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# Industrial Engineering

Definitions

Failure Density Function f(t)
Definitions

Techniques

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Industrial Engineering

Definitions

Failure Probability F(t)
Definitions

Techniques

F(t) = ∫ f (t)dt

f (t) = dF(t)/dt

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Industrial Engineering Definitions Survival Probability or Reliability Definitions R(t) =1− F(t) Techniques Examples 3 .

Industrial Engineering Definitions Failure Rate λ( t ) Definitions λ(t)=f(t)/R(t) Techniques Examples 4 .

Industrial Engineering Definitions MTTF Definitions (Mean Time to Failure) the lifetime of a non-repairable system MTTFF (mean time to first failure) Techniques MTBF (mean time between failure) Examples 5 .

Industrial Engineering Definitions Definitions Techniques Examples 6 .

Industrial Engineering Analysis Techniques Failure function curves of the normal distribution Definitions Techniques Examples 7 .

Industrial Engineering Analysis Techniques Failure function curves of the normal distribution Definitions Techniques Examples 8 .

) > 0 μ: Location parameter μ = tm = tmedian = tmode σ: scale measurement > 0 9 . number of operations.. ..Industrial Engineering Analysis Techniques Equations for the normal distribution Definitions Techniques Examples Parameters: t: Statistical variables (load time. load cycle.

Industrial Engineering Analysis Techniques Equations for the exponential distribution Definitions λ = 1/tm Techniques tm is MTTF Examples 10 .

Industrial Engineering Analysis Techniques Equations for the exponential distribution Definitions Techniques Examples 11 .

) > 0 λ : Location of shape parameter λ = 1/tm > 0 12 . load cycle... .Industrial Engineering Analysis Techniques Equations for the exponential distribution Definitions Techniques Examples Parameters: t: Statistical variables (load time. number of operations.

300 units? Techniques Examples 13 .Industrial Engineering Examples Example: Definitions What is the probability of an item surviving until t = 100 units if the item is exponentially distributed with a mean time between failure of 80 units? Given that the item survived to 200 units. what is the probability of survival until t = 300 units? What is the value of the hazard function at 200 units.

The value of the hazard function is equal to the failure rate and is constant h(t)= 1/80 = 0. 300 units? The probability of survival until t = 100 units is Techniques R(100)  e  100     80   0.2865 R(200) e Examples Note that this is equal to the probability of failure in the interval from t=0 to t=100.125 14 .200)   200/ 80  0.Industrial Engineering Examples Example: Definitions What is the probability of an item surviving until t = 100 units if the item is exponentially distributed with a mean time between failure of 80 units? Given that the item survived to 200 units. what is the probability of survival until t = 300 units? What is the value of the hazard function at 200 units.2865 The probability of survival until t = 300 units given survival until t = 200 units is R(300) e 300/ 80 R(300.

Industrial Engineering Examples Example: Definitions The lifetime (in hours) of an electrical component can be described by the exponential distribution f (t) = λ⋅ exp(−λ⋅t) t ≥ 0. How long. can the component survive with exactly 90% safety and which range of time can the component survive with at least 90% safety? 5. λ =1/(500h) . What is the probability that the component does not fail before the time t1 = 2. 1. t5. What is the probability that the component fails between the times t3 = 200 h and t4 = 300 h? 4. What is the probability that the component fails before t2 = 100 h? 3. What value must the parameter λ have for a lifetime distribution where the probability is 90% so that the lifetime of a component is at least 50 h? 200 h? Techniques Examples 15 .

Industrial Engineering Examples Definitions Techniques Examples 16 .

Industrial Engineering Examples Definitions Techniques Examples 17 .

The probability that this device will fail before 100 days of running time The probability that this device will last for more than 80 days The probability that this device will not run for 40 days before failing The probability that this device will fail before the 10 days that follow the first 100 days of running time 5. has failure rate of 0. 3. 4.Industrial Engineering Examples Example: Definitions In a factory.008 failures per day. a device that works effectively as good as new during its operating life. The probability that this device will fail during the 10 days that follow the first 100 days of running time Techniques Examples 18 . find the following: 1. If the probability of failure for this device is independent of running time. The probability that this device will fail after 50 days of working and before 100 days of running time 7. 2. The probability that this device will last for more than 60 days and less than 120 days 6.

Industrial Engineering Examples Example: Definitions The reliability of a technical component is given by the equation: R(t) = exp(− (λ·t)2 ) for t ≥ Techniques Calculate the failure density. the failure probability and the failure rate. Show the results graphically Examples 19 .

Show the results graphically Examples 20 . the failure probability and the failure rate.Industrial Engineering Examples Example: Definitions The reliability of a technical component is given by the equation: R(t) = exp(− (λ·t)2 ) for t ≥ Techniques Calculate the failure density.

0005 Techniques Calculate the hazard rate and the motor MTTF. Examples 21 .Industrial Engineering Examples Example: Definitions An electrical meter times to failure are described by the following probability density function: ƒ(t) = λ exp (-λt) Where: λ = 0.

0004 Techniques Calculate the failure rate and the device MTTF.Industrial Engineering Examples Example: Definitions A mechanical device times to failure are described by the following probability density function: ƒ(t) = 2λ e Where: λ (-2λt) = 0. Examples 22 .

Find the following: 1. It tends to fail at mean operating age of 200 days.Industrial Engineering Examples Example: Definitions Techniques An item shows a marked wear-out failure pattern. The probability that this item will last for more than 160 days and less than 300days 2. The dispersion from the mean that is associated with the times to failure of this item is 40 days measured as standard deviation. The probability that this item will fail in the first 20 days after 300 of successful working days Examples 23 .