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ANSWERS FOR LEXICOLOGY..............................................................................................2 PART A. THEORY.........................................................................................................................2 Q.1. What are lexicology, word and vocabulary?.......................................................................2 Q.2. State the origin of English words?.......................................................................................2 Q.3. What is the assimilation of borrowings?.............................................................................3 Q.4. Classify borrowed words according to the degree of assimilation?....................................3 Q.5. What is morpheme? Classify morphemes?.........................................................................3 Q.6. What’s allomorph? State the kind of allomorph? Classify the morphological conditioned allomorph?....................................................................................................................................4 Q.7. What is compound? Classify English compounds?.............................................................5 Q.8. What is clipping? State the kinds of clipping?....................................................................6 Q.9. What is conversion? State the semantic relationship in conversion?..................................6 Q.10. What is meaning?...............................................................................................................7 Q.11. Lexical meaning of the word?..........................................................................................7 Q.12. What is metaphor? Types of metaphor?............................................................................7 Q.13. What is metonymy? Types of metonymy?........................................................................7 Q.14. What is homonym? Classify homonym? State the origin of homonym?.........................8 Q.15. What is synonym? What are the criteria of synonym? State the types of synonym?.....10 Q.16. What are the types of connotation?.................................................................................10 Q.17. What is euphemism? State the reasons for euphemism?.................................................11 Q.18. What is antonym? What are the types of antonym?........................................................11 Q.19. What are the main characteristics of Phraseological units (Pus)? How can PUs can be distinguished from Free word groups (FWGs)?........................................................................12 Q.20. Principles of classification of PUs?.................................................................................13 Q.21. Structural classification of PUs?......................................................................................13 PART B. EXERCISES..................................................................................................................14 CHAPTER I. FUNDAMENTALS............................................................................................14 CHAPTER II. THE ETYMOLOGY OF ENGLISH WORDS.................................................15 CHAPTER III. MORPHEME STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH WORDS...................................16 CHAPTER IV. WORD – BUILDING......................................................................................17 CHAPTER V. SEMANTICS – MEANING.............................................................................24 CHAPTER VI. HOMONYMS..................................................................................................25 CHAPTER VII. SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS................................................................26 CHAPTER VIII. SET EXPRESSION - PHRASEOLOGY......................................................28




PART A. THEORY Q.1. What are lexicology, word and vocabulary? - Lexicology is a branch of linguistics dealing with the vocabulary of language and the properties of words as the main units of language. - Word is the term used to denote the basic unit of a given language resulting from the association of particular meaning with a particular group of sounds capable of a particular grammatical employment. - Vocabulary is the term used to denote the system formed by the sum total of all the words that the language processes

Q.2. State the origin of English words? 2.1. Native words: - Definition: Native words are words belonging to original English - Native words are sub-divided into 3 groups: + Indo-European element: are words having cognate (same origin) in the vocabulary of different Indo-European languages. Eg. Father, mother, brother, son, daughter, foot, heart, cow, day, night, sun, moon, star, sheep, wolf, man, two, three, tree, etc. + Germanic element: are words of roots common to all or most Germanic languages. Eg. Head, arm, bear, oak, rain, winter, spring, sea, land, house, boat, green, blue, earth, little, strong, long, etc. + English proper: are words having no cognates in other languages. Eg. Bird, boy, girl, lady, woman, lord, apple, dog, bread, etc. 2.1. Borrowed words (borrowing / loan words): - Definition: Borrowed words are those taken from other languages and modified in phonetic shape, graphic, morphological…according to standards of the English language. - Borrowed words can be taken from various languages such as: Latin, French, Russian, Greek, Spanish, etc. Eg. + Latin: butter, plum, beef… + Spanish: tomato, potato… + French: desire, adore, baron, count… 2.3. International words: - International words are words of identical origin that occurs in several languages as a result of simultaneous and successive borrowing from one ultimate source: Football, email, internet.



Q.3. What is the assimilation of borrowings? The term assimilation of loan words is used to denote a partial or total conformation to the phonetical, graphical and morphological standards of the receiving language and its semantic system.

Q.4. Classify borrowed words according to the degree of assimilation? According to degree of assimilation, borrowed words can be classified into: completely assimilated words, partially assimilated words and unassimilated words. - Completely assimilated words are found in all the layers of older borrowings. Eg. + Latin: cheese, street, wall, wine… + Scandinavian: husband, fellow, gate, root, wing… + French: table, chair, face… - Partially assimilated words are aub-divided into 4 subgroups: + Loan words not assimilated semantically: denote the objects, notion of country they’re from Eg. Kimono (Japanese), rickshaw (Chinese) + Loan words not assimilated grammatically: Eg. Formula – formulae; index – indice; phenomenon – phenomena (plural form is kept constant). + Loan words not completely assimilated phonetically: Eg. ma’chine, car’toon, po’lice (stress / accent is kept on original syllabe) + Loan words not completely assimilated graphically: Eg. Café, cliché (keep a diacritical mark) - Unassimilated words / barbarisms: are words from other langusges used by English people in conversation or writing, but not assoimilated in any way. (additional) Eg. ciao (Italian) – ‘good bye’

Q.5. What is morpheme? Classify morphemes? - Definition: Morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of a given language. - Classification: 5.1. According to its function: - Grammatical morphemes: show how the words can be combined with other, how it is changed. They are funtional words. Eg. books Eg. books

“-s” is grammatical morpheme “book” is lexical morpheme 3

- Lexical morphemes: are content words.

booked “book” – free morpheme. /iz/ . hoanguyen 4 .Find the root. Kinds of allomorph: . can only be added to other words to form new forms of word or new words. Eg. translation . 5. Q. An allomorph is a structure which is similar semantically but phonologically different. Eg. To divide. are sub-divided into inflectional and derivational morphemes. we can make successful division into parts.2. booked… + Derivational morpheme is used to add to the root to form new word.3. translated. IC – Immediate Constituent division: Each hierarchy is the layer or structure by which a word has been composed.4. + Inflectional morpheme is used to add to the root to form new form.Find inflectional morpheme . happy (base) – happiness Free base can stand by itself while bound base must be preceded by prefix or followed by suffix.1. Eg.6. Base is the morpheme which carries the principle meaning in the word and to which a suffix or prefix can be added.Root (base): can stand alone as independent word.are allomorph of {s} 6. “-ed” – bound morpheme 5.Bound morpheme: can’t stand alone as independent words. Eg. we must: . According to its distribution: . According to word-buiding: . Eg.Affixes can’t stand alone as independent words.2. /s/.Find derivational morpheme .Free morphemes: can stand alone as independent words .Phonologically conditioned allomorph (PCA): a morpheme is phonologically conditioned when its distribution depends on the phonological nature of the preceding phoneme. What’s allomorph? State the kind of allomorph? Classify the morphological conditioned allomorph? 6. /z/.IWBK 5. Definition: Allomorphs are various phonemic shapes that represent the same morpheme. each of which called IC and this division is called IC division.

blackboard.Compounds of simple stems.Morphologically conditioned allomorph (MCA): a morpheme is morphologically conditioned when it is determined by a specific morpheme. blackbird. lady-in-waiting. . Eg. Eg. handiwork… . According to semantic aspect: idiomatic and non-idiomatic . lady-killer. sheep – sheep of {…} φ of {-s} . Eg. film-star. Eg. 6. According to IC: . tallboy.Additive allomorph: {-s}  ∞ /↔n/ Eg.Neutral compounds: + Simple nautral compounds: consist of simple affixless stems. windshield… + Derivational compounds: one constituent is derivational stem. spokesman. Eg.2. H-bomb.Zero allomorph: no change in writing – symbol φ Eg.Syntactic compounds: mother-in-law. Eg. Classify MCA: .7. . reasinglamp.Idiomatic compounds: whose meaning do not correspond to the separate meanings of their constituent parts.Composition or word compound is the combination of at least 2 free bases.Peplacive allomorph: + Vowel: v  v + Consonant: c  c Eg. According to the structural aspect: neutral.IWBK . handicraft. What is compound? Classify English compounds? . earthquake… . morpgologicall and syntactic. butter-finger… 7.Non-idiomatic compounds: whose meaning can really be described as the sum of their constituent meanings. man – men Eg. Eg. ladybird.Classification: 7. bedroom.1.3.Morphorlogical compounds: stems are linked by a vowel or a consonant. tooth – teeth /æ/  /e/ /ð/  /θ/ Q. air-conditioner. good-for-nothing… 7. lazybone.3. U-turn… . windshield… hoanguyen 5 . V-day. chainsmoker… + Neutral contracted compounds: one constituent is clipped stem. child – children .

V – denoted action performed by it.9. advertisement  ad. + N – name of part of human body. Eg. comb – to comb. Eg. dog – to dog. eye – to eye. refridgerator  fridge… + Medial clipping: retains the initial and final parts of the word (the medial part is cut).IWBK . bank-robber… . H-bag. cook – to cook. Eg. leaving a part to stand for the word.Semantic relationship: + N – name of tool or implement. Eg.Compounds which at least one constituent is clipped stem. Eg. Eg. D-day… . mathematics  maths. laboratory  lab… + Inito-final clipping: retains the medial part of the word (the initial and final parts are cut). head – to head. nurse – to nurse… + N – name of place. wastepaper-basket… Q. spectacles  specs… Q.Compounds which at least one constituent is compound stem.Conversion is the process by which a word is extended its grammatical function. What is clipping? State the kinds of clipping? . What is conversion? State the semantic relationship in conversion? . leg – to leg… + N – name of a profession of occupation. table – to table… hoanguyen 6 . violoncello  cello… + Final clipping: retains the initial part of the word (the final part is cut). Eg. V – denotes action performed by it. ape – to ape… (except: fish – to fish _try to catch fish). book (n) – to book (v) . Eg. telephone  phone.Kinds of clipping: + Initial clipping: retains the final part of the word (the initial part is cut). Eg. V – denotes action or aspect of behaviour considered typical of it. brush – to brush… + N – name of animal. examination  exam. Eg. chainsmoker. Eg. Eg.Clipping is the cutting-off the beginning or the end of the word or both. .8. V – denotes an activity typical of it. Eg. room – to room. hammer – to hammer.Compounds which at least one constituent is derived stem. influenza  flu. V – the process of occupying it or put sb/sth into it.

IWBK + N – name of container. The notion content of the word is expressed by the denitative meaning and the emotional content of the word is expressed by the connotative meaning. Eg. It is a shift of names between things that are known to be in some way or other connected in reality. Eg. temporal. a fox… + Transition of proper name into common one. V – the act of putting sth within the container. causal. Lexical meaning of the word? Lexical meaning of a word is the relization of the notion by mean of the definite language system. The transfer may be conditioned by spatial. Q. bottle – to bottle… + N – name of meal. can – to can. chair hoanguyen means chairman 7 .Types of metonymy: + Spatial relations: the name of place is used for the people occupying it.12. the key to a mystery… + Similarity of position. Eg. head of cabbage. a bookworm. What is meaning? Meaning can be more or less described as a component of the word through which a concept is communicated. Eg. Q. Vandal… Q.11. Eg.Types of metaphor: + Similarity of shape or function. V – the process of making it. What is metaphor? Types of metaphor? . instrumental.Metonymy is the transfer based upon the association of contiguity. Don Juan. Eg. . What is metonymy? Types of metonymy? . symbolic. lunch – to lunch… Q.13.10. functional and other relations. foot of mountain… + Similarity of behaviour. foot of a page.Metaphor is the transfer of name basedon the association of similarity and thus is actually a hidden comparison. Eg. .

Eg. nickel… + Functional change: the shift is between names of things substituting one another inhuman practice. What is homonym? Classify homonym? State the origin of homonym? 14. youth.According to the sound: (sound form) + Homonym proper: same sound and spelling. named after the inventor.14. glass.2. Eg. Eg. hand for handwriting  Material for particular article. wellingtons. Definition: Two or more words identical in sound and spelling but different in meaning. the White House.IWBK + Causal relations:  State or properties serves as names for objects and people possessing them. Eg. volt. Eg. to start. but different meaning. 14. diesel…  Physical. Eg.  Common name derived from proper one. kill (O. Classification: . the Pentagon. Eg. china. to frown… + Symbolic relation:  Instrument for the product. farad…  Name of establishment is used not only for the establishment itself but also its staff or the policy. Eg. back (adv) – back (v) hoanguyen 8 . forces…  Name of action serves to name result of the action. macadam. CK… Q. bikini. distribution and (in many cases) origin are called homonym. Eg. Eg. iron. technical units are named after great scientists. mackintosh. ohm. watt. the Downing Street…  Geographical names used for goods originating where there are axceedingly numerous.1.E – means ‘hit on the head’)  Emotion may be named by movements that accompanied them. authoritied. boston…  Garments came to be known by the name of those who brought them into fashion. ampare. Eg.

row (n) /r↔Υ / .Homonyms developed from polysemy through devergent sense development. but different spelling and meaning.According to lexico-grammatical criteria: + Full homonym: same sound. but different meaning. spelling and part of speech. but different meaning. rose (n) – rose (v)_past tense of rise  Partial-lexical homonym: same sound. found (v): PP of ‘to find’ to found: to build. Eg.3. + Phonetic change combined with loss of affixes. match (n): in ‘football match’ and ‘matchbox’ spring (n): wound wire device and first season of the year + Partial homonym:  Simple lexico-grammatical homonym: same sound. .It may consist of: + Phonetic change.row (v) /raΥ /.IWBK + Homophone: same sound. but different sound and meaning. Origin of homonym:  Convergent development of sound form: . by – buy – bye + Homograph: same spelling. spelling and part of speech. lead (n) /led/ . to establish  Complex lexico-grammatical homonym: same sound and spelling. Eg.It may be: + Limited within lexico-grammatical class of words. Eg. Eg. + Independent formation from homonymous bases by means of homonymous morpheme. . to lie – lay – laid to lie – lied – lied 14.  Devergent semantic development: . spelling and grammatical function (part of speech). but different meaning and change in part of speech. Eg. but different part of speech and meaning.Homonyms through convergent sound development when 2 or 3 words of different origins accidently concide in sound. Eg.lead (v) /li:d/ hoanguyen 9 . both may be combined with loss of ending and other morphorlogical process. .

IWBK + Combined with differences in lexico-grammatical class and therefore different in grammatical function and distribution. shades of meaning. style. + Notional criterion: synonyms convey the same notion but different shade of meaning or stylistic charateristic.The connotation of degree or intensity.The connotation of duration. Eg. + Based on independent formation from the same base by homonymous morpheme. + Contextual synonym: is similar in meaning only under some specific distributional conditions. Eg. only ‘noun’ can total replaces ‘substantive’. Eg. but differing in morphemic composition. to stare: quick look – to glance: longer look . valency and idiomatic use. Eg. famous. + Substitution: only in some contexts. to buy ticket ≈ to get ticket. daddy (emotion) – father. without any considerable alteration in denotational meaning. What is synonym? What are the criteria of synonym? State the types of synonym? .16. celebrate – positive meaning hoanguyen 10 .Definition: Synonym can be defined as 2 or more words of the same language. Q. What are the types of connotation? . mum (emotion) – mother . Q. This is rare in vocabulary. Eg. connotation.Evaluative connotation. to surprise – to astonish – to amaze – to astound to like – to admire – to love – to adore – to worship .15.Types of synonyms: + Absolute (total) synnonym: the member of synonymic group can replace each other in any given context without any alteration in denotational meaning. Eg. interchangeable. belonging to the same part of speech and possessing one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meaning. . . and in others the substitution may destroy the precision. affective value. well-known. phonemic shape. at least in some contexts.Emotive connotation.Criteria of synonym: + Interchangeability: only in some contexts synonym can be changed without any alteration in denotational meaning.

What is antonym? What are the types of antonym? . . Eg. hoanguyen 11 .Definition: A source of synonyms from social linguistics is euphemism in which by a shift of meaning. pretty: delicate feature beautiful: classical feature .Causative connotation.B – antonyms. mad – described as – unbalanced. Eg.18. obsence.Types of antonyms: + Absolute antonyms: formulae (A. snap (dialect). What is euphemism? State the reasons for euphemism? .Y – the words they serve to qualify respectively). Eg. The antonyms are used to increase the positive or nagative aspect.Connotation of attendant circumstances. Devil – replaced by – the Prince of Darkness. to shiver: to shake (with cold) – to shudder (with fear) . a word of more or less pleasant or at leasr inoffensive connotation substitutes one harsh. Eg. associated and use together so that their denotative meanings render (form) contrary or contradictory notions. indelicate or unleasant. refreshment (formal) Kid (slang). snack. bite (colloqual). to die is replaced by – to pass away + Religious taboos: eg. Old Nick + For mental diseases: eg. X.IWBK notorious – negative meaning .Reasons for euphemism: + To avoid social taboos: eg.Connotation of manner. in the family way (pregnant). + To avoid getting hurt someone’s feeling: eg. insane. . Eg. child (neutral).Connotation of attendant feature. .Stylistic connotation. secretary (through a small opening) to peer: to look at sth carefully when it is unable to see well . infant (literature) Q.Antonyms may be defined as 2 or rarely more words of the same language belonging to the same part of speech.17. to stare – to glare – to gaze – to glance – to peep : # ways of looking at sth. to peep: to look at sth quickly. The use and existence of euphemisms are caused by social conventions or by certain psychological factors. identical in style and nearly identical in distribution. Q.

il-.Using PUs with care especially to foreigner to aviod misunderstanding. right or wrong  X is A. + Reatriction in introducing any additional components:  FWGs: such change can be made without affecting the general meaning of the utterance.2. courage – discourage  Suffix “-less”. in-. good and bad. . hopeful – hopeless Q.  A or B.19. eg. the whole is big. 19. Eg. unity is strong. pros and cons eg. ir-. The differnces between the PUs and FWGs: . Charateristics: .Strutural criterion: + Restriction in substitution:  PUs convey single notion. What are the main characteristics of Phraseological units (Pus)? How can PUs can be distinguished from Free word groups (FWGs)? 19.  Negative prefixes: dis-. onself is little + Derivational antonyms: the affixes in them serve to deny the quality stated in stem. . polite – impolite. it is not big but small  Not A but (on the contrary) B. and Y (on the contrary) is B. + Restriction in grammatical invariability:  FWGs: grammar can be changed  PUs: grammar can’t be changed. Eg. hoanguyen 12 . + PUs has double sense (real and imagine). Eg.Double sense: the current mening of constituent words build up certain picture but the atual meaning (hidden one) of the whole unit has little or nothing to do with that picture.1. it can be total or partial change with the meaning of the constituents. un-.IWBK  A and (or) B = all.  PUs: no additional components can be introduced. the total meaning will be changed. the constitution can’t be changed – if they are changed. useful – useless.Semantic criterion: + FWG has one sense meaning which can be total meaning of the constituents expressing in the utterances. it creates an entirely new image. eg. and seperation is weak.  FWGs: the constituents can be changed without any considerable change in total meaning. im-.

to be good at sth + Phraseological unities: are word-groups with a completely changed meaning.Structural principle: + Verbal: eg. green room (the general reception room of a theatre) eg. Structural classification of PUs? . Eg. maiden name.Semantic principle: + Phraseological combinations: are word-group with a partially changed meaning. may be alluded as “thematic”. my god!. but in contrast to unities. ladies’ man eg.Functioning like nouns: N+N  N’s + N  Ns’ + N eg.Functioning like verbs: V+N hoanguyen eg. The whole meaning of the unit can be duduced from its components. brand new. high or low. neck and crop (completely)  N + and + N  Adj + N eg.21. to run for one’s life + Substantive (noun): eg. brain trust eg. Eg. brand new + Adverbial: eg. to take advantage 13 . cat and dog + Adjectival: eg. the day after the fair (miss the chance)  N + preposition + N  N + adj eg.IWBK Q. to stick to one’s gun + Phraseological fusions: are word-groups with a completely changed meaning. Eg. lord and master (husband). their meaning can’t be deduced from the meanings of the constituents. good heavens! Q.Traditional principle: + Based on original content of PUs. safe and sound. calf love. + Has real merit but it does’t take into consideration the linguistic charateristic feature of PUs. .20. cat’s paw (personized) eg. brown study. knight errant eg. the meaning of the unit doesn’t correspond to the meaning of its constituent parts. neck and crop (entirely) . Principles of classification of PUs? . for love or money + Interjectional: eg. the ship that pass in the night  N + subordinate clause .

take your time . What is the external structure (morphological structure) of the word irresistible? What is the internal structure (semantic structure) of this word? The external structure of the word irresistible consists of morphemes: the prefixes ir-. to give up eg. EXERCISES CHAPTER I. and the adjective-forming suffix –ible.means again. of course eg. to kill or cure eg.Functioning like adjectives:  Adj + and + adj  (As) + adj + as + N . god bless you. The word means ‘so strong that it can’t be stopped or resisted’. re-. the root sist. by heart. as old as the hills. to give one the bird ‘to fire smb’ eg.Functioning like adverbs: N+N  Prep + N eg. tooth and nail eg.Funtioning like prepositions: . before one can say jack Robinson eg. in consequence of eg. re. The internal structure of the word: ir. E 5. Explain why the word blackboard can be considered a unity and why the combination of words black board doesn’t possess such a unity? hoanguyen -ible 14 . as mad as hatter eg.Functioning like interjections: _________________________The End_________________________ PART B.means not. to see how the land lies (to discover the state of affairs)  V + subordinate clause . once in a blue moon  Adv + preposition + adj + N  Prep + N + or + N eg. FUNDAMENTALS E 3. to snap one’s fingers at  V + (one’s) + N + (prep)  V + one + N eg.IWBK  V + postpositive  V + and/or + V eg. safe and sound. to pick and choose. by hook or by crook  Conj + clause  Prep + N + prep eg. high and mighty eg. means capable. sist meaningless.

1. lip – labial. wolf. long. for. In the word-group black board each constituent can acquire grammatical forms of it own: the blackest board. hospital (L) – hotel (Fr) – hostel (Fr) 4. brother. major (L) – mayor (Fr) 6. strong. three. bread. strong. abbreviate (L) – abridge (Fr) 3. Indo-European father. give. shade (OE) – shadow (OE) 13. screw (Fr) – shrew (OE) Germanic house. senior (L) – sir (Fr) 8. to. sheep. apple. man. little. Explain the origin of the following words: father. house. three. come. earth. cavalry (L) – chivalry (Fr) 5. little. begin. The word blackboard conveys only one concept: a type of board. suit (OE) – suite (Fr) 11. long. cart (Scand) – chart (Fr) 7. cat. begin.All the above words belong to native English origin.Comment on the different formation of the doublets and on the difference in meaning if any. canal (Fr) – channel (E) 10. much. live. well. apple. In the word-group black board. wide. go. sheep. brother. Other words can be inserted between the components which is immpossible so far as the word concerned as would violate its unity: a black wide board. earth. home. THE ETYMOLOGY OF ENGLISH WORDS E 1. fragile (L) – frail (Fr) 9. . for. to. Give adjectives of Latin origin corresponding to the following nouns: eg. cat. home. well. wolf. dike (OE/Ger) – ditch (E) 2. CHAPTER II. . life. quick. but they are divided into such group: English proper dog. legal (L) – loyal (Fr) 12. mother. quick. wide. board – a flat abject. Noun Mouth Eye Tongue Nose hoanguyen Adj Oral Ocular Lingual Nasal Horse Ox Sheep Mother Noun Adj Equine Bovine Ovine Maternal 15 . life. which is characterized by unity. mother. live. dog. man.State the origin of the following doublets .IWBK The word blackboard. The first constituent black is not subjected to any grammatical changes. possess a single grammatical framing: ‘blackboard’. come. E 3. two. each component conveys a separate concept: black – a colour. give. go. E 2. much. skirt (Scand) – shirt (OE) 14. bread. two.

weaver. sheep. deer. Veal. tailor.According to their origins. fish-man. cow. hunt. lord. baron. begin. chase. shepherd. begin. calf. pig. butcher.IWBK Tooth Body Head Ear Hand Sight Mind Life Youth Dental Corporal Capital Auricular manual Visible Mental Vital Juvenile Father Brother Woman Husband House Town Moon Sun Sea Book Paternal Fraternal Feminine Marital Domestic Urban Lunar Solar Marine Literary E 4. mason. painter. beef. French mutton. venison. veal. count CHAPTER III. weaver. MORPHEME STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH WORDS E 1. painter. mutton. cow. . lady. hunt. hunt. sheep. count. baker. pig. shoemaker. Analyze the structure of the following words: eg. baron. venison. commence. butcher. mason. tailor. these words are divided into such groups: Native English and French and Latin English Ox. bacon. bacon.According to their meanings we have such groups: Animal Ox. calf. lord. weaver. calf. Meat Veal. bacon. venison Occupation & title Baker. begin. beef deer. misuse B F Convene B B Recut hoanguyen dislike B F supervise preface B F postwar foresee B F policeman darkroom F F friendship subway B F typist 16 . fish-man. shoemaker. pig. baker. mutton. count. shepherd. lord. shepherd.According to their meanings ox. . painter. cow. lady.According to their origins . butcher. lady Verb Chase. Latin chase. mason. commence. tailor. deer. sheep. baron. fish-man. Classify the following words: . shoemaker. commence.

expression = {ex-} {-press} {-ion} . the base {-respond} is free base. Detachment = {de-} {-tach} {-ment}. eg. subvene Consent = {con-} {-sent}. -ship. the base {-tach} is a bound one.ship: friendship. Affixation E 1. Give examples of nouns with the following suffixes. scholarship . eg. eg. teacher. -or. vendor hoanguyen Productiveness productive productive productive productive productive 17 . the base {-tain} is bound base. convene. the base {-sent} is bound base.ism: criticism. eg. irresponsive Revise = {re-} {-vise}. project Retainer = {re-} {-tain} {-er}. eg. derivation. lawyer . the base {-gress} is bound base. supervise Eject = {e-} {-ject}. -ess. dictionary Telephone = {tele-} {-phone}. State which of the suffixes are productive? -tion. the base {-phone} is bound base. import. terrorism . professor. contain Contradic = {contra-} {-dict}. assent CHAPTER IV. -age Suffixes . the base {-hens}is bound base. eg. the base {-part} is free base. resent. eg. eg. export Correspondent = {cor-} {-respond} {-dent}. eg. freedom . maintain. eg. -ism.dom: kingdom. -ness. the base {-ject} is bound base. eg. eg. inject. station . homophone.tion: nation. -th. the base {-vise} is bound worker.or: actor. pectize Portable = {port-} {-able}. apartment Intervene = {inter-} {-vene}. loneliness . -er. -ing.State whether the base is bound or free and what it means . – Separate word form into its constituent morpheme: Eg. -ist. comprehensive. eg. congress Deceiver = {de-} {-ceiv} {-er}.Give at least two English words containing the same base.IWBK B F Loneliness F B F F B B B F intervene B B F F F B F B assistant E 2. the base {port} is free base. eg. perceive Department = {de-} {-part} {-ment}. 1. the base {-dict} is bound base. the base {-vene} is bound base. the base {-pect} is a bound base.ness: homelessness. predict. comprehensible Regress = {re-} {-gress}. -dom. WORD – BUILDING IV. the base {-ceiv} is bound base. eg. attachment Expectation = {ex} {-pect} {-ation}. headphone Apprehensible = {ap-} {-pre} {-hens} {-ible}. receive.

windy . likewise . condition . sunny. hindrance. reinforcement.ance: state or charater (Latin) . rider. backward. Give adjectives or adverbs with the following suffixes: . village.ard: having the quality 2. device . Borrowing suffixes: .wise: clockwise. hierling. upward .er: denoting agent. advatantage productive productive - E 2. friendship. Native suffixes: .ize: legalize. onward. State the origin and explain the meaning of the suffixes in the following words Childhood. brotherly. teacher.ward: backward. granny.ness: the quality.IWBK . aunty. functioning . civilize. action.long: age-long .ment: action. having quality of .en: lengthen.ess: lioness .y: sleepy.hood: state or quality of .y: full sixth. cloudy.age: leakage. state or charater of .ward: in the direction of . Give verbs with the following suffixes: . slowly E 4. brotherly. limitation.ion: action or process (Latin) . condition . fact .ed: talented.dom: condition or state of .ing: denoting agent. freedom.ship: state or quality of . widen hoanguyen 18 . wedding. windy. impressionist. specialist . process (Latin) E 3. interested . eighth . manly.age: action or result of action (Latin) . residence of. having the quality of . toward. in the way mantioned. industrialize .

introProductive prefixes: Un-: unhappy – unhappily. Form some adjectives from adjective stems by adding the suffix – ish. E 7. mis-. Explain the meaning of the derivatives. Child – childish girl – girlish baby – babyishcat – cattish In this form. post-. Form some adjectives from noun stems by adding the suffix – ish. pre-. modify . re-. anti-. Cool – coolish meaning of the stem. (use antonyms or synonyms to explain) E 6. inter-.fy: clarify. extra-. trans-. for-. up-. ante-. demenstrate E 5. Explain the meaning of the derivatives. counter-.ate: generate.IWBK . activate. super-. polish . a-. testify. publish. suffix –ish is added to the noun to make the adjective have meaning “similar to or behave like”. uneasy – uneasiness – uneasily Be-: beget – begetter Pre-: preheat – preheating Al-: allocate – allocation. almighty – almightily – almightiness Non-: non-productive – non-productiveness Mis-: misunderstand – misunderstanding Post-: postposition – postpositional A-: achromatic – achromatize – achromatism Out-: outfight – outfighting. non-. dis. out-. infra-. al-. under-. ultra-. be-. outfit – outfitter Ex-: ex-service – exserviceman For-: forbidding – forbiddingness Re-: rearrange – rearrangement Up-: upland – uplander Super-: supercharge – supercharger Dis-: disable – disability Trans-: transact – transaction hoanguyen red – reddish yellow – yellowish fool – foolish When suffix –ish is added to adjective stem to make adjective it will add an depreciation to the 19 .ish: poverish. Pick out the productive and non-productive prefixes: Un-. ex-.

under-.IWBK Inter-: interact – interactive – interaction The rest in bold are non-productive prefixes. Identify the neutral compounds in the word combinations given below and write them out in three columns: simple neutral compounds. with-. exNative prefixes: under-. E 7. pre-. Say whether the semantic change within idiomatic compounds is partial or total. over-.To go into frantic U-turns To fix M-day 20 . a-. neutral derived compounds and neutral contracted compounds. mis-. anti-. a-. Simple neutral A car’s windshield A heavy topcoat A snow-white handkerchief A howl long and wolf-like Neutral derived An air-conditioned hall A high pitched voice Thoudsands seekers A lightish-colored man A glass-walled room A radio-equipped car A big hunting-knife hoanguyen Neutral contracted To fight against H-bomb Big A. dis-. trans-. in-. with-. over-. anti.(Latin). Arrange the compounds given below into groups: idiomatic and non-idiomatic.(Greek) IV. in-. co-. Classify the following prefixes according to their origin: Re-.2. Idiomatic Total change Partial change Light-hearted Homebody Butterfly Tallboy Bluestocking Dragonfly Bluebell Free-way Highway Blackberry Lazy-bone Good-for-nothing Non-idiomatic Medium-size Wolf-dog Earthquake Looking-glass Necklace Greengrocer E 2. inter-. co-. pre-. inter-. non-. de-. trans-. non-. Composition – compound E 1. dis-.A. misBorrowing prefixes: re-. ex. de-. guns of gold.

gaslight. butter-woman: N + N. + hot-blooded. motorman. fountain-pen. sharp-eyed. butterfinger: N + N. post-boy. gaslight. total change. butter-fingers.Compare the meaning of the compound with that of its components. mother-ofthousands. stable-boy. light-hearted. red-hot. partial change. ladybird. hair’s breadth. partial change nobleman. + butterball. will-to-live. morphological and syntactic compounds. looking-glass.Comment on the meaning and the form of the following compounds . total change buttermilk. Undertaker. + black-hearted. partial change. bird’s eye. ladybird. sunfish. woodman: N + N. idiomatic. partial change + dustman. mother-in-law. will-tolive. oilman. idiomatic. eagle-eyed. no-longer-young. hair’s breadth. dim-eyed. herdsman. idiomatic. lady-in-waiting. single-eyed. green-eyed (idiomatic. hollow-eyed. mother-in-law. Analyze the structure of the following words: Get-at-table. hoanguyen 21 . undertaker. heart-broken. and they can be divided in to 3 groups according to the structural aspects: neutral. workday. madman: Adj + N. idiomatic. up-to-date. fountain-pen. lady-killer. cruelhearted: Adj + N_ed. non-idiomatic. non-stop-flight. upto-date. batsman. sportsman: N + infix + N. fisherman. pig-headed: Adj + N_ed. stay-at-home. kinsman. statesman. red-hot. sea-coast. mother-of-thousands. no-longer-young. office-incharge. non-stop-flight. cold-hearted. sleepy-eyed: Adj + N_ed. bird’s eye. stay-at-home. cold-blooded. woodened-headed. total change). idiomatic. Neutral compounds Simple Derived Sea-coast. + cross-eyed. lady-love: mixed up. heart-broken. idiomatic. total change. workday looking-glass. These above words are compounds. cowboy. partial change. idiomatic.IWBK E 3. idiomatic. sunfish. + pot-boy. non-idiomatic. butter-fingers # Morphological compounds Syntactic compounds Get-at-table. oarsman. + craftsman. + ladybird. office-in-charge E 4. thick-headed. lion-hearted. penny-a-liner. doughboy: N + N. salesman. round-eyed: Adj + N_ed. chicken-hearted. . wild-eyed. total change. penny-a-liner. idiomatic. postman. milkman. shipman. stony-hearted.

steelhead E 6.IWBK E 5.3. forward-looking IV. -berry. hand-. State the relationships in conversion of the following words: Noun .dress . handbrake Ink-: inkpot. mother tongue. motherland. mother-of-thousands. inkwell Horse-: horsepower. pack job.1. V – the process of occupying the place or of putting sth/ smb in . Form as many compounds as possible. steelGrass-: grassroots. hoanguyen 22 . grasswidow. bedroom -looking: good looking.finger . pack train Steam-: steam engine. V – an action performed by it. N – name of container.shoulder . steel band. businesswoman.woman.boy. horseback. Form as many compounds as possible.. post-boy -room: livingroom. strawberry.ass . pack rat. cowboy. mother-to-be Pack-: pack horse. pack saddle. Try to catch fish N – name of part of the human body. steam jacket Steel-: steelworker. V – act of putting sth within the container N – name of symbol. policeman. horse-tail Mother-: mother-in-law. V – process of making it.cork Verb to ape to ass to duck to fish to eye to finger to shoulder to top to dress to pocket to line to square to star to cork Relationship Nouns are the names of . handball. . using the following stems as their second components: -man. verbs denote typical actions or behaviour. Conversion: E 1. V – action performed by the tool. . bathroom. N – name of tool.3.square .pocket .. businessman. inkpad. chairwoman -boy: pot-boy. horsebean. Words formed by special processes: IV. steam bath. ink-. inkbottle.ape .duck . mother-. steamturbine. pack-. cranberry -woman: policewoman. spokesman -berry: blackberry. horse race. steam-. -looking -man: salesman. handicraft. grasshopper Hand-: handwriting.eye . horse-. horse opera. N – name of place. using the follwing stems as their first component: Grass-.line .

to fish a compliment: means to try to get . . the noun toe – part of body.mike: microphone .to eye a foe: means to watch . Shortening Write out in full the following shortened words. the noun foot – part of body. . . the noun stone – name of tool.fancy: fantasy .to toe a mark: means to make or press .to stone a martyr: means to kill the noun head – part of advertisement . Scientific and Cultural Organizaton .O: Non Commissioned Officer .3. the noun eye – part of body. mind a command: means to notice .UFO: Unidentified Flying Object .H-bomb: Hydrogen bomb .pub: public house .ml: millilitre .to chair a candidate: means to point the noun chair – name of place.UNESCO: United Nations foot a stocking: means to wear . Compare the meaning of the words in the bold type with that of the corresponding nouns. Define the type of shortening. . the noun fish – name of head an army: means to lead .UNO: United Nations Organizartion .lab: laboratory .USSR: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics .2. the noun table – name of place.IWBK E 2.TEFL: Teaching (of) English as a Foreign Language .to dress a wound: means to cover or wear the noun dress – name of container.UEFA: Union of European Football Associations acronym shortening spoken language final clipping acronym acronym acronym acronym acronym acronym ellipsis final clipping contraction – rhythm initial abbreviation initial abbreviation acronym acronym acronym (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) hoanguyen 23 .FIFA: International Football Association . the noun mind – part of body.V-day: Victory day .USA: United Nations of America .to table a resolution: means to discuss .

. blooming health. . . .sandwich.He is the hope of family: states and properties serve as names for objects and people possessing them. E 2. Comment on the type and meaning of the following cases of metonymy: .a blooming rose. SEMANTICS – MEANING V. champagne. fruitful work.cheviot. like a bull in a china shop? .a fading or faded flower. we mean he/she is a cunning or smart one and if we say someone like a bull in a china shop we imply that he/she is a very careless person who always break every thing. .a green bush.When we say a person like a fox.IWBK CHAPTER V. What do we mean when we say a person is: Like a fox.the coffee pot is boiling: symbol for thing symbolized – instrument for the product. seeds of evil.My sister is fond of old china: geographical name is used for goods originating from place where they are exceedingly numerous. . Havana: geographical name is used for goods originating from place where they are exceedingly numerous.She was the pride of her school: states and properties serve as names for objects and people possessing them. . green with envy. E 2. bordeaux.I have never read Balzac in the original: common name derived from proper name.seeds of a plant. V.a fruitful tree. a fruitless effort.the root of a tree. hooligan: thing known by the name of person who brought it to public/fashion. Metaphor E 1. a green apple. hoanguyen 24 .a fruitless tree.1. the root of a word. Metonymy E 1. . madeira. a green man. fading or faded beauty.2. boycott. . . . Pick out the metaphors from the following word combinations: . Discuss the following cases of metonymy: . mackintosh.

band: a company of musician . HOMONYMS E bore: to make a long round hole . Explain meaning in English. scent /sent/: bow /baΥ /: to bend the head of the body bow /b↔Υ /: looped knot . .sum /sΛm/: total some /sΛm/: several. right /rait/: true.ear: part of human body . horny thickening of the skin. esp. correct. son /sΛn/: boy in relation with parents.IWBK CHAPTER VI. Find the homophones to the following tear /tзr/: to pull apart by force tear /ti↔/: single drop of fluid from eyes hoanguyen 25 .sun /sΛn/: star around which earth revolves . meet /mi:t/: to see another. .ray: a kind of fish band: a thin flat strip of cloth seal: close ear: plant part containing grain cut: change scene bore: to make somebody uninterested corn: a type of cereal . Find the homographs to the following words and transcribe both . E 3. hair /he(r)/: strands growing on the head or body.wind /wind/: air in motion wind /waind/: wrap sth with coil .corn: a hard.fall: the act of falling .meat /mi:t/: edible animal flesh . night /nait/: daily period of darkness.tale /teil/: story . die /dai/: stop living.cut: the result of cutting . .steel /sti:l/: an alloy of iron and carbon .cent /sent/: common unit of currency .hare /he(r)/: mammal like rabbit .seal: a warm-blooded fish-eating animal .heir /e(r)/: person entiled to propertyair /e(r)/: mixture of oxygen and nitrogen surrounding the earth.knight /nait/: honoured military man (hist) . Find the homonyms proper for the following words: .to hail: to greet . .draw: something that attracts attention E 2. perfume.sight /sait/: seeing tail /teil/: rear part of animal body. on the foot hail: pellets of ice fall: autumn – the 3rd season in the year ray: single line or narrow beam of light draw: finish with equal score (sports). steal /sti:l/: to take sth illegally.dye /dai/: substance used to change color of hair or cloth . .write /rait/: put words on paper with pen site /sait/: place.

surprise. annoy . frightened. delight .excuse. naughty. penetrate . scream. barbarous . consternation .happiness. terrified .cry.salvage. approve. ignorant. wish .malicious. pretty.exact. despair.irritate.ask. capability. consent .astonishment. recollect . beautiful . disguise . beg . conceal. implore. SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS VII. misinformed . disaster. nimble. keen. able. talent hoanguyen ask  beg  implore wish  desire  longing fade  wither  decay pretty  handsome / beautiful annoy  irritate penetrate  pierce fightened  alarmed  terrified pleasure  happiness  delight sadness  dispare  affiction surprise  astonishment  consternation excuse  pardon  forgive misfortune  accident  disaster naughty  nasty  malicious  wicked capability  talent  genius. forgive . desire.agree. precise. nasty.handsome. alert. illiterate.alarmed. uncivilized.pierce. fade . active E 2.uneducated. 26 . Synonyms E 1. find the synonymic dominant: . intelligent. sharp . sadness .hide.IWBK . quick.recall. weep. heavy animal bear /be↔/: to carry.affiction.row /r↔Υ /: number of person or things in a line to row /raΥ /: noisy quarrel. pleasure.clever.1. CHAPTER VII. pardon. accurate . bring .to dessert /diz∈ :t/: to go away from a person or place desert /dez↔t/: arid area .genius. Arrange the following synonyms according to their degree of intensity: .wither. wicked .accident. decay.longing. sheirk . misfortune . In the following groups of synonyms.bear /bi↔/: a large. brisk.agile.

sufficent. convinent. ugly. wrong Expensive – inexpensive. like (adj). Alert. artless. appearance. painful. aware. use (n). careful – careless). alive. Antonyms E 1. safety. absolute antonyms (eg. Arrange them in three columns: derivational antonyms (eg. related.2. relative. Just – unjust Justice – injustice Use (v) – misuse Use (n) – disuse Fortunate – unfortunate Fortune – misfortune Grateful – ungrateful hoanguyen Absolute antonyms Discord – accord Alive – dead Ugly – beautiful Assist – hinder Courage – cowardice Safety – danger Preceding – following Hostile – friendly Wet – dry Enemy – friend Temporary – permanent Lower – higher Mixed antonyms Aware – unaware. assist. continue. cruel Painful – painless. frequent. Derivational antonyms Artless – artful Appearance – disappearance Attentive . enemy. encourage. stop Correct – incorrect. fortunate. lovely. consistent. Give antonyms to the following words. pleasant Like (v) – dislike Like (adj) – anlike Lovely – unlovely Movable – immovable Moved – unmoved Related – unrelated Relative . legal. discord. hostile. grateful. attentive. slow – fast) and mixed (eg. wrong). correct. correct – incorrect. cheap Faithful – faithless. temporary. use (v). disloyal Kind – unkind. competent. Give derivational antonyms to the following words: Just.irrelative 27 . faithful. moved. distinct. fortune. justice. movable. descend. normal. like (v).inattentive Arrange – disarrange Descend – ascend Consistent – inconsistent Convenient – inconvenient Competent – incompetent Sufficent – insufficent Frequent – infrequent Distinct – indistinct Legal – illegal Normal – abnormal Encourage . preceding. wet. ignorant Continue – discontinue.IWBK VII. kind.discourage E 2. expensive. lower. arrange. courage.

1. To give somebody a piece of one’s mind. Đâm lao thì phải theo lao / Đã trót thì trét. Mỡ để miệng mèo. It is the last straw that breaks the camel’s back. Được ăn cả ngã về không. Funtcion like noun. Diệt cỏ diệt tận gốc / Nhổ cỏ nhổ cả gốc. Chim phải đạn sợ làn cây cong. To set the Thames on fire. To let no grass grow under one’s feet. V + one’s + N + preposition. Function like verb. Function like verb. 17. A stitch in times saves nine.PHRASEOLOGY E 1. N + preposition + N. Function like verb. Mặc áo cà sa không hẳn đã là sư. V + postpositve. N + that/ subordinate clause. Function like verb. V + N. Sentence. Sentence. Function like verb. 12. V + N + preposition. Đánh chết cái nết không chừa 3. Kinh thiên động địa / Bán trời không văn tự. 9. Function like noun. Lợi bất cập hại / Thu không đủ chi. Function like verb. Function like Adj. 14. To have a finger in the pie. xấu xa đậy lại. Sentence. Đẹp tốt phô ra. 10. V + postpositive. Già néo đứt dây. As + adj + as + N. 7. A skeleton in the cupboard. Mắng cho một trận / Thẳng thắn phê bình. 6. Analyze the structure of the following phraseological units. It is not the grey coat that makes the gentleman. As well be hung for a sheep as for a lamb. 16. Function like verb. Liều lĩnh / Dễ gây sứt mẻ. 15. Sentence. 8. hoanguyen 28 . To bring water to someone’s mouth. SET EXPRESSION . V + N. He who would catch fish must not mind getting wet. V + N + preposition. To skate on thin ice. Funtion like noun. Function like verb. The game is not worth the candle. V + N. Can the loepard change his spots? Sentence. To put all one’s eggs in one basket. Burnt child dreads the fire. Mò kim đáy bể.IWBK CHAPTER VIII. 13. Muốn ăn thì lăn vào bếp. Dây máu ăn phần. N + that clause. 11. Give Vietnamese equivalents. 5. Đừng để nước đến chan mới nhảy. 4. To look for a needle in a bottle of hay. 2.

Tốt gỗ hơn tốt nước sơn / Cái nết đánh chết cái đẹp. Funtion like verb. N + preposition + N. Preposition + N. 20. Chột làm vua sứ mù 28. 19. A game that two can play. hoanguyen 29 . Đứng mũi chịu sào. N + preposition + N. Để lộ bí mật / Cái kim trong bọc lâu ngày cũng lòi ra / Giấu đầu hở đuôi. Funtion like verb. (In the kingdom of the blind. Sướng từ trong trứng nước. Có chí thì nên / Có công mài sắt có ngày nên kim.IWBK 18. V + N + preposition. Sentence. two can play at that game. Beauty is only the skin deep. 23. Necessity is the mother of invention. Tiến thoái lưỡng nan. A big fish in little pond. 25. On the horns of dilemma. 32. V + N. 33. To be born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth. V + N + preposition. To let the cat out of the bag. Like fish out of water. 35. Function like verb. The devil looks after his own. 24. Thua keo này bày keo khác. Function like verb. Tiết lộ bí mật. Mèo mù vớ cá rán. Phải một cái thì vái đến già. V + N. Ở hiền gặp lành. 27. 31. Function like adj. 22. one-eyed man is the king) Sentence. 29. Sentence. there is a way. Like a cat on hot bricks. Once bitten twice shy. Sentence. Better luck next time. One good turn deserves another. Sentence. To take the bull by the horns. Function like noun. Bồn chồn / Lo lắng / Như ngồi trên đống lửa. 26. The worm will turn. Where there is a will. Sentence. A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. Sentence. Sentence. Sentence. Gậy ông đập lưng ông. 30. 21. 34. Cái khó ló cái khôn. Adj + N. Như cá mắc cạn / Chim chích vào rừng. Chớ thả mồi bắt bóng. Give the game away. Function like noun. Function like adj.

39. Partial change. Ba cây chụm lại nên hòn núi cao . To beat about the bush. 5. 4. 9. 42. hoanguyen 30 .IWBK Sentence. Con giun xéo mãi cũng quằn. Partial change. 2. Đàn gảy tai trâu. To talk of the devil and he will appear. Heap coals of fire on somebody’s head. Function like noun. Complete change. 6. Nhắc tới Tào Tháo thì Tào Tháo đến. Partial change. Một cây làm chẳng nên non. Nhàn cư vi bất thiện. Ngậm bồ hòn làm ngọt / Nếm mật nằm gai. 36. Đục nước béo cò / Thừa nước đục thả câu. To throw cold water on smb. To stick to one’s gun. Sentence. Đổ thêm dầu vào lửa. Partial change. To be in the same boat. To eat humber pie. Complete change. 41. Go on a fool’s errand. Lấy oán trả ơn / Gắp lửa bỏ tay người. Explain whether the semantic change in the following phraseological units are complete or partial. Tuỳ cơ ứng biến 37. Function like verb. Sentence. The devil makes work for idle hands. Two heads are better than one. Function like verb. Lắm thầy nhiều ma / Lắm sãi không ai đóng cửa chùa. Dội gáo nước lạnh. Complete change. 38. Too many cooks spoil the broth. Fish in trouble water. Function like verb. 40. V + postpositive. Play it by ear. V + N. 3. Partial change. 8. Cast pearls before swine. Cùng hội cùng thuyền. 7. 1. Giữ vững lập trường. Có tiếng mà không có miếng. Nói cho ma nghe. V + N. Vòng vo tam quốc. Sentence. Tell it to the marine. To pour oil on fire. E 2. N + preposition + N. Partial change.

Bút sa gà chết. a bird in hand A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. 4. 8. 2. 1. (Sắc như dao) As surly as a bear. spilt milk It’s no use crying over spilt milk. the cap If the cap fits. 9. a bear. the die The die is cast. 3. nails. as dull as… 2. as silent as… 6. Thôi đừng tiếc rẻ con gà quạ tha. (Kín như bưng / Lặng như tờ) As deaf as a post. as mute as… 8. brass. bee. wear it. (Nhạt như nước ốc) As fit as a fiddle. fish. 5. using words from the list below. Vẹn cả đôi đường. thieves. gun. between the cup and the lip There is a many slips between the cup and the lip. (Khoẻ như vâm) As sharp as a needle. the early bird The early bird catches the worm. as fit as… 3. Partial change. 1. (Câm như hến) As clear as day. (Gắt như mắm tôm) As silent as grave. as clear as… hoanguyen As dull as a ditch-water. Một mũi tên trúng hai đích. Trâu chậm uống nước đục. Like father. Nhàn cư vi bất thiện. Miếng ăn đến miệng còn rơi mất. E 4. like son. needle. the devil makes work The devil makes work for idle hands. as surly as… 5. (Điếc đặc điếc lòi) As mute as a fish. there’s no fool There’s no fool like an old fool. as sharp as… 4. 7. E 3. a ditch-water. grave. Complete the following similes. day. Chớ thả mồi bắt bóng. 6. Chẳng có cái dại nào như cái dại nào. as deaf as… 7. Complete the following phrases so that they make English proverbs and phraseological units. a post. to eat one’s cake To eat one’s cake and have it. kill two birds Kill two birds with one stones. (Rõ như ban ngày) 31 . fiddles. egg.IWBK 10. bat. Cha nào con nấy. 10. Có tật giật mình.

6. Out of the frying pan into the fire. as bold as… 14. To take care of : to look after. Translate the following proverbs and idioms into English: 1. Diamond cuts diamond / To set a thief to catch a thief. 4. To have words with smb: quarrel with smb. To lose one’s heart to smb: to fall in love with smb.IWBK 9. (Chật như nêm) E 5. 2. # 1. A woft in a sheep’s clothing. Trứng lại đòi khôn hơn vịt. E 6. Khẩu phật tâm xà. Ins and outs: specific. to have fling at smb/sth: speak in a ironical voice. To teach one’s grandmother to suck eggs. Vỏ quít dày có móng tay nhọn. 2. to take care: careful. to have a word with: to talk to smb. (Cứng nhắc) As blind as bat. (Chắc như đinh đóng cột) As bold as brass. as hard as… 15. Nothing out of common: exactly the same. To cut one’s coat according to one’s cloths. 8. 4. Tránh vỏ dưa gặp vỏ dừa. as sure as… 12. as full as…As full as an egg. as blind as… As thick as thieves. (Mù tịt) 13. 3. a matter of fact: an obvious thing. (Bận rộn) As sure as a gun. Behind the times: backward. When the cat’s away. nothing in common: different. behind time: late. in a family way: natural. to lose heart: to be cowardice. Vắng chủ nhà gà vọc niêu tôm. 5. 9. State which of them are phraseological. 7. (Trơ tráo như gáo múc dầu / Mặt dày mày dạn) As hard as nails. In the family way: to be pregnant. before long: not long. as thick as… 10. mind. 3. 5. 6. Phraseological units To have one’s fling: to be a playboy. as busy as… 11. Liệu cơm gắp mắm. As a matter of fact: obvious. in and out: to go in and out. Long before: very long. (Ăn ý / Hoà hợp) As busy as a bee. the mice will play. Compare the meaning of the expressions given in the two columns below. hoanguyen 32 . 10.

Ngưu tầm ngưu mã tầm mã.IWBK 7. .to beat about the bush: vòng vo tam quốc. using the followingwords: a. catch up: bắt kị beat up: đánh cho nhừ tử. Birds of a feather flock together. To keep: hoanguyen 33 . To build castle in the air. . catch out: tìm thấy điểm yế draw in one’s horns: mất tự tin. . 15. Blood is thicker than water. to beat. Cầm đèn chạy trước ô tô. To catch: . Một giọt máu đào hơn ao nước lã. 10. . .to draw out: gặng hỏi. To spare the rat spoil the child. ghét cho ăn cho chơi. To beat: . 12. Dã tràng xe cát. To draw: .to draw one’s last breath: trút hơi thở cuối cùng. to catch. 11. Chớ múa rìu qua mắt thợ. to keep. 14. . The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence/hill. .to draw back: rút lui. 8. Chớ thả mồi bắt bó beat it: go way. Đứng núi này trông núi nọ.to catch one’s meaning: hiểu ý. Give as many phraseological units as possible. . to draw. Never offer to teach fish to swim. E beat one’s brain: vắt óc suy nghĩ.to beat about: khuấy. Yêu cho đòn cho vọt. . Like water off a duck’s back. To put the cart before the horse. Nước đổ đầu vịt. A bird in hand is worth two in the bush.

.to keep one’s mind on doing sth: chú ý làm gì.to keep an eye on: để mắt đến. tránh xa. bone.IWBK .to cause smb to mind: nhớ lại. Mind: .to be bred in the bone: ngấm sâu vào máu. mind Bone: . . .to change one’s mind: thay đổi ý kiế keep up: duy trì. b. tiếp tục. . .to keep smb add some words: bắt ai làm gì.to be on one’s bone: túng quẫn. . để ý. ------------------The End----------------- hoanguyen 34 .to keep way: để xa.