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B3.

Plant Histology And Anatomy
Multiple choice questions. Obj! Act. Verb! Diff. Level 1. Which a) b) c) d) of the following tissues is exclusively absent in roots? Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma Phloem
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In hydrophytes like Eichhomia, buoyancy is due to the presence of a) chlorenchyma b) sclerenchyma c) aerenchyma d) phloem Tyloses are formed in a) epidermis b) endoderm is c) pericycle d) stele Which a) b) c) d) of the following groups of plants contains xylem vessels? Pteridophytes Angiosperms Algae Bryophytes is of parenchyma into meristem ofmeristem into parenchyma of sclerenchyma into meristem of meristem into permanent tissue

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De-differentiation a) conversion b) conversion c) conversion d) conversion

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Albumum is a) non-conducting part of xylem b) conducting part of xylem c) inner part of xylem d) pigmented part of xylem

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Sclerenchyma is a dead mechanical tissue because of a) presence of cytoplasm b) presence of vacuole c) presence of lignin d) presence of cell wall Osteosclerides are a) star shaped b) rod shaped c) bone shaped d) hair like In dicot stem, a) above b) below c) above d) below the pericycle is situated the epidermis the cortex the endoderm is the endoderm is

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Protoderm differentiates into a) cortex b) endoderm is c) pericycle d) epidermis In lacunar collenchyma wall thickenings appear a) all around the cell b) only on radial walls of cells c) in the intercellular spaces d) only on tangential walls Conjoint, collateral and open vascular bundles are found in a) monocots b) dicots c) ferns d) gymnosperms

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Very short answer questions 13. Name the branch of Biology which deals with the study oftissues.
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14.

Define meristem.

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15.

Name the tissue located at the growing tips of the plant body.

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Name the type of meristem present at the nodes of certain monocots like grasses.

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Name the primary meristems of the plant body.

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How does aerenchyma tissue help hydrophytes to float?

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Which type of parenchyma carries out photosynthesis in green stems and branches? Why is collenchyma called living mechanical tissue?

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Which permanent tissue is usually absent in roots?

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Name the secondary wall material of sclerenchyma.

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Name the living components of xylem.

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Name the dead components of phloem?

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Define a fascicle.

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Why are vascular bundles of monocot stem referred to as closed?

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Where do you find Iysigenous cavity ?

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Name the cell which controls the function of sieve tube cell.

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What is meant by endarch xylem? .

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Which group of plants contain conjoint, collateral and open vascular bundles? What are annual rings?

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32.

What is the term which implies the estimation of age of trees?

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What is the location of intrafascicular cambium?

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Which part of dicot stem gives rise to interfascicular cambium?

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What is the name generally given to all tissues outside the cambial ring in a dicot stem? Where would you come across complementary cells?

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Name the water conducting elemen5s in xylem.

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38.

What is perforation plate and where is it present?

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Short answer questions 39. Write four characteristics of meristema tic tissue.
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40.

Draw a neat labeled diagram of meristematic tissue.

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41.

What is a primary meristem? Give an example.

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Mention four structural differences between meristematic tissue and permanent tissue. Name meristems based on their position in the plant body. Draw a diagram and indicate their locations. Why is xylem called a complex tissue? List the components of xylem tissue. What are sclereids? Mention four types of sclereids.

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Write four functions of parenchyma.

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Name two types of secondary tissues formed during stellar secondary growth. Sketch and label a lenticel.

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Name the secondary wall material in xylem. Based on the pattern of secondary wall deposition, mention any four types of tracheids. Mention any four differences between parenchyma and sclerenchyma. Name two features of parenchyma. Mention two types of parenchyma and their functions. Draw the L.S. of a sclerenchyma fibre and label its parts.

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Write any four differences between alburnum and duramen.

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Long answer type questions 54. Describe the structure of cortical parenchyma with the help of a labeled diagram. Mention four characteristics of meristems. Classify meristems based on their location in the plant body and cite one example for each type. With the help of a labeled sketch, explain the structure of collenchyma. Describe the structure of phloem with the help of a labeled diagram. Describe the secondary growth in a dicot stem with a neat diagram. Define secondary growth. Explain extrastelar secondary growth in dicots.
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Give reasons for the following: a) Collenchyma is a living mechanical tissue. b) Companion cell is called 'sister cell' of the sieve tube. c) Tracheary elements are best suited for conduction of water. d) Secondary growth is absent in monocots. e) Differentiation must follow cell division in order to bring about growth.

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ANSWERS
Multiple choice - answers (one mark each) 1. 2. c c d b a
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c c d d c b

Very short answers (one mark each) 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. Histology Group of similar, undifferentiated and actively dividing cells. Apical meristem Intercalary meristem Shoot meristem and root meristem I shoot tip and root tip. Aerenchyma has air-filled spaces. Chlorenchyma It has living protoplasm and a thick cellulosic-pectinised cell wall. Collenchyma I sclerenchyma Lignin Xylem parenchyma cells Phloem fibres, mature sieve cells and sieve tubes. Fascicle is a bundle with a compact mass of xylem and phloem with or without cambium.

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26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38.

Because cambium is absent in them. Monocot vascular bundles or stem/leaf of monocot. Companion cell A vascular bundle (stele) in which the protoxylem is situated towards the center and metaxylem towards the periphery. Dicot stem I Dicots Concentric rings of spring wood and autumn wood (secondary xylem) seen in dicot stem/root. Dendrochronology Within the vascular bundle or between xylem and phloem of dicot stem. Medullary ray or primary medullary rays. Bark Lenticels Tracheids and trachea (vessels) The openings present in the end walls of vessel elements of xylem are called perforation plates.

Short answers 39. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (Y2 x Compactly arranged cells without intercellular spaces. Thin cell walls with dense cytoplasm. Reserve food and vacuoles are absent. Prominent nucleus Actively diving cells. 4 = 2 marks)

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Cell wall, cytoplasm, nucleus, plasma membrane. (2 labels x Y2 = 1 mark) Meristem derived from embryonic meristem which retains the capacity to divide throughout the life of a plant. eg : Apical meristem, intercalary meristem (Definition - 1, Example - 1)

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42. • • • • • • ( 43.

Meristematic
Undifferentiated spaces Intercellular absent Vacuole and reserve food absent. Ability to divide Unspecialised ~ x 4 = 2 marks) • • • • • •

Permanent
Differentiated Intercellular spaces present Vacuole and reserve food Present. Lost the ability to divide Specialised tissues

• Apical meristem • Intercalary meristem • Lateral meristem (Diagram showing location - I, names of mer isterns (any two) x ~ = I) Because it has more than one cell type. Components of Xylem: • Tracheids • Tracheae • Xylem fibres • Xylem parenchyma (Reason - I; types Y4x 4 = 1 ; Total = 2 marks) Sclereids are a type of sclerenchyma cells which are isodiametric. sclereids are: • Brachysclereids • i\strosclereids • OsteoscIereids • Trichosclereids • Macrosclereids • Filiform scIereids (Definition - I; types Y4x 4 = I; Total = 2 marks) • Storage offood • Packaging I ground tissue • Photosynthesis • Buoyancy in hydrophyte • Covering of the plant body (Y2 x 4=2 marks) • Secondary xylem • Secondary phloem • Secondary medullary rays. (Full mark each (any 2) = 2 marks) Types of

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• • • •

Phellodenn Phellogen Phellem Complementary cells
Epidermis

• Periderm (Diagram - 1 mark; Labels (any two) ~ x 2 =1; Total 2 marks) 49. • Annular • Spiral • Reticulate • Scalarifonn • Pitted ~ x 4=2 marks Parenchyma • Living • Protoplasm present • Vacuole present • Isodiametric • Not lignified • Does not provide Mechanical support (~x Sclerenchyma Dead at maturity Protoplast absent Vacuole absent Generally elongated or fibre like Lignified Provides mechanical support

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• • • • • • 4 = 2)

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Parenchyma cells are living! thin-walled! occur in leaf, stem, roots, flowers! wall composed of chiefly cellulose and pectin. Palisade - Photosynthesis Chlorenchyma - Photosynthesis Aerenchyma - Floating and exchange of gases Pith - storage (Any 2 features - ~ + Yl- 1; 2 types with functions Yl+ Yl- 1 = 2 marks) Lumen, lignin, pits. (Diagram -1, any 2 labels ~ + Yl - 1 = 2 marks) Duramen Alburnum • central part of xylem • outer layer of xylem • non-conducting I vascular sap absent • conducting I vascular sap present • resin, pigments and gum present • resin, pigments and gum • tyloses present absent • darker • no formation of tyloses • lighter Any two differences (Yl x 4 = 2 marks)

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Long answers 54. Labelled diagram showing • intercellular space • vacuole • cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm. Any four points • loosely arranged with intercellular space. • Only cellulosic cell wall without secondary wall layers • Vacuolated cytoplasm • Nucleus towards the periphery • Reserve food materials are present • Isodiametric cells. (Diagram - 2, labels (any two) Y2 x 2 - 1, points (any four) ~ x 4 - 2 = 5 marks) Any four of the following characteristics. • Undifferentiated / compactly arranged cells. • The cells are actively dividing. • Cells contain dense protoplasm without vacuoles. • Prominent nucleus located at the center of the cell. • Thin primary cell walls. • Small and isodimetric cells Classification : Apical meristem e.g. stem tip/ root tip Intercalary meristem e.g. grass internodes Lateral meristem e.g. vascular cambium! cork cambium (Characteristic features Y:z x 4 - 2, 3 types - Y:z x 3 - 1 Y:z, examples - 3 x Y2 - 1 Y2 = 5 marks) Diagram and any 2 labels - primary cell wall/ cytoplasm/ nucleus! cellulosic cell wall. Any four of the following points: • isodiametric in shape may be spherical or oval. • Compactly arranged cells. • Intercellular spaces filled by cellulose and pectin. • Vacuolated cytoplasm. • Nucleus towards periphery • Wall deposits may be lamellar, lacunar or angular. (Diagram - 2, labels (any two)-l, explanation (4 points) - 2 = 5 marks) Diagram with following labels: sieve cell, sieve tube, companion cell, phloem parenchyma, phloem fibres. (Diagram - 2, labels (any two) - 1, components and their features -2 = 5

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marks) Diagram with labels: Interfascicular cambium, intrafascicular cambium, cambial ring, secondary xylem, secondary phloem, medullary rays. • Formation of interfascicular cambium and cambial ring. • Formation of secondary phloem and secondary xylem. • Formation of annual rings. • Formation of heart wood and sap wood. • Increase in diameter of the stem. (Diagram - 2, Labels (any four) - 1, explanation (4 points) x Y2- 2 = 5 marks) Definition. Increase in girth or thickness by the addition of secondary tissues due to activity of the cambium. Diagram with following labels and their explanation. Phelloderm, phellem, phellogen, lenicels, complementary cells. (Definition -1 ,diagram - 1, labels (any four) - 1, explanation - 2 = 5 marks) a) Because it has living protoplasm but thick cellulosic-pectin cell wall. b) Because sieve tube cell and companion cells are derived from a common mother cell. c) Because they are long cylindrical with wide lumen d) Because cambium is absent. e) Because after division, differentiation leads to formation of permanent tissues! specialized cells and results in growth. (1 mark each)

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