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AD Classics: Florey Building / James Stirling

SEP 2011 By Jules Gianakos — Filed under: AD Architecture Classics ,Residential , England, James Stirling,Oxford Bookmark • • •

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The Queen’s College Florey building is the third and last building of “The Red Trilogy” (the Leicester Engineering Faculty building and the Cambridge History Faculty building being the first two) designed by James Stirling, solidifying him as an irreplaceable facet in modern Architecture.

modern building to boost the college’s reputation and enrollment. who sat on the committee in charge of choosing an architect for the by seier+seier . Florey was an advocate of his. Although Stirling was not the most popular choice for lead architect on the project. and Stirling was ultimately agreed upon because of the promise and potential held in his reputation at that time to deliver an iconic. .com/photos/seier/ The Florey building was named after provost and 1945 Nobel Laureate Lord Howard Florey.

This delayed completion was almost a year and a half later than promised due to logistical issues within Stirling’s office and delayed construction drawings from his office to the contractors on site. but the Florey building did not begin construction until after the end of this time period and was not completed until 1971. .photo by stevecadman . All three of Stirling’s university buildings were designed in the decade between 1958 and

terra cotta tiles make up the majority of the façade. A-frame “feet” at the ground level. .com/photos/seier/ The structure is primarily a concrete frame with exposed. with a top level of doubleheight gallery rooms for graduates and a ground level equipped with a dining hall and other general rooms.http://www. while the inside of the somewhat ‘U’-shape made up of a glazing system that faces North and overlooks the River As with his previous university buildings. The building contains 74 dormitories over four by seier+seier .

photo by stevecadman .http://www. the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2007) Sir James Frazer Stirling . Japan. instead finding promise of work in places like Germany. As a result. and the Unites States. In the classic book Modern Movements in Architecture. Stirling’s office was inevitably sued by the Queen’s College because of the many problems encountered both during construction and after was never particularly the standpoint of the Florey building’s various clients or users. Stirling’s office was unable to find work inEngland for at least a decade after the Florey building. James Stirling (architect) From Wikipedia. Charles Jencks writes of Stirling’s university buildings and praises him as ‘the best architect of his generation’. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

London.[by whom?] He is perhaps best known as one of a number of young architects who from the 1950s on questioned and subverted the compositional and theoretical precepts of the first Modern Movement. He is considered to be among the most important and influential British architects of the second half of the 20th century.James Stirling (right) at the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart Born 22 April 1926 Glasgow Died 25 June 1992 (aged 66) London Awards Alvar Aalto Medal. UK. 1980 Pritzker Prize. 1983 Clore Gallery. St Andrews. Leicester. 1987 Sir James Frazer Stirling FRIBA (22 April 1926 – 25 June 1992) was a British architect. mannered reinterpretation of those precepts – much influenced by his friend and teacher. Cambridge. 1963 History Faculty Library. Stuttgart. 1960 Engineering Building. 1967 Neue Staatsgalerie. Stirling's development of an agitated. 1981 Work Buildings Andrew Melville Hall. 1977 RIBA Royal Gold Medal. the important architectural theorist and urbanist Colin Rowe – introduced an eclectic spirit that .

from Frank Lloyd Wright to Alvar Aalto. Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Life and work 2 Selected projects 3 Bibliograp hy 4 Reference s 5 External links [edit]Life and work History Faculty Library. to the many manifestations of the modern period. from ancient Rome and theBaroque. very decisive architecture of strong. 1968 . confident gestures that aimed to remake urban form.allowed him to plunder the whole sweep of architectural history as a source of compositional inspiration. Cambridge. His success lay in his ability to incorporate these encyclopaedic references subtly. within a strong and muscular.

The best-known result of Stirling & Gowan's collaboration is the Department of Engineering at the University of Leicester (1959–63). Their first built project . Stirling studied architecture from 1945 until 1950 at the University of Liverpool. In 1956 he and James Gowan left their positions as assistants with the firm of Lyons.the 'Flats at Ham Common' (1955–58) . where Colin Rowe was his teacher.Staatsgalerie Stuttgart (1984) State University of Music and Performing Arts Stuttgart Clore Gallery (1980-87). and Ellis to set up a practice as Stirling and Gowan. noted for its .was regarded as a landmark in the development of 'brutalist' residential architecture. Israel. London After wartime service. although this was a description both architects rejected.

such the State University of Music and Performing Arts Stuttgart. Stirling then set up on his own. and No 1 Poultry in London (1986). Just before his death he was given a knighthood (1992) which as a rebellious spirit. and Stuttgart). he only accepted with reluctance on the grounds that "it might be good for the office". This work revealed a particular interest in public space. everything will be more difficult". which led many to see it as an example ofpostmodernism – a label which then stuck. which had previously been shared between Stirling and Gowan. Winning the design competition for the Stuttgart project – the Neue Staatsgalerie – he loaded its powerful basic concept with a large number of architectural amusements and decorative allusions. large-scale urban projects.[1] After the Staatsgalerie. Stirling received a series of important commissions in England – the Clore Gallery for the Turner Collection at the Tate Britain.technological and geometric character. cut short by his premature death. Surrey and housing for the University of St Andrews both of which made prominent use of re-fabricated elements. Various buildings completed thereafter and often carelessly attributed to Stirling. were in fact completed and built by Wilford and his assistants. Oxford. as Stirling's architecture became more overtly neoclassical. taking with him the office assistant Michael Wilford (who provided invaluable administrative help and later became a partner). Stirling's architectural language began to change as the scale of his projects moved from small and not very profitable to very large. These projects of the 1970s show him at the zenith of his mature style. the Italian architect and critic Vittorio Gregotti wrote in "Casabella" magazine that "from now on. assisted by hand-picked helpers. This produced a wave of dramatically spare. In 1981. Michael Wilford continues . This complex and other late projects were acknowledeged by critics as the possible beginning of a potentially important departure in Stirlings's work. In accordance with his wishes.[2] The last buildings to be completed while Stirling was still alive were a series comprising the B.the History Faculty Library at the University of Cambridge and the Florey Building accommodation block for The Queen's College. London (1980–87). his ashes are buried near to his memorial in the narthex at Christ Church Spitalfields After the death of Stirling in 1992. but which he himself rejected. During the 1970s. marked by the use of three-dimensional drawings based on axonometric projection seen either from above (in a bird's eye view) or below (in a worm's eye view). the Tate Liverpool (1984). In 1963 Stirling and Gowan separated. From that point on the design task. 1993–1994. He also completed a training centre for Olivetti in Haslemere. GRP for Olivetti and pre-cast concrete panels at St Andrews.Braun Headquarters in Melsungen Germany completed in 1992. or No 1 Poultry in London. Stirling oversaw two projects which confirmed his credentials as a leading British architect . he was awarded the renowned Pritzker Prize. and the meanings that façades and building masses can assume in a constrained urban context. Michael Wilford who had worked with him since 1960 and became a partner in 1971 continued the practice completing the work that remained in the pipeline and had been left by Stirling at various stages of development. His sudden passing was considered a great tragedy for architecture. though it remained deeply imbued with his powerful revised modernism. most notably three important museum projects in Germany (for Düsseldorf. remained very much under the control of Stirling. Cologne.

drawings.” — James Stirling Michael Wilford and practise with his partner Manuel Schupp in Stuttgart under the title Wilford Schupp Architekten. the Arthur M.. The cultural depth and richness of Stirling's work attracted the attention of all the major world critics and theoreticians. with thousands of very carefully reproduced photographs. James Stirling. Massachusetts. he completed four significant buildings in the U.S.. broken only by thin bands of glazing (which light the internal corridors) and crowned by the roof lights of the duplex flats on the top storey. The Florey Building . At two extreme points. sanitation and elementary cooking area.Half sunk in the courtyardpodium is breakfast and lecture room. a British annual prize for architecture since 1996. For those seriously interested. The Stirling Prize. Sackler Museum at Harvard University (an addition to the Fogg Museum) in Cambridge. the best starting point for further study is the two published books of his complete works. and models. was named after him. p130. with separate washbasins and storage. “The whole mass of accommodation (the caretaker’s flat and the breakfast room excepted) are held up in the air by a series of high concrete stilts. As part of the world-wide expansion of Stirling's practice beginning in the 1970s. and the literature examining his architecture is vast. [edit]Selected projects Florey Building Commentary “The new building is a student hostel and practically all the accommodation is in single-room apartments. Irvine. the Schwartz Center for the Performing Arts at Cornell University in Ithaca. The stilts hold up a container: the tiled red southern wall. the wall is pierced vertically by the cages of the staircase. New York. Texas. The complete Stirling/Wilford office archive was sold to the Canadian Centre for Architecture in Montréal. from Peter Eisenman to Charles Jencks. These two books chronologically cover every project and emphasize the visual. and the Biological Sciences Library at the University of California. but with shared showers. Buildings and Projects. all university structures that exhibit inventive responses to their existing campus settings: an addition for the Rice University School of Architecture in Houston..

co. y ya que son diferentes personas las que protagonizan ese uso. This room could also be used for meetings. Two rooms on each of the first. which incorporates breakfast room and ramps. while 77 study bedrooms are placed on the inside overlooking a Para el arquitecto. Service rooms and corridors are placed on the outside of the building with staircases at either end. There is a dining/common room on the lower ground floor where a Continental breakfast can be id=ksj0aZ0cMQsC&pg=PA166&lpg=PA166&dq=JAMES+STIRLING+QUEEN %E2%80%99S+COLLEGE&source=bl&ots=h6xm-P3bIM&sig=zo0V8ANMKxM62X0fEwCCf2SUBA&hl=pl&sa=X&ei=cKdOT_TvNMXhQfwiMzvDw&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=JAMES%20STIRLING %20QUEEN%E2%80%99S%20COLLEGE&f=false http://www. The building is a famous example of James Stirling’s architecture. Each upper level . built 1968-71 by James Stirling and Partners. Roy Cameron associate. The building has 76 rooms over four floors. MATERIALS: Reinforced concrete structure clad in Lancashire red brick with tile to upper levels. with basement on river side. CLEMENT'S STREET 612/10/10050 (North side) 12-MAR-09 Florey Building at The Queen's College .The Florey building is an excellent choice for groups and parties who wish to stay in Oxford and take advantage of all that the city has to offer. with attached walls and abutments GV II Residential student block for Queen's College on a detached “ el edificio en su construcción debe reflejar el uso al que es XFORD SP 5206SW ST. el edificio así debe mostrarnos su riqueza y su variedad de elementos en su fachada. desde otra perspectiva. The splayed concrete columns and beams form a cloister to the raised ground floor courtyard. no debe ser en aquel momento de modo alguno simple ”. la construcción conlleva características comunes a su tipo de arquitectura. The top floor of the building has 18 rooms which have a mezzanine level and can also be made into twin rooms. split level studios on the topmost floor. with double-height. Designed 1966-7. Felix Samuely and Partners engineers.britishlistedbuildings. and a small garden at ground floor level. after whom the annual Stirling Prize for architecture is named http://planosdecasas. with patent glazing overlooking the river. the latter set in panels. second and third floors can made into twin rooms. http://books. but are on a limited budget. Four storeys over near-open raised ground floor. EXTERIOR: Irregular semi-circular plan set on raised brick plinth on riverside. which is of double height.

with steel balustrade and handrail. forming a visual counterbalance to the projecting storeys above. but open towards the river. angled windows to the stairs at either end of the block and fullheight patent aluminium glazing to the river frontage. and the top floor has a glazed roof. His solution was a dramatic horseshoe-shaped building which turned its back on the derelict land behind. The roof of the kitchen forms a courtyard feature of brick and tile with nine steps and a ventilator which incorporates a weathervane. but is otherwise open. leading to bed space. but comprises a series of small rooms. for the students would take their other meals in the main College buildings. full-height glazing with central panel of pivoting opening lights forming a transom. HISTORY: The Queen's College had an awkward site overlooking the river. The external features are a product of the materials and plan. It was thus alienated from the rest of the college. at the other is a warden's flat. The top floor of double-height studios have internal timber stairs.projects forward a stair's width (about a metre) further towards the river than the last. It thus has a significant place in Stirling's limited oeuvre of the late 1960s. His brief was to provide study bedrooms. forming buttresses. and a breakfast room. Slender aluminium gates deny access to the uninvited. The staircases have green steel balustrades a characteristic Stirling device. It can perhaps be best understood as a modern reworking of the traditional Oxford quadrangle. On the centre of this facade is a double tower housing lifts. and there are window-cleaning ladders built in to every floor. this interpretation not only justifies the plan but also explains the cloistered ground-floor walk in which the structure supporting the building is clearly expressed. with bicycle storage and a central glazed concierge's lodge. horizontal windows to the corridors. It is also the most geometric of his 'red brick' buildings. INTERIOR: Interiors have cork flooring throughout. but which backed on to derelict properties which in the mid 1960s were being targeted for redevelopment. Breakfast room supported by six mushroom piers. The future of the area was uncertain when the Florey Building was erected. which is served by a basement kitchen. All the study bedroom windows incorporate Venetian blinds and ventilation louvres. Narrow. with similar but taller windows to the rear of the studios. The windows to the warden's flat renewed in uPVC. The angled concrete frame is exposed externally on the first and ground floors. The plan can be dismissed as a reworking of ideas already explored by Stirling at his History Faculty building in Cambridge. suggesting that it should be seen as intermediary between his earlier work and the post-modern classicism he was subsequently to adopt. and provided a vertiginous glass facade overlooking the historic city across the river. Internally some rooms on the angles of the curve have angled piers. Stirling therefore decided to turn the building's back on the immediate environment and overlook the water meadows and the city beyond. within them. Stirling was chosen on the basis of his highly acclaimed Engineering Building at Leicester University (designed with James Gowan and already listed Grade II*) and History Faculty at Cambridge (Grade II). The red tile and concrete structure however has a strength not found in later Stirling work. with an open courtyard in the equivalent space to the library in the Cambridge . At one end of the semi-circle on the lowest level is the vestibule leading to the breakfast room. were it not for the genuine problems seen with the site to the south-east. The porter's lodge is fully glazed. without the justification of a major space for the semi-circle to embrace. as is the clerestory glazing to the breakfast room. linked to the main block by glazed lobbies. It is clearly in the spirit of the History Faculty in its broadly symmetrical plan. those to the three intermediate floors sloping. all have fitted cupboards and sinks. On the landward side the ground floor is screened by the exposed columns and by walling. The lift lobbies reduce in length as one ascends the building because of the stepped out upper floors. which incorporates pivoting opening lights.

114-25 REASONS FOR DESIGNATION: The Florey Building is designated at Grade II for the following principal reasons: * It is one of the most significant works of Sir James Stirling.260-7. The Florey Building. This conceptually simple plan could have been carried out with complete symmetry in the form of a regular half-octagon amphitheatre with the entrance and breakfast room to north and south on the central axis. sinks.building. The sloping section and angled plan has other practical pay offs. at the apex of this is a platform raised above the breakfast room which catches the sun when the rest of the court is in shadow. amphitheatric.475-8. allowing its crew to gaze at the underwater vegetation through a glass screen. as the last of his major buildings of the 1960s.31-42. symmetrical entrance at the Sackler Museum at Harvard University. The only large communal room is the breakfast room. * It is a distinctive example of a new approach to residential architecture in a college context. plan with a sloping section and a transparent upper floor means that all the sets of rooms get the view. let alone a tree. Its overall shape and structure. pp. and the glazed links connecting these to the main building at higher levels are very reminiscent of the principal space in his extension for Olivetti at Haslemere (1972-4). Domus (November 1972). It can perhaps be best understood as a modern reworking of the traditional Oxford quadrangle. only a short section faces due north and the maximum sun gets into the north-facing courtyard. not least in its innovative plan-form. Massachusetts. he combination of a hollow. . a kind of machine-made tree in the form of the ventilating shaft to the breakfast room kitchen. in the United States (1979-84). The paired lift towers at its entrance anticipate the formal. Cambridge. only separate. There is no place for grass. It thus has a significant place in Stirling's limited oeuvre of the late 1960s. instead there is a highly enjoyable conceit. This was one reason for suppressing the sitting and cooking facilities originally planned for the angles of the corridors. As with its two predecessors nature is kept out. already listed grade II*. But the relationship of the building to the natural objects is not aggressive. however. thus occupies a crucial place in the development of the man who is today internationally considered to be among the most significant architects to emerge in the post-war era. pp. and is characteristic of his style. each visible section of the corridor is modest in length and the services and storage zone is discontinued at the angles so that they widen out into spaces originally intended to be fitted up with seats. it takes forward the long history of exceptional college building. in the court.12-20. Architectural Review (November 1972). SOURCES: Architectural Design (October 1968). * Within the context of Oxford. like a submarine which has landed on the sea bed. James Stirling. Buildings and Projects 1950-74 (1975). pp. fitted out with a wind vane and cowl. Construction Moderne (September-October 1972). this interpretation not only justifies the plan but also explains the cloistered ground-floor walk in which the structure supporting the building is clearly expressed. which is a somewhat claustrophobic space due to the fact that there is no low-level window looking over the water. and the last of his surviving stand-alone buildings in England to be completed before his death. one of the country's leading post-war architects. The red tile and concrete structure however has a strength not found in later Stirling work. and cooking facilities. is more complex and more sophisticated than the History Faculty. As a social unit the building doesn’t encourage communal activities largely due to the client’s insistence that it shouldn’t provide an alternative attraction to the main college building in the High Street. but open towards the river. in the way that it is swelled out on cantilevers on the landward side above an open ground-floor walkway. from a period when the universities were at the forefront of architectural patronage. pp. pp.

the Florey Building at Queen’s College. October the mundane and the risk-averse in the battle to make the act of building into the art of architecture. but there are still those who dream of the wrecking ball. Such buildings had never been seen before. even dangerous buildings. and members of the British academic establishment. All text is from Jim Stirling and the Red Trilogy: Three Radical Buildings. Demolition of all three was contemplated. His career and reputation suffered and all three buildings fell into poor Oxford (1971).uk/critics/why-do-architects-love-stirlingsbuildings-while-the-public-and-users-hate-them/8604662. They were also immediately loathed by their users and clients. This dislike was fuelled by poor technical performance: the buildings leaked. wrote warning each other not to employ Stirling. Oxford The buildings in James Stirling’s Red Trilogy – the University of Leicester’s Engineering Department (1963). 2010 | By Alan Berman Architects including Norman Foster and Richard Rogers respond to this question. £30 http://spa. posed by academics to Alan Berman when his These were contrary. and the History Faculty Library at the University of Cambridge (1967) – dazzled and influenced a generation of architects. surveyed James Stirling’s Florey Building at Queen’s College.htm . they unashamedly hold the line against the banal. Dynamic and exhilarating.archinform.http://books.article Why do architects love Stirling's buildings. radical. while the public and users hate them? 12 August. and their power remains undimmed. Now all are listed. Berman Guedes Stretton. patrons of the post-war building boom. and cold in winter and hot in summer. were draughty and noisy. Frances id=itkZq6gxC4cC&printsec=frontcover&hl=pl#v=onepage&q&f=false http://www.

pl ustaw jako startową Początek formularza Dół formularza szukaj w serwisie: .ka-architektury.

oznaczała dla Stirlinga harmonii ze zdrowym rozsądkiem. Humanistyczna postawa ystkie elementy technologiczne. . hitekturze. z ył. ę jednym z bardziej znanych architektów d czasu projektu Uniwersytetu w o twórczość wpływała na rozwój w trzech krajach: w Anglii. według niego. otoczeniem i potrzebami ludzi". jest szczególne ementów funkcjonalnych i symbolicznych. tradycją. Udo Kulterman .g (1926-1994) urodził się w Glasgow. Niemczech i noczonych. Architektura jego nna na nowo zdefiniować swoje kryteria oceny. "Koncepcja architektury w wykonaniu Stirlinga jest humanizacją środowiska. ekonomiczne i estetyczne. dla Strilinga znaczy to tworzenie w rowym rozsądkiem.krytyk napisał o nim w książce "Współcześni architekci". że kształt budynku powinien a jego funkcję i styl życia mieszkańców. tekta otrzymał na Uniwersytecie w racownię otworzył w Londynie.

Stirlinga wyróżnia oryginalność mach tej tradycji: niegdyś . jeszcze raz zacieśniła związki z ą budynkami i jeszcze raz może być nazwana nową tradycją.kąt 45° w planie i w przekroju.amesa Stirlinga jako lidera wielkiego przejścia od ruchu modernistycznego do nowej óra jeszcze raz przyznała się do swoich historycznych korzeni. tektury stałym elementem jest pojawianie się nowego mecenasa. W imieniu mojego zawodu . dzisiaj .zaskakujące nawarstwienie i czysto klasycznych i dziewiętnastowiecznych odniesień.

muzycy. którzy ponad wszystko cenią sztukę i zdołali zarazem zrealizować odpowiednio ny strumień architektury rozwija się coś. ciężaru utopii.Jayowi Priztkerowi . w każdym razie tak to czuję. otrzymywali zaś ne przez tłumy studentów. pierwszego laureata. Jest to coś. Być może jest la mnie. czego uczyłem (i jeszcze naucza się studentów). szczególnie w dziedzinie przestrzeni blicznej. że przekroczyłem już siebie przychodziła mi zawsze z dużą trudnością. Podobnie jak malarze. istinguido por el esfuerzo de ir contraponiendo al lenguaje tecnológico un fuerte respeto por la historia y una marcada preocupación por inserirse en el contexto urbano en el que se interviene.najhojniejszemu przyjacielowi architektów. także i my powinniśmy być w stanie włączyć do ementy symboliczne i abstrakcyjne. który był moim kolegą na studiach w atach 40. Lecz nawet kiedy takie niepowodzenia mają miejsce. con grandes paramentos acristalados y una gran capacidad para desarrollar una bella escenografía neotecnoló widmo prześladuje ektury." "Wysokie architektoniczne gnięte w naszych wcześniejszych projektach były w pewnym sensie przypadkami . Architekci zawsze spoglądali wstecz po to. by ód. ale ze zwiększoną odpowiedzialnością. kiedy mówił o znaczeniu nowej nagrody dla e łatwiejsze dla Luisa Barragana. że Nagrodę Pritzkera architektom. nowoczesnej http://www. choć równie zaangażowanej przyszłości orząc dzieła być może bogatsze w pamięć i odniesienia do ciągle ewoluującej. Myślę. europejskim czy międzynarodowym. Krytyka architektury w publicznej jest związana z fiaskiem socjologicznym i materialnym . który dokonał przeglądu całej swej twórczości. choć przydarzają się też sporadycznie możemy spoglądać w przeszłość i dostrzec w całej historii architektury elementy dla siebie. a teraz jest profesorem architektury na Uniwersytecie Londyńskim. Nie mogę mówić o nagrodzie jako o nowym wydarzeniu i że nie doszedłem jeszcze do końca swojej drogi. nie są traktowane jako naprawdę chyba że łączą się z wysokimi aspiracjami architektonicznymi.klienci oczekiwali dzieła sztuki jako dodatku do dobrze funkcjonującego budynku. nie jestem nawet stem architektem angielskim. czego użytkownicy się nie spodziewali i czego nawet nie k od samego początku najważniejsza była sztuka architektury. że to zadanie iejsze dla Philipa Johnsona. chociaż sądzę.. Dlatego tak ważna jest świadomość. i we wszystkich innych prądach. "Zwłaszcza w się nutkę skandalu związanego z pogonią za architekturą jako sztuką. Mówienie o sobie jest tego zacytuję fragment z artykułu Roberta Maxwella. chciałbym oczekiwać http://elpais.metalocus. . rzeĄbiarze. Pracuję bardzo intuicyjnie.html atrevidas estructuras de formas escalonadas.

enfatizando la expresión de aspectos simbólicos e incluso irónicos e insistiendo en el mundo de las formas y del lenguaje más arquitectónicos. .