You are on page 1of 4


Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering
College of Engineering

Department of

Sea ch hi
Dire ctory C ontact Us



Architectural Engineering
Home Prospective Students

Current Students



Indoor Environm e nt C e nte r >> Ae robiological Engine e ring >> Airborne Pathoge n C ontrol Te chnologie s >> Isolation Syste m s

Aerobiological Engineering Topics Airborne Pathogen Database Airborne Pathogen Control Technologies Isolation Systems Air Filtration Ultraviolet Irradiation Outdoor Air Purging Electrostatic Precipitation Negative Air Ionization Vegetation Photocatalytic Oxidation Air Ozonation Carbon Adsorption Passive Solar Exposure Ultrasonic Atomization Microwave Atomization Pulsed Light Equipment and Services Publications Contact Information

Isolation Rooms & Pressurization Control
Isolation syste m s can be classifie d in thre e basic cate gorie s : Ne gative Pre ssure Isolation R oom s Positive Pre ssure Isolation R oom s Multi-le ve l Biohazard Laboratorie s Also, dual-purpose syste m s now e x ist that can be controlle d to se rve as e ithe r ne gative pre ssure or positive pre ssure isolation room s. The isom e tric vie w shown be low illustrate s the basic de sign principle for pre ssure control of isolation room s. It include s an ante room for se parating the isolation room from the corridor of the facility. In this diagram , air is supplie d to the isolation room and e x hauste d from both the isolation room and the ante room . The balance of airflow, or the diffe re nce be twe e n be twe e n supply and e x haust, will dictate whe the r the room e x pe rie nce s positive or ne gative pre ssure with re spe ct to am bie nt. In this

diagram , air would flow be twe e n the isolation room and the ante room , m ostly through the gaps in and around the door. For a positive pre ssure room the air would flow from the isolation room to the ante room , whe re it would be e x hauste d partly by the e x haust duct and partly by flowing out to the corridor. In a ne gative pre ssure room , air would flow from the ante room to the isolation room . Pre ssure control is m aintaine d by m odulating the m ain supply and e x haust dam pe rs base d on a signal from a pre ssure transduce r locate d inside the isolation room . This is by no m e ans the only possible de sign -- the re are various configurations of supply and e x haust ductwork , dam pe rs and control syste m s that will accom plish pre ssurization. Nega i e P e e I ola ion Room

Ne gative Pre ssure Isolation R oom s m aintain a flow of air into the room , thus k e e ping contam inants and pathoge ns from re aching surrounding are as. The m ost com m on application in the he alth industry today is for Tube rculosis (TB) R oom s. The infe ctivity of TB is e x tre m e ly high and the se room s are e sse ntial to prote ct he alth work e rs and othe r patie nts.


I . ( . . . S . . . A HEPA HIV R HIV . Pressuri ation Control in Buildings T ( . U G UV . ( ( ( / ) . TB . . . I (UVGI). HEPA HEPA . T . F 0. . A TB R . I . .asp 2/4 . A ) E . A . . . . A '++'). D TB R R UVGI . A . Positive Pressure Isolation Rooms P P I HIV R . TB R . . . A TB. HEPA . 15% AIDS . . . '. .02/02/12 Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering T C DC TB R .001" . T HEPA (H P . 50 .psu.engr. T . T .-'). E . . . .edu/iec/abe/control/isolation. 10% . T . R . O (HIV) (TB) . . . A (HIV) . T ). A 6-12 (AC H) . B . . . 100 . UVGI ) . I HEPA . I .

asp 3/4 . If not. V. M. W ashington. 3: 5-10. D. Facility m icrobiological te st proce dure s. The unlabe le d room s in the diagram above could be laboratorie s.W illiam s (1960). ASHR AE (1991). ASHR AE. Ve sle y. in le ve l 1 de fine s a sim ple isolate d are a. US Govt. W ashington. The re are four biohazard le ve ls. ASHR AE. 5. Airborne Transm ission and Airborne Infe ction. E. HVAC de sign for isolation room s. Tube rculosis : Pathoge nisis. 15. E. R . D. Ne w York . (1960). Bartholom e w. The e ngine e r and infe ction control. He rs. ASHR AE Short C ourse . Te chnical Unive rsity at Ensche de . W . and in which le ve l 4 de fine s a ne ar pe rfe ctly airtight zone re quiring bre athing apparatus and airtight ante room s or staging are as. Am e rican Institute of Archite cts. Fe de ral R e giste r. Indoor pollution: guide line s for pre ve ntion and control of m icrobiological re spiratory hazards associate d with air conditioning and ve ntilation syste m s. Bibliograph 1. 16. The Future Practice of C ontam ination C ontrol. Journal of Hygie ne 58: 427448. TB control in hospitals. and K. Atlanta. Atlanta. 11. IC C C S (1992).. and K. Lidwe ll. B. Printing O ffice . Gre e ne . The Ne the rlands. Spe cific inform ation on laboratory de sign is wide ly available from various source s.E. Engine e re d Syste m s July: 52-53. and T. K. Indust. and R . W ashington. 9.02/02/12 Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering individually for e ach facility. Van Nostrand R e inhold. Galson. and B. B. Hospital se psis control and TB transm ission. S. Hyg. Brie f. Guisbond (1995). ASM Pre ss. Me chanical Standards.O . The ve ntilation of ope rating-the atre s.C re w (1960). 10. Hospitals 34: 6974. Proce e dings of the 11th Inte rnational Sym posium on C ontam ination C ontrol. He alth Facilitie s. ASHR AE May. . Goddard (1968). Ve ntilation of ope rating-the atre s.engr. Am e rican national standard for laboratory ve ntilation. ASHR AE and the C DC . R . VIth Inte rnational Sym posium on Ae robiology. R . Microbial C ontam ination C ontrol Facilitie s. Phillips (1969). 8. ASHR AE Handbook of Applications. 59. C . 4. ASHR AE 10(7): 33-41.psu. Hospital air conditioning and se psis control. Bloom . Appl. Prote ction. Galson. P. W e stm inste r. ANSI (1992). and C ontrol. 14. 13. and J. Galson. De signing HVAC syste m s for hospital isolation room s. 17. O . 3. (1994). ASHR AE (1996). 2. Ne w York .edu/iec/abe/control/isolation. O osthoe k Publishing C om pany. ASHR AE Transactions 93(1): 12891303. R . 18. Kunk le . the y would be ge ne rally be de signe d as double ne gative pre ssurization are as. Blowe rs. E. which usually have inde pe nde ntly ope rating e x haust hoods or se parate ve ntilation syste m s. C DC (1994). Am e rican National Standards Institute . 6. Guide line s for construction and e quipm e nt of hospital and m e dical facilitie s. J. W ink le r (1973). (1994). S. Bioha ard Laboratories Biohazard laboratorie s are m e re ly isolation room s with strict re quire m e nts de fining the ir de gre e of airtightne ss. 7. HPAC July: 45-52. Me chanical Engine e ring Publications. including ANSI. pre ssurization and associate d e quipm e nt. Gill. (1994). Journal of Hygie ne 58: 449-464. Be rnath (1988). F. AIA (1993). (1987). E. and G. C DC . e t al. Guide line s for pre ve nting the transm ission of Mycobacte rium tube rculosis in he althcare facilitie s. 12.

C . (1960). A.psu. W inte rs. Malone y. M. 27. The Lance t 7147: 397-400. O . 25. Bacte r. A. J. Effe ctive ne ss of in-room air filtration and dilution ve ntilation for tube rculosis infe ction control. Ne w York . (1995). T. e t al. Annals of Inte rnal Me dicine 122(2): 90-95. Pre ssle y. W e dum . AIDS clinic HVAC syste m lim its spre ad of TB. F. The Macm illan C om pany. 24. R ole of diffe re ntial air pre ssure zone s in the control of ae rosols in a large anim al isolation facility. M.Songe r (1966). Guide line s for pre ve nting the transm ission of tube rculosis: A be tte r solution? C linical Infe ctious Dise ase s 19: 309-310. (1994). and G. The Am e rican Journal of Me dicine 91(suppl 3B): 179S-184S. HPAC Fe bruary.Nazaroff (1996). C linical Infe ctious Dise ase s 19: 299-308. (1991). E. Applie d Microbiology 14(4): 674-678.asp 4/4 . Se agal-Maure r. (1960). Pe arson. L. A. Lobascio and W . 20. R . R ile y.. D. S. L. Mille r-Le ide n. Efficacy of control m e asure s in pre ve nting nosocom ial transm ission of m ultidrug-re sistant tube rculosis to patie nts and he alth care work e rs. C ontrol of laboratory airborne infe ction..W . 21. Hygie ne 58: 297-305.. 23. S. R e v. J. :: C opyright Info :: © 2008 The Pe nnsylvania State Unive rsity 22. Em ail W e bm aste r :: Privacy & Le gal State m e nts . J. (1994). e t al. S.engr. Epide m iology and control of nosocom ial infe ctions in adult inte nsive care units. 28. Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering Lidwe 26. W e inste in. Environm e ntal control of tube rculosis: C ontinuing controve rsy. A. E. O 'Grady (1961). Sullivan. R . Journal of the Air and W aste Manage m e nt Association 46(9): 869. and F. 25: 210-216.R . Kalk ut (1994). R . S. Airborne Infe ction. The e valuation of ve ntilation. Ve hicle s of transm ission of airborne bacte ria in hospital wards. M..02/02/12 19. 29. Linscom b. (1961). G. R ubbo.