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INTRODUCTION:
The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC)) is an Indian stateowned oil and gas company headquartered in New Delhi, India. It is one of the largest Asia-based oil and gas exploration and production companies, and produces around 77% of India's total crude oil production. It is one of the largest public sector company producing oil and natural gas with a turnover of Rs.65000 crores. It is also one of the Navaratna companies of India. O.N.G.C LTD is perceived to be the leader in oil production industry. It has a very efficient and professional management team. O.N.G.C being an international company has sufficient resources and capital to invest.

INFOCOM SERVICES
The INFOCOM section in ONGC deals with all Electronic equipment and Telecommunications systems. This group plays an important role in facilitating day to day operations of the Rajahmundry asset. The major systems under the purview of Infocom services are as follows:

• Line Communication • Computer centre • Field communication • Satellite Communication • SCADA

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1) Line communication
1.1)TELEPHONE SYSTEM:
The word “Telephone” is derived from the Greek word “Tele” meaning “Far” and “Phone” meaning “Sound”. The operation of a telephone involves the conversion of the sound signals into an audio frequency electrical which can be transmitted over an electrical transmission system and then reconverted to sound pressure signal at the receiver end. The electrical signals may be transmitted by radio or by wire. The wire telephone systems were the earlier of such systems and still form the backbone of modern communications. A telephone is a duplex device i.e. it uses one frequency to transmit and another frequency for receiving. A Simple Telephone A telephone is one of the simplest devices you have in our house. ! It only contains three parts and they are all simple A switch to connect and disconnect the phone from the network - This switch is generally called the hook switch. It connects when you lift the handset. A speaker - This is generally a little 50-cent, 8-ohm speaker of some sort. A microphone - In the past, telephone microphones have been as simple as carbon granules compressed between two thin metal plates. Sound waves from your voice compress and decompress the granules, changing the resistance of the granules and modulating the current flowing through the microphone. We can dial this simple phone by rapidly tapping the hook called "pulse dialing." If we pick the phone up and rapidly tap the switch hook four times, the phone company's switch will understand that we have dialed a "4."

Fig: 1.1 A Simple Telephone A Real Telephone The only problem with the phone shown above is that when we talk, we would hear our voice through the speaker. Most people find that annoying, so any "real" phone contains a device called a duplex coil or something functionally equivalent to block the

3 sound of our own voice from reaching our ear. A modern telephone also includes a bell so it can ring and a touch-tone keypad and frequency generator.

Figure 1.2: A Real Telephone Still, it's pretty simple. In a modern phone there is an electronic microphone, amplifier and circuit to replace the carbon granules and loading coil. The mechanical bell is often replaced by a speaker and a circuit to generate a pleasant ringing tone.

1.2 EPABX (Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange):
A Private Branch eXchange (PBX) is a telephone exchange that serves a particular business or office, as opposed to one that a common carrier or telephone company operates for many businesses or for the general public.

2. sometimes called lines. fax machines. or exchanging anything. Now. Stations or telephone sets. vaults and other housings 1. As automated electromechanical and then electronic switching systems gradually began to replace the manual systems. power switches and batteries.g. the term PBX is by far the most widely recognized. power cards and related devices that facilitate PBX operation. Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) consisting of sensors. Microcontroller or microcomputer for arbitrary data processing. inhouse telephony switching systems.2 PBX Functions The PBX performs four main call processing duties: Establishing connections (circuits) between the telephone sets of two users. switching and control cards. PBXs are differentiated from "key systems" in that users of key systems manually select their own outgoing lines.2. the terms PABX (Private Automatic Branch eXchange) and PMBX (Private Manual Branch eXchange) were used to differentiate them. The term PBX was first applied when switchboard operators ran company switchboards by hand. The acronym is now applied to all types of complex.g. Branches. Cabinets. Outside Telco trunks that deliver signals to (and carry them from) the PBX.3 EPABX at Base Complex .1 Overview PBXs make connections among the internal telephones of ONGC and also connect them to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) via trunk lines. metering calls) 1. Console or switchboard allows the operator to control incoming calls. System Components A PBX will often include: The PBX’s internal switching network. while PBXs select the outgoing line automatically.4 Figure 1. Interconnecting wiring. the general term "extension" is used to refer to any end point on the branch. and more.2. Logic cards. closets. (e. modems. 1. ensuring the phone isn't already busy) Maintaining such connections as long as the users require them (i.e. channelling voice signals between the users) Disconnecting those connections as per the users requirement Providing information for accounting purposes (e. Because they incorporate telephones.3: An Avaya G3R PBX with front cover removed (view from the top). Solid state digital systems were sometimes referred to as EPABXs (Electronic Private Automatic Branch eXchange). mapping a dialled number to a physical phone. even if they are not Private. control and logic.

are arranged to send to different Wings in the office and to the colony. The 400 extension lines (per extension two lines) run out of the EPABX system to the IDF i. At the MDF (Main Distribution Frame). Tatipaka The input to the system is the 40 BSNL junction lines which are divided as intercom lines.5 48 VDC power supply is applied to the EPABX system. There are number of chords with each chord having 24 ports and each port in turn has 48 wires. Usually there are two types of connections a) Armed Connection: These are the connections provided outside the ONGC and have extra protection in the form of cables b) Unarmed Connection: These connections inside the office. It contains modules each having two lines. Depending upon the number of Wings and the requirement in those Wings. Out of these 400 lines some 32 lines are kept ideal to take care of any sort of repair or problem. Rajahmundry 3. There are four systems at the following places. STD lines. Dhowlaiswaram 4. In the colony. For each wing there is a separate MDF. Narsapur 2. .. There is a backup battery bank that comes in to use at times of power failure or any other hindrance. Internal Distribution Frame. local lines. The EPABX system in ONGC has four private and four public networks. In the office each Wing has its respective Pillar from which wires run into sub pillars at each room. There are four wings in ONGC. 1. ONGC provides 1150 cell connections restricting the facilities as per the designation of the employees. Pillars are installed at each block from which the wires run into each house. Usually 1:10 ratio is maintained between junction lines and extension lines. users in the colony and requirements at the field.e. pair of wires from MDF runs to their sub MDFs called Pillars. Extra lines are diverted to each room in case of 4 employees in a room or 2 or more phones on one desk. One line is for giving input from main EPABX and the other for giving output to the MDF in the particular wing.

through 30-button sizes. To switch a call from one phone to another. They have a single rotary button. Key telephones are also made as “one-button sets”. . the system must be equipped with hold relays. -E 8 0-I C N E T 1 3 4 IR E C T -D S u b s c rib e rs Figure 1. “Call directors” are merely large key phones. The most widely used key telephone system today is the six-button telephone commonly referred to as “key equipment”. IC N E T ID F O F C T E R M IN A L O p er a to r C o n so le P U B L IC N E T W O R K IC N E T E&M DOT L in es 2/4 L in e s & W IR E IP tr u n k E-1 D ID DOD MDF B a tte ry B an k M o re th a n 450 PABX. often with a semiautomatic hold feature on the first line.4 KEY TELEPHONES A special class of very small exchange is that of “key telephones” which handle more than one line at a telephone location without the use of a switchboard. usually the first button on the left. yet some form of simple switching is necessary.4: Base Complex EPABX System Layout – Rajahmundry 1. arranged in columns or modules of 6 or 10 each. They are furnished in 2. The button associated with each exchange line is called a “pickup” button. & C a ll M e terin g C o n so le P o w er P la n ts B a s e C o m p le x E PA B X . The user answering the phone and wishing to hold that call pushes the hold button which activates the hold relay on that line. Hence the 18-button type has three modules for each type. which allows the phone to be connected to either of two lines.6 RJY TPK NSP D W LM A C M a in s S u p p ly P R IV A T E N E T W O R K M a in t. which are activated by the red “hold” button. one for each line. Key phones are used in conjunction with PBX systems when it so necessary to have several lines terminating on one phone in an office.2.

a PC. integrating voice. . ISDN will not operate unless it has a power back-up such as an UPS. one communication channel can carry multiple packet conversations at the same time. a phone and a fax. ISDN is a telephone line that provides two primary channels for communication to connect more than one device to the line. It can route calls and handle billing: in transmission systems which carry the large volume of calls to remote destinations. This channel can also carry “user” packet data at rates up to 9. and millions of miles of twisted-pair copper cabling to carry services to our homes and offices. Channel: A channel is a communication path that can carry a voice or data conversation. Our ISDN service will not work if the NTI’s plug is not connected to a working electrical source. Equally important is the fact that ISDN service can be carried over the existing telephone network infrastructure which presents a massive global investment over the past century in the central office switches. Terminologies 1. • B Channel: This is an ISDN communication channel that bears or carries voice circuit switched data or packet switched data conversations. such as. ISDN has multiple channels (a maximum of 2 Bs and 1 D). data. 4. 5.7 1. Voice calls can be made to or from an ISDN line from a POTS line anywhere in the world. This identification is called a Service profile identifier or SPID. Packet Switched Data: In this type of conversation between two devices. Circuit Switched Data: This is a conversion between two devices (usually computers) where the devices have total use of the channel connecting them. 3. We can also combine the two (64-speed) channels into a single (128K-speed) channel and achieve ISDN’s top speed for sharing data files and Internet access. global network. • D Channel: This is an ISDN communication channel used for sending information behind-the-scenes between the ISDN equipment and the ISDN central office switch. or transmitting a data file and receiving a call.3 ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN brings us closer to the goal of a ubiquitous multi-service network. SPID: The ISDN central office needs to have a unique identification number for each ISDN set to which it sends calls and signals. NTI: The Network Transmission 1 is a user owned device that provides an interface between our line from the telephone company and the ISDN wiring inside our home. such as placing a call and sending a fax. In the event of a power failure. We can then perform two tasks simultaneously. and video and image services in a digital format over a common. largely over optical fiber cable today. 2. each device’s “dialogue” is broken into smaller chunks called packets before being sent to the receiver.6 kilobits. ISDN has been designed to allow endto-end compatibility for voice services. This device can be a stand-alone device or can be integrated with other ISDN equipment. Unlike voice and circuit switched data calls.

1. having in a particular area . 3. Signaling: Our central office knows that we wish to make. ISDN enables us to talk and signal at the same time. 4. audio or even video. The three types of mobile technologies are: • • • Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Section (BSC) Master Section (MSC) 1. Internet access is also accelerated. take. These channels can be combined to send extremely large or data intensive files. we can send a data file and receive a phone call at the same time without the phone call disrupting the data transmission.4CELL PHONES: The area covered by the tower is in the form of cells and hence the mobile phones are also called cellular phones. Before ISDN we frequently had to interrupt or terminate our conversation to signal the central office. Features of ISDN 1. high speed Internet access can also be achieved. There are different technologies used in cell phones.e. depressing buttons on our set. making our sessions more productive and enjoyable. High Productivity: due to two communications paths we can perform two communication tasks simultaneously i. When a person. or interrupt a call when it receives special signals from picking up a handset. More cost effective: For many BellSouth customers. dialing. which could save our more time and money. This capability makes us more productive.5 FIELD TELEPHONES: . ISDN is the most cost effective and efficient telecommunications service available. High Speed: ISDN allows us to send and receive data four times faster than traditional phone lines and modems. gets the signal from the tower I which he is there. High Capacity: Higher capacity ISDN has two channels or paths for communication. When the person switches from one tower covering a particular cell. 2. such as pictures. then the tower handle over the signal to the other tower so that the customer should not get disturbance. graphs.8 6. etc. By combining both channels..

through 30button sizes. Two methods of scanning are: • • Optical Scanning. and these are brought into circuit by meanings of a stylus touching and moving over them. to be phased correctly and to have the same height/breadth ratio. The small bandwidth required for facsimile makes it suitable for transmission over normal telephone lines. Hence the 18-button type has three modules for each type. FACSIMILE RECEIVER The mechanical aspect of scanning the receiver is similar those in the sender. In order for the received signal to have the correct relationship with the transmitted signal. and facsimile transmission and exact reproduction of a document or picture is provided at receiving end. in which a light spot traverses the message. “Call directors” are merely large key phones. it is necessary for the signals to be synchronized. arranged in columns or modules of 6 or 10 each. 1. the reverse of what happens in the transmitter. in which the characters of the message offer varying resistances.9 A special class of very small exchange is that of “field telephones” which handle more than one line at a telephone location without the use of a switchboard. To switch a call from one phone to another. often with a semiautomatic hold feature on the first line. which allows the phone to be connected to either of two lines. yet some form of simple switching is necessary. Field telephones are also made as “onebutton sets”. Scanning input signal. They have a single rotary button. Resistance Scanning. and very often-identical equipment is used at both the ends. which are activated by the red “hold” button.6 FASCIMILE (FAX): Facsimile means an exact reproduction. one for each line. the system must be equipped with hold relays. The most widely used key telephone system today is the six-button telephone commonly referred to as “key equipment”. The button associated with each exchange line is called a “pickup” button. . Key phones are used in conjunction with PBX systems when it so necessary to have several lines terminating on one phone in an office. They are furnished in 2.

Computer section in Rajahmundry Asset is located at the Base Complex Godavari Bhavan. or a group of buildings e. . like a home. refills Network (LAN) Setup and Maintenance WAN Connectivity Internet Services e-mail ICNET – providing connectivity to other projects IPIMS hardware and software infrastructure Maintaining fiber link to Staff Training Institute. Services Offered: • • • • • • • • PCs procurement / Installation / Maintenance PC Accessories – Printer. core house and Well Logging section. smaller geographic range. The defining characteristics of LANs.10 2)Computer Centre Computer Section plays an important role in facilitating the day-to-day operations of the asset. a school. NETWORKING CONCEPTS: 1. in contrast to wide-area networks (WANs). include their much higher datatransfer rates.g. Cartridges. Scanner. and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. LAN (Local Area Network) A local area network is a computer network covering a small geographic area. office.

All nodes on the LAN are connected in a loop and their Network Interface Cards (NIC) . LAN Topologies LAN topologies define the manner in which network devices are organized. Four common LAN topologies exist: bus. These topologies are logical architectures. This connectivity was possible when there were fewer no. All the users of different departments were connected to the server and the other internetworking devices via the Centralized switch located in the computer section. and tree. Now we are changing from the centralized configuration connectivity to the decentralized connectivity. which absorbs any signal. With the increase in the no. Of the three most widely used LAN implementations. For implementation of this configuration.3 networks—including 100BaseT—implement a bus topology. A bus topology is a linear LAN architecture in which transmissions from network stations propagate the length of the medium and are received by all other stations. Single mode fiber is used for connecting the base complex to the core house and multimode optical fiber is used in connecting the core house to the Well Logging Section. Ethernet/IEEE 802. the LAN configuration also needed to be modified.. but the actual devices need not be physically organized in these configurations. At each end of the bus is a terminator. Figure 2. the LAN connectivity was given in a Centralized fashion. star. B and C wings) catering to ground to fourth floor users. of users. a new L3 switch (Catalyst 4506-Cisco Systems) with several L2 switches (Cisco catalyst 2950 desktop switch) was purchased. of switches together so that all of them can use the single uplink connectivity from the server. This medium cable apparently is the single point of failure. removing it from the bus. Core house and the Logging section are connected to the base complex with optical fiber cable link. a. of users in the base complex beyond 300 no. which is called the shared medium. of switches in each wing is dependant on the number of users in that wing. ring. Stacking units are used to stack no. The L3 switch is kept at the server room and the L2 switches (each with 24 ports) are kept in different wings (A. Every node on this cable segment sees transmissions from every other station on the same segment. All nodes on the LAN are connected by one linear cable. All the switches are kept in the server room and the user cables are terminated in this room. The no. A ring topology is a LAN architecture that consists of a series of devices connected to one another by unidirectional transmission links to form a single closed loop.11 LAN at base complex: Before the up gradation of the existing network. The switches were connected in a cascaded manner.3 Some Networks Implement a Local Bus Topology b.

Both Token Ring/IEEE 802.4. In the case of the central node acting as switch.3) are often used in the Star topology LAN. by dedicated links. it is logically a bus. : All stations are connected by cable (or wireless) to a central point.4: Some Networks Implement a Logical Ring Topology c. d. such as hub or a switch. where it is removed.12 are working as repeaters. Each node will repeat any signal that is on the network regardless its destination. an incoming frame is processed in the node and then retransmitted on an outgoing link to the destination station. The frame continues to circulate until it returns to the source station. Figure 2. transmission of a frame from one station to the node is retransmitted on all of the outgoing links.5: A Logical Tree Topology Can Contain Multiple Nodes . although the arrangement is physically a star. A tree topology is a LAN architecture that is identical to the bus topology. Logical bus and ring topologies are often implemented physically in a star topology. In this case. A star topology is a LAN architecture in which the endpoints on a network are connected to a common central hub. or switch. The destination station recognizes its address and copies the frame into a local buffer as it goes by. There is no starting or ending point.5 and FDDI networks implement a ring topology. Ethernet protocols (IEEE 802. except that branches with multiple nodes are possible in this case. which is illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 2. If the central node is operating in a broadcast fashion such as a Hub.

As such. rather than data. corporations with facilities at multiple locations have embraced WANs. usually used for connecting computers. Servers in Base Complex: The different servers that are present at the computer section in ONGC are: • • • • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol(DHCP) Domain Naming System(DNS) Novell Database Server Intranet Server Active Directory Server (ADS) . they connected the private branch exchanges (PBXs) of remote offices of the same company.13 2. WANs were originally developed for digital leased-line services carrying only voice. that spans a wide geographical area. WANs are often used by larger corporations or organizations to facilitate the exchange of data and in a wide variety of industries. WAN (Wide Area Network): A wide area network is a telecommunications network. WANs are still used for voice services. but today they are used more frequently for data and image transmission.

Client selects any one of the offers and then it sends “request” message to that particular server. This helps to have a single point of administration for all the network resources. The server is based on NT machine and DHCP client runs on a network client such as WIN 95/98/NT workstation. For Rajahmundry Asset Base complex users a domain “ongclsouth” is created for this asset and all the users are configured into this domain. It stores the information about the resources on a network and makes it available to the users and network administrators. During the startup of a client machine the following handshaking takes place between a client and a DHCP server: • • • • The DHCP server broadcasts the “DHCP discover” message to all the DHCP servers available in the network.14 • • • Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) International Petroleum Industry Multimedia Services Server (IPIMS) Hospital Information System (HIS) DHCP Server: DHCP Server is based on the Client-Server Model. .com.ongcl. Once the user logs into this domain. Domain Naming System: This server is used to translate the names into IP address. DHCP server sends the ACK and sends a valid TCP/IP address with TCP/IP configuration. So a Rajahmundry asset user can see and access a shared resource at the Chennai office. This ensures that the users can access to the permitted network resources anywhere in the network by using a single logon process. Active Directory Server This is a windows based directory service. which has the users of other office in the southern region. it is able to see and/or use the resources of south. DHCP servers send the “Offer message” which contains the IP address and configuration information for the DHCP client.

This desktop based training is Low cost and easy to access. The connections are given from the computer section to ED and Departmental Heads. Experienced persons of the organization can neither afford enough time to provide all the information to his peers nor can he deliver his experiences without a detailed preparation. WINS is the best choice for the NetBIOS name resolution in routed network that uses NetBIOS over TCP/IP. pay related data etc. production data.com. The service provider is myguru. However this network uses the same IP addressing scheme.15 Novell Server: This server contains the “Oracle” data base in which it contains the details of employees. • • • • • • Daily progress report Personnel policy BDP Holiday list Production data Geology data WINS Server: This WINS server maps the computer names to the IP addresses.205. Boston. IPIMS Server: It is developed by international Human Resource Development Corporation (IHRDC). This setup uses a leased line modem . Boston. Intranet Server: This contains the following services. Leased Line network: A 64 Kbps leased line connection is taken from BSNL for internet connectivity. gas and Power sector. The system is designed to provide desktop training to the employees of oil.100. The server setup was made the help of DTS (Direct Technical Support) from IHRDC. The leased line network is kept separate from the existing general users’ network. This intranet website will help to impart knowledge relating to petroleum industry to both core as well as the non-core personnel. but the IPs are in 10. USA.X series.

e. 3. IPX. Yet if they are all assigned to a single VLAN. This is the most flexible method and provides the most logical grouping of users. and the administrator saves a trip to wiring closet. ports 1 to3 might be assigned to the Finance VLAN. Virtual LAN Concepts A VLAN is a group of PCs. The addressing scheme for different locations is reserved.. etc) and Layer 3 addresses. The switch determines the VLAN membership of each packet by noting the port on which it arrives.35 interface is used from modem to router.V. ports 4 to 6 to the P&A VLAN and ports 7 to 9 to the Production VLAN. MAC Address based VLAN The VLAN membership of a packet in this case is determined by its source or destination MAC address. For example.205. NetBIOS. In each of the locations 10. the administrator can simply reassign the new port to the users old VLAN. Protocol based VLAN or Layer 3 VLAN The VLAN membership of a packet is based on protocols (IP. can be . L3 switch performs inter VLAN routing. 2. An IP subnet or an IPX network. server and other network resources that behave as if they were connected to a single. physically connected users are organized into groups to minimize the collisions further (broad domain is cut-off).X15 to 10. at the network administrator’s discretion. Each switch maintains a table of MAC address and their corresponding VLAN membership. A key advantage of this method is that switch does not need to be reconfigured when a user moves to a different port. The resources of other departments can be visible to finance VLAN members. For example. with the installation of DHCP server.205. The layout if the leased line connectivity is given in the diagram to follow.i.X250 is used for user computers and the rest address are reserved for major network equipments installed at respective locations. The network change is then completely transparent to the user. they can share resources and bandwidth as if they were connected to the same segment. the addressing scheme has been changed to dynamic IP configuration. for example. network segment even though they may not be . or accessible only to specified individuals. When a user is moved to a different port on the switch. However. all finance personnel may be spread throughout a building. A separate router and a switch have been configured for this network. accessible to all.16 for connection from BSNL end. The VLAN configuration can be done on any one of the following criteria: 1. PORT Based VLAN (Used presently at the site) The administrator assigns each port of a switch to VLAN. Since the number of users was less in the old network static IP addressing scheme was implemented.

VLANS at Rajahmundry Asset • Base complex A wing • Base complex B wing • Base complex C wing • Core House • Well Logging • STI • Old Existing connections • Dowlaiswaram Workshops • Naraspur Temple land VLAN 10 VALN 101 VLAN 98 VLAN 98 VLAN 98 VLAN 98 VLAN 100 VLAN 99 VLAN 102 There are more users connected with the Old Existing Network than the new network. The traffic related to a particular department will be constrained in that VLAN only. Here port based VLAN is .17 assigned their own VLAN. The present implementation is as below. VLAN 101 L3 Switch VLAN 98 VLAN 103 Router for WAN connectivity VLAN 100 VLAN (Virtual Area Network) IMPLEMENTATION AT BASE COMPLEX Different departments are located in separate wings. Different departments will be kept in separate VLANs. such as NetBIOS or DECnet. To avoid this situation some switches of the old setup are configured for 101 series VLAN. This is done by configuring one port of L3 switch in the VLAN 101 and connecting that old switch to this port. The maximum number of users that can be allocated by the DHCP server in his series is 235 users. As of now the VLAN is implementing on the basis of wings. Additionally. This maximizes the efficiency gains that are possible with VLANs. So when the VLAN is implemented all of them are provided with the IP addresses in the range of 100 series. to larger VLANs than routable protocols like IPX or IP. protocol-based memberships allow the administrator to assign non-routable protocols. If the old users are more than that then there will be IP clashes. Different wings are kept in separate VLANs. The idea behind implementation of the VLAN is to minimize the traffic in the entire network.

The ICNET at Rajahmundry is connected to other 21 stations. 6 is .e.12: Leased Line Connectivity ICNET Integrated Communication Network Integrated Communication Network endeavors to provide a communication highway which will cater for voice. BSNL 64 Kbps leased line CISCO Router Super Stack 3com switch D-link DSL-128 leased line modem 16 Users. GMs & sectional heads Figure 2. the users will be allocated the IP address in the range depending upon the VLAN group of the assigned port. This network uses satellite communication link as a media for interconnecting regional head quarters.18 implemented i. The C-Band used is 4-6 GHz..4 is called the down link and the upper limit. data and video conferencing requirements across the entire organization. Delhi and Dehradun. Here the lower limit. projects with corporate head quarters.

19 called the uplink. INSAT 3E is now being used for ICNET connectivity. Narsapur and Dehradun. which have flexibility to operate at programmable data rates from 9600 Bps to 2 Mbps. occasional nature of telephone traffic.e. The bit error rate achieved on the data channels is of the order 1 in 10^9 bits and the links are very stable. These links are from Rajahmundry to Chennai. Three serial interfaces of the router are connected to radyne modems. DAMA channels are used for voice connectivity and the PAMA channels are used for data connectivity.128 Kbps (384) . From Rajahmundry three Data links are in place. DATA NETWORK: Data network uses PAMA (Permanent Assigned Multiple access) technology for data channels. ICNET connectivity at Rajahmundry: Rajahmundry asset is connected to the other 21 sites by ICNET link. VOICE NETWORK: Voice network uses bandwidth efficient DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access) SCPC technology for voice. any point in the system can communicate to any other point in the system. with NMS (Network Management System) at URAN. The C-Band now being operated is INSAT 3E which is called as “Transponder” for which the band width is higher. which works on mesh topology. As we go up the directivity increases. The capacity of each link is as below: a) Rajahmundry Chennai link -. The numbers assigned to each of the 21 stations is given. All settings are programmable with software. Presently DAMA technology digital satellite modems (SkyLinx System series 8000 from Scientific Atlanta). Rajahmundry uses three DAMA and three PAMA channels. DAMA allows a satellite to be used on a demand basis i. Full mesh connectivity is ensured i. ICNET is connected with the local intranet LAN of Rajahmundry through router interface. there are no hardware settings. The voice network can be accessed by dialing ‘82’ from a hand set. the system band width is used only when it is required.e. DAMA takes the advantage of random. In this system.

5 meters antenna and Narsapur uses a 3. Serial Interface 0 – connected to Chennai for IINS/IMMS Serial Interface 1– connected to Narsapur for IMMS Serial Interface 2– connected to Dehradun for UFSO (Up gradation Financial System of ONGC) Rajahmundry uses three DAMA and three PAMA channels.8m antenna. Station codes are as given below: Station Dehradun Uran Agartala Narsapur Baroda Mehsana Code 10 20 32 42 50 53 Station Delhi Mumbai Kolkatta Karaikal Ankleswar Cambay Code 11 22 33 43 51 54 Station Panvel Hazira Rajahmundry Chennai Ahmedabad Jodhpur Code 21 23 41 44 52 55 . To seize a channel in the ICNET link dial ‘82’ followed by the destination station code. Rajahmundry has a 4.64 Kbps c) Rajahmundry Dehradun link -. The three serial interfaces of the router are connected to radyne modems for connectivity to the above three locations.20 b) Rajahmundry Narsapur link -. A router is placed in the ICNET room for the above purpose. DAMA channels are used for voice connectivity and the PAMA channels are used for data connectivity.64 Kbps (256) ICNET is connected with the local intranet LAN of Rajahmundry through router interface. All the 22 ICNET stations allotted a specific station code for communication. which is again followed by either an EPABX extension number or a hotline number as the case may be depending on the each site configuration. Similarly Narsapur is also having three DAMA channels and one PAMA channels.

So in order to have communication up to long distances. For the simplicity and effective utilization of frequency spectrum. As we cannot see an EM wave. it has got wireless connectivity in one or other way.15 microwatt and that is why our speech cannot travel for long distances. The velocity of sound in air is around 330 m/sec and in water is around 1500 m/sec. then the concept of wireless comes in. is known as EM wave. The degree of this change above and below is known as amplitude. The below figure consists of two antennas which radiates the respective signals. The signals coincide at a particular point which as shown. In some cases. Whenever electric power is applied to a circuit. Long Distance Communication Our voice whether small or loud can travel up to a certain distance only. Frequency When we speak. In a similar manner we can say that when power is radiated in free space then it starts propagation in space in the shape. we generate physical vibrations in the air. Wireless communication plays very important role in our life. having electric and magnetic components. Suppose it is not possible to lay a wire. In this case. a system of voltage and current are set within it and whole circuit becomes active. The theory of EM wave was first given by Maxwell in 1857. at one end there is a transmitter and at the other end is a receiver. voltage may be higher and current may be low or vice versa. so our description will be based on mathematical theory. When we connect power supply.e. These cause change in the air pressure up and down in all the directions. Wireless simply means “no wire”. This is a simple case where both the ends are directly connected with wire. of the order of 10 . the circuit becomes active and whatever we transmit through wire is received at another end and the same is converted to sound waves which we are able to listen. i. The sound radiated by normal speech is quite small. Now days whatever way of communication we use. we see the following alternatives. the frequency range is divided into different groups as follows: 30 HZ 30 KHZ 300KHZ 3 MHZ 30 MHZ to to to to to 30 KHZ 300 KHZ 3 MHZ 30 MHZ 300 MHZ → VLF → LF → MF → HF → VHF .21 Nazira 60 Jorhat 61 Silchar 62 3)Field Communication Introduction Radio waves are basically electro-magnetic radiation.

♦VHF: In this frequency range. radio wave propagation takes place through earth’s atmosphere. HF is sky wave propagation and can travel long distances. Where. Generally. . These layers send back the HF waves to the earth which otherwise would have escaped into the space. C = velocity of the wave f = frequency λ = wavelength ♦ LF: This is Very Low and Long range frequency. So their coverage distance is short. Their range is more during the night time. we need some carrier known as “Radio Carriers”. earth’s atmosphere plays an important role. ♦ MF: Their range is 180 to 400 Kms. These are used extensively in modern day communication. radio waves follow the line of sight. They can travel several thousands of miles. ♦ HF: In HF range. Appleton found out that in propagation of HF waves.22 300 MHZ 3 GHZ to to 3 GHZ 30 GHZ → UHF → SHF Figure 3.1: Long Distance Communication For transmitting speeches over long distance. They were extensively used by the British Navy during the Second World War. He had done several experiments that there are different layers of ionization exists above earth at different heights. these frequencies are useful for the coastal stations to keep a watch on ships. In 1925. When carrier frequency is higher than 12 KHZ then the carrier side band frequency is radiated as EM wave. which can travel a long distance around the earth’s surface. They are known as ground waves also. The formula for frequency can be given as: C = f λ.

should be in the form of electrical signal.23 As we now know that our speech or voice can hardly travel up to 100 Mts. which provides following different options to the users. Any signal to be transmitted. 3.1 System Introduction The offered system provides paging and communication in industrial environments and in hazardous locations where reliability and ease of operation are of utmost importance. A carrier wave is modulated by this signal or we can say it is impressed on a high frequency sine wave. 3.1 PAGING Introduction: The need for an efficient and optimally engineered communication network cannot be over emphasized in the medium and large industrial plants which now deploy increasingly more automated processes and complexities in day to day operations. It’s a “Central Switching Controlled – centralized Amplifier” based system.1. needs and industrial dynamics The offered system provides paging and communication in industrial environments and in hazardous locations where reliability and ease of operation are of utmost importance. Sound waves are first converted to electrical signal through microphone. The pre-requisites for an effective plant communication system assume stringency due to the normal and special hazards in a modern plant environment. Basic instrument to transmit / receiver the signal is known as transceiver. In the view of the above. So in order to transmit over a long distance we use either HF or VHF. It’s a “Central Switching Controlled – centralized Amplifier” based system. for the inter plant communication. which provides following different options to the users. for the inter plant . an efficient “Industrial Communication System” shall be characterized by: • • • • • • Loud speaking facility to locate “people on the move” and to combat industrial noise Elegantly styled rugged indoor / outdoor construction with pilfer protection Suitability for use in both Hazardous and non-hazardous areas Easy operation and quick connectivity Expandable architecture Flexibility to cope with changing configuration.

Communication between control room and field operator. without routing the call through control room) 2b. 2. which is not heard over the loud speakers. 2a. The speakers can be arranged in different zones and the announcement can be accordingly made. always through control room’s assistance Figure 3. 1. Party Channel: This channel is used for carrying prolonged conversations in private mode.e. Direct communication between the field operators (i. one dedicated channel for each field handset station.e. The each field handset station operator can carry his independent conversation. It provides quality paging and communication function through these channels. Integration of plant communication system with EPABX system. This system comprises of the following channels for communication purpose..1. Page Channel: This channel provides loud speaking facility and is used to broadcast messages or instructions or to locate field operators in the plant.2 System Configuration The plant communication system comprises of: 1. b. Other Hardware . Field Equipment • Field Handset Stations (FHS) • Paging Loudspeakers (LS) 3. 3.24 communication. a. The system posses multiple party channels i. Communication between various field operators. Central Equipment • Central Switching System (CSS) • Master Control Station (MCS) • Central Paging Control (CPC) 2. Field-to field contact.4 System Introduction 3.

Analogue Station Interface Board.e. 100% non-blocking and it incorporates digital technology for command processing and voice switching. Paging Interface Board. Main Processor Board. The system architecture has been designed to allow a high level of software control over the system’s hardware. utilizing a pulse code modulation/time division multiplexing. It is a wall mounted cabinet that houses the back plane (i. Communication link type : PCM. Power Supply (built in) : 110 / 230 V AC 5. The distance between MCS . the mother board) and contain card slots for the system power supply. The configurations are given below: 1. Processor : 32 bits 3. The software related to the operation of the system and features of the system are programmed in the Central Switching System. The system has a universal port type configuration that can be programmed as per the need. Mounting : Wall mounting / Rack mounting Master Control Station (MCS) The master control station will have the following specifications • Dynamic gooseneck microphone • Individual zone selection switches for 12 zones • All zone selection • Digital display for identification of calling station number • Handset • Fixed function keys The control room operator can announce in either of the following modes from MCS. Non blocking switch 2. System : Modular (based on plug in cards) 4. After the announcement is heard over the loudspeakers. the field operator contacts the control room using the nearest field handset stations. Distribution Frame : External 7. CO Interface Board and other essential PCBs. flashing LED indication and calling station number/area name display over the digital display of MCS. • Individual zone wise announcement • Multiple zone wise announcements • All zone announcements All announcements made from the above MCS have higher priority over any announcements made either from field handset stations or made from the EPABX intercoms. There is no limitation to the number of stations that can be deployed in the system. The incoming call on to the MCS is identified by ringing tone. Housing : Self supporting cabinet 6.25 • • Junction Boxes (JB) Cables for the Field Equipments Central Switching System (CSS) The central switching system is microprocessor controlled. Digital Interface Board.

Power supply unit: 24volt DC • Individual zone selection. Failure of any field handset doesn’t affect or lead to the failure of loudspeaker. calling other handset stations etc. More than one MCS can be installed in the same system. The system is designed for zone wise announcements. are by way of dialing the corresponding code from the push button keypad of the Unit. Hence. which is more effective in locating a person in the field rather than individual loudspeaker paging. each of 200 watts (RMS) • Control panel. Features of field stations are • The access of all features like calling master control desk. the location. . Central Paging Control & Amplifier Rack (CPC) The page rack is in 19” sub rack construction and is designed for free floor standing. The system uses high reliability amplifiers with built in overload protection. quantity and functionality of field call stations and loudspeakers are not interlinked. • The field call station doesn’t house any line amplifier. the acoustic feedback during paging doesn’t occur.e. If required the system could also be provided with stand by amplifier with changeover circuitry to ensure continuous operations at all times. Whenever required. cascading of amplifier is done to meet the expansion. The CPC is modular in architecture i. The CPC is equipped with: • Preamplifier module • Buffer amplifier (optional) • Power amplifier. As the handset of the unit is equipped with noise canceling microphone. all zone selection circuitry • Chime module. calling EPABX extension. based on the total load. The field stations are available in variety of constructions to meet indoor/outdoor environment. paging access. The zoning is flexible and can be altered at site to meet the geographical layout. “The total load = Number of loudspeakers x Wattage of each loudspeaker. siren access • Monitor speaker • Priority matrix • Stand by amplifier with manually operated change over circuitry (optional) Field Handset Stations (FHS) The field handsets are located /installed at multiple locations in the outdoor field and are suitable for wall/column/structure mounting. The centralized amplifier eliminates the need for local amplifier at multiple locations in the field and also the power cabling at each location. paging answer.” The system operates on 100-volt line matching concept to facilitate the use of loudspeaker at distant locations.26 and the location of central rack can be up to 300 meters. number of amplifier modules is used in the system with each Amplifier module of 200 watts (RMS).

Junction box for loudspeakers (LSJB): These are wall mountable type JB in LM6 or ABS and are used for termination of loudspeaker cables. Junction box for field handset stations (FSJB): There is wall mountable type JB in LM6 and are used in the system for distributing the cables meant for field handset stations. The multiplier telephone cable from central equipment gets terminated in this FSJB for cable termination. SYSTEM FEATURES • • • • • • • • Direct communication between the field operators and control room operator All zone paging from field handset stations Monitoring the healthiness of all the associated equipment of the PA system An attention / alert sound to all speakers prior to all announcements Facility of connecting emergency siren over the paging channel (Highest priority) Digital display at MCS for identification of field handset numbers Call holding facility at MCS No use of AC power source in the field for operating the field equipment . No AC supply is required for functionality of the handset stations in the field Junction Box (JC) Depending on the area of operations. The stations operate on the DC voltage and are line powered from CSS.27 • • Cable required for the station is 2 pair telephone type cable. 1 pair is used for the functionality and the other pair remains spare. 1. 2. The loudspeakers are with inbuilt line matching transformer and have local tapings to vary the loudspeaker output. The JB is provided with clip-on type connector for cable termination. The loudspeakers are connected in looped fashion and there is no co-relation between the number of field stations and the number of loudspeakers to be deployed in the system. the junction Boxes would be either flameproof type or weatherproof type. The brackets are specially designed to mount the speaker in a manner to obtain uniform sound distribution in the desired operating areas. Paging Loudspeakers (LS) The paging loudspeakers of the system are available in variety of constructions and types. The junction boxes are of 4-way type with 1 opening on each side. Loudspeakers can further be added in the system simply by looping from the nearest junction box to meet the expansion in future. The complete assembly of horn speakers includes the loudspeaker mounting brackets and cable gland.

The satellite does not need to be a . thus allowing for transmission of radio microwave signals over large distances. Satellite Communication refers to transmitting a signal from the Earth up to a satellite and then receiving a signal back to the Earth. Modern Satellite Communication originates from Clarke’s idea to install radio relays on geostationary satellites.28 • • • • Provisions to have multiple MCS in the same system Highest priority for MCS paging Feature restriction for field handset stations by software programming Individual LED indication at MCS for each field handset 4)Satellite Communication Terrestrial communication face long distance communications constraints because they use co-axial cables or optical fiber cables and they require a physical path between terminals or wireless transmissions such as Microwave Radio Relays which due propagation problems must be in the line of sight.

• Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones. and may run in continuous. Taking the moon as example. This time is called satellite delay. and space stations. production. in recent years all SCADA vendors have moved to NT and some also to Linux. but rather focuses on the supervisory level i. and include water treatment and distribution. The supervisory control system is a system that sends commands to a real-time control system to control a process that is external to the SCADA system (i. and refining.1 System components: The three components of a SCADA system are: • • Multiple Remote Terminal Units (also known as RTUs or Outstations) Master Station and Human Machine Interface (HMI) Computers . VMS and UNIX. The ability to transmit our signal up to such a high relay point and then receive it again back on the Earth allow us to receive it whenever we are in the world as long as we can see the relay point. In early years of satellite communication research. 5)SCADA SCADA is an acronym that stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. This wide range broadcasting ability has given rise to a multitude of different satellites carrying all kinds of information such as telephone calls. electrical power transmission and distribution.e. They monitor and control HVAC. as long as we can see the moon. batch. the moon was used to bounce off the signals.. or other commercial hardware modules. airports. in general via Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). The process can be industrial. oil and gas pipelines. and energy consumption. ships. Time to go and bounce back is two seconds. SCADA systems are also used in some experimental facilities such as nuclear fusion. as there is a separate or integrated real-time automated control system that can respond quickly enough to compensate for process changes within the time constants of the process. fabrication. television channels. The size of such plants range from a few 1000 to several 10 thousands input / output channels. repetitive.e. but does not control processes in real time. wastewater collection and treatment. it is a software package that is positioned on top of hardware to which it is interfaced. internet traffic. and large communication systems. is not a SCADA system even though it controls its own power consumption and cooling).29 huge expensive array of electronics and solar panels. we can point a dish at it and receive the signal back. • Infrastructure processes may be public or private. SCADA systems used to run on DOS. a computer. infrastructure or facility based as described below: • Industrial processes include those of manufacturing. including buildings. or discrete modes. it is not a full control system. access. power generation. weather data. As the name indicates. global position signals and even radio relay stations. 5. This implies that the system coordinates. military communications. by itself.

1. and then to the HMI software running on workstations in the control room.1. .2 Master Station The term "Master Station" refers to the servers and software responsible for communicating with the field equipment (RTUs. Human Machine Interface A Human-machine interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator. Most site control is performed automatically by RTU. and through which the human operator controls the process. PLCs. The HMI of a SCADA system is where data is processed and presented to be viewed and monitored by a human operator. This interface usually includes controls where the individual can interface with the SCADA system. 5.30 • Communication Infrastructure 5. The RTU can read digital status data or analog measurement data. flow. such as opening or closing a switch or a valve . and reads status data such as the open/closed status from a switch or a valve reads measurements such as pressure.1 Remote Terminal Units The RTU connects to physical equipment. and send out digital commands or analog set points. etc). or elsewhere. voltage or current. By sending signals to equipment the RTU can control equipment. or setting the speed of a pump.

CONCLUSION The training at ONGC has helped me to learn about the different state-of-art technologies being used for various operational activities of ONGC. .31 5. . An important part of most SCADA implementations are alarms. although Ethernet and IP over SONET is also frequently used at large sites such as railways and power stations. The remote management or monitoring function of a SCADA system is often referred to as telemetry. I got some hands on experience on various communication systems & its application with regard to their ways of propagation and the connectivity between the end users I once again whole heartedly thank ONGC for providing me with the golden opportunity to undertake this training and to complete it successfully.3 Communication infrastructure SCADA systems have traditionally used combinations of radio and direct serial or modem connections to meet communication requirements. An alarm is a digital status point that has either the value NORMAL or ALARM.1.

32 .