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Lesaca, Ancheska S.

BSLM 2A

Theology Homework

Eastern Councils 1. Nicaea I 2. Constantinople I 3. Ephesus 4. Chalcedon 5. Constantinople II 6. Constantinople III 7. Nicaea II 8. Constantinople IV Western Councils 1. Lateran I 2. Lateran II 3. Lateran III 4. Lateran IV 5. Lyons I 6. Lyons II 7. Vienne 8. Constance 9. Florence 10. Lateran V 11. Trent 12. Vatican I 13. Vatican II First Ecumenical Council — Nicaea I Site: Nicaea (in N.W. Asia Minor) Year: A.D. 325 Pope: St. Sylvester I, 314-335 Emperor: Constantine I, Western Roman Emperor 306-337; Sole Emperor 324-337 Action: Called by the emperor and ratified by the Pope, this council condemned the heresy of Arius (priest of Alexandria, d. 336) by defining the CONSUBSTANTIALITY of God the Son with God the Father. The Son is of the “same substance,” homo-ousion, as the Father (St. Athanasius); not merely a “like substance,” homoi-ousion (as with the semi-Arians); nor is He (as Arius taught) some sort of super-creature. Note: St. Athanasius, Doctor of the Church (d. 373), Bishop of Alexandria, was present as deacon and peritus at Nicaea; exiled five times and excommunicated by the Arians. St. Ephrem, Doctor of the Church (d. 373), deacon, was also present at Nicaea as peritus . Heresiarch: Arius.

Year: A. Nestorius was deposed as bishop of Constantinople. Heresiarch : Nestorius. 431 Pope: St.D.D.Second Ecumenical Council — Constantinople I Site: Constantinople (near Bosporus. Leo did not. Year: A. Doctor of the Church (d. pg. Third Ecumenical Council — Ephesus Site: Ephesus (S. Doctor of the Church (d. Gregory Nazianzen. Doctor of the Church (d. MONOPHYSITISM. not to any political power. but only one Person (Divine). Note: St. Cyril of Alexandria. 440-461 Emperor: Marcian. Fourth Ecumenical Council — Chalcedon Site: Chalcedon. Leo I also declared invalid all that had been done at the “Robber Synod of Ephesus” (a false Ephesus II): ” …. Heresiarch: Macedonius. Leo the Great. 444). Pulcheria (Emperor in the West was Valentinian III. Pope St. 423-432 Emperor: Theodosius II. 425-455).D. the council condemned the heresy of the Abbot Eutyches. Nevertheless. 381 Pope: St. 451 Pope: Saint Leo I. the faith of the Apostles. Celestine I. A. Cyril of Jerusalem. was the bishop presiding. Pulcheria. 386). influenced by his pious sister. Damasus I. This council condemned the heresy of Macedonius by clearly defining the divinity of the Holy Ghost: He is not created like the angels no matter how high an order is attributed to such a “creature. the Great. 450-457 Action: Called by Emperor Marcian. There are two natures in Christ (Divine and Human). 451). the eternal Second Person of the Blessed Trinity. . and ratified by Pope Celestine I. it was not attended by the pope or his legates or any bishops from the West. Mary is the Mother of this one Divine Person. 408-450 Action: Called by the Eastern Emperor. which claimed that there existed only “one nature” (the divine) in Christ from the Incarnation onward. 41).” read by his legates at the end of the second session of the council (Oct. it is listed as a General Council of the 4th century by papal decrees of the 6th century. and ratified by Pope St. (north of Constatinople) Year: A. but a den of thieves (Latrocinium). Called by the emperor. of Smyrna in SW Asia Minor). by which time its doctrinal definitions were accepted throughout the Church (Murphy. was also in attendance. the bishops cried out: “Behold the faith of the fathers. The primacy of the See of Rome was due to it’s possession of the Chair of Peter. 367-384 Emperor: Theodosius I. 10. a strait in today’s Turkey).” In the greatest testimony of the Eastern Council to the primacy of the Pope. Though the council had approved the assertion that Constantinople should be ranked first after Rome ecclesiastically. thus through Leo has Peter spoken!” Eutyches was excommunicated. 379-395 Action: It appears that Pope St.we see no Council. St. 416). This council also briefly affirmed the condemnation of the Pelagians (see local Council of Carthage. In his “Dogmatic Epistle. St. the Great.D. this council condemned the heresy of Nestorius by clearly defining the Divine maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 389). Note: St. Damasus I was not contacted in regard to this council attended by about 186 bishops.” The council also reaffirmed the faith of Nicaea. Theodosius II. Pope St. was the bishop presiding. spouse of the chaste and noble St.

D. Leo II also condemned Pope Honorius I (625-638) for negligence of duty in the face of heresy. a British Monk). Sixth Ecumenical Council — Constantinople III Site: Constantinople Years: A. Cyril of Alexandria (d. which two are in perfect accord within the one divine person.D. so infallibility had not been involved. 2) the writings of Theodoret of Cyrrhus. 682 — 683. The last two friends of Nestorius had been restored to their sees by Chalcedon when they no longer opposed the teachings of St. which heresy denied original sin calling it only “bad example. Note: Council referred much to St. 682-683 Emperor: Constantine IV. 461). Doctor of the Church (d. Cyril. 10) before the council’s end. approved the decrees of Constantinople III. condemned Semi-Pelagianism (an over-reaction to St. Heresiarch: Theodore of Mopsuestia (“3 Chapters”). 780-797 and Empress Irene (797-802) . and St. Pope St. Doctor of the Church (d. Master of Nestorius. 668-685 Action: Called by Emperor Constantine IV. this council condemned the heresy of the Monothelites (Mono -one thelema -will).D. 610 A. 678-681. Seventh Ecumenical Council — Nicaea II Site: Nicaea Year: A. Fifth Ecumenical Council — Constantinople II Site: Constantinople Year: A. Agatho. and its calling authorized by Pope St. to Christ (the divine). Constantinople III also reconfirmed Chalcedon. 680-681 Popes: St.Note: Pope St. Note: Two important local councils condemning heresies: Carthage (416) solemnly approved by Pope Innocent II. 537-555 Emperor: Justinian I. although a hundred years after they had died. instead of two wills (divine and human). Augustine on grace). originator of that heresy. which claimed man needed grace only after his first supernatural act. 772-795 Emperors: Constantine VI. Leo II.) who originated Monotheletism. Honorius had not spoken ex cathedra. Pope St. 527-565 Action: Effectively called by Justinian I and eventually ratified by Pope Vigilius. Leo I. Note: Pope St. solemnly approved by Pope Boniface II (530-532).D. condemned Pelagianism (Pelagius. 787 Pope: Hadrian I. (401-417). 444) and of Ephesus. Leo II. Augustine made it clear that God’s grace is first. Agatho. Constantinople II condemned a collection of statements known as the “Three Chapters”: 1) the person and the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia. Constantinople II was concerned with their writings. Agatho having died (Jan. Bishop of Alexandria. 553 Pope: Vigilius. Jesus. was called the “Soul” of Chalcedon. St. Heresiarch/Heretics: Eutyches — Monophysites. which attributed only one will. Heresiarch: Sergius (patriarch of Constantinople.” Orange (429) France. the divine will. Chalcedon was not discredited here (as the Monophysites had hoped) since it had been concerned with men. in that he should have ascertained that Sergius was teaching not a mere harmony (oneness) of wills in Christ but literally one will in Christ. 3) the writings of Ibas of Edessa. and then in 418 by Pope Zosimus (417-418). 444).

The Pope’s epistle here. CERULARIUS (about 200 years later) closed the churches of the Latins in Constantinople.D. Note: In 1054 the Greek schism was actually consummated by Michael Cerularius. they publicly placed on the altar of Saint Sophia the document containing his excommunication. Eighth Ecumenical Council — Constantinople IV Site: Constantinople Years: A. were held suspect by Rome. 867-886 Action: Called by Emperor Basil and ratified by Pope Hadrian II. this council confirmed the Concordat of Worms (1122) between Emperor Henry V and Pope Callistus II. this council condemned and deposed PHOTIUS (820 — 891). Controversy: LAY INVESTITURE. the addition by the West of the “FILIOQUE” to the Creed. Note: Brewing beneath the surface at this time. Heresy: Iconoclasm. which secured that all elections of Bishops and Abbots should be made freely by the proper ecclesiastical authorities (electors). John Damascene (d. who was opposed by Popes Gregory II (715-731) and Gregory III (731-741) and by St. On 16 July.D. condemned ICONOCLASM. It was decided that once ordained. with its doctrinal decree ratified by Pope Hadrian I.Leo I at Chalcedon. 1123 Pope: Callistus II. 867-872 Emperor: Basil. called by Empress Irene (widow of Emperor Leo IV and regent for her son Constantine VI). Outside Germany the emperor was to have no part in any elections. PHOTIUS attacked enforced clerical celibacy. however. 1119-1124 Emperor: Henry V.Action: This council. had the Blessed Sacrament cast out and trodden underfoot as invalid. Heresiarch: PHOTIUS. 869-870 Pope: Hadrian II. Note: Also dealt with at this council was the subject of clerical marriages. Here end the Eastern Councils and begin the Western Ninth Ecumenical Council — Lateran I Site: The Basilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome Year: A. The Eastern Bishops. In Germany the emperor was to preside over these free elections and then bestow temporal power on the bishop so chosen. cut off from Rome and receptive to heresy under persecution. 749). and the crowning of Charlemagne in the West. the patriarch of Constantinople and author of the Greek schism. was a rejection of papal authority. the Patriarch of Constantinople at that time. 1054. just as with Pope St. set the tone of the council. Tenth Ecumenical Council — Lateran II . and persisted in refusing to see the three delegates sent by Pope Leo IX (1049-1054). priest and Doctor of the Church. a priest may not marry in either Latin or Eastern Rites. in return for temporal fealty. 1106-1125 Action: Called and ratified by Pope Callistus II. who published three discourses in defense of images. Note: Iconoclasm had been fostered by Emperor Leo III (717-741).

One of its chapters excommunicated the Albigensians. 1152-1190 Action: Called and ratified by Pope Alexander III. which opposed marriage and all sacraments and belief in the resurrection of the body.” Its only failure was the Fourth Crusade. while a priest in the state of sin could not absolve. 430): "There is but one Universal Church of the faithful. It annulled the acts of three antipopes: ANTIPOPE VICTOR IV (1159) and TWO SUCCESSORS. 1153). Lateran IV prescribed at least annual confession and communion for all the faithful and made official the use of the word. 2) WALDENSIANISM (anti-clerical heresy). It reformed discipline and condemned the heresies of: 1) ALBIGENSIANISM (NEOMANICHEANISM). and the Lateran Council set down laws to remove them. Eleventh Ecumenical Council — Lateran III Site: The Basilica of Saint John Lateran (Rome) Year: A. 1198-1216 Emperor: Otto IV. outside of which no one at all is saved. “TRANSUBSTANTIATION. ending the Papal schism of the time.D. 1215 Pope: Innocent III. thus they forbad all private ownership of property. 1208-1215 Action: Called and ratified by Pope Innocent III [which pope defined ex cathedra (Denz. this council regulated the election of popes (two-thirds majority vote by the College of Cardinals was required for the Pope to be elected. 1137-1152 Action: Called and ratified by Pope Innocent II. They also held that the Evangelical Counsel of poverty was a commandment. 1179 Pope: Alexander III. marriage. 1243-1254 Emperor: Frederick II. It also condemned the heresies of: 1) Peter Bruys (Bruis) and his NEO-MANICHEANS. Bernard. Heresiarchs: PETER BRUYS and ARNOLD of BRESCIA. preached against the abuses and laxity attendant upon lay investiture.D.D. 1139 Pope: Innocent II. Waldensianism also held that oath taking and assigning death penalties were held to be mortal sins. under Pope Innocent III. 2) Arnold of Brescia. 1159-1181 Emperor: Frederick Barbarossa. Anacletus II (d. 1130-1143 Emperor: Conrad III.” not of this world. Heresies: ALBIGENSIANISM and WALDENSIANISM. Note: St. who denounced the Mass as a “vain show."]. France Year: 1245 Pope: Innocent IV. this council voided the acts of the deceased antipope. Thirteenth Ecumenical Council — Lyons I Site: Lyons. and the baptism of children — all this leading to Albigensianism (“Material things are evil in themselves”). and should own no property. 1215-1250 . but dealing with them in greater detail was Lateran IV Council. and the emperor was excluded from voting). which claimed that laymen living an apostolic life could forgive sins. Twelfth Ecumenical Council — Lateran IV Site: The Basilica of Saint John Lateran (Rome) Year: A. 1138).Site: The Basilica of Saint John Lateran (Rome) Year: A. Abbot and Doctor of the Church (d.” opposed the Eucharist. who contended that the Church was an “invisible body.

this council declared the double procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son: “Qui ex Patre Filioque procedit. Germany Years: 1414-1418 Popes: Gregory XII. 1274). 1305-1314 Emperor: Henry VII. Fourteenth Ecumenical Council — Lyons II Site: Lyons. that prayer and fasting became unimportant. Their confiscated property was given to the Hospitalers or. Louis IX (1226-1270) of France against the Saracens and the Mongols. 1273-1291 Action: Called and ratified by Pope Gregory X. grandson of Frederick Barbarossa. 469) He was opposed by the French King Philip IV. Lyons I also directed a new crusade (the 6th) under the command of King St. The council elevated Martin V to the Chair of Peter to end the confustion of the Western Schism. France Year: 1274 Pope: Blessed Gregory X. when Pope Gregory XI returned the Holy See to Rome). for his contumacious attempt to make the Church merely a department of the state. in Spain. who so stressed “inner union with God”.” (Denz. Sixteenth Ecumenical Council — Constance Site: Constance. and was buried by the council. this council suppressed the Knights Templars (Master: Jacques de Molay) for crimes charged by King Philip IV of France. Cardinal and Doctor of the Church (d. died there.Action: Called and ratified by Pope Innocent IV. 1311. the “Fair” (1268-1314). Martin V. France Years: 1311-1312 Pope: Clement V. Note: St. must be regarded as a heretic. The anti-Popes Benedict XIII (Avignon) and John XXIII (Pisa) also agreed to “abdicate” in the interests of unity. FILIOQUE DEFINED and added to Nicene Creed. 1271-1276 Emperor: Rudolph I of Hapsburg. Pope Martin ratified the council …except the . who seems to have given up on gaining a condemnation of Pope Boniface. 1417-1431 Emperor: Sigismund of Luxembourg. declared ex cathedra that it is “…absolutely necessary for the salvation of every human creature to be subject to the Roman Pontiff. Priest and Doctor of the Church (d. 1274). failed utterly. Heresies: The Errors of Peter John of Olivi and QUIETISM. Note: In his 1302 Bull UNAM SANCTAM Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303). 1406-1415. 1308-1313 Action: Called and ratified by Pope Clement V. Quietism taught that the “spiritual” person is so perfect that he or she can give free reign to fleshly desires. died on his way to Lyons II.” The return of the Eastern Church to union with Rome.” (Denz. first of the Avignon Popes (The “Avignon Captivity” lasted from 1305 until 1377. sought by the popes. 481) The council also condemned the Beghards (males) and Beguines (females). The council also declared that anyone who obstinately holds “that the rational or intellectual soul is not the form of the human body in itself and essentially. while gaining one against the Knights Templars at Vienne. was prominent at Lyons II. this council excommunicated Emperor Frederick II. to national orders that had fought against the Moors. Heretic: EMPEROR FREDERICK II. Bonaventure. 1410-1437 Action: Called by Emperor Sigismund and Pope Gregory XII who authorized the convocation as he abdicated the Papacy. St. Fifteenth Ecumenical Council — Vienne Site: Vienne (South of Lyons). Quietism. Thomas Aquinas.

On June 8. emphasized scripture as the sole rule of faith. Florence (Italy. and other functions of piety and exercises of Christian service produce eternal reward. 2) John Huss. Cantate Domino decreed. and that no one. who preached the above after Wycliffe’s death. 25:41).decrees which proposed conciliarism. and the council was reconvened by Pope Leo X in April 1513 and ratified by him. unless he has remained in the bosom and unity of the Catholic Church. Constance also condemned the heresies of: 1) John Wycliffe. but Louis XII (1498-1515) had attempted to reintroduce it. even if he has shed blood for the name of Christ. Eugene IV dissolved the council within four days. the Pope ordered a fresh start at Ferrara. by Pope Martin V. Ferrara (Italy. [Pope Eugene IV. and proclaims that none of those who are not within the Catholic Church. (Some bishops remained in open schism at Basel. 1438. Action : This council was called in 1431 for Basel. almsgiving. who died that year. whatever almsgiving he has practiced. by Feb. Pope Eugene IV confirmed this decree for Basel. 1513 Pope Julius was dying. A later King. Constantinople fell to the Mohammedans. 1512.” On May 29.” In 1438 the King of France. had issued this edict. even electing an anti-pope. 1438-1439.) A plague came to Ferrara. 1503-1513. but also Jews and heretics and schismatics cannot become participants in eternal life. but lasting union failed: “Better the turban of the Prophet than the tiara of the Pope. (Luther’s theses posted 31 October. had abolished this decree in 1461. near France). this council opened on May 10. In addition to ending the Western Schism. and the Pope moved the Council to Florence. agreed on some other points. Leo X. and bishops have no authority. Seventeenth Ecumenical Council — Florence Sites with Years: Basel (Switzerland. subscribed to Donatism. 1431-1437. 1431. 1513-1521 Emperor: Maximilian I. and that the unity of Ecclesiastical body is so strong that only to those remaining in it are the Sacraments of the Church of benefit for Salvation. Eighteenth Ecumenical Council — Lateran V Site: The Basilica of Saint John Lateran (Rome) Years: 1512-1517 (March). 1439-1445 Pope: Eugene IV. (Papal Authority More Firmly Established): ex cathedra: It [the Roman Catholic Church] firmly believes. and do fastings. the Bull Cantate Domino. 1453. This council clearly rejected the teaching contained in the edict.” two “councils” at one time. angering the bishops at Basel. north of Bologna. Believing it would become unruly. In January. north of Rome). Frederick III. Switzerland. not only pagans. Felix V — two “Popes. declaring a general council superior to the Pope and denying his right to nominate bishops in France. who rejected the Holy sacrifice of the Mass. 1441. 1440-1493. Louis XI. south of Bologna. 1493-1519 Action: Called by Pope Julius II. unless before the end of their life the same have been added to the flock. the Greeks accepted the double procession of the Holy Ghost and. 1439. professes. asserted the Pope is not the head of the Church. Denzinger 714]. and. Heretics: WYCLIFFE and HUSS. can be saved. 1517) Popes: Julius II. 1438. and the first session was held on 14 December. The most important discussions concerned the “Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. but will depart “into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels” (Matt. who began to reassert the heretical decrees at Constance that “a general council is superior to the Pope”. Charles VII. Temporary reconciliation with the Greeks RE: Filoque. southwest of Venice). (The appeal for another Crusade . 1431-1447 Emperors: Albrecht II. by July 5.

indulgences and the use of images. Humanae Vitae . Then in 1962 Pope John XXIII entered into a Vatican-Moscow agreement. Pope Pius IV concluded it and solemnly confirmed its decrees. . Action: Convened and ratified by Pope Pius IX. 1559-1565 Emperors: Charles V. 1852-1870. Rome). 1963-1978 Action: Called by Pope John XXIII and ratified by Pope Paul VI. Heresy: PROTESTANTISM Twentieth Ecumenical Council — Vatican I Site: The Vatican (St. Peter Canisius. FRANCE: Napolean III. Years: 1545-1549 Popes: Paul III. Pius IV. 1861-1888. 1846-1878 European Rulers During the Council: AUSTRIA: Francis Joseph. declaring it did not bear on his pontificate. 1597). on a matter of Faith and Morals. ENGLAND: Victoria. In this agreement it was stated that for the Russian Orthodox to be present at his Council. this council was continued by Pope Julius III. 1958-1963. In 1960 Pope John XXIII declined to reveal the third secret of Fatima. appointing a commission to issue a more exact edition of the Vulgate. The remaining tasks begun by Pope Pius IV were continued by his successor. Pius V (15661572): reforming of the Missal and Brieviary. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City-State. and was an opponent of Melancthon. writing of the Catechism based on the decrees of Trent. and the reforming of morals. 1550-1555. It issued decrees on the Eucharist. 1837-1901. BAPTISM. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City-State. SPAIN: Republic. the First Vatican Council defined the INFALLIBILITY of the Pope when. Rome). +See canons II and V. 1869-1877 (United States President). Italy. he speaks from the Seat of Peter (ex cathedra). the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. and others. the Sacraments (notably Baptism and Holy Orders) and teachings on marriage. Trent condemned the heresies of Luther. purgatory. 1534-1549 & 1551-1552. which message was due that year. 1848-1861 (King of Sardinia) 1861-1878 (King of Italy). ITALY: Victor Emmanuel II. and the situation in Europe relegated such a venture to oblivion. Julius III. Doctor of the Church (d. Calvin. 1556-1564 Action: Called by Pope Paul III. against artificial contraception. 1848-1916. Years: 1962-1965 Popes: John XXIII. pronouncing a doctrine to be believed by the whole Church. and. 1868-1870. 1519-1556 & Ferdinand I. Grant. Nineteenth Ecumenical Council — Trent Site: Trent. Pope St. Paul VI. after 18 years and 25 sessions in all. 1969 — Pope Paul VI promulgated the Novus Ordo Missae . Note: St. rather than emphasizing Catholic missionary enterprise for the conversion to the Faith. RUSSIA: Alexander II.) Condemned: PRAGMATIC SANCTION OF BOURGES (Charles VII/Louis XII). 1968 — Pope Paul VI issued his encyclical. Years: 1869-1870 Pope: Pius IX. no condemnation of Communism was to be allowed there. PRUSSIA: German Empire Prussian Kingdom William I. Priest. Ulyssyes S. as Supreme Pontiff.against the Turks met with no enthusiasm. the Second Vatican Council was a Pastoral Council (not dogmatic) with 16 documents emphasizing ecumenism understood as religious fellowship. Twenty-first Ecumenical Council — Vatican II Site: The Vatican (St. represented the Pope at Trent. 1855-1881.

photos [8 plates]..: B.1] of sites of the General Councils. p. John L. selected notes and texts.C.) o Murphy. Fr. Church History . index and appendices. Mo. M. Francis.Y.. (Imprimatur. o Denzinger. Translated by Roy J. Rev. Mass. The General Councils of the Church . 1960.: St. Philip. A Popular History of the Catholic Church .I. Rockford.. tables of Popes and emperors..) o Slaves of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. 621 pp. The Sources of Catholic Dogma . Illinois 61105: Tan Books & Publishers.. Deferrari from the 30th Edition of Henry Denzinger’s Enchiridion Symbolorum . Louis. (Imprimatur).. John L. Inc. (Imprimatur index. 320 pp. index 193pp. 1957. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company.NOTE: There was no dogma defined and no heresy condemned at Vatican Council II.. St. 1947. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. . Herder Book Co.) o Laux. Bibliography o Br. map [opp. 1989 (1945 Benzinger Bros.). Saints to Remember . Benedict Center. 1961.N.M. Still River. o Hughes. (Imprimatur.