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• Variables and Constants Important Concepts • A variable is a quantity that changes with different conditions or time. e.g i. the number of populations of people in Malaysia each year. ii the temperature of Penang every month.

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A constant is a quantity that does not change. e.g i the number sides of triangle. ii the number of days in January. Example 1. Determine if the quantity in each of the following situations is a variable or a constant. (a) (b) (c) (d) Number of days in August Sum of angles in a triangle Number of tourists in a week Siti’s weight in the year 2006 1. Exercise Determine whether the quantity in each of the following situations is a variable or a constant. (a) The amount of sugar sold in a grocery shop every month Answer: (b) Answer: (a) constant (b) constant (c) variable (d) variable The number of hours in a day

Answer: (c) Answer: (d) The price of a computer for the last two years The distance from Ipoh to Johor Bahru

Answer:

• Formulae Important Concepts • A formula in general is an equation that shows relationships between a few variables. e.g A = πr 2 + πrl is a formula which shows the relationships between variables A, r and l

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The subject of a formula is the variable of the formula which is expressed in terms of other variables.

Algebraic Formulae

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A is equal to half of the product of the base length.g in the formula p = 2m + 3 p. of the triangle Answer: Algebraic Formulae 2 .e. h . K is written in terms of m and v. is equal to the initial velocity. K is the e. a Answer: (a) Force exerted = mass x acceleration Hence F = ma Answer: 2. a and the duration of time it has travelled. m . Example Write a formula to show the relationships between the variables in each of the following statements (a) The force exerted on an object. P is the product of its mass. h (b) The final velocity of an object. F is the product of its mass . 2. plus the product of its acceleration. g and height of the object above the ground. m and its acceleration. (a) The potential energy of an object. gravitational acceleration. Exercise Write a formula to show the relationships between the variables in each of the following statements. v. u . t Answer: (c) The area of a triangle. p is not the subject of the formula because p is found on both sides of the equal sign. b and the height. Hence .g in the formula K = subject of the formula The subject of a formula is a single linear variable written on the left1 the2 equation and its coefficient is 1 of 2 mv .

State the subject in each of the following formulae (a) p= L= k v 1 ( a + b )t 2 (a) a= v−u t (b) (c) Answer: v = u + at + 3v Answer: (b) s = ut + Answer: 1 2 at 2 (a) p is the subject of the formula (c) (b) L is the subject of the formula (c) There is no subject of the formula m (v − u ) = I Answer: (d) 4πr 2 = A Answer: (e) m (v − u ) =F t Answer: Algebraic Formulae 3 . (a) Construct a formula for each of the following: The sum of two numbers r and s is 10 Answer: (b) The area of a square with sides of x cm each is A cm2 (a) Answer: r + s = 10 3. and still has a balance of Rmy. Determine the subject of the following formulae 4. Write a formula for the amount of money she has left (b) A = x × x = x2 4. She uses the money to buy p books costing RM6 each.Example 3. Exercise Miss Lim has RMx.

express m as the subject. (a) Exercise Change each of the following formulae so that the variable stated in brackets becomes the subject. m = k − q Minus q to each side Algebraic Formulae 4 . (a) Example In each of the following formulae .5. (a) Exercise State whether the variable p in each of the following formulae is the subject. p = m−3 Solution: k = p+l Solution: [l] p = m−3 p +3 = m−3+3 Therefore. 6. Exercise p = mq + r (c). p= mr − y d Answer: Answer: (b) p= mp + q r (d) p = y 2 − pr Answer: Answer: 6. m = p + 3 k =m+q Add 3 to each side (b) (b) m = q−d Solution: [q] Solution: k =m+q k −q = m+q−q Therefore.

m = 4u (d) mh = t Solution: (d) 6m + 3n = 2t [n] Solution: mh = t mh t = h h Divide each side by h Therefore.Example (c) m =u 4 Solution: (c) m = p − 2q Solution: Exercise [p] m =u 4 m Multiply each side by 4 ×4 = u×4 4 Therefore. m = t h (e) z = y 2 − 3x Express y as the subject Solution: (e) 5k = h − 3 p 2 [p] Solution: y − 3x = z 2 y 2 = z + 3x y = z + 3x (f) 2m = 3k − 2 3 (f) e = f g −7 Express g as the subject Express k as the subject Solution : Algebraic Formulae 5 .

find the value r+2 RT Given V = . Solution y = 6x + 3t2 = 6(3) + 3(2)2 = 18 + 12 = 30 Exercise (b) Given that p = Exercise (c) of p when q = 12 and r = 4 Solution: r 3q . find the value of T when V=24 and 3+ R R=4 Solution: (d) Given that y = k + 2 p. (a) Given that y = 3x – z2. find the value of k when y = 10 and p = 3 Solution: (e) Given that J = m 2 − 5k . find the value of y when x = 3 and t = 2 (g) m= p t Express t as the subject Solution: Exercise 7.3k − 2 = 2m 3 3k − 2 = ( 2 m) 2 3 3k − 2 = 3(4m 2 ) 3k = 12m 2 + 2 12m 2 + 2 k= 3 Example Evaluate each of the following Given that y = 6 x + 3t 2 . find the value of y when x = 5 and z=3 Solution: 7. find the positive value of m when J = 14 and k = 7 Solution: Algebraic Formulae 6 .

3w 3w Given that A. B. 4m = 2. 20 + n 6 8. then u = 3u − 2 2w − 3 2 + 3w C. 3. D. 3p −5 4 3p +5 4 C. 3 6 7−h 3 D. 4(5r − t ) = 3 . then q = A. 5r 7 7r 4 Given that m 2 = n 2 + 4 p 2 . 4. 7. 7−h 6 B. Given that A. B. 3 . C. 4m + 6 5 Algebraic Formulae 7 . 3p − 5 4 3p + 5 4 6. then t = t 20r 5r C. n = m2 − 2 p2 n = m2 − 4 p2 n = m − 2p n = m − 4p 6m − n = 2 . 15 15 4m + 2 5 D. B. D. Given that A. B. 7 4 D. then m = 5 100 + n (100 + n) 2 C. B. Given that 5 p − A. then p = 3 4m + 2 4m + 6 C. Given that 3 p = 4q + 5. then R = A. Given that w = A.Questions based on examination format 1. then k = 3k + h 7 − 2h 7 − 2h C. Given that T = 16 − 3R 2 . 2. 6 6 (20 + n) 2 6 D. 7 = 2. 5. B. 2w 2w 2 − 3w 3 + 2w D. D. 16 + T 3 T + 16 3 C. Express n in terms of m and p A. 16 − T 3 T − 16 3 B.

C. x x+8 8 x +1 16 B. then s = 3s − 1 3+ r C. C.9. find the value of p if m = −5 A. D. Given that the perimeter of a rectangle is P cm and the length is l cm. If the area of the rectangle is 64 cm 2 . 3n + 1 10 + r 5 10 + r 6 Algebraic Formulae 8 . Given that 1− n A. B. D. B. B. m+3 15. Given the formula m = 3(2h + k ) . m − 3k 6 3k − m 3 C. If r = A. p = (15n + 4) 2 p = 8n 2 + 16 p = 225n 2 + 16 17. 2 5+r D. Express p as the 3n subject of the formula. 1 4 5 4 16. Given the formula p −4 = 5. 3r 3+ r D. 5 + 3n D. Given the formula p − 3 = 4. 5 − 3n 3n − 1 B. then m = 2 5+r C. 3 . x + 16 16 D. 6 1+ r 3 2 3r 2 − m2 = 3. A. B. D. C. B. A. then m = 12. express P in terms of l A. m−k 6 m−k 3 l 2 + 64 2l 2 l + 128 P= 2l 2 2l + 64 P= l 2 2l + 128 P= l P= x = 4 then y = y −1 C. Given that 5 2 7 2 C. If 3m − A. D. 10. p = (8n + 4) 2 B. 14. A. 9 r = 5 . 11. Express h as the subject of the formula.

D. p = Given that 1 + w = 3 − 2w 2 3− w B. 3 C. then A. 19. C. 5 D. If the total fare for 5 children and 10 adults is RMJ. If Sarah pays RMQ cash for 6 books. Q = 6(x – 2) Q = 6x – 2 Q = x – 12 Q = 2x – 6 The fare for a journey is RMx for a child and RMy for an adult. J J J J = 5 x + 10 y = 5 xy = 10 x + 5 y = 50 xy Past Year SPM Questions November 2003 1. then p in terms of w is 2 7−w 2 5 − 4w D. find the value of k if 1 1 18. h=5 Given that E = mc 2 . D. B. Given that h = 5 + k . Given that A. 2 B. p = 2 5− 2p . C. Jun 2004 p 5 p −1 = .13. find the value of c if E = 250 and m = 10 A. 25 A. 5 4 5 24 20. A book costing RMx is given a discount of RM2 if paid in cash. A. D. p = 2 C. then A. B. B. then n = 3 n C. B. D. 5 6 5 26 C. p = Algebraic Formulae 9 . 3(5 p − 1) 2 p 3(5 p 2 − 1) p2 5 p −1 9 p 5 p −1 9 p 2 2.

November 2004 3. Given that k = A. Given that A. B. November 2005 5. 2 2t = 3 . Jun 2005 4. 1+ y 4+m . 1− y y 1+ y w= y w= 4k − 4 1+ k 4k + 4 1− k k −1 1+ k k +1 1− k 8m − 2n = mn + n. 36t + 1 2t −1 3 2t + 1 3 2 2 ( 6t − 1) 2 1 − 4g 2 1 − 5g h= 3− g h= C. November 2006 7. D. 6g g −3 4g h= g −3 h= w . then n = n −1 C. express m in terms of n. B. express h in terms of g A. Jun 2006 6. m = n 3n − 8 D. 1− y y w= D. m = 8 − 3n 3n − 8 Given that B. D. D. m = C. 3 n 5n A. Given that g (h + 1) − 3h = 5 g . m = 5n 8 − 3n Algebraic Formulae 10 . Given that y = A. then m = 4−m C. B. express w in terms of y 1+ w y w= C. B.

q = p 8 − p2 D. m = p express H in terms of T and M.November 2007 8. 100 − T 2M C. m = D. 10 − TM T2 Given that k − ( m + 2) = 3m express m in terms of k. q = p ( p − 8) 2 p2 − 8 C. q = p (8 − p ) 2 November 2008 10. Given that T = 1 m express m in terms of T and K. 3 K C. B. June 2008 11. m = B. 2 T D. m = k −2 4 k+2 4 B.. m = 9KT 2 T2 9K D. m = A. m = Algebraic Formulae 11 . A. A. m = k −2 2 k+2 2 C. m = 3KT 2 Jun 2007 9. Given that T = 10 A. T2 3K It is given that 8 = p 2 − pq express q in terms of p. 1 H +M 10 −M T2 100 −M T2 B.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) No.5.4. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS C B D C A C D C A A B C D D B A D C A A Algebraic Formulae 12 .7 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) y=6 p=4 T =42 k = 16 m = +7 No. 5. 4. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) 1.1. 2. 3.ANSWERS Chapter 5 Algebraic Formulae EXERCISES No. No.6. (a) (b) (c) (d) No.2 (a) (b) (c) a variable a constant a constant a variable P = mgh v = u + at 1 A = bh 2 RMy = RMx − 6 p a is the subject of the formula s is the subject of the formula I is the subject of the formula A is the subject of the formula F is the subject of the formula p is the subject of the formula p is not the subject of the formula p is the subject of the formula p is not the subject of the formula l=k–p q = m +d p = m + 2q 2t − 6m n= 3 h − 5k p= 3 e g = +7 f m t = p 2 2 No. (a) (b) (c) (d) No.3.

9 No. 10 No.3 No.1 No.8 No.7 No.4 No.2 No.6 No.SPM Past year’s questions No.5 No. 11 B A D D A A D A C C B Algebraic Formulae 13 .

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