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Campbell D. Galón Ms. J. Ferguson Biology (Per. 1) 6 March 2012 Chapter 16 Review 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

b c a d b b Scientists think that conditions aboveground were too harsh to support life at the time, whereas deep-sea hydrothermal vents provided a much better theory. There is no sunlight at these vents, so photosynthetic organisms can’t thrive. 8. Differences contained in the nucleic acids, differences in RNA polymerases, and the peptidoglycan polymer in bacteria’s cell walls. 9. Genetic recombination: a. Transformation occurs when a prokaryote receives DNA from its environment b. Conjugation occurs when two prokaryotes bind together and one transfers its DNA to the other, by means of a sex pilus c. Transduction occurs when a virus obtains a small part of DNA through the host cell 10. In the early Earth atmosphere, there was plenty of water vapor and volcanic gases in the air, but no free oxygen. As the Earth cooled off, water rained and oceans formed. When the Archean era began (~2.5B years ago), oxygen built up by photochemical dissociation – breakup of water and ammonia by UV. By then, the oxygen gas level was about 1 or 2% what it is today. Ozone began to form, shielding Earth from UV rays, and photosynthesis began. Cyanobacteria were the main producers of oxygen at the time. 11. Prokaryotes are easily the most important factor in nitrogen recycling. N2, atmospheric nitrogen, is useless to most organisms. Nitrate, NO3, is usable. Prokaryotes are solely capable of making this transformation. Also, bacteria, as well as fungi, are the only organisms that can decompose nitrogen waste back to nitrates. 12. Bioremediation: a. Cleanup of oil spills by adding nitrate and sulfate fertilizers to facilitate decomposition of oil by bacteria b. Buried anaerobic bacteria in the Hudson River stripping off chlorines 13. By producing toxins or by producing structures that allow the bacterium to attach to the victim surface. 14. A virus injects its genetic material into a host cell to take advantage of that cell’s reproductive abilities. Copies of the virus are produced inside the cell until they are eventually released. 15. Good hygiene. 16. Vaccines are purposed to “teach” the body how to deal with a certain strain of pathogen by placing parts or deactivated wholes of the pathogen in the body.

the antibiotics might not work. New phages produced 3.” 22. 4. Cell lyses 2. 19. whereas viruses must use a host cell to reproduce. and can be multicellular. d. reproduce by mitosis. Also. The lytic cycle d.1. bacteria can be combated with antibiotics and viruses cannot. new viral DNA and proteins are created and put together. have a true nucleus. Jenner: “I think that exposure to the cowpox virus will develop immunity in the recipient both to cowpox and smallpox. Infection 5. The cold may be caused by viruses. Assuming no bacteria died. and was able to produce simple organic molecules. 4. If I were Mr. This can occur as an interruption of the lysogenic cycle or as normal procedure of the lytic cycle. At the end of the lytic cycle. 32. and cold water. Statements a. What about the body’s own bacteria? They are not pathogenic. He inferred that life could have been spawned from the conditions on Earth at the time. electricity (lightning). 23. Mr. Bacteria can reproduce itself. heat. Graph a.096 x 104 c. Viruses cannot reproduce themselves. Not enough information. They must be dealt with accordingly. Integration 2. b. 5. 18. the cell bursts open. 560. Assuming no bacteria died. releasing a swarm of new phages. b. I have no idea. . 4. Viral DNA forms circle 17. Eukaryotic cells are larger. c. 20. and their only goal is replication. water vapor. 21. Miller built a faux environment involving elements of water. After integration.