The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC)) is an Indian stateowned oil and gas company headquartered in New Delhi, India. It is one of the largest Asia-based oil and gas exploration and production companies, and produces around 77% of India's total crude oil production. It is one of the largest public sector company producing oil and natural gas with a turnover of Rs.65000 crores. It is also one of the Navaratna companies of India. O.N.G.C LTD is perceived to be the leader in oil production industry. It has a very efficient and professional management team. O.N.G.C being an international company has sufficient resources and capital to invest.

The INFOCOM section in ONGC deals with all Electronic equipment and Telecommunications systems. This group plays an important role in facilitating day to day operations of the Rajahmundry asset. The major systems under the purview of Infocom services are as follows:

• Line Communication • Computer centre • Field communication • Satellite Communication • SCADA


1) Line communication
The word “Telephone” is derived from the Greek word “Tele” meaning “Far” and “Phone” meaning “Sound”. The operation of a telephone involves the conversion of the sound signals into an audio frequency electrical which can be transmitted over an electrical transmission system and then reconverted to sound pressure signal at the receiver end. The electrical signals may be transmitted by radio or by wire. The wire telephone systems were the earlier of such systems and still form the backbone of modern communications. A telephone is a duplex device i.e. it uses one frequency to transmit and another frequency for receiving. A Simple Telephone A telephone is one of the simplest devices you have in our house. ! It only contains three parts and they are all simple A switch to connect and disconnect the phone from the network - This switch is generally called the hook switch. It connects when you lift the handset. A speaker - This is generally a little 50-cent, 8-ohm speaker of some sort. A microphone - In the past, telephone microphones have been as simple as carbon granules compressed between two thin metal plates. Sound waves from your voice compress and decompress the granules, changing the resistance of the granules and modulating the current flowing through the microphone. We can dial this simple phone by rapidly tapping the hook called "pulse dialing." If we pick the phone up and rapidly tap the switch hook four times, the phone company's switch will understand that we have dialed a "4."

Fig: 1.1 A Simple Telephone A Real Telephone The only problem with the phone shown above is that when we talk, we would hear our voice through the speaker. Most people find that annoying, so any "real" phone contains a device called a duplex coil or something functionally equivalent to block the

3 sound of our own voice from reaching our ear. A modern telephone also includes a bell so it can ring and a touch-tone keypad and frequency generator.

Figure 1.2: A Real Telephone Still, it's pretty simple. In a modern phone there is an electronic microphone, amplifier and circuit to replace the carbon granules and loading coil. The mechanical bell is often replaced by a speaker and a circuit to generate a pleasant ringing tone.

1.2 EPABX (Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange):
A Private Branch eXchange (PBX) is a telephone exchange that serves a particular business or office, as opposed to one that a common carrier or telephone company operates for many businesses or for the general public.

The acronym is now applied to all types of complex. vaults and other housings 1. switching and control cards. mapping a dialled number to a physical phone.2 PBX Functions The PBX performs four main call processing duties: Establishing connections (circuits) between the telephone sets of two users. System Components A PBX will often include: The PBX’s internal switching network. or exchanging anything.g.2.e. and more. inhouse telephony switching systems. Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) consisting of sensors.2. the general term "extension" is used to refer to any end point on the branch. the term PBX is by far the most widely recognized. Logic cards.4 Figure 1.g. The term PBX was first applied when switchboard operators ran company switchboards by hand. Branches. power cards and related devices that facilitate PBX operation. Because they incorporate telephones. As automated electromechanical and then electronic switching systems gradually began to replace the manual systems.3 EPABX at Base Complex . metering calls) 1. closets. fax machines.2. Stations or telephone sets. Solid state digital systems were sometimes referred to as EPABXs (Electronic Private Automatic Branch eXchange).3: An Avaya G3R PBX with front cover removed (view from the top). Interconnecting wiring. sometimes called lines. ensuring the phone isn't already busy) Maintaining such connections as long as the users require them (i. Now. modems. power switches and batteries. Cabinets. while PBXs select the outgoing line automatically. the terms PABX (Private Automatic Branch eXchange) and PMBX (Private Manual Branch eXchange) were used to differentiate them. PBXs are differentiated from "key systems" in that users of key systems manually select their own outgoing lines. Outside Telco trunks that deliver signals to (and carry them from) the PBX. 1. even if they are not Private. Console or switchboard allows the operator to control incoming calls. (e. control and logic. Microcontroller or microcomputer for arbitrary data processing. channelling voice signals between the users) Disconnecting those connections as per the users requirement Providing information for accounting purposes (e.1 Overview PBXs make connections among the internal telephones of ONGC and also connect them to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) via trunk lines.

1. STD lines. One line is for giving input from main EPABX and the other for giving output to the MDF in the particular wing. At the MDF (Main Distribution Frame). users in the colony and requirements at the field.e. ONGC provides 1150 cell connections restricting the facilities as per the designation of the employees. pair of wires from MDF runs to their sub MDFs called Pillars. There are number of chords with each chord having 24 ports and each port in turn has 48 wires. local lines.5 48 VDC power supply is applied to the EPABX system. Internal Distribution Frame. There are four wings in ONGC.. . Rajahmundry 3. Tatipaka The input to the system is the 40 BSNL junction lines which are divided as intercom lines. There is a backup battery bank that comes in to use at times of power failure or any other hindrance. Narsapur 2. Dhowlaiswaram 4. It contains modules each having two lines. Pillars are installed at each block from which the wires run into each house. The 400 extension lines (per extension two lines) run out of the EPABX system to the IDF i. Usually there are two types of connections a) Armed Connection: These are the connections provided outside the ONGC and have extra protection in the form of cables b) Unarmed Connection: These connections inside the office. Extra lines are diverted to each room in case of 4 employees in a room or 2 or more phones on one desk. In the office each Wing has its respective Pillar from which wires run into sub pillars at each room. For each wing there is a separate MDF. are arranged to send to different Wings in the office and to the colony. Usually 1:10 ratio is maintained between junction lines and extension lines. There are four systems at the following places. Out of these 400 lines some 32 lines are kept ideal to take care of any sort of repair or problem. The EPABX system in ONGC has four private and four public networks. Depending upon the number of Wings and the requirement in those Wings. In the colony.

through 30-button sizes. The user answering the phone and wishing to hold that call pushes the hold button which activates the hold relay on that line. -E 8 0-I C N E T 1 3 4 IR E C T -D S u b s c rib e rs Figure 1. IC N E T ID F O F C T E R M IN A L O p er a to r C o n so le P U B L IC N E T W O R K IC N E T E&M DOT L in es 2/4 L in e s & W IR E IP tr u n k E-1 D ID DOD MDF B a tte ry B an k M o re th a n 450 PABX. the system must be equipped with hold relays. arranged in columns or modules of 6 or 10 each. Key telephones are also made as “one-button sets”. which allows the phone to be connected to either of two lines. The button associated with each exchange line is called a “pickup” button. “Call directors” are merely large key phones. one for each line. They are furnished in 2. The most widely used key telephone system today is the six-button telephone commonly referred to as “key equipment”. Key phones are used in conjunction with PBX systems when it so necessary to have several lines terminating on one phone in an office. usually the first button on the left. yet some form of simple switching is necessary. & C a ll M e terin g C o n so le P o w er P la n ts B a s e C o m p le x E PA B X . Hence the 18-button type has three modules for each type. often with a semiautomatic hold feature on the first line.2.6 RJY TPK NSP D W LM A C M a in s S u p p ly P R IV A T E N E T W O R K M a in t. They have a single rotary button.4 KEY TELEPHONES A special class of very small exchange is that of “key telephones” which handle more than one line at a telephone location without the use of a switchboard. . To switch a call from one phone to another.4: Base Complex EPABX System Layout – Rajahmundry 1. which are activated by the red “hold” button.

a PC. Unlike voice and circuit switched data calls. Voice calls can be made to or from an ISDN line from a POTS line anywhere in the world. SPID: The ISDN central office needs to have a unique identification number for each ISDN set to which it sends calls and signals. 5. global network. such as placing a call and sending a fax.6 kilobits. It can route calls and handle billing: in transmission systems which carry the large volume of calls to remote destinations. and millions of miles of twisted-pair copper cabling to carry services to our homes and offices. ISDN has been designed to allow endto-end compatibility for voice services. Equally important is the fact that ISDN service can be carried over the existing telephone network infrastructure which presents a massive global investment over the past century in the central office switches. We can also combine the two (64-speed) channels into a single (128K-speed) channel and achieve ISDN’s top speed for sharing data files and Internet access. a phone and a fax.7 1. . NTI: The Network Transmission 1 is a user owned device that provides an interface between our line from the telephone company and the ISDN wiring inside our home. In the event of a power failure. and video and image services in a digital format over a common. Channel: A channel is a communication path that can carry a voice or data conversation. Our ISDN service will not work if the NTI’s plug is not connected to a working electrical source. data. largely over optical fiber cable today. one communication channel can carry multiple packet conversations at the same time. Circuit Switched Data: This is a conversion between two devices (usually computers) where the devices have total use of the channel connecting them. or transmitting a data file and receiving a call. • B Channel: This is an ISDN communication channel that bears or carries voice circuit switched data or packet switched data conversations. ISDN has multiple channels (a maximum of 2 Bs and 1 D).3 ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN brings us closer to the goal of a ubiquitous multi-service network. • D Channel: This is an ISDN communication channel used for sending information behind-the-scenes between the ISDN equipment and the ISDN central office switch. 2. ISDN is a telephone line that provides two primary channels for communication to connect more than one device to the line. This device can be a stand-alone device or can be integrated with other ISDN equipment. ISDN will not operate unless it has a power back-up such as an UPS. each device’s “dialogue” is broken into smaller chunks called packets before being sent to the receiver. This identification is called a Service profile identifier or SPID. Terminologies 1. 3. 4. integrating voice. We can then perform two tasks simultaneously. This channel can also carry “user” packet data at rates up to 9. Packet Switched Data: In this type of conversation between two devices. such as.

The three types of mobile technologies are: • • • Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Section (BSC) Master Section (MSC) 1. making our sessions more productive and enjoyable. 2. 4.e. graphs. having in a particular area . such as pictures. dialing. ISDN is the most cost effective and efficient telecommunications service available. High Speed: ISDN allows us to send and receive data four times faster than traditional phone lines and modems. ISDN enables us to talk and signal at the same time.4CELL PHONES: The area covered by the tower is in the form of cells and hence the mobile phones are also called cellular phones. audio or even video. which could save our more time and money. These channels can be combined to send extremely large or data intensive files. or interrupt a call when it receives special signals from picking up a handset.. then the tower handle over the signal to the other tower so that the customer should not get disturbance.5 FIELD TELEPHONES: . depressing buttons on our set. High Productivity: due to two communications paths we can perform two communication tasks simultaneously i. take. gets the signal from the tower I which he is there. 1. By combining both channels. 3. etc. high speed Internet access can also be achieved. There are different technologies used in cell phones. When a person. High Capacity: Higher capacity ISDN has two channels or paths for communication. When the person switches from one tower covering a particular cell. Signaling: Our central office knows that we wish to make. Features of ISDN 1. More cost effective: For many BellSouth customers. Internet access is also accelerated. This capability makes us more productive.8 6. Before ISDN we frequently had to interrupt or terminate our conversation to signal the central office. we can send a data file and receive a phone call at the same time without the phone call disrupting the data transmission.

it is necessary for the signals to be synchronized. They are furnished in 2. to be phased correctly and to have the same height/breadth ratio. “Call directors” are merely large key phones. the reverse of what happens in the transmitter. Two methods of scanning are: • • Optical Scanning. and facsimile transmission and exact reproduction of a document or picture is provided at receiving end. FACSIMILE RECEIVER The mechanical aspect of scanning the receiver is similar those in the sender. often with a semiautomatic hold feature on the first line.through 30button sizes. Resistance Scanning. arranged in columns or modules of 6 or 10 each.9 A special class of very small exchange is that of “field telephones” which handle more than one line at a telephone location without the use of a switchboard. In order for the received signal to have the correct relationship with the transmitted signal. To switch a call from one phone to another. Hence the 18-button type has three modules for each type. Scanning input signal. The small bandwidth required for facsimile makes it suitable for transmission over normal telephone lines. yet some form of simple switching is necessary. in which a light spot traverses the message. They have a single rotary button.6 FASCIMILE (FAX): Facsimile means an exact reproduction. Key phones are used in conjunction with PBX systems when it so necessary to have several lines terminating on one phone in an office. and these are brought into circuit by meanings of a stylus touching and moving over them. The button associated with each exchange line is called a “pickup” button. The most widely used key telephone system today is the six-button telephone commonly referred to as “key equipment”. the system must be equipped with hold relays. . 1. one for each line. which allows the phone to be connected to either of two lines. in which the characters of the message offer varying resistances. Field telephones are also made as “onebutton sets”. and very often-identical equipment is used at both the ends. which are activated by the red “hold” button.

10 2)Computer Centre Computer Section plays an important role in facilitating the day-to-day operations of the asset. or a group of buildings e. and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. Services Offered: • • • • • • • • PCs procurement / Installation / Maintenance PC Accessories – Printer. Cartridges. a school. NETWORKING CONCEPTS: 1. LAN (Local Area Network) A local area network is a computer network covering a small geographic area. office. Scanner. . like a home.g. Computer section in Rajahmundry Asset is located at the Base Complex Godavari Bhavan. smaller geographic range. in contrast to wide-area networks (WANs). include their much higher datatransfer rates. The defining characteristics of LANs. refills Network (LAN) Setup and Maintenance WAN Connectivity Internet Services e-mail ICNET – providing connectivity to other projects IPIMS hardware and software infrastructure Maintaining fiber link to Staff Training Institute. core house and Well Logging section.

of switches in each wing is dependant on the number of users in that wing. LAN Topologies LAN topologies define the manner in which network devices are organized. of users in the base complex beyond 300 no. of switches together so that all of them can use the single uplink connectivity from the server. These topologies are logical architectures. All nodes on the LAN are connected by one linear cable. Four common LAN topologies exist: bus. Figure 2. A bus topology is a linear LAN architecture in which transmissions from network stations propagate the length of the medium and are received by all other stations. Single mode fiber is used for connecting the base complex to the core house and multimode optical fiber is used in connecting the core house to the Well Logging Section. which absorbs any signal. and tree. removing it from the bus. All the switches are kept in the server room and the user cables are terminated in this room. Of the three most widely used LAN implementations.. All the users of different departments were connected to the server and the other internetworking devices via the Centralized switch located in the computer section. B and C wings) catering to ground to fourth floor users.11 LAN at base complex: Before the up gradation of the existing network. a. but the actual devices need not be physically organized in these configurations. the LAN connectivity was given in a Centralized fashion. The no. The switches were connected in a cascaded manner. of users. The L3 switch is kept at the server room and the L2 switches (each with 24 ports) are kept in different wings (A.3 Some Networks Implement a Local Bus Topology b. which is called the shared medium. Every node on this cable segment sees transmissions from every other station on the same segment. the LAN configuration also needed to be modified. All nodes on the LAN are connected in a loop and their Network Interface Cards (NIC) .3 networks—including 100BaseT—implement a bus topology. At each end of the bus is a terminator. This connectivity was possible when there were fewer no. With the increase in the no. star. Stacking units are used to stack no. A ring topology is a LAN architecture that consists of a series of devices connected to one another by unidirectional transmission links to form a single closed loop. This medium cable apparently is the single point of failure. For implementation of this configuration. Ethernet/IEEE 802. Core house and the Logging section are connected to the base complex with optical fiber cable link. ring. Now we are changing from the centralized configuration connectivity to the decentralized connectivity. a new L3 switch (Catalyst 4506-Cisco Systems) with several L2 switches (Cisco catalyst 2950 desktop switch) was purchased.

by dedicated links.5 and FDDI networks implement a ring topology. an incoming frame is processed in the node and then retransmitted on an outgoing link to the destination station. If the central node is operating in a broadcast fashion such as a Hub. A tree topology is a LAN architecture that is identical to the bus topology. The frame continues to circulate until it returns to the source station. The destination station recognizes its address and copies the frame into a local buffer as it goes by. which is illustrated in Figure 2.12 are working as repeaters. it is logically a bus. such as hub or a switch. In this case. although the arrangement is physically a star. There is no starting or ending point. Both Token Ring/IEEE 802.4.4: Some Networks Implement a Logical Ring Topology c. Figure 2. or switch.5: A Logical Tree Topology Can Contain Multiple Nodes . A star topology is a LAN architecture in which the endpoints on a network are connected to a common central hub. Ethernet protocols (IEEE 802. where it is removed. : All stations are connected by cable (or wireless) to a central point. Logical bus and ring topologies are often implemented physically in a star topology. except that branches with multiple nodes are possible in this case.3) are often used in the Star topology LAN. d. In the case of the central node acting as switch. transmission of a frame from one station to the node is retransmitted on all of the outgoing links. Each node will repeat any signal that is on the network regardless its destination. Figure 2.

usually used for connecting computers. As such. corporations with facilities at multiple locations have embraced WANs. Servers in Base Complex: The different servers that are present at the computer section in ONGC are: • • • • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol(DHCP) Domain Naming System(DNS) Novell Database Server Intranet Server Active Directory Server (ADS) . they connected the private branch exchanges (PBXs) of remote offices of the same company. WANs were originally developed for digital leased-line services carrying only voice. WAN (Wide Area Network): A wide area network is a telecommunications network. that spans a wide geographical area. WANs are often used by larger corporations or organizations to facilitate the exchange of data and in a wide variety of industries.13 2. rather than data. WANs are still used for voice services. but today they are used more frequently for data and image transmission.

which has the users of other office in the southern region. DHCP servers send the “Offer message” which contains the IP address and configuration information for the DHCP client. For Rajahmundry Asset Base complex users a domain “ongclsouth” is created for this asset and all the users are configured into this domain. it is able to see and/or use the resources of south. The server is based on NT machine and DHCP client runs on a network client such as WIN 95/98/NT workstation. Domain Naming System: This server is used to translate the names into IP address. . So a Rajahmundry asset user can see and access a shared resource at the Chennai office. This helps to have a single point of administration for all the network resources. Active Directory Server This is a windows based directory service. DHCP server sends the ACK and sends a valid TCP/IP address with TCP/IP configuration.ongcl.com. Once the user logs into this domain. During the startup of a client machine the following handshaking takes place between a client and a DHCP server: • • • • The DHCP server broadcasts the “DHCP discover” message to all the DHCP servers available in the network. This ensures that the users can access to the permitted network resources anywhere in the network by using a single logon process.14 • • • Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) International Petroleum Industry Multimedia Services Server (IPIMS) Hospital Information System (HIS) DHCP Server: DHCP Server is based on the Client-Server Model. Client selects any one of the offers and then it sends “request” message to that particular server. It stores the information about the resources on a network and makes it available to the users and network administrators.

pay related data etc. This desktop based training is Low cost and easy to access. USA. • • • • • • Daily progress report Personnel policy BDP Holiday list Production data Geology data WINS Server: This WINS server maps the computer names to the IP addresses.100.205. Intranet Server: This contains the following services. production data. Experienced persons of the organization can neither afford enough time to provide all the information to his peers nor can he deliver his experiences without a detailed preparation. Boston.com. IPIMS Server: It is developed by international Human Resource Development Corporation (IHRDC).15 Novell Server: This server contains the “Oracle” data base in which it contains the details of employees. Leased Line network: A 64 Kbps leased line connection is taken from BSNL for internet connectivity. The server setup was made the help of DTS (Direct Technical Support) from IHRDC. but the IPs are in 10. WINS is the best choice for the NetBIOS name resolution in routed network that uses NetBIOS over TCP/IP. The service provider is myguru. The system is designed to provide desktop training to the employees of oil. The leased line network is kept separate from the existing general users’ network. This intranet website will help to impart knowledge relating to petroleum industry to both core as well as the non-core personnel. The connections are given from the computer section to ED and Departmental Heads. This setup uses a leased line modem . However this network uses the same IP addressing scheme. gas and Power sector.X series. Boston.

The resources of other departments can be visible to finance VLAN members. The VLAN configuration can be done on any one of the following criteria: 1. Yet if they are all assigned to a single VLAN.. accessible to all. IPX. server and other network resources that behave as if they were connected to a single. etc) and Layer 3 addresses. all finance personnel may be spread throughout a building. For example.i. network segment even though they may not be . at the network administrator’s discretion. However. for example. the administrator can simply reassign the new port to the users old VLAN. with the installation of DHCP server. Each switch maintains a table of MAC address and their corresponding VLAN membership. For example. Virtual LAN Concepts A VLAN is a group of PCs. PORT Based VLAN (Used presently at the site) The administrator assigns each port of a switch to VLAN. NetBIOS. A key advantage of this method is that switch does not need to be reconfigured when a user moves to a different port. The addressing scheme for different locations is reserved. the addressing scheme has been changed to dynamic IP configuration. The network change is then completely transparent to the user. ports 4 to 6 to the P&A VLAN and ports 7 to 9 to the Production VLAN.X15 to 10.205. L3 switch performs inter VLAN routing.e. ports 1 to3 might be assigned to the Finance VLAN. When a user is moved to a different port on the switch. and the administrator saves a trip to wiring closet. In each of the locations 10. can be . 3. MAC Address based VLAN The VLAN membership of a packet in this case is determined by its source or destination MAC address. or accessible only to specified individuals.35 interface is used from modem to router. The switch determines the VLAN membership of each packet by noting the port on which it arrives. A separate router and a switch have been configured for this network. physically connected users are organized into groups to minimize the collisions further (broad domain is cut-off). they can share resources and bandwidth as if they were connected to the same segment. An IP subnet or an IPX network.X250 is used for user computers and the rest address are reserved for major network equipments installed at respective locations.V. The layout if the leased line connectivity is given in the diagram to follow. Since the number of users was less in the old network static IP addressing scheme was implemented. Protocol based VLAN or Layer 3 VLAN The VLAN membership of a packet is based on protocols (IP.205.16 for connection from BSNL end. This is the most flexible method and provides the most logical grouping of users. 2.

Here port based VLAN is . The idea behind implementation of the VLAN is to minimize the traffic in the entire network. The maximum number of users that can be allocated by the DHCP server in his series is 235 users. VLANS at Rajahmundry Asset • Base complex A wing • Base complex B wing • Base complex C wing • Core House • Well Logging • STI • Old Existing connections • Dowlaiswaram Workshops • Naraspur Temple land VLAN 10 VALN 101 VLAN 98 VLAN 98 VLAN 98 VLAN 98 VLAN 100 VLAN 99 VLAN 102 There are more users connected with the Old Existing Network than the new network. So when the VLAN is implemented all of them are provided with the IP addresses in the range of 100 series. to larger VLANs than routable protocols like IPX or IP.17 assigned their own VLAN. such as NetBIOS or DECnet. This is done by configuring one port of L3 switch in the VLAN 101 and connecting that old switch to this port. To avoid this situation some switches of the old setup are configured for 101 series VLAN. If the old users are more than that then there will be IP clashes. The traffic related to a particular department will be constrained in that VLAN only. Different wings are kept in separate VLANs. Different departments will be kept in separate VLANs. VLAN 101 L3 Switch VLAN 98 VLAN 103 Router for WAN connectivity VLAN 100 VLAN (Virtual Area Network) IMPLEMENTATION AT BASE COMPLEX Different departments are located in separate wings. Additionally. The present implementation is as below. As of now the VLAN is implementing on the basis of wings. protocol-based memberships allow the administrator to assign non-routable protocols. This maximizes the efficiency gains that are possible with VLANs.

the users will be allocated the IP address in the range depending upon the VLAN group of the assigned port.12: Leased Line Connectivity ICNET Integrated Communication Network Integrated Communication Network endeavors to provide a communication highway which will cater for voice. BSNL 64 Kbps leased line CISCO Router Super Stack 3com switch D-link DSL-128 leased line modem 16 Users.18 implemented i. 6 is .. GMs & sectional heads Figure 2. data and video conferencing requirements across the entire organization. Here the lower limit. The ICNET at Rajahmundry is connected to other 21 stations.4 is called the down link and the upper limit. The C-Band used is 4-6 GHz. This network uses satellite communication link as a media for interconnecting regional head quarters. Delhi and Dehradun.e. projects with corporate head quarters.

there are no hardware settings. Three serial interfaces of the router are connected to radyne modems. with NMS (Network Management System) at URAN. As we go up the directivity increases. occasional nature of telephone traffic.e. These links are from Rajahmundry to Chennai. the system band width is used only when it is required. The C-Band now being operated is INSAT 3E which is called as “Transponder” for which the band width is higher. DAMA allows a satellite to be used on a demand basis i. VOICE NETWORK: Voice network uses bandwidth efficient DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access) SCPC technology for voice. ICNET connectivity at Rajahmundry: Rajahmundry asset is connected to the other 21 sites by ICNET link. which works on mesh topology. In this system. INSAT 3E is now being used for ICNET connectivity. ICNET is connected with the local intranet LAN of Rajahmundry through router interface. any point in the system can communicate to any other point in the system. Full mesh connectivity is ensured i.e.128 Kbps (384) . DATA NETWORK: Data network uses PAMA (Permanent Assigned Multiple access) technology for data channels. Presently DAMA technology digital satellite modems (SkyLinx System series 8000 from Scientific Atlanta). DAMA takes the advantage of random. which have flexibility to operate at programmable data rates from 9600 Bps to 2 Mbps. Rajahmundry uses three DAMA and three PAMA channels. From Rajahmundry three Data links are in place. Narsapur and Dehradun. All settings are programmable with software. The bit error rate achieved on the data channels is of the order 1 in 10^9 bits and the links are very stable. The capacity of each link is as below: a) Rajahmundry Chennai link -. The numbers assigned to each of the 21 stations is given. The voice network can be accessed by dialing ‘82’ from a hand set. DAMA channels are used for voice connectivity and the PAMA channels are used for data connectivity.19 called the uplink.

Similarly Narsapur is also having three DAMA channels and one PAMA channels. Station codes are as given below: Station Dehradun Uran Agartala Narsapur Baroda Mehsana Code 10 20 32 42 50 53 Station Delhi Mumbai Kolkatta Karaikal Ankleswar Cambay Code 11 22 33 43 51 54 Station Panvel Hazira Rajahmundry Chennai Ahmedabad Jodhpur Code 21 23 41 44 52 55 . To seize a channel in the ICNET link dial ‘82’ followed by the destination station code.64 Kbps (256) ICNET is connected with the local intranet LAN of Rajahmundry through router interface. Serial Interface 0 – connected to Chennai for IINS/IMMS Serial Interface 1– connected to Narsapur for IMMS Serial Interface 2– connected to Dehradun for UFSO (Up gradation Financial System of ONGC) Rajahmundry uses three DAMA and three PAMA channels. The three serial interfaces of the router are connected to radyne modems for connectivity to the above three locations.64 Kbps c) Rajahmundry Dehradun link -.5 meters antenna and Narsapur uses a 3. which is again followed by either an EPABX extension number or a hotline number as the case may be depending on the each site configuration.8m antenna. A router is placed in the ICNET room for the above purpose. Rajahmundry has a 4. DAMA channels are used for voice connectivity and the PAMA channels are used for data connectivity.20 b) Rajahmundry Narsapur link -. All the 22 ICNET stations allotted a specific station code for communication.

As we cannot see an EM wave. Whenever electric power is applied to a circuit. The sound radiated by normal speech is quite small. Wireless simply means “no wire”. Suppose it is not possible to lay a wire. is known as EM wave. The below figure consists of two antennas which radiates the respective signals. a system of voltage and current are set within it and whole circuit becomes active. In some cases. i. we see the following alternatives. When we connect power supply. These cause change in the air pressure up and down in all the directions. the circuit becomes active and whatever we transmit through wire is received at another end and the same is converted to sound waves which we are able to listen. it has got wireless connectivity in one or other way. The degree of this change above and below is known as amplitude. voltage may be higher and current may be low or vice versa. so our description will be based on mathematical theory. then the concept of wireless comes in.e. The signals coincide at a particular point which as shown. Now days whatever way of communication we use. Wireless communication plays very important role in our life. Long Distance Communication Our voice whether small or loud can travel up to a certain distance only. For the simplicity and effective utilization of frequency spectrum. In this case. at one end there is a transmitter and at the other end is a receiver. the frequency range is divided into different groups as follows: 30 HZ 30 KHZ 300KHZ 3 MHZ 30 MHZ to to to to to 30 KHZ 300 KHZ 3 MHZ 30 MHZ 300 MHZ → VLF → LF → MF → HF → VHF . having electric and magnetic components. This is a simple case where both the ends are directly connected with wire. of the order of 10 . The theory of EM wave was first given by Maxwell in 1857.15 microwatt and that is why our speech cannot travel for long distances. In a similar manner we can say that when power is radiated in free space then it starts propagation in space in the shape.21 Nazira 60 Jorhat 61 Silchar 62 3)Field Communication Introduction Radio waves are basically electro-magnetic radiation. Frequency When we speak. we generate physical vibrations in the air. The velocity of sound in air is around 330 m/sec and in water is around 1500 m/sec. So in order to have communication up to long distances.

They are known as ground waves also. ♦ HF: In HF range. He had done several experiments that there are different layers of ionization exists above earth at different heights. Where. They can travel several thousands of miles. So their coverage distance is short.1: Long Distance Communication For transmitting speeches over long distance. we need some carrier known as “Radio Carriers”. These are used extensively in modern day communication. HF is sky wave propagation and can travel long distances. The formula for frequency can be given as: C = f λ. which can travel a long distance around the earth’s surface. ♦VHF: In this frequency range. Appleton found out that in propagation of HF waves. earth’s atmosphere plays an important role. Generally. these frequencies are useful for the coastal stations to keep a watch on ships. Their range is more during the night time. C = velocity of the wave f = frequency λ = wavelength ♦ LF: This is Very Low and Long range frequency.22 300 MHZ 3 GHZ to to 3 GHZ 30 GHZ → UHF → SHF Figure 3. ♦ MF: Their range is 180 to 400 Kms. radio wave propagation takes place through earth’s atmosphere. These layers send back the HF waves to the earth which otherwise would have escaped into the space. In 1925. . They were extensively used by the British Navy during the Second World War. radio waves follow the line of sight. When carrier frequency is higher than 12 KHZ then the carrier side band frequency is radiated as EM wave.

which provides following different options to the users. 3.1 System Introduction The offered system provides paging and communication in industrial environments and in hazardous locations where reliability and ease of operation are of utmost importance. Basic instrument to transmit / receiver the signal is known as transceiver.1. for the inter plant . an efficient “Industrial Communication System” shall be characterized by: • • • • • • Loud speaking facility to locate “people on the move” and to combat industrial noise Elegantly styled rugged indoor / outdoor construction with pilfer protection Suitability for use in both Hazardous and non-hazardous areas Easy operation and quick connectivity Expandable architecture Flexibility to cope with changing configuration. It’s a “Central Switching Controlled – centralized Amplifier” based system. Sound waves are first converted to electrical signal through microphone. 3. which provides following different options to the users.1 PAGING Introduction: The need for an efficient and optimally engineered communication network cannot be over emphasized in the medium and large industrial plants which now deploy increasingly more automated processes and complexities in day to day operations. So in order to transmit over a long distance we use either HF or VHF. for the inter plant communication. In the view of the above.23 As we now know that our speech or voice can hardly travel up to 100 Mts. A carrier wave is modulated by this signal or we can say it is impressed on a high frequency sine wave. needs and industrial dynamics The offered system provides paging and communication in industrial environments and in hazardous locations where reliability and ease of operation are of utmost importance. should be in the form of electrical signal. The pre-requisites for an effective plant communication system assume stringency due to the normal and special hazards in a modern plant environment. It’s a “Central Switching Controlled – centralized Amplifier” based system. Any signal to be transmitted.

Field Equipment • Field Handset Stations (FHS) • Paging Loudspeakers (LS) 3. The speakers can be arranged in different zones and the announcement can be accordingly made.4 System Introduction 3. 2a. Central Equipment • Central Switching System (CSS) • Master Control Station (MCS) • Central Paging Control (CPC) 2.e. b. always through control room’s assistance Figure 3. It provides quality paging and communication function through these channels. Other Hardware . The each field handset station operator can carry his independent conversation. 2. a. 3.2 System Configuration The plant communication system comprises of: 1. Page Channel: This channel provides loud speaking facility and is used to broadcast messages or instructions or to locate field operators in the plant.. The system posses multiple party channels i. This system comprises of the following channels for communication purpose.e. Integration of plant communication system with EPABX system. Direct communication between the field operators (i. Party Channel: This channel is used for carrying prolonged conversations in private mode. which is not heard over the loud speakers.1. Communication between various field operators. Communication between control room and field operator.24 communication. one dedicated channel for each field handset station. 1. without routing the call through control room) 2b. Field-to field contact.

The configurations are given below: 1. The incoming call on to the MCS is identified by ringing tone. Digital Interface Board. Communication link type : PCM. the field operator contacts the control room using the nearest field handset stations. Analogue Station Interface Board. The system has a universal port type configuration that can be programmed as per the need. utilizing a pulse code modulation/time division multiplexing. Distribution Frame : External 7. The system architecture has been designed to allow a high level of software control over the system’s hardware. Processor : 32 bits 3. Paging Interface Board. It is a wall mounted cabinet that houses the back plane (i. CO Interface Board and other essential PCBs. flashing LED indication and calling station number/area name display over the digital display of MCS. The distance between MCS . Main Processor Board. Power Supply (built in) : 110 / 230 V AC 5. System : Modular (based on plug in cards) 4. Mounting : Wall mounting / Rack mounting Master Control Station (MCS) The master control station will have the following specifications • Dynamic gooseneck microphone • Individual zone selection switches for 12 zones • All zone selection • Digital display for identification of calling station number • Handset • Fixed function keys The control room operator can announce in either of the following modes from MCS.25 • • Junction Boxes (JB) Cables for the Field Equipments Central Switching System (CSS) The central switching system is microprocessor controlled. Housing : Self supporting cabinet 6. Non blocking switch 2. the mother board) and contain card slots for the system power supply. 100% non-blocking and it incorporates digital technology for command processing and voice switching. After the announcement is heard over the loudspeakers. • Individual zone wise announcement • Multiple zone wise announcements • All zone announcements All announcements made from the above MCS have higher priority over any announcements made either from field handset stations or made from the EPABX intercoms. There is no limitation to the number of stations that can be deployed in the system. The software related to the operation of the system and features of the system are programmed in the Central Switching System.e.

As the handset of the unit is equipped with noise canceling microphone. the location.e. Features of field stations are • The access of all features like calling master control desk. The CPC is modular in architecture i. The system is designed for zone wise announcements. calling other handset stations etc. Whenever required. all zone selection circuitry • Chime module. which is more effective in locating a person in the field rather than individual loudspeaker paging. Failure of any field handset doesn’t affect or lead to the failure of loudspeaker. the acoustic feedback during paging doesn’t occur. “The total load = Number of loudspeakers x Wattage of each loudspeaker. If required the system could also be provided with stand by amplifier with changeover circuitry to ensure continuous operations at all times.26 and the location of central rack can be up to 300 meters. • The field call station doesn’t house any line amplifier. calling EPABX extension. paging answer. . quantity and functionality of field call stations and loudspeakers are not interlinked. More than one MCS can be installed in the same system. each of 200 watts (RMS) • Control panel. number of amplifier modules is used in the system with each Amplifier module of 200 watts (RMS). The field stations are available in variety of constructions to meet indoor/outdoor environment. cascading of amplifier is done to meet the expansion. The system uses high reliability amplifiers with built in overload protection. Central Paging Control & Amplifier Rack (CPC) The page rack is in 19” sub rack construction and is designed for free floor standing. The centralized amplifier eliminates the need for local amplifier at multiple locations in the field and also the power cabling at each location. paging access. The zoning is flexible and can be altered at site to meet the geographical layout.” The system operates on 100-volt line matching concept to facilitate the use of loudspeaker at distant locations. based on the total load. The CPC is equipped with: • Preamplifier module • Buffer amplifier (optional) • Power amplifier. siren access • Monitor speaker • Priority matrix • Stand by amplifier with manually operated change over circuitry (optional) Field Handset Stations (FHS) The field handsets are located /installed at multiple locations in the outdoor field and are suitable for wall/column/structure mounting. Power supply unit: 24volt DC • Individual zone selection. Hence. are by way of dialing the corresponding code from the push button keypad of the Unit.

2. 1. Paging Loudspeakers (LS) The paging loudspeakers of the system are available in variety of constructions and types. Junction box for field handset stations (FSJB): There is wall mountable type JB in LM6 and are used in the system for distributing the cables meant for field handset stations.27 • • Cable required for the station is 2 pair telephone type cable. The loudspeakers are connected in looped fashion and there is no co-relation between the number of field stations and the number of loudspeakers to be deployed in the system. The junction boxes are of 4-way type with 1 opening on each side. The loudspeakers are with inbuilt line matching transformer and have local tapings to vary the loudspeaker output. The brackets are specially designed to mount the speaker in a manner to obtain uniform sound distribution in the desired operating areas. Loudspeakers can further be added in the system simply by looping from the nearest junction box to meet the expansion in future. The complete assembly of horn speakers includes the loudspeaker mounting brackets and cable gland. the junction Boxes would be either flameproof type or weatherproof type. Junction box for loudspeakers (LSJB): These are wall mountable type JB in LM6 or ABS and are used for termination of loudspeaker cables. SYSTEM FEATURES • • • • • • • • Direct communication between the field operators and control room operator All zone paging from field handset stations Monitoring the healthiness of all the associated equipment of the PA system An attention / alert sound to all speakers prior to all announcements Facility of connecting emergency siren over the paging channel (Highest priority) Digital display at MCS for identification of field handset numbers Call holding facility at MCS No use of AC power source in the field for operating the field equipment . 1 pair is used for the functionality and the other pair remains spare. No AC supply is required for functionality of the handset stations in the field Junction Box (JC) Depending on the area of operations. The stations operate on the DC voltage and are line powered from CSS. The multiplier telephone cable from central equipment gets terminated in this FSJB for cable termination. The JB is provided with clip-on type connector for cable termination.

Modern Satellite Communication originates from Clarke’s idea to install radio relays on geostationary satellites.28 • • • • Provisions to have multiple MCS in the same system Highest priority for MCS paging Feature restriction for field handset stations by software programming Individual LED indication at MCS for each field handset 4)Satellite Communication Terrestrial communication face long distance communications constraints because they use co-axial cables or optical fiber cables and they require a physical path between terminals or wireless transmissions such as Microwave Radio Relays which due propagation problems must be in the line of sight. Satellite Communication refers to transmitting a signal from the Earth up to a satellite and then receiving a signal back to the Earth. thus allowing for transmission of radio microwave signals over large distances. The satellite does not need to be a .

repetitive. As the name indicates. as there is a separate or integrated real-time automated control system that can respond quickly enough to compensate for process changes within the time constants of the process. In early years of satellite communication research.e. SCADA systems used to run on DOS. This wide range broadcasting ability has given rise to a multitude of different satellites carrying all kinds of information such as telephone calls. airports. and may run in continuous. internet traffic. it is a software package that is positioned on top of hardware to which it is interfaced. and energy consumption. The ability to transmit our signal up to such a high relay point and then receive it again back on the Earth allow us to receive it whenever we are in the world as long as we can see the relay point. wastewater collection and treatment. military communications. This time is called satellite delay. is not a SCADA system even though it controls its own power consumption and cooling). but rather focuses on the supervisory level i. by itself.29 huge expensive array of electronics and solar panels. and large communication systems. batch. as long as we can see the moon. oil and gas pipelines. access.1 System components: The three components of a SCADA system are: • • Multiple Remote Terminal Units (also known as RTUs or Outstations) Master Station and Human Machine Interface (HMI) Computers . we can point a dish at it and receive the signal back. in recent years all SCADA vendors have moved to NT and some also to Linux. global position signals and even radio relay stations. Taking the moon as example. infrastructure or facility based as described below: • Industrial processes include those of manufacturing. power generation. The size of such plants range from a few 1000 to several 10 thousands input / output channels. and refining. The supervisory control system is a system that sends commands to a real-time control system to control a process that is external to the SCADA system (i. it is not a full control system. or discrete modes. SCADA systems are also used in some experimental facilities such as nuclear fusion. • Infrastructure processes may be public or private. VMS and UNIX. fabrication. 5)SCADA SCADA is an acronym that stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. The process can be industrial. and include water treatment and distribution. ships. including buildings. the moon was used to bounce off the signals. electrical power transmission and distribution. but does not control processes in real time. Time to go and bounce back is two seconds. 5. in general via Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). weather data.e. production. or other commercial hardware modules.. This implies that the system coordinates. • Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones. television channels. a computer. They monitor and control HVAC. and space stations.

and then to the HMI software running on workstations in the control room. Most site control is performed automatically by RTU. PLCs. voltage or current. The RTU can read digital status data or analog measurement data. flow. This interface usually includes controls where the individual can interface with the SCADA system. By sending signals to equipment the RTU can control equipment. and send out digital commands or analog set points.1. . 5. and reads status data such as the open/closed status from a switch or a valve reads measurements such as pressure. The HMI of a SCADA system is where data is processed and presented to be viewed and monitored by a human operator. or setting the speed of a pump. Human Machine Interface A Human-machine interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator. etc). or elsewhere. such as opening or closing a switch or a valve .30 • Communication Infrastructure 5. and through which the human operator controls the process.1 Remote Terminal Units The RTU connects to physical equipment.1.2 Master Station The term "Master Station" refers to the servers and software responsible for communicating with the field equipment (RTUs.

although Ethernet and IP over SONET is also frequently used at large sites such as railways and power stations. An important part of most SCADA implementations are alarms.1. I got some hands on experience on various communication systems & its application with regard to their ways of propagation and the connectivity between the end users I once again whole heartedly thank ONGC for providing me with the golden opportunity to undertake this training and to complete it successfully. . . CONCLUSION The training at ONGC has helped me to learn about the different state-of-art technologies being used for various operational activities of ONGC.3 Communication infrastructure SCADA systems have traditionally used combinations of radio and direct serial or modem connections to meet communication requirements.31 5. The remote management or monitoring function of a SCADA system is often referred to as telemetry. An alarm is a digital status point that has either the value NORMAL or ALARM.

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