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LEADERSHIP Leadership is the process of influencing the behaviour, attitude, activities and efforts of an individual or groups for achieving

common goal. DEFINITIONS • • • • Leadership is the ability to make others to seek defined objectives. Leadership may be defined as the ability to exert interpersonal influence by means of communication towards the achievement of a goal. Leadership is the ability to secure desirable action from a group of followers voluntarily without use of coercion. Leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP • • • • • • • • • • Leadership is a group phenomenon. Leadership is a personal quality Leadership refers to the ability of one individual to influence others. Leader emphasizes the present. The leader makes the organization a part of his self-picture. Leader’s objectives are organizationally centered. Leader sets realistic goal. It is a continuous process. Willpower-flexibility-initiative-self confidence. Social ability.

IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP • • • • • • • • • • • Getting things done through people and all that entails (the organization of people into productive teams) Directing group activities. The creation of effective means of communication. The resolution of conflicts, both behavioural and operational. Fulfilling social responsibilities. Taking informed, effective and successful decisions. Getting optimum performance from those carrying out the work. Ensuring continuity, development and improvement. Seeking continuous improvement. Monitoring and evaluating. Establishing human relations.

(Laissez-faire) Leader gives complete freedom to subordinates. Autocratic style------The autocratic leader is seen as a person who commands and expects compliance. consults with his subordinates about proposed action and decisions and e encourages them to participate in these decisions. Free rein style----. . who dogmatic and positive and who leads and directs others by an ability to give or withhold rewards or punishment. Consultative style-----Managers using this leadership style to seek out the options and ideas of subordinates and work to put them to constructive use. Democratic / participative style-----The leader who uses this leadership style. They also engage in communication both upward and downward and encourage some participation in decision-making.FUNCTIONS OF LEADERSHIP * Planning * Organizing * Directing * Communication * Co-coordinating * Appraisal * Decision making * Assessment * Controlling * Development * Creativity * Initiative * Building and developing teams * Integration * Domination * Achieving the task * Concern for the people * Production emphasis LEADERSHIP STYLES 1. Leader gives subordinates a substantial degree of independence in their work. leaving them to set their own goals and discover their own ways of achieving them. 2. 3. 4.

2. perception. courage. Behavioural theory------This theory studies leadership by looking at leaders in terms of what they do. The leadership effectiveness is determined in terms of leader-subordinates interactions and outcome.This approach is taken to identify the traits.satisfaction .Supportive . understanding.attributes and characteristics that are present in effective and successful leaders.THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 1.Achievement oriented Subordinates factor experience . motivation etc.performance . Path and Goal theory------The path-goal theory of leadership proposes that the effectiveness of leader can be measured from their impact on their subordinates in terms of motivation.authority Leader’s behaviour .The traits are like good personality. 3.Participative .Directive .ability to make decision. Traits theory--------. Environment contingency factor -task-nature of work .The trait theory rests on the traditional approach which describes leadership in terms of certain special characteristics which are not acquired by knowledge and training but considered inherited. intelligence. their ability to perform effectively and their satisfaction with their task. Situational theory-------The prime attention in this approach is given to the situation in which leadership is exercised. It holds that the possession of these traits permits certain individual to gain position of leadership. initiative. The contention is that in one situation leadership may be successful while in others it may not. Situational Variables ( THAT AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE OF LEADERSHIP ) • The cultural environment • Differences between individuals • Differences between jobs • Differences between organizations 4.perception OUTCOME .control . According to this theory leadership is shown by a person by his acts than his traits.goal clarity .

In intermediate situation.member relationship is determined by the manner in which leader is accepted or rejected by the group. rewards. Telling style-----. task-structure 3.suitable where followers have low to moderate maturity.welcomes people in decision-making process. he is more concerned with the performance. the leader ex[plains the task to each subordinate-what – when.This model emphasizes that the leader’ behaviour be such as to compliment the group work setting and aspirations so that it increases the subordinate’s goal to achievement level clarifies the path to these goals.structure-----it means the extent to which the tasks performed by subordinates are specified and to do them. • • • • • • Task style----Leader organizes and defines role for subordinate. Effective leaders clarify the path to help to their followers through which subordinate can achieve related goals. Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard’s Situational Theory---( Life – cycle theory of leadership ) The model focuses on the maturity of the followers as a contingency variable affecting the styles of leadership. and sanctions. leader’s positional power.where. • • • Leader. The results of the model are---------• • • The task-oriented leaders perform better in highly favourable situations. Maturity-----ability and willingness to take responsibility. leader-member relationship 2. Hersey and Blanchard’s approach identifies two major styles. Contingency theory of leadership------------( by Fred Fiedler ) There are 3 variable that have influence over effectiveness of leadership. Participating style----. Delegating style-------empowering people . 6. These 3 variables are-----1. Selling style------. 5. Relationship style-----The leader has close.specific directions as to what. In a unfavourable situations. personal relationship with member of the group and there is open communication and psycho-emotional support. It refers to the degree to which a leader can make decisions about the allocation of resources. Task. the leadership is contingent upon the cooperation of the group. Position power refers to the legitimate power inherent in the leader’s organizational position. how and when to do the tasks.

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