:

Lady Elizabeth Grey (1510–1564), married firstly Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden by whom she had two daughters, including Margaret Audley, Duchess of Norfolk; she married secondly, George Norton Lady Katherine Grey (1512 – 1 May 1532), married Henry Fitzalan, 19th Earl of Arundel, by whom she had issue. Lady Anne Grey (1514 – January 1584), married Sir Henry Willoughby, by whom she had issue. Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk (12 January 1517 – 23 February 1554), married Lady Frances Brandon, by whom he had three daughters, including Lady Jane Grey, and Lady Catherine Grey. Executed for treason, along with his eldest daughter, Jane, and younger brother, for having had participated in Thomas Wyatt‘s rebellion in 1554. Lord John Grey (1523 – 19 November 1569) Lord Thomas Grey (1526 – after 1554), executed along with his brother, Henry, and niece, Jane for having had participated in Thomas Wyatt’s rebellion in 1554. Leonard Grey Lady Mary Grey

• • •

• • • •

Margaret and her husband were part of the group who accompanied Henry VIII’s sister, Princess Mary, to France in the autumn of 1514, for the latter’s wedding to King Louis XII of France. In October 1530, her husband died and she was given custody of all his property during their eldest son, Henry’s minority.[3] On 10 September 1533 at Greenwich Palace, Margaret stood as one of the two godmothers of Princess Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, who would later rule as Queen Elizabeth I of England.[4] Three months earlier, on 1 June, Margaret had ridden in Anne Boleyn’s coronation procession from the Tower of London to Westminster Abbey. She was the subject of two portraits by Hans Holbein the Younger. Quarrels With Her Son Margaret first began a long series of quarrels with her son, who had succeeded to the Marquisate of Dorset in 1530, when he was forced to pay a fine of £4000 for breach of contract after he had renounced his bethrothal to Katherine Fitzalan, daughter of the Earl of Arundel. As a result, she tried to restrict his allowance throughout his minority which caused much consternation from her peers, who labelled her actions “unmotherly”, and inappropriate behaviour towards a nobleman closely related to the King.[5] Margaret only agreed to Henry’s marriage with Lady Frances Brandon, niece of the King, on the condition that her father, Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk would support the couple until her son reached his majority. In 1534, she felt compelled to answer charges that she was “an unnatural mother”. As a result, she offered to contribute to her son’s advancement “as my small power is and shall be”.[6]
A sketch of Margaret Wotton, Marchioness of Dorset, by Hans Holbein the Younger, c.1532–1535

Several years later when he came of age, Henry brought his quarrel with his mother before the Kings’ Council, where she

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014 Margaret ‘Marchioness of Dorset’ Wotton-Grey — Biography belatedly admitted that her son’s allowance was not “meet or sufficient to maintain his estate”, and she offered to increase it. Henry was not appeased, therefore she moved out of the Grey family seat at Bradgate House; however, Henry would not let her remove her personal property, so she wrote a letter to Thomas Cromwell, pleading with him to order her son to release her goods.[7] Margaret died in 1541 at the age of 54. References 1. ^ half 1st cousin once-removed 2. ^ Harris, Barbara Jean. English Aristocratic Women 1450 – 1550: Marriage and Family; Property and Careers. p.115. Google Books. Retrieved 4 January 2011 3. ^ Barbara Jean Harris, English Aristocratic Women 1450–1550: Marriage and Family; Property and Careers, p.115, Google Books, retrieved 21-11-09 4. ^ Lucy Aikin, Memoirs of the Court of Queen Elizabeth, Volume 1, p.9, retrieved 21-11-09 5. ^ Harris, p.115 6. ^ Harris, p.115 7. ^ Harris, p.116

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014 Nicholas Sidney

014 Richard Haute — Biography

Richard Haute — Knight Of The Shire
Richard was born in Waltham, Kent, England. Richard’s father was William Haute and his mother was Joan Wydeville. His maternal grandparents were Richard Wydevill and Joan Bedlisgate. He was an only child. He died on April 8th, 1487. General Notes He was Knight of the Shire for Essex, Sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire, Sheriff of Kent, and Lieutenant of the Tower of London. He was appointed one of the tutors and counsellors of the infant Edward, Prince of Wales, by his cousin Queen Elizabeth Wydeville. On the death of King Edward IV in April 1483, he escorted the young King Edward V from Ludlow Castle until their interception by Richard, Duke of Gloucester [later King Richard III]. He took part in the rebellion of the Duke of Buckingham against Richard III for which his lands were seized, and he was attainted.

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014 Thomas ‘2nd Marquess of Dorset’ Grey — Biography

Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Marquess of Dorset Born: 22 June 1477[1] Died: 10 October 1530 (aged 53)[1] Occupation: peer, courtier, soldier and landowner Spouse: Eleanor St John Margaret Wotton Children Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk Lord John Grey Lord Thomas Grey Leonard Grey Lady Anne Grey, Lady Willoughby Lady Catherine Grey, Countess of Arundel Lady Elizabeth Grey, Baroness Audley of Walden Lady Mary Grey Parents Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset Cecily Bonville, Baroness Harington and Bonville Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset, KG, KB (22 June 1477 – 10 October 1530) was an English peer, courtier, soldier and landowner, the grandfather of Lady Jane Grey, briefly Queen of England. Early Life Grey was the third son and eventual heir of Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset (c. 1456–1501), at that time England’s only marquess, and his wife, Cecily Bonville, the daughter and heiress of William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington of Aldingham. His mother was suo jure 7th Baroness Harington of Aldingham and 2nd Baroness Bonville, and the richest heiress in England. The first marquess was the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth Woodville, so a stepson of King Edward IV and a half-brother of Edward, Prince of Wales, later King Edward V.[1] According to some reports, the young Grey attended Magdalen College School, Oxford, and he is uncertainly said to have been taught (either at the school or else privately tutored) by the future Cardinal Wolsey.[1] Grey’s father was opposed to King Richard III, and after the older Thomas joined Buckingham‘s failed rebellion of 1483 father and son fled to Brittany, joining Henry Tudor.[1] Five months after Richard lost the crown to Henry at the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485, the new king married the first Dorset’s half-sister Elizabeth of York, but Henry VII was also suspicious of Dorset, who was imprisoned during Lambert Simnel‘s rebellion of 1487.[2] In 1492, Dorset was required to give guarantees of loyalty to the crown and to make the young Thomas Grey a ward of the king.[2] Courtier Among the Queen of England’s closest relations, Grey and his younger brothers Leonard and Edward were welcome at court and became courtiers and later soldiers.[1] In 1494, Grey was made a knight of the

The remains of Thomas Grey’s Bradgate House in 2005

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014 Thomas ‘2nd Marquess of Dorset’ Grey — Biography Bath and in 1501 a knight of the Garter.[1] Also in 1501, his father died and the younger Thomas inherited his titles and some of his estates. However, much of the first marquess’s land went to his widow and not to his son, who did not come into his full inheritance until the death of his mother in 1529, shortly before his own death.[1] Later in 1501, he was ‘chief answerer’ at the marriage of Arthur, Prince of Wales and Catherine of Aragon and was presented with a diamond and ruby Tudor rose at a court tournament.[2] But in 1508 he was sent to the Tower of London, and later a gaol in Calais, under suspicion of conspiracy against Henry VII.[2] Although he was saved from execution in 1509 by the accession of King Henry VIII, Grey was attainted and lost his titles.[1] However, later in 1509 he was pardoned and returned to court, and was summoned to parliament as Baron Ferrers of Groby. In 1511, he was summoned as Marquess of Dorset.[1] From 1509, Dorset was again an active courtier and took part with great distinction in many court tournaments, on one occasion in March 1524 nearly killing the king.[1][3] In 1514, with Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, Dorset escorted Henry VII’s daughter Princess Mary Rose to France for her wedding to King Louis XII.[3][4] Dorset owned land in sixteen English counties and was a justice of the peace for several of them.[1] In 1516, during a rivalry in Leicestershire with George, Baron Hastings, and Sir Richard Sacheverell, Dorset unlawfully increased his retinue at court and was brought before the Star Chamber and the Court of King’s Bench.[5] He was bound over for good behaviour.[6] As part of this rivalry, he greatly enlarged his ancestral home at Bradgate, Leicestershire.[5][7] In 1520, at the Field of Cloth of Gold, Dorset carried the sword of state.[3] In 1521, he met the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at Gravelines on the coast of France and escorted him on a visit to England.[3] He helped with the entertainment of the court by maintaining a company of actors.[8] In 1521, Dorset sat in judgment on the Duke of Buckingham, despite being related to him by marriage.[1][3] After his father’s death, Dorset’s mother had married a brother of the Duke. Henry VIII rewarded Dorset with three of Buckingham’s manors.[9] From 17 June 1523 until his death in 1530, Dorset was Justice in Eyre south of Trent.[10] As such, he presided at the triennial Court of justice-seat, which dealt with matters of forest law.[10] In 1524, Dorset’s Leicestershire feud with Lord Hastings turned into a fight between hundreds of men, and Cardinal Wolsey took action.[1][11] Both rivals had to put up a bond for good behaviour of one thousand pounds, and Dorset was sent to Wales as Lord Master of Princess Mary’s Council.[5] In 1528, Dorset became constable of Warwick Castle, and in 1529 of Kenilworth Castle.[1] In 1529, recalling his role as ‘chief answerer’ at the marriage of Arthur, Prince of Wales, Dorset was a critical witness in favour of Henry VIII’s divorce of Catherine of Aragon. He strongly supported the King’s contention that Arthur and Catherine’s marriage had been consummated.[3] In 1530, in the final months of his life, he assisted the King in the condemnation of Cardinal Wolsey.[3] Soldier In 1512, Dorset led an unsuccessful English military expedition to France to reconquer Aquitaine, which England had lost during the Hundred Years’ War.[1] Unhappily, Ferdinand of Aragon gave none of the support he had promised. While Ferdinand delayed and tried to persuade Dorset to help him to attack Navarre instead of Aquitaine, the English army’s food, beer, and pay ran out, many took to wine and became ill, and the army mutinied. Back in England, Dorset had to face a trial.[12] In 1513, he fought at the siege of Tournai and the Battle of Guinegate (also known as the Battle of the Spurs), and fought again in 1523 in the Scottish borders.[1] These all gave him chances to make amends

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014 Thomas ‘2nd Marquess of Dorset’ Grey — Biography for the debacle of Aquitaine. To help Dorset in dealing with the Scots, he was appointed Lord Warden of the Marches, restored to the Privy Council, and became a gentleman of the chamber.[1][12] Family Grey was the son and heir of Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset (c. 1456–1501), and his wife, Cecily Bonville, daughter and heiress of William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington of Aldingham and of Lady Katherine Neville (1442-1503) and granddaughter of Alice Neville, 5th Countess of Salisbury (14071462). Cecily Bonville’s maternal uncles included Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (called ‘Warwick the Kingmaker’), John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu and George Neville, Archbishop of York and Chancellor of England, while her aunts had married Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, William FitzAlan, 16th Earl of Arundel, Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby, and John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford. Cecily Bonville succeeded her father as Baroness Harington in 1460, and two months later succeeded her great- grandfather William Bonville as Baron Bonville.[13][14] After the death of her first husband, Cecily Bonville married her late husband’s first cousin Henry Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, the younger son of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and of Catherine Woodville, Dorset’s aunt.[15] The younger Thomas Grey’s paternal grandparents were Queen Elizabeth Woodville (c. 1437–1492) and her first husband Sir John Grey of Groby (c. 1432-1461), son and heir of Elizabeth Ferrers, Lady Ferrers of Groby,[16] so his father the first marquess was a stepson of King Edward IV and a half-brother of King Edward V.[1] His grandfather Sir John Grey was killed at the Second Battle of St Albans (1461), fighting on the Lancastrian side.[16] His grandmother Elizabeth Woodville was the eldest daughter of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers, and Jacquetta of Luxembourg, widow of John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford.[17] Following his grandmother’s marriage to Edward IV, members of her family gained advantages and made prosperous marriages.[16] Elizabeth’s brother John Woodville, at the age of twenty, married Catherine Neville, dowager Duchess of Norfolk, then in her late sixties.[18] Through Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Dorset was descended from Eleanor of England (1215-1275), the daughter of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, and from several other European royal families.[19] Marriages And Descendants Thomas Grey was contracted in 1483 to marry Anne St Leger (1476-1526), the daughter of Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter and her second husband Sir Thomas St Leger. Remarkably, Anne St Leger had been declared the heiress to the Exeter estates, but the marriage did not take place.[20] In the event, the young Thomas Grey’s first marriage was to Eleanor St John, a daughter of Oliver St John of Lydiard Tregoze, Wiltshire[1] and of his wife Elizabeth Scrope, daughter of Henry le Scrope, 4th Lord Scrope of Bolton (1418– 1459).[21] Grey’s father-in-law Oliver St John (also known as Oliver of Ewell[22]) was the son of Margaret Beauchamp (c. 1411-1482), the great-great-granddaughter of Roger Beauchamp, 1st Lord Beauchamp of Bletso, Keeper of Devizes Castle, and heiress to the Beauchamp estates. After the death of her first husband, another Oliver St John (died 1437), she married John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset (1404–1444).[23] In 1509, Thomas Grey (now known as Lord Ferrers of Groby) married secondly Margaret Wotton, daughter of Sir Robert Wotton (c.1463–1524) of Boughton Malherbe, Kent, and the widow of William Medley. She had two notable brothers, Sir

Margaret Grey, Marchioness of Dorset, by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1532–35

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014 Thomas ‘2nd Marquess of Dorset’ Grey — Biography Edward Wotton (1489-1551), Treasurer of Calais,[24] and Nicholas Wotton (c. 1497–1567), a diplomat who in 1539 arranged the marriage between Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves.[25] With Margaret, the younger Thomas Grey had four sons and four daughters, including Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk (1517–1554).[26] His second wife survived him and died in or after 1535.[1] His younger brother Leonard Grey, 1st Viscount Grane (c. 1479 — 1541) served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1536 to 1540. Dorset’s son Henry succeeded him as Marquess of Dorset, married Lady Frances Brandon, a granddaughter of King Henry VII, and in 1551 (on the death of his brother-in-law Charles Brandon, 3rd Duke of Suffolk) become Duke of Suffolk, by way of a new creation.[26] Dorset’s granddaughter Lady Jane Grey was the designated successor of King Edward VI by his will, and for nine days in July 1553 reigned briefly as England’s first Queen regnant until ousted by Henry VIII’s daughter Mary I, who was the heir by Act of Parliament.[27] In 1554, together with Dorset’s other surviving sons, Lord John Grey and Lord Thomas Grey, Suffolk took part in Wyatt’s rebellion against Mary I’s marriage to Philip of Spain and in support of Lady Jane Grey.[28] When this rebellion failed, all three were arrested, and Suffolk and his brother Thomas were executed,[28] as were Lady Jane herself and her husband Lord Guilford Dudley.[27] Lord John Grey survived, and in July 1603 his youngest son, Henry Grey, was restored to the House of Lords by King James I as Baron Grey of Groby.[28] Death Dorset died on 10 October 1530, and was buried in the collegiate church at Astley in Warwickshire. When he died he held estates in London and in sixteen counties, amounting to over one hundred manors, and was one of the richest men in England.[29] His grave was opened in the early seventeenth century and measurement of his skeleton suggested a height of 5 feet 8 inches.[1] Footnotes

The expedition of Dorset to Navarre ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Grey, Thomas, second marquess of Dorset (1477–1530), magnate and courtier (login required) by Robert C. Braddock in Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004) ^ a b c d T. B. Pugh, Henry VII and the English nobility, in The Tudor nobility, ed. G. W. Bernard (Manchester, 1992), 49–110 ^abcd (1904)
e f g

1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Edward Hall, The triumphant reigne of kyng Henry the VIII, ed. C. Whibley, 2 vols.

^ Gunn, S. J., Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, c.1484–1545 (Basil Blackwell, Oxford & New York, 1988) ^ a b c Nichols, John, The history and antiquities of the county of Leicester, 4 vols. (1795–1815) ^ Guy, John A., The Cardinal’s Court: The Impact of Thomas Wolsey in Star Chamber (Harvester Press, England, 1977) ^ John Leland‘s Itinerary: travels in Tudor England, ed. John Chandler (Sutton Publishing, 1993) ^ Walker, Greg, Plays of persuasion: drama and politics at the court of Henry VIII (Cambridge University Press, 1991) ^ Miller, Helen, Henry VIII and the English nobility (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1986)

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014 Thomas ‘2nd Marquess of Dorset’ Grey — Biography 10. 11. ^ a b Turner, G.J., The Justices of the Forest South of Trent in The English Historical Review 18 (1903) pp. 112–116 ^ Robertson, M. L., Court careers and county quarrels: George Lord Hastings and Leicestershire unrest, 1509–1529 in State, sovereigns and society: essays in early modern English history, ed. Charles Carleton (Sutton Publishing, 1998), pp. 153–169 ^ a b Vergil, Polydore, The Anglica Historia of Polydore Vergil, AD 1485-1537 (translated by Denys Hay), Office of the Royal Historical Society, Camden Series, London, 1950. ^ Cecily Bonville, Baroness Bonville and Harington at thepeerage.com (accessed 25 November 2007) ^ On Cecily’s death in 1530, her son Thomas inherited both of her baronies. ^ Stafford, Henry, earl of Wiltshire (c.1479–1523), nobleman and courtier by Keith Dockray in Dictionary of National Biography online (accessed 26 November 2007) ^ a b c Sir John Grey (c.1432-1461), knight in Grey, Sir Richard (d. 1483), nobleman by Rosemary Horrox in Dictionary of National Biography online (accessed 26 November 2007) ^ Douglas Richardson & Kimball G. Everingham, Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, p. 359 ^ Neville (married names Mowbray, Strangways, Beaumont, Woodville), Katherine, duchess of Norfolk (c.1400–1483), noblewoman by Rowena E. Archer in Dictionary of National Biography online (accessed 26 November 2007) ^ Alison Weir, Britain’s Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, The Bodley Head, 1999) ^ Holland, Henry, second duke of Exeter (1430–1475), magnate, including Anne of York (1439– 1476) by Michael Hicks in Dictionary of National Biography online at oxforddnb.com (accessed 25 November 2007) ^ Eleanor St John at thepeerage.com (accessed 25 November 2007) ^ Alison Weir, Britain’s Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, The Bodley Head, 1999), page 103 ^ Margaret Beauchamp at thepeerage.com (accessed 25 November 2007) ^ Wotton, Sir Edward (c.1489–1551), administrator by Luke MacMahon in Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004) ^ Wotton, Nicholas (c.1497–1567), diplomat and dean of Canterbury and York by Michael Zell in Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004) ^ a b Grey, Henry, duke of Suffolk (1517–1554), magnate by Robert C. Braddock in Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004) ^ a b Grey, Lady Jane (1537–1554), noblewoman and claimant to the English throne by Alison Plowden in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004) ^ a b c Grey, Lord John (d. 1564), nobleman by Stanford Lehmberg in Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004) ^ Prerogative court of Canterbury, wills, Public Record Office, PROB 11/24, fols. 72v–76r

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

19. 20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

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014 Thomas ‘2nd Marquess of Dorset’ Grey — Biography

Preceded By Thomas Grey

Peerage Of England Marquess Of Dorset 1501–1530 Baron Ferrers Of Groby 1501–1530

Succeeded By Henry Grey

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014 Thomas '2nd Duke of Norfolk' Howard — Biography

Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Spouse(s) Elizabeth Tilney Agnes Tilney Issue Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk Sir Edward Howard Lord Edmund Howard Elizabeth Howard Muriel Howard William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham Lord Thomas Howard Richard Howard Dorothy Howard Anne Howard Katherine Howard Elizabeth Howard Noble Family House of Howard Father: John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk Mother: Katherine Moleyns Born: 1443 Kenninghall, Norfolk, England Died: 21 May 1524, Kenninghall, Norfolk, England
Thomas Howard, The Duke of Norfolk

Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke Of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal (1443 – 21 May 1524), styled Earl of Surrey from 1483 to 1514, was the only son of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk by his first wife, Katherine Moleyns. He served four monarchs as a soldier and statesman. Early Life Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, was born in 1443 at Stoke by Nayland, Suffolk, the only son of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, by his first wife, Katherine, the daughter of William Moleyns (d. 8 June 1425) and his wife Margery.[1] He was educated at Thetford Grammar School.[2] Service Under Edward IV While a youth he entered the service of King Edward IV as a henchman. Howard took the King's side when war broke out in 1469 with the Earl of Warwick, and took sanctuary at Colchester when the King fled to Holland in 1470. Howard rejoined the royal forces at Edward's return to England in 1471, and was severely wounded at the Battle of Barnet on 14 April 1471.[2] He was appointed an esquire of the body in 1473. On 14 January 1478 he was knighted by Edward IV at the marriage of the King's second son, the young Duke of York, and Lady Anne Mowbray (d.1483).[3] Service Under Richard III After the death of Edward IV on 9 April 1483, Thomas Howard and his father John supported Richard III's usurpation of the throne. Thomas bore the Sword of State at Richard's coronation, and served as steward at the coronation banquet. Both Thomas and his father were granted lands by the new King, and Thomas was also granted an annuity of £1000. On 28 June 1483, John Howard was created Duke of

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014 Thomas '2nd Duke of Norfolk' Howard — Biography Norfolk, while Thomas was created Earl of Surrey.[2] Surrey was also sworn of the Privy Council and , invested with the Order of the Garter In the autumn of that year Norfolk and Surrey suppressed a Garter. urrey rebellion against the King by the Duke of Buckingham [3] Both Howards remained close to King Richard Buckingham. throughout his two-year reign, and fought for him at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, where Surrey year was wounded and taken prisoner, and his father killed. Surrey was attainted in the first Parliament of the new King, Henry VII, stripped of his lands, and committed to the Tower of London, where he spent the , , next three years. Service Under Henry VII Howard was offered an opportunity to escape during the rebellion of the Earl of Lincoln in 1487, but refused, perhaps convincing Henry VII of his loyalty. In May 1489 Henry restored him to the earldom of Surrey, although most of his lands , were withheld, and sent him to quell a rebellion in Yorkshire. ithheld, Surrey remained in the north as the King's lieutenant until 1499.[3] In 1499 he was recalled to court, and accompanied the King on a state visit to France in the following year. In 1501 he Norfolk Defending His Allegiance To was again appointed a member of the Council, and on 16 June of Richard III Before Henry VII After The that year was made Lord High Treasurer. Surrey, Bishop Richard . Battle Of Bosworth Field. Foxe, the Lord Privy Seal, and Archbishop William Warham, the Warham Lord Chancellor, became the King's 'executive triumvirate'.[3] He was entrusted with a number of , diplomatic missions. In 1501 he was involved in the negotiations for Catherine of Aragon's marriage to Arthur, Prince of Wales, and in 1503 conducted Margaret Tudor to Scotland for her wedding to King , [3] James IV. Service Under Henry VIII Surrey was an executor of the will of King Henry VII when the King died on 21 April 1509, and played a prominent role in the coronation of King Henry VIII, in which he served as Earl Marshal. He challenged n Marshal Thomas Wolsey in an effort to become the new King's first minister, but eventually accepted Wolsey's supremacy. Surrey expected to lead the 1513 expedition to France, but was left behind when the King behind departed for Calais on 30 June 1513. Shortly thereafter James IV launched an invasion, and Surrey, with the aid of other noblemen and his sons Thomas and Edmund, crushed James's much larger force near , Flodden on 9 September 1513. The Scots may have lost as many as 10,000 men, and King James was killed. The victory at Flodden brought Surrey great popular renown and royal rewards. On 1 February 1514 he was created Duke of Norfolk, and his son Thomas was made Earl of Surrey. Both were granted Earl lands and annuities, and the Howard arms were augmented in honour of Flodden with an escutcheon bearing the lion of Scotland pierced through the mouth with an arrow.[3] Final Years In the final decade of his life, Norfolk continued his career as a courtier, diplomat and soldier. In 1514 he joined Wolsey and Foxe in negotiating the marriage of Mary Tudor to King Louis XII of France, and escorted her to , France for the wedding. On 1 May 1517 he led a private army of 1300 retainers into London to suppress the Evil May Day riots. In May 1521 he presided as Lord High Steward over the trial of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham. According to Head, 'he pronounced the sentence of death Buckingham. with tears streaming down his face'.[3] By the spring of 1522, Norfolk was almost 80 years of age and in failing years health. He withdrew from court, resigned as Lord Treasurer in favour of his son in December of that year, and after attending the opening of Parliament in April 1523, retired to
Norfolk's Coat of arms with augmentation

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014 Thomas '2nd Duke of Norfolk' Howard — Biography his ducal castle at Framlingham in Suffolk where he died on 21 May 1524. His funeral and burial on 22 June at Thetford Priory were said to have been 'spectacular and enormously expensive, costing over £1300 and including a procession of 400 hooded men bearing torches and an elaborate bier surmounted with 100 wax effigies and 700 candles', befitting the richest and most powerful peer in England.[4] After the dissolution of Thetford Priory, the Howard tombs were moved to the Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham. A now-lost monumental brass depicting the 2nd Duke was formerly in the Church of St. Mary at Lambeth.[citation needed] Marriages And Issue On 30 April 1472 Howard married Elizabeth Tilney, the daughter of Sir Frederick Tilney of Ashwellthorpe, Norfolk, and widow of Sir Humphrey Bourchier, slain at Barnet, son and heir apparent of Sir John Bourchier, 1st Baron Berners.[5] They had issue:
• • • • • • • • • • •

Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk[2] Sir Edward Howard[6] Lord Edmund Howard, father of Henry VIII's fifth Queen, Katherine Howard[7] Sir John Howard[2] Henry Howard[2] Charles Howard[2] Henry Howard (the younger)[2] Richard Howard[2] Elizabeth Howard, married Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, and was mother of Queen Anne Boleyn, and grandmother of Queen Elizabeth[8] Muriel Howard (d.1512), married firstly John Grey, Viscount Lisle (d.1504), and secondly Sir Thomas Knyvet[9] daughter (died young)[10]

Surrey's first wife died on 4 April 1497, and on 8 November 1497 he married, by dispensation dated 17 August 1497, her cousin, Agnes Tilney, the daughter of Hugh Tilney of Skirbeck and Boston, Lincolnshire and a daughter of Walter Tailboys. They had issue:
• • • • • • •

Catherine Howard, (1499 — 1544) married firstly, Griffith ap Rhys.Married secondly, Henry Daubney, 1st Earl of Bridgewater William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham[11] Lord Thomas Howard (1511–1537)[12] Richard Howard (d.1517)[10] Dorothy Howard, married Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby[13] Anne Howard, married John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford[14] Catherine Howard, married firstly, Griffith ap Rhys.Married secondly, Henry Daubney, 1st Earl of Bridgewater Dukes of Norfolk family tree

See also

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014 Thomas '2nd Duke of Norfolk' Howard — Biography Footnotes 1. ^ Richardson 2004, pp. 236, 504; Cokayne 1936, pp. 41, 612 2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Richardson 2004, p. 236 3. ^ a b c d e f g Head 2008. 4. ^ Head 2008; Cokayne 1936 5. ^ Richardson 2004, pp. 141, 236; Cokayne 1912, pp. 153–154 6. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236; Loades 2008 7. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236;Warnicke 2008 8. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236; Hughes 2007 9. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 236; Gunn 2008. 10. ^ a b Weir 1991, p. 619 11. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 237 12. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 237; Riordan 2004 13. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 237; Cokayne 1916, pp. 209–211 14. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 237; Cokayne 1945, pp. 244–245 References
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Cokayne, George Edward (1912). The Complete Peerage edited by the Honourable Vicary Gibbs. II. London: St. Catherine Press. Cokayne, George Edward (1916). The Complete Peerage edited by the Honourable Vicary Gibbs. IV. London: St. Catherine Press. Cokayne, George Edward (1936). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday. IX. London: St. Catherine Press. Cokayne, George Edward (1945). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday. X. London: St. Catherine Press. Cokayne, George Edward (1953). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII, Part I. London: St. Catherine Press. Davies, Catherine (2008). Howard (née Tilney), Agnes, duchess of Norfolk (b. in or before 1477, d. 1545), noblewoman. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/70/101070806/. Retrieved 12 March 2011. Gunn, S.J. (2008). Knyvet, Sir Thomas (c.1485–1512), courtier and sea captain. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/15/101015799/. Retrieved 13 March 2011. Head, David M. (2008). Howard, Thomas, second duke of Norfolk (1443–1524), magnate and soldier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/13/101013939/. Retrieved 12 March 2011. Hughes, Jonathan (2007). Boleyn, Thomas, earl of Wiltshire and earl of Ormond (1476/7–1539), courtier and nobleman. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/2/101002795/. Retrieved 13 March 2011.

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014 Thomas '2nd Duke of Norfolk' Howard — Biography Knafla, Louis A. (2008). Stanley, Edward, third earl of Derby (1509–1572), magnate. Oxford , magnate Dictionary of National Biography http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/26/101026262/ Retrieved 13 Biography. /26/101026262/. March 2011. Loades, David (2008). Howard, Sir Edward (1476/7–1513), naval commander. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/13/101013891/. Retrieved 13 March 2011. . McDermott, James (2008). Howard, William, first Baron Howard of Effingham (c.1510 c.1510–1573), naval commander. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/13/101013946/ Retrieved 12 March 2011. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/13/101013946/. Richardson, Douglas (2004). Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company Inc. . http://books.google.ca/books?id=p_yzpuWi4sgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=plantagenet+ancestry#v= http://books.google.ca/books?id=p_yzpuWi4sgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=plantagenet+ancestry#v= onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 17 March 2011. . Riordan, Michael (2004). Howard, Lord Thomas (c.1512–1537), courtier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/70/101070793/. Retrieved 12 March 2011. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/70/101070793/. Warnicke, Retha M. (2008). Katherine (Catherine; nee Katherine Howard) (1518x24 1518x24-1542), queen of England and Ireland, fifth consort of Henry VIII Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. VIII. Biography http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/ http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/4/101004892/. Retrieved 13 March 2011. Weir, Alison (1991). The Six Wives of Henry VIII New York: Grove Weidenfeld. VIII. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Mandell, Creighton : (1891). "Howard, Thomas II (1473 1473-1554)". In Sidney Lee. Dictionary of National Biography. 28. Biogra London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 64 . 64-67. Harris, Barbara. "Marriage Sixteenth Century Style: Elizabeth Stafford and the Third Duke of Sixteenth-Century Norfolk," Journal of Social History, Spring 1982, Vol. 15 Issue 3; Head, David M. Ebbs & Flows of Fortune: The Life of Thomas Howard, Third Duke of Norfolk (1995), 360pp; the standard scholarly biography , Dukes of Norfolk (Howard), Medieval Lands website by Charles Cawley , Political Offices Lord High Treasurer 1501–1522 Earl Marshal 1509–1524 Peerage Of England Duke Of Norfolk 3rd Creation 1514–1524 Earl Of Surrey 3rd Creation 1483–1514

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Preceded By John Dynham, 1st Baron Dynham Preceded By The Duke Of York Preceded By John Howard, 1st Duke Of Norfolk New Creation

Succeeded By ucceeded Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke Of Norfolk

Succeeded By Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke H Of Norfolk

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House Of Plantagenet (1397–1399) House Of Mowbray (1397– 1481) House Of Plantagenet (1481–1483) House Of Howard (1483– 1572, 1660—)

Dukes Of Norfolk Margaret, 1st Duchess (1397–1399) Thomas, 1st Duke (1397–1399) • John, 2nd Duke (1425–1432) • John, 3rd Duke (1432–1461) • John, 4th Duke (1461–1476) Richard, 1st Duke (1481–1483) John, 1st Duke (1483–1485) • Thomas, 2nd Duke (1514–1524) • Thomas, 3rd Duke (1524–1547, 1553–1554) • Thomas, 4th Duke (1554–1572) • Thomas, 5th Duke (1660–1677) • Henry, 6th Duke (1677–1684) • Henry, 7th Duke (1684–1701) • Thomas, 8th Duke (1701–1732) • Edward, 9th Duke (1732–1777) • Charles, 10th Duke (1777–1786) • Charles, 11th Duke (1786–1815) • Bernard, 12th Duke (1815–1842) • Henry, 13th Duke (1842–1856) • Henry, 14th Duke (1856–1860) • Henry, 15th Duke (1860–1917) • Bernard, 16th Duke (1917–1975) • Miles, 17th Duke (1975–2002) • Edward, 18th Duke (2002—)

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014 Thomas '2nd Duke of Norfolk' Howard

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015 Thomas '3rd Duke of Norfolk' Howard – Biography

Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk

The Duke of Norfolk by Hans Holbein. Spouse(s) Anne of York Lady Elizabeth Stafford Issue Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey Mary Howard, Duchess of Richmond Thomas Howard, 1st Viscount Howard of Bindon Katherine Howard[1] Noble family Father Mother Born Died House of Howard Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk Elizabeth Tilney 1473 25 August 1554

Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal (1473 – 25 August 1554) was a prominent Tudor politician. He was uncle to Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, two of the wives of King Henry VIII, and played a major role in the machinations behind these marriages. After falling from favour in 1546, he was stripped of the dukedom and imprisoned in the Tower, avoiding execution when the King died. He was released on the accession of Queen Mary. He aided Mary in securing her throne, setting the stage for alienation between his Catholic family and the Protestant royal line that would be continued by his great-niece, Queen Elizabeth. Early Life Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, was the eldest son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1443–1524), and his first wife, Elizabeth (d. 1497), the daughter of Frederick Tilney and widow of Sir Humphrey Bourchier.[2] He was descended in the female line from Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of

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015 Thomas '3rd Duke of Norfolk' Howard – Biography Norfolk, the third son of King Edward I.[3] Both his father, then styled Earl of Surrey and his grandfather, John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk fought for King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth, in which the latter was killed. The family’s titles were forfeited after the victory of King Henry VII at Bosworth.[2] Howard’s first marriage was politically advantageous. On 4 February 1495 he married Anne (1475– 1510), the fifth daughter of King Edward IV and the sister-in-law of King Henry VII. The couple had four children, none of whom survived to adulthood.[4] Howard was an able soldier, and was often employed in military operations.[2] In 1497 he served in a campaign against the Scots under the command of his father, who knighted him on 30 September 1497.[2] On 4 May 1513 he was appointed Lord Admiral, and on 9 September helped to defeat the Scots at the Flodden. He was made a Knight of the Garter after the accession of King Henry VIII, and became the King’s close companion, with lodgings at court.[2] Howard’s first wife Anne died in 1510,[5] and early in 1513 he married Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Eleanor Percy, the daughter of Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland. On 1 February 1514 Howard’s father was created Duke of Norfolk, and by letters patent issued on the same day Howard was created Earl of Surrey for life.[2] Surrey was a member of the King’s council before May 1516. On 10 March 1520, Surrey was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He soon clashed with Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare, the most powerful of the Anglo-Irish nobility, whose father had been largely allowed by the English Crown to govern Ireland as he pleased. Kildare did not rebel himself, but incited a number of Old Irish families, led by the O’Carrolls and O’Connors to do so; Surrey was however able to crush the rebellion.After 18 months he was able to secure his recall to England. In June 1522 he escorted the Emperor Charles V from England to northern Spain, and raided Brittany on the return journey. In August and September 1522 Surrey led an Anglo-Burgundian force through northern France on a military expedition which had to be abandoned in October. Rise To Power On 4 December 1522 Surrey was made Lord Treasurer upon his father’s resignation of the office, and on 21 May 1524 he succeeded his father as 3rd Duke of Norfolk.[2] His liking for war brought him into conflict with Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, who preferred diplomacy in the conduct of foreign affairs. In 1523 Wolsey had secured to the Duke of Suffolk the reversion of the office of Earl Marshal which had been held by Norfolk’s father, and in 1525 the Duke of Richmond had replaced Norfolk as Lord Admiral. Finding himself pushed aside, Norfolk spent considerable time away from court in 1525–7 and 1528.[2] In 1526 Norfolk’s niece Anne Boleyn had caught the King’s eye,[6] and Norfolk’s political fortunes revived with his involvement in the King’s attempt to have his marriage to Queen Catherine of Aragon annulled. By 1529 matters of state were being increasingly handled by Norfolk, Suffolk and the Boleyns, who pressed the King to remove Wolsey. In October the King sent Norfolk and Suffolk to obtain the great seal from the Cardinal. In November Wolsey was arrested on a charge of treason, but died before trial. Norfolk benefited from Wolsey’s fall, becoming the King’s leading councillor and applying himself energetically in the King’s efforts to find a way out of his marriage to Queen Catharine. His loyalty and service to the King brought him ample rewards. He received grants of monastic lands in Norfolk and Suffolk, was employed on diplomatic missions, and was created a knight of the French Order of St Michael in 1532 and Earl Marshal of England on 28 May 1533. As Lord High Steward, he presided at the trial of his niece, Queen Anne Boleyn, in May 1536.[2] Surrey’s marriage to his second wife, Elizabeth, which had apparently been mutually affectionate at first, deteriorated in 1527 when he took a mistress, Elizabeth Holland (d. 1547/8), whom he installed in the Howard household. Elizabeth Howard formally separated from her husband in the 1530s. She claimed

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015 Thomas '3rd Duke of Norfolk' Howard – Biography that in March 1534 the Duke ‘locked me up in a chamber, [and] took away my jewels and apparel’, and then moved her to Redbourn, Hertfordshire, where she lived a virtual prisoner with a meagre annual allowance of only £200. She also claimed to have been physically maltreated by the Duke and by household servants.[7] When the Pilgrimage of Grace broke out in Lincolnshire and the northern counties late in 1536, Norfolk shared command of the King’s forces with the Earl of Shrewsbury, persuading the rebels to disperse by promising them a pardon and that Parliament would consider their grievances. However when further rebellions erupted in January 1537 he carried out a policy of brutal retribution.[2] By 1539 Norfolk was seriously challenging the religious reforms of the King’s chief minister Thomas Cromwell. In that year the King sought to have Parliament put an end to diversity in religious opinion. On 5 May the House of Lords appointed a committee to consider questions of doctrine. Although he was not a member of the committee, on 16 May Norfolk presented six conservative articles of religion to Parliament for consideration. On 30 May, the Six Articles and the penalties for failure to conform to them were enacted into law, and on 28 June received royal assent.[2] On 29 June 1539, Norfolk, Suffolk and Cromwell dined with the King as guests of Archbishop Cranmer. During a heated discussion about Cardinal Wolsey, Cromwell charged Norfolk with disloyalty and Norfolk called Cromwell a liar. Their mutual hostility was now out in the open.[2] Cromwell inadvertently played into Norfolk’s hands by taking the initiative in the King’s marriage to Anne of Cleves. The King’s disillusionment with Anne’s physical appearance when he met her in January 1540 and his desire after the wedding had taken place to have the marriage annulled gave Norfolk an opportunity to bring down his enemy.[8] On 10 June 1540 Cromwell was arrested at a Privy Council meeting on charges of high treason, and Norfolk personally ‘tore the St George from his neck’. On 9 July 1540 Henry’s marriage to Anne of Cleves was annulled.[2] On 28 July 1540 Cromwell was executed, and on the same day the King wed Norfolk’s niece Katherine Howard as his fifth wife.[9] As a result of this marriage Norfolk enjoyed political prominence, royal favour, and material rewards for a time. However when Katherine’s premarital sexual indiscretions and her alleged adultery with Sir Thomas Culpeper were revealed to the King by Archbishop Cranmer, the King’s wrath turned on the Howard family, who were accused of concealing her misconduct.[2] Queen Katherine was condemned by a bill of attainder and executed on 13 February 1542.Several other members of the Howard family were sent to the Tower, including Norfolk’s stepmother, the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk.[9] However the French ambassador Marillac wrote on 17 January 1541 that Norfolk had not only escaped punishment, but had apparently been restored to his ‘full former credit and authority’.[2] Norfolk was appointed Lieutenant-General north of Trent on 29 January 1541, and Captain-General in a campaign against the Scots in August 1542. In June 1543 he declared war on France in the King’s name and was appointed Lieutenant-General of the army. During the campaign of May–October 1544 he besieged Montreuil, while the King captured Boulogne before returning home. Complaining of lack of provisions and munitions, Norfolk eventually raised the siege of Montreuil, and realizing that Boulogne could not realistically be held by the English for long, left it garrisoned and withdrew to Calais, for which he was severely rebuked by the King.[2] Imprisonment And Release During the King’s final years Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, and Henry’s last Queen, Katherine Parr, both of whom favoured the reformed faith, gained influence with the King while the conservative Norfolk became isolated politically. He attempted to form an alliance with the Seymours through a marriage between his widowed daughter, Mary Fitzroy and Hertford’s brother Thomas Seymour,[2] but the effort was forestalled by the provocative conduct of his eldest son and heir, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, who had displayed in his own heraldry the royal arms and insignia.[10] On 12 December 1546 both Norfolk and Surrey were arrested and sent to the Tower. On 12 January 1547 Norfolk acknowledged that he had ‘concealed high treason, in keeping secret the false acts of my son, Henry Earl of Surrey, in using

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015 Thomas '3rd Duke of Norfolk' Howard – Biography the arms of St. Edward the Confessor, which pertain only to kings’, and offered his lands to the King. Norfolk’s family, including his estranged wife, his daughter Mary, and his mistress, Elizabeth Holland, all gave evidence against him. Surrey was beheaded on 19 January 1547,[10] and on 27 January 1547 Norfolk was attainted by statute without trial. The dying King gave his assent to Norfolk’s death by royal commissioners, and it was rumoured that he would be executed on the following day. He was saved by the King’s death on 28 January and the Council’s decision not to inaugurate the new reign with bloodshed. His estates fell prey to the ruling clique in the reign of Edward VI, for which he was later partly compensated by lands worth £1626 a year from Queen Mary.[2] Norfolk remained in the Tower throughout the reign of King Edward VI. He was released and pardoned by Queen Mary in 1553, and in Mary’s first parliament (October–December 1553), his statutory attainder was declared void, thereby restoring him to the dukedom.[11] He was appointed to the Privy Council, and presided as Lord High Steward at the trial of the Duke of Northumberland on 18 August.[2] He was also restored to the office of Earl Marshal and officiated in that capacity at Mary’s coronation on 1 October 1553.[11] His last major service to the Crown was his command of the forces sent to put down a rebellion in early 1554 by a group of disaffected gentlemen who opposed the Queen’s projected marriage to Philip II of Spain.[12] The Duke died at Kenninghall on 25 August 1554 and was buried at St. Michael’s Church at Framlingham in Suffolk. He was survived by two of the three children of his second marriage: his younger son, Thomas created Viscount Howard of Bindon in 1559, and his daughter Mary, his eldest son and heir, Henry, having been executed in 1547.[2] Although there is debate on the topic, it appears that Norfolk had another daughter Katherine, who was briefly married to Norfolk’s ward, Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby, and died on 15 March 1530.[1] The Duke’s property passed into the hands of the Crown during the minority of his grandson and heir, Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk.[2] Fictional Portrayals Norfolk has been portrayed several times in film. In the 1970 BBC miniseries The Six Wives of Henry VIII, the role was played by Patrick Troughton. In A Man for All Seasons (1966), he was played by Nigel Davenport. In Anne of the Thousand Days (1969), Peter Jeffrey took the role. He went on to reprise the role in a 1996 BBC adaptation of Mark Twain‘s 1881 novel The Prince and the Pauper. Mark Strong portrayed Norfolk in the 2003 ITV feature Henry VIII. In the Showtime series The Tudors (2007), he was played by Henry Czerny. David Morrissey played the Duke in the film The Other Boleyn Girl. D. L. Bogdan‘s novels Rivals in the Tudor Court and Secrets of the Tudor Court feature Norfolk as one of the central characters. Norfolk is also one of the characters in the Philippa Gregory novels The Other Boleyn Girl and The Boleyn Inheritance. He is an important character in The Man on a Donkey by H.F.M. Prescott and The Fifth Queen by Ford Madox Ford. Footnotes ^ a b Knafla 2008 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Graves 2008 ^ Waugh 2004. ^ Graves 2008; Horrox 2006 ^ Horrox 2006 ^ Ives 2004. ^ Graves 2004; Graves 2008 ^ Leithead 2009 ^ a b Warnicke 2008 ^ a b Brigden 2008 ^ a b Graves January 2008 ^ Archer 2006

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015 Thomas '3rd Duke of Norfolk' Howard – Biography References Brigden, Susan (2008). Howard, Henry, earl of Surrey (1516/17–1547), poet and soldier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/13905. Graves, Michael A.R. (2004). Howard [née Stafford, Elizabeth, duchess of Norfolk (1497–1558), noblewoman]. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/13897. Graves, Michael A.R. (2008). Howard, Thomas, third duke of Norfolk (1473–1554), magnate and soldier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/70793. Retrieved 12 March 2011. Graves, Michael A.R. (January 2008). Howard, Thomas, fourth duke of Norfolk (1538–1572), nobleman and courtier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/13941. Harris, Barbara. “Marriage Sixteenth-Century Style: Elizabeth Stafford and the Third Duke of Norfolk,” Journal of Social History, Spring 1982, Vol. 15 Issue 3; 371-82 in JSTOR Head, David M. Ebbs & Flows of Fortune: The Life of Thomas Howard, Third Duke of Norfolk (1995), 360pp; the standard scholarly biography Horrox, Rosemary (2006). Edward IV (1442–1483), king of England and lord of Ireland. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/8520. Ives, E.W. (2004). Anne [Anne Boleyn (c.1500–1536), queen of England, second consort of Henry VIII]. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/557. Knafla, Louis A. (2008). Stanley, Edward, third earl of Derby (1509–1572), magnate. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/26262. Leithead, Howard (2009). Cromwell, Thomas, earl of Essex (b. in or before 1485, d. 1540), royal minister. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/6769. Warnicke, Retha M. (2008). Katherine [Catherine; née Katherine Howard (1518x24–1542), queen of England and Ireland, fifth consort of Henry VIII]. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/4892. Waugh, Scott L. (2004). Thomas [Thomas of Brotherton, first earl of Norfolk (1300–1338), magnate]. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/27196. See Also Dukes of Norfolk family tree Political Offices Preceded By Sir Edward Howard Preceded By Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke Of Norfolk Preceded By John Dudley, 1st Duke Of Northumberland Preceded By Lord High Admiral 1513–1525 Lord High Treasurer 1524–1546 Earl Marshal 1524–1547 Earl Marshal 1553–1554 Peerage Of England Duke Of Norfolk Succeeded By Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke Of Richmond And Somerset Succeeded By Edward Seymour, 1st Duke Of Somerset Succeeded By Thomas Howard, 4th Duke Of Norfolk Succeeded By

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015 Thomas '3rd Duke of Norfolk' Howard – Biography Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke Of Norfolk 3rd Creation 1524–1547 1553–1554 Earl Of Surrey 3rd Creation 1524–1554 Thomas Howard, 4th Duke Of Norfolk

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014 Thomas Knyvett — Biography

Thomas Knyvett
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sir Thomas Knyvett (also Knevitt or Knivet or Knevet), of Buckenham, Norfolk (died on 10 August 1512) was a young English nobleman who was a close associate of King Henry VIII shortly after that monarch came to the throne. According to Hall‘s Chronicle[1], Knyvett was a frequent participant in the jousts and pageants of the new king’s glittering court. When Henry declared war on France in 1512, Knyvett, along with Sir John Carew, was given command of the royal flagship, the Regent. With a number of court favourites commanding other vessels, a small fleet set sail for the coast of Brittany. On 10 August 1512 they engaged a slightly larger French fleet, and a violent melee ensued in Brest. Knyvett’s ship grappled with the French command vessel, and was engaged in boarding her when the French powder magazine blew up (some say it was deliberately ignited). The two vessels burst into flame. Knyvett and Carew both perished, along with the French captain and more than 1,700 men, both French and English. Knyvett was married before July 1506 as her second husband to Lady Muriel Howard (died in childbirth Lambeth, 14 December 1512, interred 8 January 1513), by whom he had two children. She was the widow of John Grey, 2nd Viscount Lisle and 4th Baron Lisle and the mother of Elizabeth Grey, 5th Baroness Lisle, who was once engaged to Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. Lady Muriel was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1443–1524) and Elizabeth Tilney, and through the Howard connection, Knyvett was related to many of the great figures of English history (his brother-inlaw, for example, was Thomas Boleyn, father of Queen Anne, and grandfather of Queen Elizabeth I). In Fiction On the TV series The Tudors, a fictionalized Sir Anthony Knivert is based on him and played by Callum Blue. References

Gunn, S. J., “Knyvet, Sir Thomas”, on the website of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Subscription or UK public library membership required), http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/15799

Notes 1. ^ Hall, Edward, The Vnion Of The Two Noble And Illustre Famelies Of Lancastre & Yorke (London, 1548). Generally known as “Hall’s Chronicle,” this contemporary history remains an important source of Tudor history. The 1809 edition, which is available online, describes the death of Thomas Knyvett pp. 534 ff.

014 Uncle Thomas '1st Earl of Wiltshire' Boleyn - Biography

Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Lord Privy Seal In office: 1530–1536 Monarch: Henry VIII Treasurer Of The Household In office: 1521–1525 Monarch: Henry VIII Personal details Born: Thomas Boleyn, ca. 1477, Hever Castle, Hever, Kent, Kingdom of England Died: 12 March 1539 (aged 61–62) Resting place: St. Peter's Church, Hever, Kent, United Kingdom Spouse Lady Elizabeth Howard Relations Sir William Boleyn (Father) Lady Margaret Butler (Mother) Children Mary Boleyn Anne Boleyn George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford Residence: Hever Castle Occupation: Diplomat, Politician
The Right Honourable The Earl of Wiltshire The image is disputed; while it is traditionally held to be a likeness of Thomas Boleyn, historian David Starkey believes it is actually that of his cousin, James Butler, [1] 9th Earl of Ormond

Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, KG[2] (c. 1477 – 12 March 1539) was an English diplomat and politician in the Tudor era. He was born at the family home, Hever Castle, Kent, which had been purchased by his grandfather Geoffrey Boleyn, who was a wealthy mercer. He was buried at St. Peter's parish church in the village of Hever. His parents were Sir William Boleyn (1451 – 10 October 1505) and Lady Margaret Butler (1454–1539). He was raised Catholic and remained so until his death. He was the father of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII of England. As such, he was the maternal grandfather of Queen Elizabeth I. Marriage And Issue Sometime before 1499, Boleyn married Lady Elizabeth Howard, eldest daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk and Elizabeth Tilney. They had five known children, only three of whom survived childhood:
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Mary Boleyn (c.1500 – 19 July 1543); Lady Mary Carey (1520–1528); Lady Stafford (1534–1543) Anne Boleyn (c.1501 – 19 May 1536); later Marquess of Pembroke (1532–1536); later Queen Consort of England (1533–1536) Thomas Boleyn (c. 1502) (thought to have died young) Henry Boleyn (c. 1503) (thought to have died young) George Boleyn (c. 1504 – 17 May 1536); later Viscount Rochford (1529–1536) by courtesy

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014 Uncle Thomas '1st Earl of Wiltshire' Boleyn - Biography Diplomatic Career In 1503, he helped escort Margaret Tudor north for her marriage to James IV of Scotland.[3] He was created a Knight of the Bath at Henry VIII's coronation in 1509.[4] His appointment as ambassador to the Low Countries brought him into contact with the regent Archduchess Margaret of Austria. Like Thomas, she spoke French and Latin and they got along well enough for her to accept his daughter Anne as a maid of honour.[5] Through his ability and the connections of his extended family, he became one of the king's leading diplomats. Known appointments and missions included:
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1511 and 1517: High Sheriff of Kent 1512: One of a party of three envoys to the Netherlands. 1518–1521 : ambassador to France, where he was involved in arrangements for the "Field of Cloth of Gold" meeting between Henry and the new French King Francis I in 1520. 1521 and 1523 : Envoy to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. 1527: One of a large envoy to France 1529: Envoy to a meeting of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Pope Clement VII, to seek support for the annulment of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. This was followed by another envoy to France.

Titles Garnered Boleyn was invested as a Knight of the Garter (KG) in 1523.[6] Boleyn's claim to his other titles derived from his mother, Lady Margaret Butler who was the younger daughter and co-heir of Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormond.[7] Thomas Butler, as an Irish peer, should only have sat in the Irish parliament. However as a personal friend of Henry VII he was summoned to the English parliament in November 1488 as "Thomas Ormond de Rochford, chevaler". At this time, he was already 8th Earl of Carrick and 7th Earl of Ormond.[8] In English law, matrilineal descent is not considered valid for earldoms. This usual prohibition was, in Boleyn's case, outweighed by a more important consideration — he was the father of two pretty daughters. Henry VIII dallied firstly with Boleyn's elder daughter Mary, then his younger daughter, Anne. Boleyn's ambition was so considerable that unsubstantiated rumours had it that he even allowed his own wife to have an affair with the king, but those were created in order to steer the king away from marrying Anne, even suggesting that she was his own daughter.[citation needed] When it was claimed that Henry had had an affair with both Anne's sister and mother, the king replied to the rumours "Never with the mother." In 1525, Henry VIII became enamoured of Anne and began pursuing her. Coincidentally, her father was elevated to the peerage as Viscount Rochford on 18 June 1525.[9] The title referred to the "barony" of Rochford supposedly created in 1488 for his grandfather. The title had fallen into abeyance as Ormond had died without any male heir in 1515. As Henry's infatuation for Anne intensified, so did her father's titles. Henry arranged for the main claimant to the earldom of Ormond, Piers Butler to renounce all his claims to the titles in 1529. Coincidentally, Piers Butler was rewarded for his generosity by being created Earl of Ossory five days later. Boleyn's claims to the Earldom of Wiltshire also depended upon his Irish relatives. This time, he had to go back to his maternal great-grandfather, James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormond, to establish a claim. While James Butler was indeed the 1st Earl of Wiltshire (of the third creation), on 1 May 1461 he lost his titles, along with his head, when he was executed by the victorious Yorkists. The title was subsequently revived (in fourth and fifth creations) and bestowed on parties unrelated to the Butlers of Ormond. This did not

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014 Uncle Thomas '1st Earl of Wiltshire' Boleyn - Biography prevent the creation of the Earldom, for the 7th time. On 8 December 1529, Thomas Boleyn, Viscount Rochford, was created Earl of Wiltshire and Earl of Ormond.[10] His only surviving son, George, was styled Viscount Rochford 1529-30, and created Lord Rochford before 13 July 1530. On 17 May 1536 he was executed for treason, and all his titles were forfeited.[11] His widow, Jane, Viscountess Rochford, continued to use the courtesy title[citation needed] until she, too, was attainted for treason and beheaded on Tower Hill on 13 February 1542 with Queen Katherine Howard, the King's fifth wife.[12] Boleyn was appointed Lord Privy Seal in 1530. In 1532, his daughter Anne was granted a peerage, being created Marquess of Pembroke in her own right, before marrying Henry the following year and becoming queen consort. Boleyn acquiesced in her judicial execution and that of her brother Lord Rochford when Henry discarded her in favour of Jane Seymour. At this point Boleyn was replaced as Lord Privy Seal and left in disgrace until his death a few years later.[13] He suffered a final indignity as the claims of Piers Butler to the Earldom of Ormond were recognized and as he was styled earl of Ormond from 22 January 1538.[13] There were two earls of Ormond in the Kingdom until his death on 12 March 1539.[13] In Popular Culture Thomas Boleyn has been portrayed by Sir Michael Hordern in Anne of the Thousand Days (1969), by Benjamin Whitrow in Henry VIII, and by Jack Shepherd and Mark Rylance in the 2003 and 2008 film versions of The Other Boleyn Girl, respectively. The 2007 Showtime series The Tudors has Nick Dunning in the role depicting him as ambitious, cunning and devious, constantly working to curry favour for his family against everyone else and always willing to "motivate" his daughter, Anne, lest Henry lose interest in her. Styles And Honours
• • •

Sir Thomas Boleyn KG (1523–1525) The Rt. Hon. The Viscount Rochford KG (1525–1527) The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Wiltshire and of Ormond KG (8 December 1529[13]–1539)

Note: on 22 February 1538, the earldom of Ormond was restored to Piers Butler, 8th Earl of Ormond. See Also
• •

Palace of Beaulieu Ambassadors (from United Kingdom to France)

Footnotes 1. ^ David Starkey, Holbein's Irish Sitter, The Burlington Magazine, May 1981 2. ^ Richardson 2004, p. 180. 3. ^ Ives, Eric (2004). The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. p. 3. 4. ^ Wilkinson, Josephine (2009). Mary Boleyn, The True Story of Henry VIII's favourite mistress. Amberley Publishing. p. 17. 5. ^ Wilkinson, Josephine (2009). pp. 20–22. 6. ^ List of the Knights of the Garter (1348–present) 7. ^ Cokayne 1949, p. 51 8. ^ Stanley Bertram Chrimes, Henry VII, pg 138 9. ^ Cokayne 1959, p. 739. 10. ^ Cokayne 1959, p. 51.

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014 Uncle Thomas '1st Earl of Wiltshire' Boleyn - Biography 11. ^ Cokayne 1959, p. 51; Cokayne 1945, pp. 141–142. 12. ^ Davies 2008; Cokayne 1945, pp. 141–142. 13. ^ a b c d Jonathan Hughes, 'Boleyn, Thomas, earl of Wiltshire and earl of Ormond (1476/7–1539)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Oct 2007. References

Block, Joseph S. (2004). Boleyn, George, Viscount Rochford (c.1504–1536), courtier and diplomat. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/2/101002793/. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Cokayne, George Edward (1949). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XI. London: St. Catherine Press. p. 51. Cokayne, George Edward (1945). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday. X. London: St. Catherine Press. pp. 137–142. Hughes, Jonathan (2007). Boleyn, Thomas, earl of Wiltshire and earl of Ormond (1476/7–1539), courtier and nobleman. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/2/101002795/. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Ives, E.W. (2004). Anne (Anne Boleyn) (c.1500–1536), queen of England, second consort of Henry VIII. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/0/101000557/. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Richardson, Douglas (2004). Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company Inc. p. 180. Weir, Alison (1991). The Six Wives of Henry VIII. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. A pedigree of the Boleyn family Political Offices Treasurer Of The Household 1521–1525 Lord Privy Seal 1530–1536 Peerage Of England Earl Of Wiltshire 1529–1539 Viscount Rochford 1525–1539 Peerage Of Ireland Earl Of Ormond 1529–1539

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External links

Preceded By Sir Edward Poynings Preceded By Cuthbert Tunstall (Bishop Of London) New Creation

Succeeded By Sir William Fitzwilliam Succeeded By Sir Thomas Cromwell

Extinct

New Creation

Extinct

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014 Uncle Thomas Boleyn

014 Walter Hungerford — Biography

Walter Hungerford of Farleigh
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sir Walter Hungerford of Farleigh (died 1516) fought for Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He served on the Privy Council for both Henry VII and Henry VIII. Biography Walter Hungerford was the youngest son of Robert Hungerford, 3rd Baron Hungerford and Eleanor, was M.P. for Wiltshire in 1477, and, as a partisan in earlier days of the house of Lancaster, obtained a general pardon from Richard III on his accession in 1483. He was, nevertheless, arrested by Richard on the landing of the Earl of Richmond in 1485, but escaped from custody, and joined Richmond's army. At the battle of Bosworth he slew, in hand-to-hand combat, Sir Robert Brackenbury, lieutenant of the Tower of London, under whose command he had previously served, and was knighted by Henry VII on the battlefield.[1] Farleigh Castle and some other of the forfeited family estates, though not the family honours, were restored to him, and he was made a member of the Privy Council. In February 1487 he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Rome, and executed a will before his departure (Materials for the Reign of Henry VII, Rolls Ser. ii. 122-4). In 1497 he assisted in quelling Perkin Warbeck's rising. In 1503 he went in the retinue of Henry VII's queen to attend the marriage of the Princess Margaret with the king of Scotland.[1] After the accession of Henry VIII he continued a member of the privy council, and, dying in 1516, was buried at Farleigh. His wife was Jane, daughter of Sir William Bulstrode, and his only son Edward was father of Walter, lord Hungerford (1503–1540)[1] Notes 1. ^ a b c Lee Volume 28, p. 257 References

Lee, Sidney Dictionary of National Biography Volume 28 , p. 257 Cites:
o o o o o o o

Dugdale's Baronage ; Hoare's Hungerfordiana ; Letters, &c., of Henry VIII; Materials for the Keign of Henry VII (Eolls Ser.); Paston Letters, passim, ed. Gardner; Hoare's Mod. "Wiltshire, Heytesbury Hundred Collinson's Somerset, iii. 355.

Attribibution

"Hungerford, Robert". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

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014 Walter Hungerford

014 William ‘Archbishop of Canterbury’ Warham — Biography

William Warham
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Appointed: 29 November 1503 Reign ended: 22 August 1532 Predecessor: Henry Deane Successor: Thomas Cranmer Personal details Born: c. 1450 Died: 22 August 1532 Buried: Canterbury Cathedral, Kent William Warham (c. 1450 – 22 August 1532), Archbishop of Canterbury, belonged to a Hampshire family, and was educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford, afterwards practising and teaching law both in London and Oxford. Later Warham took holy orders, held two livings (Barley and Cottenham), and became Master of the Rolls in 1494, while Henry VII found him a useful and clever diplomatist. He helped to arrange the marriage between Henry’s son, Arthur, William Warham Archbishop of Prince of Wales, and Catherine of Aragon; he went to Scotland Canterbury, Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger (1527) with Richard Foxe, then bishop of Durham, in 1497; and he was partly responsible for several commercial and other treaties with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor who was also Count of Flanders and Regent Duke of Burgundy on behalf of his son Philip IV of Burgundy. In 1502 Warham was consecrated Bishop of London and became Keeper of the Great Seal, but his tenure of both these offices was short, as in 1504 he became Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1506 he became Chancellor of Oxford University, a role he held until his death. In 1509 the Archbishop married and then crowned Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. As archbishop Warham seems to have been somewhat arbitrary — for example, his actions led to a serious quarrel with Foxe (by then Bishop of Winchester) and others in 1512. This led to his gradually withdrawing into the background after the coronation, resigning the office of Lord Chancellor in 1515, and was succeeded by Wolsey, whom he had consecrated as bishop of Lincoln in the previous year. This resignation was possibly due to his dislike of Henry’s foreign policy. Warham was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and assisted Wolsey as assessor during the secret inquiry into the validity of Henry’s marriage with Catherine in 1527. Throughout the divorce proceedings Warham’s position was essentially that of an old and weary man. He was named as one of the counsellors to assist the queen, but, fearing to incur the king’s displeasure and using his favourite phrase ira principis mors est (“the king’s anger is death”), he gave her very little help; and he signed the letter to Clement VII, which urged the pope to assent to Henry’s wish. Afterwards it was proposed that the archbishop himself should try the case, but this suggestion came to nothing.
William Warham’s Tomb In Canterbury Cathedral

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014 William ‘Archbishop of Canterbury’ Warham — Biography Warham presided over the Convocation of 1531 when the clergy of the province of Canterbury voted £100,000 to the king in order to avoid the penalties of praemunire and accepted Henry as supreme head of ted the church with the face-saving clause “so far as the Law of Christ allows.” saving In Warham’s concluding years, however, the archbishop showed rather more independence. In February 1532, he protested against all acts concerning the church passed by the parliament that met in 1529, but this did not prevent the important proceedings which secured the complete submission of the church to the the state later in the same year. Against this further compliance with Henry s wishes, Warham drew up a Henry’s protest; he likened the action of Henry VIII to that of Henry II and urged Magna Carta in defence of the liberties of the church. He attempted in vain to strike a compromise during the Submission of the Clergy. Clergy Warham was munificent in his public and moderate in his private life. He was buried in the Martyrdom or north transept of Canterbury Cathedral dral. Sources
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John Sherren Brewer, Reign of Henry VIII (1884) James Gairdner, Co. 1885–1900. ”Warham, William Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Warham, William“. .

James Gairdner, The English Church in th 16th Century (1902) the W. F. Hook, Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury (1860?1876) A. F. Pollard, Henry VIII (1905 1905) This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Political Offices Keeper Of The Great Seal 1502–1504 Lord Chancellor 1504–1515 Catholic Church Titles Bishop Of London 1502–1504 Archbishop Of Canterbury 1503–1532 Academic Offices Chancellor Of The University Of Oxford 1506–1532

Preceded By Henry Deane (Keeper Of The Great Seal)

Succeeded By Thomas Wolsey (Lord Chancellor) Lord Chancellor

Preceded By Thomas Savage Preceded By Henry Deane Preceded By Richard Mayew

Succeeded By William Barnes Succeeded By Thomas Cranmer Succeeded By John Longland

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014 William 'Archbishop of Cantebury' Warham

014 William 'Archbishop of Cantebury' Warham

014 William 'Archbishop of Cantebury' Warham

014 William 'Archbishop of Cantebury' Warham

014 William Hussey — Biography

William Hussey (Judge)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sir William Hussey Personal details Born: 1443. Grey's Inn, Holborn, London, Middlesex, England Died: 8 September 1495, Semprington, Lincolnshire, England Nationality: English Spouse: Elizabeth Berkeley Occupation: English judge Profession: Chief Justice of the King's Bench Sir William Hussey (or Huse or Husee), SL (1443 – 8 September 1495) was an English judge who served as Chief Justice of the King's Bench. Hussey was born at Gray's Inn, Holborn, London, Middlesex, England, the son of John Hussey of Sleaford, and Elizabeth Noffield.[1] Career He was a member of Gray's Inn, and on 16 June 1471 was appointed Attorney General, with full power of deputing clerks and officers under him in courts of record. As Attorney General he conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Grey's Inn Courts Clarence for treason. In Trinity term of 1478 he was made a Serjeant-at-Law, and on 7 May 1481 was appointed Chief Justice of the King's Bench, in succession to Sir Thomas Billing, at a salary of 140 marks a year. This appointment was renewed at the ascension of each of the next three kings, and under Henry VII, he was also a commissioner to decide the claims made to fill various offices at the coronation. In the first year of this reign, he successfully protested against the king's practice of consulting the judges beforehand upon crown cases which they were subsequently to try. In June 1492, he was a commissioner to treat with the ambassadors of the King of France. He died in 1495 at Semprington,[1] Lincolnshire, and on 24 November of that year, Sir John Fineux succeeded him as Chief Justice. Family And Descendants About 1474 Hussey married Elizabeth Berkeley (c. 1453 — 1504), daughter of Thomas Berkeley of Wymondham, Leicestershire, and Petronella Brooksby.[1] They had four sons, and two daughters:
• • • • •

Elizabeth Hussey (d. Ampthill, 19 November 1516, bur. Warden Abbey); married Richard Grey, 3rd Earl of Kent Gilbert Hussey Thomas Hussey John Hussey, 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (1476–1537); married Margaret Blount; married Anne Grey Robert Hussey of Linwood (1483 — 20 May 1546), from whom descend the Hussey family of Honnington, Leicestershire (see Hussey Baronets); married Anne Saye

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014 William Hussey — Biography Mary Hussey (1484); married William Willoughby, 11th Baron Willoughby de Eresby

References 1. ^ a b c "Sir. William Hussey & Elizabeth Berkeley". illian.org. http://www.illian.org/places/FamilySheets/d0395/F158982.html. Retrieved 24 June 2008.[dead link] Attribtion This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Hussey, William". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

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014 William Stumpe — Biography

William Stumpe
http://www.davidforward.co.uk/hodge/11.php A typical “business tycoon” and one of the greatest of his time. After the Dissolution, the Abbey and all its surrounding lands, outbuildings, and immediate holdings, were handed to a Sir Henry Baynton who had been appointed Steward by Henry VIII. He afterwards sold all to William Stumpe, a rich clothier for the odd sum of £1,516-15-2 1/2d. He turned the Nave into a large workshop and some of the marks on the pillars there still show where his looms were. He employed workers again and the cloth trade flourished. No less than 3,000 “cloths” per year were made and were famous throughout Europe for their excellence of manufacture. Some of the still named streets in the old town show the importance of the cloth trade. We still have Blanchards Green where the cloth was “fulled” and Katifer Lane, where the “Chat de Fer, or Iron Cat,” (the name of the large irons) used to iron the cloth. Stumpe was an incredible man. He married Baynton’s daughter, and their daughter married the Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire, whose descendants still live at Charlton Park nearby. He already owned Wynards Mill at the bottom of the town (still extant, but modern and no longer a mill) and one at Milbourne, about two miles from the town. He made a fortune out of cheap labour after the Dissolution and made a “takeover” bid for Olsney Abbey in Oxfordshire and actually offered to find work for 2,000 people from Oxford and to build houses for them. The deal fell through however, so he confined his acumen to Malmesbury. Many stories could be told of Stumpe, but the one I like best and shows him for what he was, was the occasion when Henry VIII let it be known at short notice that he would be hunting in the neighbourhood and would expect hospitality. Stumpe hurriedly arranged this at the old Town Banqueting Hall in what is now Dr. Pym’s house in Oxford Street. He told his employees that it would be good for their souls if “they fasted for twenty four hours, without pay” to the glory of the King. There are no recorded comments on the part of his wretched employees but Henry’s own comment was that “the entertainment was good, but the food lacking in variety.” Stumpe had represented Malmesbury as one of their two Members of Parliament in 1529-36 and became a Protestant after the Reformation, he did so again, and in the reign of Edward VI he helped to draft the first English Prayer Book, in use until recently. During this period something terrible must have happened. Either a great trade slump or one of those medical disasters of those days. It might even have been a disease such as influenza. At one time there were only 301 adults living within the town walls of whom only 58 were “able men, archers and billmen.” However Stumpe rose to the occasion and managed to carry on. In 1541, probably owing to the fact that the mills were no longer paying, he gave the old Nave of the Abbey back to the townsfolk as their Parish Church. To prove that this statement is not cynical, he really had trouble with the King to do so, and even put up the money himself for a special licence for the purpose, and paid for many repairs including new lead which had been gradually stolen from the roofs of the outbuildings during the “depression.” His sons also assisted him financially, and they combined to preserve what was left of the Abbey for us, as we know it now. So the Stumpe family did a lot of good for the Town and Abbey. As was usual at that time, his descendants are connected with many of the landed gentry of those days and even now.

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014 William Weston — Biography

William Weston (Explorer)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Birth: 1450 in Prested Hall, Feering, Essex, England Death: 1515 in London, London, England Nationality: English Occupation: merchant Known for: leading a voyage to Newfoundland Home town: Bristol Spouse: Alice Edshaw William Weston was a 15th-century English merchant from Bristol. Since 2010, he is believed to have been the first Englishman to lead an expedition to North America. Weston was married to Agnes Foster, daughter of prominent merchant John Foster,[1] known in Bristol as the founder of Foster's Almshouses. Weston lived at what is now 41 Corn Street and can be shown to have engaged in trade with Madeira as early as 1480.[2] Some further information about him can be found in an unpublished 2007 MA dissertation.[3] Evidence There is little documentary evidence regarding Weston but, according to Dr Evan Jones of Bristol University, a letter from King Henry VII suggests that Weston sailed to the New World in 1499. This voyage to the 'New Found Land' was only two years after the first visit by the Venetian John Cabot. In 1497, also sailing from Bristol, he "discovered" North America.[4] Weston first appears in the official records in January 1498, when he received a reward of 40 shillings from the King.[5] This early payment supports the historical contention of Dr Alwyn Ruddock that Weston had been involved in the 1497 and 1498 expeditions and that he had been "an important Bristol supporter" of Cabot.[6] Cabot followed his successful 1497 trip with a second one the following year, supported by Henry VII. It is unclear whether Weston accompanied this expedition. In 1499 Weston prepared another expedition, also with Henry's support. The evidence for this is a letter written by Henry to his Lord Chancellor. In this letter, dated 12 March 1499, Henry suspends an injunction against Weston in the Court of Chancery by John Esterfeld, because Weston would soon "with God's grace pass and sail for to search and find if he can the new found land".[7] While in a sense an independent voyage, it is likely that Weston, as a supporter of Cabot, was covered by the terms of Cabot's (1496) monopoly patent for westward exploration. Cabot may have made Weston a formal deputy or assign of his patent; this would explain why the King was willing to assist Weston in undertaking a voyage that would otherwise have been in breach of his own royal patent. According to Dr. Jones, the letter demonstrates that Weston was the first Englishman to lead an expedition to North America. Further research by Jones suggests that Weston's expedition may have reached the Labrador Sea and perhaps the Hudson Strait. Dr Jones notes that the letter was discovered in the late 1970s by Margaret Condon, an Assistant Keeper at the Public Record Office, who relayed the discovery to Professor David Beers Quinn. He passed it on to the Cabot expert Dr Alwyn Ruddock, who was said to be working on a major book about him. At her death in December 2005, Dr Ruddock left instructions for her research notes to be destroyed.[8] Condon and Jones are working together on a research project, dubbed "The Cabot Project" at the University of Bristol, to find more information about the Bristol discovery voyages of this period.[9]

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014 William Weston — Biography Recent unpublished finds include a reference to a reward received by William Weston subsequent to his 1499 voyage. Sources
• • • •

Evan T. Jones and M. M. Condon, 'Weston, William (d. in or before 1505)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, May 2010 accessed 30 Oct 2010 Evan T. Jones, 'Henry VII and the Bristol expeditions to North America: the Condon documents', Historical Research, 27 Aug 2009 (This can be downloaded for free, courtesy of Wiley-Blackwell) Evan T. Jones, 'Alwyn Ruddock: John Cabot and the Discovery of America', Historical Research Vol 81, Issue 212 (2008), pp. 224–254 (This can be downloaded for free, courtesy of Wiley-Blackwell) Evan. T. Jones (ed.), ''The Quinn papers: transcripts of correspondence relating to the Bristol discovery voyages to North America in the fifteenth century'', 'David B. Quinn Papers', Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. page 6. (University of Bristol, ROSE, 2009)

References 1. ^ Evan. T. Jones (ed.), 'John Esterfeld vs. William Weston of Bristol: Chancery petition transcript, c.1499', The National Archives, C1/199/76 (University of Bristol, ROSE, 2009) 2. ^ Evan T. Jones, (2009), 'Henry VII and the Bristol expeditions to North America: the Condon documents', Historical Research, 27 Aug 2009, p. 8, n. 29; E.M. Carus-Wilson (ed.), The Overseas Trade of Bristol in the Later Middle Ages (Bristol Record Society Publications, Vol. VII, Bristol, 1937), p. 285 3. ^ Annabel Peacock, 'The Men of Bristol and the Atlantic Discovery Voyages of the Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries' (MA Dissertation, Bristol, 2007) 4. ^ "King's letter reveals epic voyage". BBC News. 27 August 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8224206.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 5. ^ 'Fee for discovering Canada: 40 shillings', The Gazette 6. ^ Evan T. Jones, 'Alwyn Ruddock: John Cabot and the Discovery of America', Historical Research Vol 81, Issue 212 (2008), p. 250. 7. ^ Jones, 'Henry VII and the Bristol expeditions to North America', p. 4 8. ^ Jones, 'Henry VII and the Bristol expeditions to North America', pp. 1-4 9. ^ 'The Cabot Project' External Links

The Cabot Project

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